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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This study is aimed at finding out that the use of diary writing can improve the writing skills of

the tenth grade students. To support the understanding of the problem formulated in Chapter I,

some theories are reviewed related to the concepts of writing skills and diary writing. This

chapter also presents some relevant research studies for this research. Once those theories have

been reviewed and some relevant research studies have been presented, a conceptual framework

is drawn for this study.

A. PREVIOUS STUDY

The first previous study is by Robert (1990:1) states that writing provides relatively permanent

record of information, belief, feelings, arguments, explanations, theories etc. Writing allow us to

share our communication not only with our contemporaries, but also with future generations.

Students sometimes found some difficulties in learning writing process. Students usually felt shy

and not confidence when they wanted to write text, sentences, paragraph or their experience, and

this situation could make them did not want to write their ideas, opinion or experience in the

paper. They always felt wrong about vocabulary and grammar. The other difficulties of the

students that found at SMA Negeri 2 Palembang when they were in the process of learning

writing such as; limited vocabulary, they could not understand about grammar to be written such

as how to write in present tense and past tense appropriate with a good grammar, they did not

understand about the words grammar, such as: about the verb must be used in in present tense or

past tense. This problem could make the score of the students were low, and they were shy to

share their mind, imagination or experience in the writing because they felt always wrong when

they are writing


As English teacher, we should be creative to find a good way to help them to improve their

writing not only in the writing but also can improve their vocabulary and grammar too. We

should make learning writing like as interesting subject for learning in order they would not feel

bored in the class. One of the media is using diary.

Diary is a media that teacher used to make the students interested in writing especially in

teaching recount text.

The next previous study by Sri Yuliani, Mareta Diary is a part of teaching writing in recount text

means the process for transferring knowledge of writing to the students and improve them to be

confidence to write anything in English, they would be able to know how to make and write

about the words, text, sentences, and their experiences grammatically. Dairy is private book, the

students could practice their writing in the diary.

The benefit of diary is not only to practice our writing, but also we can hare about our story or

our problem to other people. We can use the history of our diary to motivate our future life. We

can also can use the diary to make our life be better than before because with diary we can

remember our bad things and we may not do it again.

The Objective of the study was to find out whether or not it is effective to use dairy in writing

recount text to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 2 Palembang.

From above explanation the researcher wants to do the research about the The Influence

Of Using Dairy In Teaching Writing Recount Text Of The Eleventh Grade Tkj In Smk

Muhammadiyah Pringsewu. The researcher wants to motivate students Writing skill by

something more fun,


which is use Diary. It will minimize students shame and make them more confident to write.

Diary help students to write with confidence and enthusiasm. if students are given a model of

story, it is easy to come up with their own slightly different version because story can provide

stimulation for writinghabit activities. Students can describe story or write descriptions of the

story that have given for them or they can tell the story reconstruction activities where students

have to build up a story from a set of that story.

B. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1. The Conception of Writing

Chastain ( 2002: 363 ) states writing is a recognized objective among most language teachers,

and such, it should be emphazised in the clasroom. The ability to write is recognized in society

and in schools as an important objective of language study. Beside that written products are the

result of thinking, drafting, and revising procedures, specialized skills is required in written

language, and that not every speaker develops naturally.

Harmer (2003:255) states that writing and speaking are the productive skill where the students

should say and write something that relates to the material to measure their understanding.

Written has a number of conventions which separate it out from speaking. A part from

differences in grammar and vocabulary, these are issues of letter, word, and text formation,

manifested by handwriting, spelling, and layout and punctuation.

Harmer (2004:3) states that being able to write is a vital skill for speakers of a foreign language

as much as for everyone using their own first language. It is also worth mentioning that many

exams are taken in written form and consequently students are evaluated according their written

performance.
The conclusion based on statements above that writing is a process of expressing the idea into a

written form, and it needs specialized skills that not every students can develop it naturally, it

needs the teacher who is able to motivate and encourage the students to develop their writing

skills, and they are expected to be able to develop their writing skills and make a good

composition.

2. Concept Of Writing Ability

Writing is one of the language ability which is important in our life. Through writing, we can

inform others, carry out transaction, persuade, infuriate, and tell what we fell. However, we

know that writing or learning to write especially in a second language is not simply a matter of

writing things down. It is one of the four basic skills thatare very complex and difficult to

learn.

In word reference (2010), writing is one of the ways to give an idea or message which is

form in writing on a piece of paper or the other are. It is an act of making marks on certain

surface. Specifically, writing is one kindof expression in language which is created by particular

set of symbol, having conventional values for representing the wordings of particular language

which is drawn up visually.

Jim A.P (2010:2: Writing ability in second language), explains that writing ability is complex

and difficult to learn. Requiring mastery is not only grammatical patterns, but also the rule of

writing such as high degree of organization in the development of ideas and information and also

choosing the appropriate vocabularies and sentences structure to create a style which is

appropriate to subject matter.


Therefore the writer concludes that writing is making a hand writing where the one who

write gives a form for everything what he or she thinks and whatever he or message. According

to Heaton (1975:138), there are four skills necessary for writing. They are:

a. Grammatical skill: the ability to write correct sentences.


b. Stylistic skill: the ability to manipulate sentences and use language

effectively.
c. Mechanical skill: the abiity to use correctly those conversations peculiar to the

written language e.g. punctuation and spelling.

Judgement skill: the ability to write in an appropriate manner for particular purpose with on

ability to select, organize, and relevant information.

3. Micro Skills and Macro Skills Of Writing

The earlier micro skills apply more appropriately to imitative and intensive types of writing

tasks, while macro skills are essential for the successful mastery of responsive and extensive

writing. According to (Brown 2004: 221) there are micro and macro skills that should be

mastered by the writer. They are:

a. Micro skills of writing:


1. Produce graphemes and orthographic patterns of English
2. Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose
3. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms
4. Use cohesive devices in written discourse.
b. Macro skills of writing
1. Use the rethorical forms and convention of written discourse.
2. Appropriately accom plish the communicative function of written texts

according to forms and purpose.


3. Correctly convey cultural specific references in the context of the written text.
4. Develop and use battery of writing strategies, such as accurately assessing the

audiences interpretation, using prewriting device, writing with fluency in the


first drafts, using paraphrases and synonyms, soliciting, peer and instructor

feedback, and using feedback for revising and editing.

The writer concludes that writing is one kind of expression in language which is created by

particular set of symbol, having conventional values for representing the wordings of particular

language which is drawn up visually. Writing covered some aspect, there are content, vocabulary,

organization, language and mechanic. Besides, the writing also consist of micro and macro skills

of writing which should be mastered by the student such as producing an acceptable grammatical

system (e.g. tense, agreement, patters, and rules) and convey links and connections between

events, and communicate such relation as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given

information, generalization, and exemplification, distinguish between literal and implied

meanings when writing. To overcome such problems, the writer uses Storyboard to increase the

students writing ability.

1. The Definition of Diary

Curtis and Bailey (2007: 68) use the terms diary and journal interchangeably. According to

Stanley, Shimkin, and Lanner (1988: 3) A journal or diary is a record, often kept daily, of ones

life, a kind of personal account book. The similar description also proposed by Fitzpatrick

(2005: 4), he states 19


that a diary is a personal record of a writers life experience and is usually private.

Though writing a diary seems a simple thing, it can be an effective way to develop and enhance a

great understanding and help the students to their experiences in everyday life routine. The

purpose of a journal or diary is to give your writing muscles a daily workout (Massielo,

1986: 37). By making the act of writing something routinely, the students will change it from an

irritating and unsuccessful activity to one that they feel comfortable and familiar.

2. The implementation of Diary in Education

Classroom writing is an essential academic requirement. However, most students are reluctant

and unconfident when they have to write about something in the classroom. It is because they

think that they have nothing to say or write. In addition, the time pressure also makes them

cannot write their ideas properly.

In relation to those cases, Chanderasegaran (as cited in Tuan, 2010: 81) states that writing

outside the classroom can be a useful tool to enhance writing skills. One of the tasks is to

practice writing at home by keeping journals or diaries. Spaventa (as cited in Tuan, 2010: 82)

points out that writing a journal or a diary is keeping a record of ideas, opinions, and descriptions

of daily life which help the writers to develop their creativity.

In addition, diary writing is introduced to students to get them to be familiar with the writing

process so that they would be encouraged to write frequently on their own. By keeping a diary,

students will develop their writing skills or at least they will write better day by day because it

gives them more 20


opportunities to write freely whatever they want to write about. As Chickering and Gamson (as

cited in Tuan, 2010: 82) states that giving the students more chances to write what is relevant to

them is an active learning technique.

Several scholars such as Artof (as quoted by Tin in Tuan, 2010: 82) states that diary writing or

personal writing has several values.

It is a powerful tool to find our own untapped creative power, uncover our family history, learn

to see the world more clearly, heal unsolved issues, understand our fears, and explore our

motivation. Through personal writing, we can develop both writing skills and awareness, can

develop greater awareness and interpersonal understanding, increasing the ability to relate to

others.

Harmer (2007: 128) states that there are some benefits of diary writing. The first is the value of

reflection. A diary provides an opportunity for students to think about what they are learning and

also how they are learning. The second is freedom of expression. Diary writing allows students

to express feelings more freely. For example, in their writing they can write about their daily life,

love story, or anything they want to write to. The next is developing writing skills. Diary writing

contributes to the students general improvement such as their writing fluency. Their writing

fluency will improve since they write regularly and become more familiar with.

Ngoh (as cited in Tuan, 2010:82) also adds the benefit of diary writing that it also provides

students with good opportunities to improve their writing skills and good chances to record their

thoughts and feelings. Moreover, Langan (2008: 16 & 2011: 14) says that keeping a dairy is one

of excellent ways to get practice in writing and it will help the students develop the habit of

thinking on paper. Diary or journal can also make writing as a familiar part of the students life.
Therefore, it can be summarized that diary writing can help the students to improve their writing

skills and motivation towards writing.

C. FRAME OF THINKING

Teaching writing to Senior High School is different with Junior High School. One of indicator is

students lack of motivation to write.This problem may be due to both the difficulty and the

limited attractiveness of certain demanding academic genres and writing tasks. Motivation is so

broad a research field that it is difficult to analyze its various aspects. With students like this

who lack familiarity or confidence with writing (or indeed enthusiasm for it) the teacher needs to

spend some time building the writing habitthat is making students feel comfortable as writers

in English and so gaining their willing participation in more creative or extended activities.

However, the researcher highlights some step that enable students difficulties. The first, Students

were confused to express their idea and students lacked vocabulary, It was difficult for students

to write the correct sentences. The second, Students word/ idiom form were poor and

grammatical errors almost entirely in their writing . and the last, Some of students could not

organized the writing well and had limited subject.

Therefore, the researcher believe that there are many ways to teach writing. One of them is by

using Diary. So, the researcher thinks that by using Diary hoped helps students writing skill,

because by using Diary teacher can ask their the students to use their imagination in visualizing

what happened just before the moment in the picture and what will happen next, it will be easier

to student to combine between picture that they imagine and the story the want to make so it

makes them easier in writing their story.


Teaching writing by using Diary in the classroom will motivate the students to study English.

Diary will help to improve students writing skill. So, the student can be more active, more alive,

and interested in studying English in the classroom.

D. HYPOTHESIS
Based on the explanation above, the researcher takes the hypothesis as follows;

Ha = There is any influence of diary method towards students writing skill

Ho = There is no influence of diary method towards students writing skill


THE INFLUENCE OF USING DAIRY IN TEACHING WRITING RECOUNT

TEXT IN THE ELEVEN GRADE TKJ STUDENTS OF THE SECOND

SEMESTER IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH PRINGSEWU

DISUSUN OLEH :

MERISKA FALIFI PUTRI

15050007

ENGLISH EDUCATION MAJORS STKIP

MUHAMMADIYAH PRINGSEWU LAMPUNG

TAHUN 2017