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A Thesis Submitted


1. Nahian, Ahnaf Tahmid ID: 12-20178-1

2. Hasan, MD. Mahmudul ID: 12-20168-1
3. Zakia, Fariha Afroz ID: 12-20956-1
4. Rashid, S.M.Muminor ID: 12-21276-2

Under the Supervision of

Chowdhury Akram Hossain

Assistant Professor American International University - Bangladesh

Department of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Faculty of Engineering

Fall Semester 2015-2016 ,

American International University - Bangladesh


A thesis submitted to the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department of the

Engineering Faculty, American International University - Bangladesh (AIUB) in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering.

1. Nahian, Ahnaf Tahmid ID: 12-20178-1

2. Hasan, MD. Mahmudul ID: 12-20168-1
3. Zakia, Fariha Afroz ID: 12-20956-1
4. Rashid, S.M.Muminor ID: 12-21276-2

Department of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Faculty of Engineering

Fall Semester 2015-2016 ,

American International University -

This is to certify that this thesis is our original work. No part of this work has been

submitted elsewhere partially or fully for the award of any other degree or diploma. Any material
reproduced in this project has been properly acknowledged.

Students names & Signatures

1. Nahian, Ahnaf Tahmid


2. Hasan, MD. Mahmudul


3. Zakia, Fariha Afroze


4. Rashid, S.M Muminor


Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 1


OPTIMIZATION has been submitted to the following respected members of the Board of Examiners of the

Faculty of Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of

Electrical and Electronic Engineering on by the following students and has been

accepted as satisfactory.

1. Nahian, Ahnaf Tahmid ID: 12-20178-1

2. Hasan, MD. Mahmudul ID: 12-20168-0
3. Zakia, Fariha Afroze ID: 12-20956-0
4. Rashid, S.M. Muminor ID: 12-21276-2

__________________ _________________
Supervisor External Supervisor
Chowdhury Akram Hossain Susmita Ghosh
Assistant Professor Faculty Faculty Faculty

of Engineering of Engineering
American International University- American International University-
Bangladesh Bangladesh

__________________ __________________
Prof. Dr. ABM Siddique Hossain Dr. Carmen Z. Lamagna
Dean Vice Chancellor
Faculty of Engineering American International University-
American International University- Bangladesh
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At first we are grateful to almighty Allah to give us strength, so that we could finish the work necessary to
complete this book. We want to express our gratitude to our honorable supervisor, Chowdhury Akram
Hossain, Assistant professor, Special Assistant, Faculty of Engineering, American International
University- Bangladesh for his valuable advice (especially for the idea of this topic), encouragement
which lead us to the process of fulfilling our undergraduate research.

We express our special thanks to our honorable external supervisor, Susmita Ghosh, lecturer, Faculty of
Engineering, American international University- Bangladesh for providing her suggestions and comments
regarding this book.

We would also like to thanks the members of the thesis committee for their valuable comments. We want
to give our special thanks to Mr. Saniat Rahman Zishan, Assistant professor, Faculty of Engineering,
American International University-Bangladesh for his valuable advice about the writing format of this
thesis book.

We would like to thanks Dr. Md. Abdul Mannan, Head of Undergraduate program, Faculty of Engineering
and Professor Dr. ABM. Siddique Hossain, Dean of Faculty of Engineering, American International
University-Bangladesh. We are also thankful to Dr. Carmen Z. Lamanga, Vice-chancellor, American
International University-Bangladesh for encouragement.

We would like to thanks our parents for encouragement, support and attention. Finally we would like to
thank all of them who directly and indirectly, have support us on this thesis.

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 3

1. Nahian, Ahnaf Tahmid

2. Hasan, MD. Mahmudul

3. Zakia, Fariha Afroze

4. Rashid, S.M. Muminor

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 4

DECLARATION........................................................................................................................................ I
LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................................................................VI

CHAPTER 1..................................................................................................................................................1
1.1. Introduction.................................................................................................................................1
1.2. Historical Background.3
1.3. Objective of this work.3
1.4. Researh Description..4
1.5. Introduction to this Thesis..4
1.6. Summary54

CHAPTER 2................................................................................................................................................6
SOLAR ENERGY & POWER SYSTEM............................................................................................................6
2.1. Solar Energy...6
2.2. Principle of Photovoltaic Technology.7
2.3. Main Components of Solar Power System.8
2.4. Photovoltaic (PV panel) modules9
2.4.1. Monocrystalline Silicon Panels..10
2.4.2. Polycristalline Silicon Panels...10
2.4.3. Thin Film Solar Panels.10
2.5. Charge Controller..10
2.6. Solar Inverter.11
2.7. Batteries and their Size..11
2.8. Photovoltaic Effect (Equivalent Circuit)...12
2.9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Power System14
2.10. Summary15

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3.1. Introduction.16
3.2. Solar Resources17
3.3. History of Diesel Engine.18
3.4. Working Principle of Diesel Engine
3.5. Diesel Generator.20
3.6. Solar-Diesel Generator Hybrid

3.7. Proposed System and Energy


3.7. System Block Diagram


3.8. Summary...........24

Chapter 425


4.1. Introduction.25
4.2. Features of Homer Software...26
4.2.1. Limitations26
4.3. Operating Principle of Homer Pro Software..27
4.4. Simulations and Output.27
4.4.1. Project creation in Home

4.4.2. Load Profile


4.4.3. Setting PV resources..30

4.4.4. Setting Generator resources32

4.4.5. Converter Settings..33

4.4.6. Simulation output and Result.34

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4.4.7. Cost Summary... 35

4.4.8. Cash flow outputs..36

4.4.9. Electrical Output..37

4.4.10. Fuel Summary38

4.4.11. Generator Output39

4.4.12. Renewable Penetration40

4.4.13. Generic flat PV profile41

4.4.14. System Converter Output42

4.4.15. Emissions43

4.5. Load Curve.44

4.6. Summary45

CHAPTER 5....46
5.1. Discussion......46
5.2. Overview of our System...47
5.3. Advantages of the

5.4. Limitations of our System.


5.5. Recommendation..48

5.6. Discussion & Conclusion49

5.7. Summary


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Table 4.1 A list of component in feasible hybrid system.22

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Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 10

BPDB- Bangladesh Power Development Board

BCSIR- Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

CSR - Climatologically Solar Radiation

GHI - Global Horizontal Irradiance

HPS - Hybrid Power System

HOMER- Hybrid Optimization Model for Electrical Renewable

NREL- National Renewable Energy Laboratory

RERC- Rehabitation Energy Research Centre

RET- Renewable Energy Technology

SWERA- Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assesment

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In this thesis work, importance were given on the use of renewable energy (Solar Power), as a leading
choice instead of fossil fuel. Renewable energy resources (Solar, Wind, Hydropower, biofuel, Ocean
Thermal Energy etc.) are regarded as the viable solution for future energy crisis. To carry on the
development and maintaining the living standard of the people of our country as well as the world, there
are no alternative of electricity as it is the most prime source of energy.

Ready Made Garments sector is the most discernible division of largest foreign currency in Bangladesh. It
contributes 81.69% of total GDP of Bangladesh (according to the statistics of World Bank). Knitwear
sector covers 39.83% of total exports. It provides employment of 4.2 million of workers, most of them
are women. So this sector contributes to both economy and employment of Bangladesh. The country cant
think of its development without improving the condition of garments sector (automation, fire service,
system protection, exit way, workers healthcare, water treatment plant, healthy environment etc.). To
ensure all of these facilities the most important thing we need is to supply the load with adequate power

This thesis mainly emphasis on the design and feasibility study of Hybrid Power System (comprised of
Solar-Diesel Generator) in the context of a garment industry (partial automation of that particular
industry) in Bangladesh. Solar resources was chosen because of the abundant availability and ease of
accessibility and convertibility. Diesel generator was used in order to support the excess load of industry,
so that continuous supply can be given without any disruption. To maintain the feasibility standard a
detailed investigation were done of the suggested plan (considering the amount of load, working hours,
types of load, system equipment etc.) with proper care. In short, we can say that a progressive model of
standalone hybrid power generation system was developed throughout the process that is able to supply
the load of apparel division of a garment industry. Detail simulation was conducted using HOMER Pro
software that includes the feasibility, sensitivity, cost and the performance of entire system. Though our
mission of designing the entire system based on only renewable resources was not a success, but still this
work can be milestone for the future generation to work on it for further development of Hybrid System.

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Chapter 1


1.1. Introduction

Electricity works as the most important part in modern civilization, as it mitigates the power requirement
required for society. We cant imagine of our economic development without it. It can be said without any
doubt that the amount of net energy consumption is increasing rapidly. To mitigate the energy
consumption, we need to produce huge amount of electricity. Major choice to produce the electricity that
can fulfill the energy demand is fossil fuel, such as, natural gas, coal, oil etc. Approximately 75 percent of
total energy is provided by the fossil fuel in the year of 2002. According to current energy consumption
rate, fossil fuel reserve is not a dependable energy source to meet our demand for near future. With the
current energy consumption rate coal reserves should last for about 200 years, oil for about 40 years and
natural gas should last for approximately 50 years. With consistently development not only increasing
uses of fossil fuel but also increasing environment pollution because of fossil fuel harness effect on
environment. According to RET renewable energy, (i.e., energy generated from solar, wind, biomass, geo-
thermal, hydropower and ocean reserves, could fulfill extra energy supply demand with clean
environmental friendly energy.

Renewable energy sources are scattered in a huge amount in our environment and which reserve is
sometime unlimited also it has no side effects on environment. Among them solar PV is most popular.
Even though solar energy sources are considerably less productive compared to fossil fuels, use of
photovoltaic (PV) cells has grown so fast in recent years, especially in developed countries. Photovoltaic
(PV) cells usually are electronic devices that are based on semiconductor technology and can produce an
electrical current directly from sunlight. The most effective silicon PV modules, which are currently &
commercially available, provides performance over 18%. Its expected that in next 12 years module
efficiencies may raise to 25%. PV modules, wind generators, hydro power plants, biogas plants etc. are
some of the energy sources actually used widely in developed nations to produce strength at the locations
where it may be inconvenient or expensive to work with conventional grid supplies. However, when
electricity grids are nonexistent or standard, all forms of energy can establish very expensive. In such
cases, solar energy can be very competitive. The fact that the strength of natural resources are intermitting
as well as storage system are not feasible, resulted the incrimination of utilizing renewable energy
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systems. Any electric power system that incorporates a couple of the following is referred to as any hybrid
power system: Photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, diesel-powered and gasoline generators. To get small
loads, the most common scheme is PV cell.

Readymade garments is one of the most beneficial sector and biggest earner of the foreign currency in
recent years. Bangladeshs export industries) contributed 31.2 billion US dollar in financial year of 2014-
15, 81.69% of which is made up by ready-made garments industry. About 45% of total industrial
employments are accounted only in garment industries with a contribution of 5% of total national income
[1][2]. From a statistics in 2013, its known that there were 5000 garment factories having 4 million
people, mostly women [3]. So it can be said that, importance of this sector is nothing less compared to
other economy sector of Bangladesh. But due to the lacking of proper maintenance and fault in system
protection there always remain a risk of breaking fire or system breakdown. This can cause a reduction of
production unit. To ensure a safe working place and productive environment, there are no alternative
except solving these problems.

Fig 1.1- Garment Workers of apparel Division

Photovoltaic and diesel generator is a good match up as a hybrid system, because for a certain time when
sunlight is not present we may use diesel as alternative. In this paper, a PV-diesel generator hybrid system
are described, which is able to supply electricity to the apparel division of garment industry. The purpose
of our study is to design a local PV-diesel hybrid system for a garment industry where the system works as
the main energy input by simulating the system according to the load requirements and optimizing the
total cost.
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1.2. Historical Background

Becoming a modern part of the civilization, administration of Bangladesh has their urge to develop its
financial system as well as serve its industrial locations with the utilities as a part of their duties. Recent
statistics signifies that the power sector of Bangladesh has been lagging behind with respect to their actual
demand, due to its dependency on natural gas and coal power stations to generate significant portions of
power. Even though, at present, the power sector provides a quick development of energy demand in the
industrial area by installing quick rental power crops (captive station), still it is not the ultimate alternative
for a countrys overall electrical power generation.. There are many regions and newly expanded
industrial areas, where grid supply has not reached yet. Besides installation of captive station in every
industry is not possible, because of limited fuel resource as well as the high value of set up and
maintenance cost. Thats why renewable energy rolls into the discussion. Theres no doubt that Renewable
energy is abundant in nature. Moreover, Though the industries are the major concern for the authorities
where the priority of fossil fuel are given, but still the dependence of economy on fossil fuel has arrived at
its highest peak. Interest has grown inside, to rebuild the power generation in industry with sustainable
output with clean energy resources as well as zero carbon emission. Renewable resources are perfect
choice to serve this purpose.

1.3. Objective of this Work:

The objective of this thesis work is to inspect the best design layout (connection topology) for the load of
a garment industry (Knit Concern Ltd.) and model the system according to the selected topology that is
able to feed the load without any harassment. To design this system we use a hybrid model consists of PV
modules (renewable energy source) with conventional power source (Diesel Generator), so that they can
perform together to feed the load connected with this. In this thesis, we try to apply renewable energy in
hybrid electrical power system. It is notified that the system is an off grid system.

In this system solar energy is used as one of the prime source of entire system. The system will be
provided with convenient supply technique. The entire supply will be given by both PV and diesel
generator. In the time of limited solar irradiance (or in night), the supply will be based on generator. The
output of the PV array will be regulated or inverted to ac current so that it can supply the load with
alternating frequency (synchronous frequency). Finally we can conclude that, a system (hybrid process)
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with PV modules, energy converter, Diesel generator, load management options will be analyzed,
designed, simulated and investigated throughout the entire thesis work as our main objective, to serve the
purpose of supplying the load.

1.4. Research Description:

In this thesis we will analyze the feasibility with the system. A set of numerous geographical parameters,
such as, solar irradiation, altitude, shading factors and infrastructural positions were analyzed to serve this
purpose. The system is designed to supply a certain amount of load, on the basis of collected data. The
system components are cell, diesel generator and other devices. The actual analysis is completed with
information and evaluations on several analyses which include the cost examination of the system

1.5. Introduction to this Thesis:

This thesis consists of five different chapters.

Basic structure and properties of solar energy system are described in chapter 2.

In chapter 3, the proposed design analysis of solar and diesel generator hybrid energy system is presented.

Our proposed designed is tested under various circumstances and conditions. In chapter 4, desired result
and outputs are going to be discussed.

In chapter 5, conclusion, advantages, limitation, and design overview of our proposed thesis will be
described one by one.

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1.6. Summary

In our work a Solar PV along with Diesel generator hybrid energy method is investigated. A portion of the
vitality requirement for a garment industry (Knit concern Ltd.) has been supplied with the electric power
generated from the solar power along with Diesel generator.

The main features of our system is that it is a hybrid system consists of multiple resources (power injected
from both PV and diesel generator). The design of the system was done in such a way that it doesnt need
any back up support or storage. In the following chapters, we are going to discuss about the design layout
and operating principle of our proposed system. Simulation results and the cost analysis will be discussed
briefly. In short, by going through this book one can easily understand not only about the system
configuration and but also the process of using renewable energy in development sector in order to
contribute the economy of the country.

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Chapter 2

Solar Energy & Power System

2.1. Solar Energy

Solar energy is the energy thats radiated from sun in form of heat and light. This form of energy is
renewable, inexhaustible and free by nature. This energy works as the source of all energy of the entire
objects in this planet including both the living and non-living being. Production of this energy is due to
the thermonuclear fusion occurring in sun. It provides all kind of electromagnetic radiation (visible light,
infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays and radio waves). From total radiation only a fraction of energy is provided to
earth which is enough to meet the regular energy crisis on this planet. As we mentioned there are many
kind of solar technologies available on earth to extract or restore this energy like solar photovoltaic, solar
thermal electricity, artificial photosynthesis etc. which leads to the solution of some urgent energy
problems of the world.

Fig 2.1- Solar Energy Distribution Process on Earth

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One way to use the solar power is to convert the solar energy (sunlight) into electricity by means of
photovoltaic cell or concentrated solar power. The process is called photoelectric effect for which the
world renowned scientist Albert Einstein received Noble Prize in the year of 1921.

2.2. Principle of Photovoltaic Technology:

Photovoltaic system or technology refers to the electricity which is generated from solar energy by means
of photovoltaic cell. This electricity is called photo-current. We know that electricity is the result of
electron flow through conductive material. Electrons emission due to photovoltaic effect are known as
photoelectron. The process can be attributed as the transfer of energy from light to an electron. Normally
photovoltaic cells are one type of electronic device that are made of semiconductor technology. It can
produce direct electric current (D.C) from sunlight. When Light strikes on PV cell, electrons are emitted.

In photoemission process, when photon strikes some material, electron absorbs energy from that photon.
If this energy is more than the work function (minimum thermodynamic work) of that material, the
electron is ejected. If the amount of energy is low the electron will not be able to escape. It doesnt mean
the intensity of light, but the energy of each photon. This range of energy required to free the electron are
known as threshold frequency. Amount of energy can be considered by using the equation E= hf. (h=
Planck constant, f= frequency of light wave. After that electrons are collected by electrical conductor in
the form of D.C current.

Fig 2.2- Photoelectric Process

There are two major types of photovoltaic system

1 Off-grid (standalone) systems.
2. Grid-tied system.

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Off-grid system are kind of PV system that are not connected to electricity grid, therefore, a storage
technique is required to store that energy. As we know that solar energy is available at day time, so we
need the storage system to store the energy when the sunlight is not available. In other words this system
is a good solution for those areas where electricity supply from public electricity grid is not possible,
especially in developing countries, like Bangladesh.

A grid-connected solar PV system, as the name suggests, is a electricity generating system which are
connected to grid. The system needs typical wiring with inverter, which converts D.C voltage to useful
A.C voltage, due to linking to the utility grid. Due to grid connection this system doesnt require any
battery solution, because its unnecessary.

2.3. Main Components of Solar Power system:

The most basic component of solar power system are PV modules, batteries, charge controller and inverter
(converter). Capacities of these elements mostly depend on the amount load required to ensure the
continuation of supply.
There are several parameters to select the battery size of power system like storage capacity, depth of
discharge, maximum/minimum temperature at which the battery will sustain without any hazard etc. One
prominent choice of battery is Lead-acid batteries, because of its low cost, robust construction, low
internal impedance, wide range of sizes and capacities. It can resist frequent discharging [4].

The major parts of the solar power components are going to be discussed below. A typical figure (figure
2.3) enlisting the solar power components are shown below

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Fig 2.3- Main components of solar power system

2.4. Photovoltaic (PV Panel) modules:

Photovoltaic cell or solar cell is the most inevitable part of solar power system (generating unit). Photocell
constitutes of silicon because of its abundant availability on earth as the primary element of sand. Wiring
of this modules depends on the fact that how are we going to use it, like, to increase the system voltage we
have to give series connection or to increase current parallel connection are required.

Size of PV depends on the amount of estimated energy consumption and calculated in KW P unit. The
equation can be written as
Daily energy consumption
PV module size = InsolatonEfficiency [ 2.1]

Insolation is measured in KWh/m2/day. Energy consumption is measured in watts or kilowatts.

There are several factors need to consider before choosing PV module for solar system, since the
efficiency of solar PV is quite low. One important parameter is peak sun hour which means a fixed
number of hours, when the sun shines at its maximum intensity, not the amount of hours sunlight received
by PV module. Usually the amount of peak sun hours is considered 5.5 or 6 hours on average by the
designers. Other factors that affect the efficiency on PV module are module temperature, DC/AC wiring
temperature, module soiling (quality of soil where the PV module are going to be installed), module
mismatch factor, system availability derating factor etc.
Module mismatch derating factor refers to the differences in current-voltage characteristics of PV modules
that provide some losses when PV modules are connected to array of series-parallel strings. In that case
the total power output of array will be less than the sum of the power output of individuals [5].
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System availability means the system available efficacy. All of these factors can be
considered as a multiplied value of 0.72 or 72% as standard.

The most common type of technology used in manufacturing process of PV module

is crystalline Si. Two types of PV module are available in the market namely
Monocrystalline Silicon panels and Polycrystalline silicon panels.

2.4.1. Monocrystalline Silicon Panels:

Monocrystalline silicon panels forms of periodic array of crystal structure and utilized
when a higher voltage is required. They are most efficient solar technology,
averaging 14% to 17%.

2.4.2. Polycrystalline silicon panels:

Polycrystalline silicon panels are composed of many crystalline structure of different

size and variations. It offers efficiencies up to 12%-14% and can be purchased at a
lower cost compared to monocrystalline silicon panels. They have widest use in
many type of solar applications around the world [6].

2.4.3 Thin film solar panels:

This kind of panels are composed of various kind of thin films of photovoltaic materials deposited on a
substrate. This technology use different type of materials to dope the substrate which includes amorphous
silicon, cadmium telluride, copper-indium dieseline, and others. This technology provides low cost with an
efficiency up to 8%-10% [6].

2.5. Charge Controller:

Charge controller is an essential element of a solar power system. Primary function of charge controller is to
prevent overflow of charge in battery bank at the time of abundant solar insolation. Overcharging of a
battery can cause electrolyte imbalance in battery which results destruction of both battery and instruments
connected to it. There are some features which should be considered before choosing charge controller for
solar power system. Among them the maximum charge rate is the first parameter need to be considered,
where the ampere rating should be oversized by 25% (minimum) for enhanced capability. Besides current
feedback from the batteries to PV modules should be prevented by the charge controller [7]. It must also
have a work mode indicator and connector for D.C load [7]. If we have a load of 10 KW and system voltage
is 24V then the ampere rating of charge controller should be

10 KW
24 V = 0.416 KA

Sometimes we can avoid charge controller if our system is too small and loads are cheap compared to
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2.6. Solar Inverter:

Solar inverter is a device that converts DC power into useful AC power for various load, as we know that
alternating current is easier to transport over long distances. An inverter is a necessary component for larger
system that incorporates larger AC loads. In off grid system the system must be cost effective, thats why
the system is always undersized (except for larger system). The value depends on avg. peak load of the load
profile. Two kinds of inverters are available namely as synchronous and static or stand-alone system.
Synchronous inverters are designed to be tied in to the electrical grid. Static inverters are designed for
utility-free power system, most often used for remote areas. Some inverters are classified according to the
generation of AC waveform like square waveform, modified square waveform, sinusoidal waveform etc.

There are some inverters which are provided with some inbuilt protective features like.

1. Automatic switch-off and restart.

2. Protective scheme for Overload and short circuit.

3. Low battery protection

4. Miniature circuit breaker trip indicator

5. Load-status indicator.

2.7. Batteries and their size:

The most noticeable problem of PV system is that the source of energy is not constant all over the time. Sun
doesnt shine everywhere with equal intensity due to daily and annual fluctuation of solar insolation. Thats
why storing excess energy for later use, is an important factor for designing solar power system , especially
in case of off-grid system. Battery is a popular choice and commonly used technological solution for this
problem. Electrical energy is stored in the battery in the form of chemical energy. For operating a perfect
PV system, it has to be rechargeable.

Normally batteries in a stand-alone PV system performs three main function such as Autonomy, voltage
control and surge control capability.

1. Autonomy- Autonomy is a characteristic provided with battery. This parameters refers to the ability
of the battery to provide continuous supply to the load according to their requirement, at the time of
night, overcast periods, rainy day, in winter when the average intensity of sunlight is relatively low
compared to summer. Usually in tropical country like ours autonomy day is considered 3-5 days,
during extreme case the value is considered 7 days.

2. Voltage Control- Voltage control provides the necessary protection to the load in order to withstand
the large voltage fluctuations.

3. Surge-current capability- It supplies necessary current with higher value compared to PV array,
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especially at the time of staring inductive equipment or motor [7].

Batteries of solar power must have some certain specification such as low self-discharge rate, lower
charging and discharging cycles etc. It must operate smoothly with in specified limit provided by the
manufacturers. Considering all the facts the most suitable type of battery, which are readily usable for PV
applications are deep-cycle type of battery. They are capable of withstanding deep discharges without
damaging the equipment. Depth of discharge varies 40-90% in a battery. Usually its considered 50% in
design [8]. Temperature correction factor is another important phenomenon for battery. It usually means the
change that occurs due to temperature rising in battery. In most cases the value is considered 1.11. System
voltage can be considered 12V, 24V or 48V depending on the size of the battery [8]. High voltage will
decrease the number of battery but will increase their cost for big batteries. Finally we can write the
equation of battery size is

Daily consmption ( KWh )Autonomy days

Battery size = Depth of dischargesystem voltage * Temperature correction factor..

[ 2.2]

Batteries are rated in Ampere-hour and sizing depends on consumption of energy. Ah rating is calculated at
a specific voltage, that is

Ah rating = Daily enegy consmption( KW )/ Battery rating ( Ah) .. [2.3]

2.8. Photovoltaic effect (Equivalent circuit):

According to the definition of photovoltaic voltage, when light or photon are exposed upon a material then
voltage or current are produced as a result of this process. This process are first observed by French
physicist A. E. Becquerel in the year of 1839.

Photovoltaic potential is due to the chemical potential of two isolated materials (usually called the Fermi
level of electrons), not due to the electrostatic potential [9]. Fermi level is the surface, from where no
electrons can travel above that surface, at absolute temperature. Semiconductor, that is doped, Fermi level is
shifted due to impurities in device. The equation of the Fermi function can be written as
e ( EEF )
f(E) = +1
This equation dictates that, at ordinary temperature most of the energy levels are filled with electrons. Only
few electrons have energies above the Fermi level. Fermi level is typically in order of electron volts. When
the materials are joined together, junctions approaches a new thermodynamic equilibrium (when the Fermi
level of two materials are equal).This potential is responsible for the flow of current.

The expression of Fermi level of a body, can be given by the amount of work it required to add an electron
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to it, or removing an electron from it. Let us consider two voltage V A and VB between two points A and B. It
is exactly related to the chemical potential difference A-B, where electrons will move from high value of
(A) to a low value of (B). Lower value of will decrease and higher value of will increase, due to the
flow of electron through the path provided. Eventually, the value of will settle down after sometimes,
when two bodies will come to a thermodynamic equilibrium. It means the electronic circuit will have a
constant Fermi level throughout the connecting parts [10]. The equation can be expressed as

VA- VB = e .. [2.4]

Where e is the electron charge.

Fig 2.4- Context of Fermi level at different temperature

Fig 2.5- Energy level of P-type and N-type junction in semiconductor device

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Fig 2.5- Solar cell equivalent circuit

Electrical current, which is induced due to impinging photons on solar cell are collected by metallic links
which are connected on both sides of the junction. On one edge of the top surface (illuminating) and the
bottom surface are provided with conducting foil contacts. The remaining top surface allows the light
through and collects the current. In order to maximize the electrical conductance and minimize the
blockage of the light, spacing of the conducting fibers are compromised. Besides all of these, there are
some special features included in the system, like, there are anti-reflective coating on front face, so that it
can absorb maximum amount of light avoiding the reflection. Transparent cover glass provides the
mechanical protection of the system.

2.9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Power System:

Solar power system, or solar cell is a device that produces electric current from photon energy, by means
of photovoltaic effect. There are various type of solar power system, like concentrated solar power
system. This system uses many devices such as lenses, mirrors, tracking devices to focus solar energy.
There are many advantages as well as disadvantages of solar power system to use it as a medium of prime
energy resources, especially in case of residential use.

Advantages of solar power system:

1. Solar energy is free by nature and immaculate from pollution/impurity.
2. Solar PV modules are unaffected by noise pollution.

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3. Continuous research are going on solar cell, which make it possible (technological advancement)
to buy or use solar cell in cost effective way.
4. Operation and maintenance cost of solar cell is almost negligible.
5. Lifespan of solar cell is higher compared to conventional system, like generator, IPS, UPS etc.
which make it easy to decide/choose solar system as alternative energy resources, especially for
small appliances.

Disadvantages of solar power system:

1. Initial cost of solar PV and their associated parts (including installation) is quite high, compared to
2. Solar panels are useless at night, rainy day, winter (when irradiance is very low, or zero).
3. For larger loads, solar power system is economically inefficient to use.

2.10. Summary:
Solar energy is abundant in nature due to a plenty of solar irradiance from sun. Solar power is good choice
of all renewable energy sources, especially for those places where grid connection is literally difficult and
not cost effective. Since sun is a medium star of abundant fuel, it works as the prime energy source for
this planet. Its the limitation of humankind that we cant use the total energy radiated from this source in
every aspects of our life. Scientists from all over the world are trying their level best to invent the
technology to use this energy at best. Till then solar cell can be a good solution or a good choice of power
source for typical residential areas or in community load, even as a part of hybrid system. Deep-cycle
batteries are designed to deliver lower current with respect to the size of the battery. Most usable
technology in solar power system is Crystalline Si. Charge controllers are specially designed to provide
rectifier and inverter service all together. Though initial cost of solar power system is quite high, but
considering all the facts and benefits provided by this system, it becomes a good choice for long term

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Chapter 3

Proposed plan for Hybrid Power System

3.1. Introduction:
Renewable energy can be helpful in solution of energy crisis, thus improving economic condition, aid in
energy dependent activity and curtailment of ecological harness such as desertification, global warming,
sea level rising due to melting of ice on mountains and polar region, biodiversity abolishment etc.
Renewable energy will help us to eliminate those issues if the implementation of renewable resources are
adopted broadly in every sector of Bangladesh as primary energy source, where the people primarily
depend on fossil fuel activity [11].
Power generation in Bangladesh is about fossil-fuel dependent. About 89% of energy comes from
accustomed gas (captive station) and the blow is from aqueous fuel, coal and hydropower. The present
amount of renewable activity is only 2.5%.

Fig 3.1- Generation Fuel Mix in FY 2013

However, in current years the supply of gas in required areas are decrease because of the depletion of gas
reserves. This kind of uncertainty decreases the development program of gas based power station for
commercial or industrial purpose. Taking this into account the government launches an idea called
Power System Master Plan 2010 in order to design power station refueled by sustainable energy
resources. Development of renewable activity is one of the major decision adopted in this Fuel

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Diversification Program where 15% (according to the plan) of absolute electricity bearing will appear
from renewable and new activity sources.

3.2. Solar Resources

An activity on SWERA program based on global and diffuse radiation measurements at RERC were
continuing since 2002, under the supervision of Dhaka University. Data measurements are done in every
minute with an hourly integrated value are used to obtain monthly, hourly and annual values of radiation
in our country with the help of an Eppley Pyranometers embedded with computer interfacing card and a
micro-computer. The estimate value of sunshine duration and cloud cover were measured by 31 stations of
Bangladesh metrological Department using the correlations developed at RERC. The annual map
developed by individual assessments of NREL using CSR (climatologically solar radiation) model (on
cloud cover, water vapor trace gases etc.) has now been tuned to Dhaka Pyranometer data and GHI (global
horizontal Irradiances) map shown below [12]

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Fig 3.2- Annual solar GHI (global horizontal irradiance)

3.3. History of Diesel Engine:

A Diesel engine (correctly known as compression-ignition or CI engine) is an internal combustion

chamber where ignition of the gas (injected into the burning chamber) occurs, due to excess temperature
achieved by gasoline (air) under the influence of adiabatic compression.
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Introduction of the Diesel engine had not been based solely on one mans idea but it was the combination
of many different ideas that might be developed over time. First recognized internal combustion engine
and also the first fuel injection program was developed by Claude and Nicphore Nipce (In 1806). To
atomize Lycopodium (an extremely combustible fuel made from wide moss) a blast of air are provided by
a bellows in Pyrolophore fuel method. Later mixture of coal dirt with resin turns on into actual fuel.
Finally in 1816 they Further experiments were carried on with alcohol as well as white petroleum oil (like
kerosene). To make the energy highly combustible, gasoline type fuel were carefully vaporized by passing
through a reed type gadget.

Within 1874 a two stroke, oil fueled continuous pressure engine was created and patented by George
Brayton. A metered pump was utilized in engine to provide fuel to an injection gadget in where the oil was
vaporized and burnt by air after entering the cylinder [13]. A four stroke direct injection oil engine (1887)
and a four stroke air blast oil engine (in 1890) were developed and patented by George Brayton [14].

Finally in 1893, German scientist Rudolf Diesel invented a high compression engine with an ability of
self-ignition process. Fuel are sprayed over it. This kind of engines are designed to deliver power in small
industrial area, where a continuous source of power is required to increase the production efficiency. In
between 1894 and 1895, he filled his patents for diesel engine in many countries. [15]

3.4. Working Principle of a Diesel Engine (4 stroke engine)

The four-stroke engine (four cycle) is an inner combustion (IC) engine where a piston completes four
individual strokes to turn on the crankshaft [16]. By using the term Stroke, we mean the travelling of
piston along the cylinder depending on any particular direction. The four distinct strokes are termed as:
1. Intake Stroke: This stroke known as induction /suction, starts from top dead center (T.D.C) to bottom
dead center (B.D.C). Air-fuel mixture enters from intake valve by the piston to produce vacuum pressure
into the cylinder.
2. Compression Stroke: This stroke begins from the end of the intake stoke. It starts from B.D.C to the
end of T.D.C. In this stage, both intake and exhaust valve remain close. The piston prepares the air-fuel
mixture for ignition by means of compression.

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3. Combustion Stroke: This stroke is known as power or combustion stroke, generates from the end of
compression stroke. Crankshaft completes the full 360 degree revolution at this point. Heat generates due
to compression in air-fuel mixtures, while the piston is at T.D.C. After that fuels are injected in the
mixture to generate energy. After that it returns to B.D.C. Useful mechanical work are produced in this
stroke to run the crankshaft.

Fig 3.3- Four stroke Diesel Engine

.4. Exhaust Stroke: In this stroke exhaust valve opens to expel the spent air-fuel mixture. After this stroke
the piston returns from B.D.C. to T.D.C.
These are the basic principle of four stroke internal combustion engine (Diesel engine).

3.7. Diesel Generator:

Diesel generator is the combination of electric generator (Alternator) and diesel engine to produce electric
energy. Alternator is kind of generator which is used to produce A.C current from revolving magnetic flux,
according to the principle Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.
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E= -N dt

Where, is the value magnetic flux, and E is the induced e.m.f due to the variation of electromagnetic

flux, N is the number of turns in coil. Negative value represents the direction of induced current in the coil
opposing flux.
Main purpose of diesel generator is to supply current, where there is no grid supply or emergency power
back up is required. Generating set or Genset usually refers to a combination of diesel engine,
generator and other ancillary device like base, canopy, circuit breakers, control system etc. A typical
genset with a range from 8-30 kW are useful to small use, home appliances, industrial use etc.

3.6. Solar-Diesel Generator Hybrid System

A hybrid system is something that is formed by accumulating two or multiple kinds of apparatus.
Purpose of this kind of arrangement are to feed the load with required power by collecting them from
multiple resources. The power generation of this hybrid system are more frequent and fluctuates less than
every single two component subsystems. A photovoltaic arrangement commonly known as PV system
along with a diesel generator are a good example of hybrid system. The aim of this kind of system (solar
and diesel) is to ensure that the bulk of solar activity fed into the arrangement and accumulating a diesel
generator to feed the rest of the load. This system is operated by applying IT technology (software) and
inverter with minimum acceptance of big-ticket batteries.

A diesel standby generator (30 kW capacity) was used in our design to constantly fill the gap between the
found load and the actual power due to variation in solar energy. This system is also a viable substitute to
avoid battery storage in order to optimize the cost and to increase solar contribution on overall generation
process. The following figure shows a typical hybrid system connection process (Solar-Diesel

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Fig 3.4- Solar-Diesel Hybrid System

3.7. Proposed system and Energy Consumption:

The purpose of our work was to design a hybrid system (Solar and Diesel) for an industrial load. The
location of our system is at Knit concerns Ltd. Its a garment industry consists of different sections
with a variation in load from each other. Our system was designed to supply energy to garment
production sector. Since the production of the industry was too large, so the, amount of required load
are too high respectively. There were two floors for the production of ready-made clothes. Our system
was designed to supply the lights and fans of these two floors.

There were twelve rows in each floor, each of them having twelve lights and seven ceiling fans. The
rating of each bulb was 65 W and ceiling fan was 75 W. So the energy consumption of each
component was

Energy consumed by light = 12*12*65*2 =18.72 kW = 19kW

Energy consumed by Ceiling fan = 12*7*75*2 = 12.6 kW= 13kW

So the net energy consumption was = 19kW+13kW = 32kW

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Our system was capable to supply 32kW load at peak hour. Extra power could be added to the by
providing additional sources (add PV or generator). The system would be implemented on the rooftop
of the building. The following figure shows the schematic diagram of the proposed system.

The table 3.1 represents amount of equipment and their respective prices that can feasible the entire
system. We need an oversize system to operate the load without any constraint.

Table 4.1- A list of component in feasible hybrid system

Component Name Amount Price

PV Module 269 $71,177
Diesel Generator 1(30KW) $2,61,916
Converter 1(52KW) $2,857
Primary Load 369KWh/day,55.94
Net Present Cost $ 3,35,947
Liveliest Cost of $0.144
Total Price $3,35,950

3.6. System Block Diagram:

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The figure (shown below), represents the block diagram of our system (the wiring and Connection of
equipment). There are total five kind of equipment in the system, including, Alternator (diesel generator),
Converter, PV modules, measurement device and respective loads. Current is going from alternator to
measurement device and from there to respective loads. Output from solar PV is first going to a converter
and from there to measurement device, so that we can get the ac current. There are relay connected to
alternator, solar PV and converter, so that it can bypass the excess current, during the time of overflow.
The arrow sign shows the direction of current flow. There are switching mechanism to make contact
between generating devices and the load, in order to provide a constant supply to the load.

Fig 3.5- System Diagram

3.7. Summary

Being aware of the finite stock of fossil fuels and their negative impact on the environment, countries
across the world are now leaning towards renewable energies. In this chapter we marked possibilities of

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hybrid power system in Bangladesh. In our proposed system it was clear that the maximum power of total
system were extracted from renewable resource (solar PV). Power were injected from both solar PV and
diesel generator (multiple resources) to optimize the net load. The system was planned in such a way that
there would be a continuous supply of power without any harassment, so that the net production never
goes below the expectation. Since the resources that were used in our proposed system are available, so
there would be no

Renewable energy is no more an ambitious expensive venture. Because of high research and development
cost of renewable energy, it continues to lag in relation to conventional energy. For example, cost of solar
PV panels declined more than 60% in the past three years. International Energy Agency projects that
electricity generation from renewable energy may overtake natural gas by 2015 and perhaps coal by 2035.
However, due to lack of clear knowledge base on renewable energy and their co-benefits, many people,
even some energy professionals, are skeptical about the prospect of renewable energy

Chapter 4
Results & Discussion
4.1. Introduction:
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The software tool we used to simulate our system is Homer Pro (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Electric
Renewables), micro-power optimization tool. This software is originated at NRELs (National Renewable
Energy Laboratory) village power project. In 1994, NREL formed a village power group to match RE
(Renewable Energy) technologies with rural energy need for sustainable village power demand solution.
RE solution have both economic and environmental advantages over fossil foil (in case of remote
communities). Special optimization software are utilized in HOMER software.

There are some factors we need to consider before designing a power system for a certain region. We must
take into account some several facts, like, system configuration, components include in system design,
size and amount of each component etc., availability of energy resources, variation in technology, amount
of load, cost of the components etc. This factors make it difficult for the users to make the proper selection
of components to design a feasible power system. HOMER software simplifies the task of simulating and
evaluating designs of both traditional and renewable generation electric power system (both off grid and
grid tied). It also provides necessary calculations of cost required to run the entire system (optimizes the
cost) for a variety of applications. Its optimization and sensitivity analysis algorithms make it easier to
evaluate many possible system configuration, including various hybrid systems (such as solar and wind,
solar and diesel, solar and biomass etc.) combination of variable resources. It provides a path to determine
how available resources can be optimally integrated in to hybrid power system. Detail chronological
simulation can be performed at an hourly level (or even minute by minute basis). Its power modeling tools
allow some remarkable features like, logical details combination, rapid runtimes (annual simulations per
second), lucid policy/ technique, accessible interface etc. It gives us an opportunity to design and optimize
a system with possible economic feasibility by avoiding lengthy interpretation of dedicated engineering
staff. [18]
HOMER can compare the results of input and show an overview of capital and operating costs. HOMER
can provide utility instruments to many type of project developers to extenuate monetary risk of their
hybrid power projects, as a part of distributed generation system. In short we can say that, HOMER
software optimizes the hybrid system design, so that its users can readily understand how hybrid
renewable system works.

4.2. Features of HOMER software:

To specify HOMER software, a details study of some noticeable features of this tool are introduced in this

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1) HOMER provides a relatively simple and easy system model with accurate simulation and proper
2) HOMER software is used in power system project for various kind of loads, like, community-scale
power system, industrial load, residential load etc. It designs the system by considering both
technical and economical factor included in the system.
3) HOMER gives details result of output of different system configuration, by comparing the cost
and efficiency for hybrid energy system. This kind of overview help designers to decide the
possible technical performance of the system. Even calculations regarding the integration of both
conventional and renewable energies into hybrid system are also possible with this software.
4) Even probabilistic impact of unstable condition like fuel prices, wind speed, solar irradiance, over
time, can also be ascertained by doing sensitivity analysis.
5) HOMER searches for optimal systems and provides report of optimal and near optimal solution.
6) It analyzes grid and off-grid system both. Results are based on hourly analysis and life cycle

In short we can say that HOMER is a strong hybrid optimization software that can compare the
difference between hybrid systems based on multiple energy resources. It can demonstrate system
design optimized with variable parameters. Besides all of these, there are some limitations with in this
software [17].

4.2.1. Limitations:

1. It cant design AC and DC load simultaneously (AC and DC at the same time).
2. It gives result considering the net present cost only.

4.3. Operating Principle of HOMER Pro Software:

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HOMER can be described into three steps. Simulation, optimization (Simulation and display of system
configuration sorted by Net Present Cost), sensitivity analysis (optimization of sensitivity variable) [17].

1. Simulation: HOMER is ultimately a simulating software. We can estimate the total cost and
system feasibility by doing simulation using HOMER for all possible combinations of the
equipment under consideration of viable system. It simulates the operation of a system by making
energy balance calculation in each time step of the year. It makes a comparison between electric
and thermal demand to the energy that the system can supply in that particular time step. By doing
this, it determines whether a system configuration is feasible or not. It also decides the operation of
generator and charging/discharging period of batteries. It also estimates system cost calculation
such as capital, replacement, operation and maintenance, fuel etc. to install and operate the system
over the lifetime of the project.
2. Optimization: HOMER is actually an economic optimization model. HOMER optimizer follows
the simulation to find the best possible fits according to given criteria by proper selection and
filtering process. The new HOMER optimizer uses a derivative free algorithm to find the least cost
system, after that it displays a list of configurations based on net present cost.
3. Sensitivity Analysis: HOMER provides an option name sensitivity analysis, to see the changes in
optimal system with the variations that is beyond our control. These variations are called
sensitivity variables. HOMER allows us to model the impact of the variables, such as, wind speed,
fuel costs etc. HOMER performs the job by repeating the optimization process for each sensitivity
variable. If wind speed is considered as a variable then the simulation will be done for a range of
wind speeds specified in system configuration.

4.4. Simulations and Output:

The goal of our thesis is to design 32kW solar-diesel hybrid system for a garment (Knit Concern Ltd.)
industry. Since we all know that the variation in industrial load is quite low, so the amount of required
load is quite high compared to residential load or community load. To optimize the system the help of
HOMER is needed. HOMER calculates the system requirements by considering the input values and
necessary data. It then provides feedback to the user of the system. It is a very helpful tool for calculating
hybrid system.

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4.4.1. Project creation in HOMER Pro :
At the beginning of the program we need to consider all the equipment to design a feasible system for the
defined location. In our case the location is at Godnail, Narayanganj. It is situated on the bank of
Shitalakshya River near Dhaka city, capital city of Bangladesh. Actual geographical coordinates of the
area is 23 39' 0" North, 90 31' 0" East.
At the beginning of the program, the location of the system was set first in software. After that load type
was defined. In our case the load type was industrial. We can add equipment by clicking the button
Add/Remove. The schematic diagram of or simulation was like this.

Fig 4.1- Schematic Diagram

The components of our system include a generator (10kW), a converter, generic flat PV module and
system load. The amount of energy needed is 369 kWh/day with a peak value of 55.94 kW.
Battery/storage are not include in our system because there is no need of it. The system is hybrid type
comprised of solar-diesel generation system. So the back up support (at night or in cloudy weather, when
solar radiation is low/zero) will be given by diesel generator. To perform the simulation, at first load
profile was set. According to the demand of our load, value of PV module, generator and converter was
selected. In this chapter we are going to discuss the entire process of simulation and outcome.

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4.4.2 Load Profile Setting:

Fig 4.2 - Electric Load Profile

From figure 4.2, we can observe the value of load in our system. Our goal was to design a feasible system
for a garment industry. There are many sectors in a garment industry (cutting, washing, coloring, spinning,
power section etc.). Our system is mainly designed for providing electricity in those areas, where the job
of cutting and sewing of clothes are done. The workers of the section work for 9 hours (8 A.M-5 P.M).
The 2nd and 3rd floor of the building are allocated for the work. Our system was designed in such a way
that it can cover the lights and fans of both floors (Discussed in details in chapter 3). Our system is able to
supply 32 kW of energy from 10 A.M-12 P.M (because the work load is maximum in that time). For the
rest of the time, the value was set for 31kW. At the time of 6 P.M-7 P.M system will provide supply to the
load for over time workers. We can see in details from the figure 4.2 [load profile on daily basis (hour-by-
hour) is given on the left side of the menu]. Our load was A.C type. It could be seen from the figure that
the average consumption of the load was 15.38 kW with a peak value of 55.94kW. The value of average
daily consumption is 369 kWh/day. Scaled data were used in HOMER for calculations. Each of the
baseline data were multiplied by a common factor determined by HOMER to result scaled annual average.
This value may differ the baseline data. This process was done by HOMER, because of unit conversion
(W to kW) and to perform sensitivity analysis.

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As its seen from the figure, that the variation in load (Daily profile & Seasonal profile) was not that
much, because of using industrial load. The value of energy consumption in industrial load were fixed.
The value of load factor was 0.27. Load factor was determined by dividing the average load by peak load.
It was a dimensionless number. The efficiency multiplier was a factor by which the primary load would be
multiplied after the implementation of efficiency package (The value is 0.80 for 20% reduction). The
amount required to implement the efficiency package was defined by capital cost. Lifetime was calculated
over the annualized capital cost. This value was measured in number of years. Time step size was
considered 60 minutes, that means data file contains 8760 lines. Data can be imported with any time step
up to one minutes.

4.4.3. Setting PV resources:

According to our system, a portion of total energy comes from solar energy. So the value of solar
radiation or irradiance is an important parameter in order to design a feasible system and to define the
number of PV module required to supply that energy. We have collected the value of solar insolation of
Bangladesh. As it is defined, that the average solar irradiance of Bangladesh is 18.11 MJ/m2 on yearly
basis (this value is considered only for tilted surface). Average solar insolation of Dhaka zone is actually
4.5 kWh/m2/day on yearly basis [19]. The value of global and diffuse radiation of Bangladesh (considered
for 6 different zones) are presented below as a chart.

HOMER allows a window for PV components where cost, PV cell size, performance characteristics,
orientation of PV array etc. can be defined. This component represents both flat panel and concentrating
PV technologies. This window also provides access to inverter (when electrical bus set to AC), MPPT
(maximum power point tracker) matches the PV to Dc bus voltage, Advanced Inputs (for advanced
variables, like ground reflectance, tracking system), temperature etc. [17]. In the right side of a window
there is cost box, where capital cost (initial cost), replacement cost (replacing cost of PV panels) and
annual O&M cost are included. In our simulation generic flat PV was used. As we can see from the figure,
the capital cost of our system was $47,451/kW with a capacity of 93kW. Replacement cost and O&M cost
were considered zero. Lifetime of our project is 25 years.

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Fig 4.3- Monthly global and diffused radiation for six zones of Bangladesh [20]

Fig 4.4- PV Settings Profile

In the right corner of the window, a search space is defined. Here several quantities of PV (in kW) were
put, for the consideration of HOMER in order to optimize the system. To enable the optimizer, star icon
was pressed. Different size of PV panels were given in search space so that HOMER optimizer could find
the best capacity for the system. Efficiency of the system was given 95% according to load requirement.
There is a term, namely derating factor which accounts for reduced output in real-world operating
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condition compared to the rate of PV array. In our system this value was considered 90%. The rated
capacity of the system was 93kW. Total number of 269 PV module (each with a rating of 346W peak) was
required to supply the total load of the system.

4.4.4. Setting Generator Resources:

Fig 4.5- Generator Profile

Diesel generator is the most important part of our system, as it covers the maximum load of our system.
The capacity of generator is 10kW. Three generators (each rated 10kW) or a 30kW generator was required
to meet the demand of load on hourly basis. The value of cost, size and characteristics are included in this
window. It also allows calculation regarding fuel resource, fuel curve, emissions, maintenance (costs and
down-time hours for generator), and schedule (forced on, forced of condition of generator according to
HOMER dispatcher). Down-time means the number of hours the generator will be forced off at the time
of maintenance.
Value of cost ($700), maintenance and O&M ($0.030) costs were included in cost inbox. Value of
different sizes generator were included in Search space at the very right corner of the window for the
optimal system. The smallest value of generator that covers the maximum annual capacity shortage were
invariably chosen by HOMER. Price of the diesel was considered $0.837/L. At the very end of the
window, properties of fuel are given. Lifetime of the generator was given 219,000 hours. This value was
specified in operating hours. Minimum load ratio was 25% to avoid the generator run to slow.

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4.4.5. Converter Setting:

Fig 4.6- Converter Profile

Solar Converter is a device that includes both inverter and charge controller in same package. Converter
converts DC current to frequency alternating current (A.C). This window was quite similar like others.
Rectifier and inverter parameters were specified there. Cost box includes the information of capacity (54
kW), initial capital cost ($2,700). In search space converter sizes were defined, so that Homer can choose
the best capacity to optimize the system. Lifetime of the device was assumed 20 years. Inverter input was
connected in parallel with A.C generator, so that it they can operate synchronously to avoid the risk of
capacity shortage. Relative capacity means the rated capacity of rectifier with respect to inverter. The
value was 100% in our simulation.

4.4.6. Simulation output and Result:

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Fig 4.7- Simulation Result Output

The result of our simulation was presented in the figure mentioned above. The calculate button that
appears on the right end of the window gave the current design of our simulation including all the
necessary components and resources. There were two tables on the window. Feasible system lists were
shown on the top table (Sensitivity Cases table) for each sensitivity case. By clicking on sensitivity case,
optimization results were shown. To open the simulation results window optimization results window
were double clicked. As it is shown in the figure, that both simulation and optimization cases there were
some value of certain parameters. Capacity of system components were listed in System architecture.
Value of COE (cost of electricity), NPC (Net Present Cost), operating cost, initial cost, renewable fraction
(fraction of energy originated from renewable resources), hours, fuel cost and net consumption (for diesel
generator), capital cost, operation and maintenance cost (O&M), production (for both PV and generator)
were also given in the list. As we can see from the figure that same columns were displayed in both tables.
Tabs of cost summary, cash flow, emissions, electricity production and consumption of the system were
also viewed from the simulation by clicking the simulation results window.

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4.4.7. Cost Summary Outputs:

Fig 4.8- Cost Summary

Cash flow (Net present value) categorized by the components of our system were shown in cost summary,
displayed by simulation result window. As we can see from the figure, a graph was shown displaying the
comparison among the components with respect to net present cost (cost breakdown in terms of NPC).
The price of the components of the system were listed in a tabular format below the curve. Total cost of
generator (including both initial and maintenance) were $197,991. Cost of total system were $248,042.00.
Levelized cost of electricity and operating cost of the system were considered as $0.1293 and $13,569.48.

[N:B- Costs and revenues associated with buying and selling from the grid into the grid O&M cost by
HOMER if the system is connected to the grid.]

4.4.8 Cash Flow Outputs:

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 36

Fig 4.9- Cash Flow Outputs

Total cash flow of the system were displayed in graphical format (for entire project lifetime) in cash flow
tab displayed by simulation result window. The value was given in Bar Chart format. Total outflow of the
system were represented by each bar of the graph for a single year. Capital cost of the system was
represented by the green bar on left corner of the graph. The value was an outflow (negative value) due to
expenditure for the fuel, equipment replacements, O&M cost etc. The value was a nominal cash flow
(actual income minus the cost anticipated by HOMER in one year). By Cost Type option were chosen for
cash flow, which gives stacked bar. Four different colors represent four different costs, namely Capital,
salvage, O&M and fuel in cash flow graph. Salvage value is the positive value at the end of project
lifetime. Operating cost represents grid sales. Since this graph was outflow type and our system was off-
grid system, only the value of capital cost and fuel cost were represented in the graph. Fuel cost of the
system were constant all over the time period because of industrial load. Consumption of energy is almost
same throughout the time period.

4.4.9. Electrical Output:

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 37

Fig 4.10- Electrical Output of the system

The value of annual production and consumption of electrical energy were shown in electrical tab. Total
energy output of each component of the system. The value of ac primary load (energy served to ac load)
was 132,892 kWh/yr. Dc primary load was zero. Total amount of excess electricity produced during its
lifetime was 95,618 kWh/yr. Value of unmet load (amount of load went unserved due to lack production
of energy) was 1,792.8 kWh/yr. This value was 1.3% of total electrical demand. Amount of capacity
shortage was 3,986 kwh/yr (3%). Value of renewable fraction and renewable penetration were also given
in the figure. As we mentioned before, renewable fraction was the fraction of energy originated from
renewable resources. This value can be calculated using the following equation

Where, Enonren = Nonrenewable electrical production

Hnonren = Nonrenewable thermal production
Eserved = Total electrical load served Hserved = Total thermal load served
At the lower end of the tab, there was a graph. Value of monthly average electrical production was shown
in the graph. Output of the generator was represented by the green portion of each bar. Output of generic
flat PV were shown by the upper portion of each bar. There was a variation in the output of PV. This is
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 38
because amount of solar radiation on PV are not the same for all months. The output of the diesel
generator and PV cell were shown in the left upper corner of the window (in kWh).

4.4.10. Fuel Summary:

Fig 4.11- Fuel Consumption of the system

Amount of fuels that were used in the simulation were displayed by this tab. This was due to the fuel
resource of generator. There was a box-and-whisker plot at the left end corner, where monthly
consumption statistics were represented. There was a DMap ((below the box-and-whisker plot)
represented the hourly usage of Fuel. Value of average fuel consumption per day and per hour were also
given in the tab.

4.4.11. Generator Outputs:

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 39

Fig 4.12- 10kW Genset Profile

There were some certain variables listed (in tabular format) in generator tab of simulation result window.
There were a definite meaning of each variable. Total run time of the generator during the year was
defined by hours of operation (2,502 hours/year). Number of starting time of generator (in a year) was
also defined. Total operating hours of generator before replacement were given by operation life. The
average power output divided by the total capacity of a generator gives the capacity factor. The value of
capacity factor of our system was 16.4%. Generator fuel cost was defined as a combination of hourly
operation and maintenance cost, hourly replacement cost and cost of no load fuel consumption (the value
was 1.30 $/hour). Marginal cost of the system was equal to the fuel curve slope time to the fuel price. The
total electrical production of the generator over a year were given by Electrical Production (43,182
kWh/year). The value of mean electrical output (average power output of the generator over hours) was
17.26 kW. The lowest electrical power output of the generator was referred by minimum electrical output
(7.50 kW). Maximum electrical output was exactly the opposite of minimum electrical output (30 kW in
our system). Total amount of fuel consumed by the generator during a year was given in Liter (15,953 L).
The average quantity of fuel consumed by the generator to produce one kWh of energy was defined by
specific fuel consumption. In our case the value was 0.37 L/kWh. Fuel energy input (net energy
consumption in one year) was 156,975 kWh/year and the average electrical efficiency of the generator
(mean electrical efficiency) was 27.51%. Generator power output was also given in graphical format
(DMap) in figure. A DMap (namely data map) is a format that shows one year of time series data, with a
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 40
time of day in Y-axis (Hours in a day) and the day of the year in X-axis (Day of Year). Daily and seasonal
patterns were seen so easily in this format, than any other time series plot. The color rectangle box on the
right corner of the plot represented the data value (in kW) for a particular year, defined for each time step
of the year.

4.1.13. Renewable Penetration:

Fig 4.14- Renewable Penetration profile

Value of renewable penetration was calculated by HOMER in every time step using the following
Renewable penetration = Pren / Lserved
Where, Pren = Total renewable electrical power output in a particular time step [kW]
Lserved = Total load served in that time step [kW]

Maximum value of renewable penetration was reported in this tab during the year.

4.4.13. Generic flat plate PV profile:

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 41

Fig 4.15- PV outputs

Value of different variables were enlisted in PV tab of Simulation result window. There was a DMap in
the bottom half of the page showing the result of PV array. The value of the rated capacity of the PV array
of the system was 93 kW (under standard condition). The mean output (average power in kW, kWh/day).
The average power output of the year divided by the rated power was termed as capacity factor (in our
case, it was 23.33%). Total power output and the maximum power output of the system were 190,050
kWh/year and 101kW. PV penetration was 101%. The number of hours of operation of PV array was 4374
hours per year. Levelized cost of the PV array was 0.0173 $/year.

4.4.14. System Converter Output :

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 42
Fig 4.16- Converter Output

There were two parts in system converter output, Inverter output and Rectifier output. Both values were
presented in DMap format in the bottom half of the page for each time step of the year (hours in a day vs.
the day of the year). Value of the listed variables were given for both rectifier and inverter output.
Capacity of the system were 52 kW (inverter) and 49.4 kW (rectifier). Mean and minimum output of the
system were 10.24 kW and 48.23 kW (for inverter). Capacity factor of the system (the mean output
divided by the capacity) were 19.69%. Total number of operating hours over the year (for inverter) were
3,636 hours/year. The total amount of energy in and out of a system were given 94,432 kWh/year and
89,711 kWh/year (for inverter). The losses of the system were 4,721.40 kWh/year.

4.4.15. Emissions:

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 43

Fig 4.16- Emission Profile

A cost penalty associated with a limit on the emissions of pollutant were specified in this menu. If a cost
penalty was specified for a particular pollutant (like CO2) the corresponding cost will be added to the
annualize cost of the system. If $20 was charged as cost penalty and the annual productions were 15 ton,
$300/ year would be added to the total annual cost of the system as penalty. The quantity of the emission
were considered in kg/year.

4.5. Load Curve:

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 44

Fig 4.17 - AC Primary Load Daily Profile

The amount of total energy served to the ac load was defined in this figure. Output of the system for each
month of a particular year were shown in the figure by hours. Our system was designed to supply energy
to the ac load. Three phase voltage were supplied to the industrial area. In our case the value was 400V.
Operating voltage of PV modules were rated in 24 V.

4.6. Summary:
From the simulation part of our system it was given that the net output power extracted from our system
are 190,050 kWh/year (from solar PV) and 43,182 kWh/year from diesel generator. 81.49% output of the
total system power were extracted from solar PV which is the most noticeable thing of our system. Cash
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 45
flow bars give us a clear view about the project lifetime of our system without any replacement or serious
maintenance. Our system is sustainable as it runs for 25 years. Implementation of this kind of system are
required, to increase the performance of green energy and decrease the demand of captive power station.
It will help our national grid to reduce the increasing demand of electricity in industrial areas. This will
help us to limit the use of fossil fuel and allow us a clean, pollution free environment as well as to save the
reserve of our fossil fuel for further use.

Finally, we can say that HOMER software is an awesome tool to recognize the estimated power output
and economic feasibility of hybrid system. It allows us a comparison among different hybrid systems in
an efficient way. It also provides optimization result and total expenditure (including initial cost,
maintenance and replacement) to implement a hybrid system. In short it is a powerful option to any hybrid
energy software.

Chapter 5
Discussion and Conclusion
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 46
5.1. Introduction:
The demand of power is increasing day by day in all over the world. Bangladesh is a developing country
with a vision of removing poverty and employment for all classes of people to present our self a role
model for the rest of the world. To gain this purpose there are no alternative except industrialization. Since
the economy of our country is increasing rapidly, the requirement of power is also increasing
proportionally. As a result, power failure has become an important issue in our country to meet up the
scarcity of production. In order to balance between the production and consumption establishment of
important infrastructures and setting up of new power plants are taking place in recent years. But there
remains a lack in production. Our government is looking for feasible solutions to reduce the loadsheding
by means of different sources. Renewable energy could be a possible solution against this burning

The concept of green energy is rising rapidly around the world. People are interested about the green
energy because it not only serve the purpose of energy supply but also its free and ecofriendly. Conscious
government are taking long term plans to give new grid connections to cover the national demand. But
due to the limitation of resources this scheme are still in standby condition. There is an abundant
possibility of setting immense energy systems based on renewable resources in our country. Bangladesh is
a country of with an abundance of sun rays, from where the energy can be easily extracted. But the
problem is, the initial cost of setting solar power system is quite high, but it can be feasible for a long term
use. The industrial load is a constant load by nature. It requires huge amount of energy to operate. Due to
high energy consumption, designing a system based on renewable resources that will operate in industrial
area is quite a hard work. In our thesis we were trying to perform this work. The goal of our work was to
design a hybrid system based on renewable resources (solar radiation) and a diesel generator that can
supply the load of a garment sector of a garment industry (Knit Concerns Ltd.) The current system to
operate the load is actually based on natural gas (captive power station) and IPS for back up support.
Since our system was based on solar power system [solar irradiance is free in nature and the lifetime of
PV module are quite high (25 years almost)], it will not only save a good deal of money (considering the
long term effect) but also allow us a consumption of limited natural resources (natural gas). In short we
can say that, our system is a sustainable energy system that will contribute to the economy of that industry
as well as our country for a long term period.
5.2. Overview of our System:

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 47

The system (Solar-Diesel hybrid system) has designed in such way that it can supply enough current to the
load according to its requirement. According to the rule of plant capacity, each kW PV panel requires an
area of 107 square feet. Capacity of our PV system were 93kW. So considering this vale we need a total
area of 9951 square feet. The area of the garment industry is 18 acres [21]. The PV modules could be set
up at rooftop of the building along with converter. The generator (30kW) could be placed in a shaded area
of rooftop. It will be helpful to keep the system in a close position for good monitoring and maintenance
at different condition. This total system will power the load (lights and fans) of two floors (the apparel

Fig 5.1- Space requirement with respect to panel efficiency

5.3. Advantages of the System:

Due to increment of power requirement in our day to day life, there is a necessity of new power plants or
power system in our country. Bangladesh is a developing country. Its economy is increasing day by day
specially in garments sector. To continue this development process, we need to provide a supply of
electricity as a source of energy. Our proposed system is a small system (compared to other loads) that can
supply electricity in apparel division (cutting and sewing). The advantages of our system is

1. The lifetime of the system is 25 years. In this time period the system can be used without any

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 48

2. The system is able to supply the load without any kind of injection of power from the gas
generators of that industry.
3. One portion of its power is coming from solar resources, so the net fuel consumption become low
compared to existing system.
4. The system is able to feed the load continuously without any kind of harassment and backup.
5. The maintenance cost of the system is very low.
6. It can be easily set on the rooftop of the building.
7. The system is comparatively ecofriendly. It creates a new window to welcome green energy in our
industrial area and thus provide contribution to overall economy of the system.
8. The system can be used and redesigned for the use of residential and community load against the
power crisis of our country.
Considering all the facts stated above, it can be said that the proposed system is sustainable and
contributes to the sustainable development which is a major concern for an industry.

5.4. Limitations of our System:

Though the system is contributed with two different resources, there are some limitations
1. The consumption of load is high, due to continuous type of load. So the load cant be optimized
without diesel generator. So the system is not entirely renewable energy based.
2. Since it is an oversize system, the initial cost is quite high compared to captive station.
3. The system emits a limited amount of greenhouse gas in nature due to diesel generator.

5.5. Recommendations:
1. Bangladesh is a country of moderate weather. There are always an amount of solar radiation in
our Country, even in winter. But in time of night and rainy day, when the amount of solar
radiation is quite low (below threshold frequency), it is suggested that the system should be
operated by only diesel generator.
2. Since the load consumption is quite high, its suggested to use energy saving bulb (LED light)
should be used.
3. The maintenance part of generator should be done properly. Otherwise the lifetime of the
equipment will reduce. It should be kept in shaded area to prevent it from heat or bad weather
4. Load should be used carefully to avoid energy wastage.
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 49
5.6. Discussion & Conclusion:
Provision of electricity has a direct impact on the society in order to boost the living standards. This is
very important for the development of production as well as to serve the purpose of improving
communication, reduce urban migration, women empowerment, health care, education. No society can
think of sustainable development without meeting the demand of its required energy.

Access of electricity has a sustainable impact on economic development, growth of productivity and local
employment. Mills and industries are the hurt of production and economic prosperity of a country. To
raise an industry into an upward spiral of continuous prosperity, some basic criterion must be affordable.
Providing sufficient electricity from a reliable power source is one of the prerequisite for an important
catalyst for sustainable development. The possibility of power processing equipment and preservation of
specific products will ensure the increment of productivity and quality/quantity of the product.

The goal of our work was to perform a feasible study on setting a power source (hybrid system) on the
rooftop of a building of a running industry. To design this optimal power solution, we need to go on a
details study about the location, resource evaluation and load analysis on apparel division of the particular
industry (Knit Concerns Ltd.). To ensure the appropriate choice of technologies, operation and ownership
scheme for the particular system, a details study on the technical, economic and production capacity of the
industry were considered in decision process. The appropriate technological solution for hybrid system
includes a feasible study on gathering field data of specific site and cost analysis for the entire lifetime of
a project. It was our job to choose the most appropriate design configuration of the system with careful
selection of components. After considering the load requirements we proposed a hybrid system based on
renewable resources and diesel generator to power the load with an assurance of quality, warranty, cost of
servicing, spare parts availability and maintenance to ensure the rapid growth of the production of that
particular garment factory.

5.7. Summary:
Due to finite stock of fossil fuels and to find the alternative choices of energy security, todays world are
leaning towards of green energy like solar, wind, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, magneto
hydrodynamic, geothermal etc. Use of renewable energy in day to day life is increasing rapidly [REN21s
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 50
renewable 2014 Global status report states that the use of renewable energy was 19% of global energy
consumption in 2012 compared to 16.7% in 2010. Nowadays, More than hundred countries have their
own renewable policy.

Our thesis represents a feasible study of hybrid power system of a renewable (solar) and nonrenewable
(diesel) resources for a garment industry. This system was designed in such a way that it can ensure the
supply of energy to the load for many years in a cost effective way. There is a huge potential of hybrid
energy system in Bangladesh. Design of renewable energy system is complicated, because of the
requirement of site specification, and low efficiency compared to conventional resources. This job
becomes more complicated for industrial load, because heavy industrial loads require a huge amount of
energy to operate. Our thesis work provides a way to design a sustainable solution to serve this purpose,
although it covers a limited portion of the entire load of total industry. Though our mission of providing
100% green energy to this area was not a success, it still provides a way to welcome clean, reliable green
power to the production unit of our country, so that we can use this energy in a reliable way.


[1]. Md. Mazedul Islam, Adnan Maroof Khan and Md. Monirul Islam (February 2013). Textile Industries
in Bangladesh and Challenges of Growth (PDF). Research Journal of Engineering Sciences (Report).
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 51
pp. 3137.

[2]. Keane, Jodie; te Velde, Dirk Willem (7 May 2008). The role of textile and clothing industries in
growth and development strategies (PDF) (Report). Investment and Growth Programme Overseas
Development Institute (ODI). Retrieved 9 May 2013.

[3]. Begum, N. (2001). "Enforcement of Safety Regulations in the Garment Sector of Bangladesh: Growth
of Garment Industry in Bangladesh, Economic and Social Dimension". Proceedings of a National
seminar on ready-made garment industry: 208226


[5]. Reference-L. L. Bucciarelli Jr., Power loss in photovoltaic arrays due to

mismatch in cell characteristics, Solar Energy, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 277288,

[6]. African Technology Policy Studies Network, ATPS 2013: Design and Analysis of a 1MW Grid-
Connected Solar PV System in Ghana [Ebenezer NyarkoKumi, Abeeku Brew-Hammond], ATPS
WORKING PAPER No. 78, pp. 10-11.

[7]. Y. Dayu, Local Photovoltaic PV Wind Hybrid Systems With Battery Storage Or Grid Connection,
Masters Programme In Renewable Energy Technology.

[8]. N. Phuan Gporn Pitak and S. Kumar, PV Hybrid System for Rural Electrification in Thailand,
Renewable And Sustainable Energy Reviews, Science Direct, Vol. 11, ISS7, pp.1530-1543, September

[9] I. Riess, What does a voltmeter measure? Solid State Ionics 95, 327 (1197)

[10]. ..^ Datta, Supriyo (2005). Quantum Transport: Atom to Transistor. Cambridge University Presss.
p. 7. ISBN 9780521631457.

[11] Osama Omari, EgonOrtjohann, AlaaMohd, and Danny Morton, An Online Control Strategy For DC
Coupled Hybrid Power System, In 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Tampa, FL,
2007, pp. 128.

[12]. M.B. Olajide and J.O. Oni, Application of Solar Energy for offices and homes.

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 52

[13]. ^Patent # 151468.

[14]. ^ Brayton air blast engine.

[15]. Internal Combustion Engine. U. S. Patent number 608845, Filed Jul 15 1895, Issued Aug 9 1898,
Inventor RUDOLF DIESEL, assigned to the Diesel Motor Company of America (New York).

[16]. Eastop & McConkey 1993, Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists, Pearson
Education Limited, Fifth Edition.

[17]. HOMER Pro version 3.7, User Manual.

[18]. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),HOMER the Micropower Optimization Model.

[19]. Tilted and Horizontal Solar Radiation for 6 Zones In Bangladesh. P-102.

[20]. Tilted and Horizontal Solar Radiation for 6 Zones In Bangladesh. P-101.

[21]. - slide no 6/125

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 53

Chapter 1

3.1. Introduction

In this section, give a general introduction of the work.

3.2. Historical Background

Start writing here

3.2.1. Earlier Research

Start writing here

3.2.2. Recent Research

Start writing here

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 54

3.2.3. State of the art technology

Start writing here

3.3. Future Scope of This Study

Start writing here

3.3.1. Future Scopes

Start writing here

3.3.2. Recommendations

Start writing here

3.4. Limitation of the Study

Start writing here

3.5. Advantage over Traditional Method

Start writing here

3.6. Objective of this Work

Start writing here

3.6.1. Primary objectives

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 55

Start writing here

3.6.2. Secondary Objectives

Start writing here

3.7. Introduction to this Thesis

Start writing here

Chapter 2


4.1. Introduction

In this section, how the students can use the template is explained. Follow the specific sections for any
specific query.
This template is made keeping in mind the needs of students in AIUB. The template will help you a lot of
formatting work. If you follow the steps, your thesis will have some less reason to get rejected.

4.2. From Declaration To Abstract

For these sections, the work is simple and straightforward. Modify the contents there e.g. select
Fall/spring/summer from the drop/down menu list, fill up different information etc.

4.3. Entering the Text

To enter your own text, just replace your text in template. For example, suppose the title of your second
chapter is Solar Cell. Then you will have to just replace How to use this template (see above) with
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 56
Solar Cell. Do not change the font name or size there. Similarly, in the introduction section and other
sections, replace your text.

Beginning a sentence by the words but and and should be avoided. Passive voice should be used as far
as possible.

4.3.1. Using Bold, Italic or Underline and use of Bullets

You can use BOLD or italic text in your writing for giving emphasis. But using them very frequently or
without much thinking will make your report visually unpleasant. Use them only for giving some selected
point more importance.

4.3.2. Text Justification

Always justify your passages so that the lines are uniformly spread along the margin. To justify select the
passage and press Ctrl + J (or, alternatively go to Microsoft word Ribbon: Home Paragraph Section
Justify (4th option)).

4.3.3. Spacing Option

Use 1.5 of line spacing [go to Microsoft word Ribbon: Home Paragraph Section spacing (just right
to the justify option)]

4.3.4. How to use Numbering

As you can see, give your sections number like 2.2., 2.3., 2.3.1.etc. This will also help the table of content
as you will see later.

To create numbering, go to Home Paragraph Section Numbering. You will also see that writing
(writing 2.2.+ press space) will automatically create aligned number after 2.1. You can also use change
list level and set numbering value in numbering menu (Right click) to change the numbering style and
starting number.

4.3.5. Using Color

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 57
You can use color to give emphasis. But try to use eye soothing colors and again do not overuse.

A general rule for formatting text is presented here. Use this table as your guideline.

Table 2.1 A summary of rules for text editing presented with example
Text Example Font Name Font Font Emphasis Custom
Type From this chapter Size Align- Style
Chapter Chapter 2 Times Now 14 Middle BOLD AIUB_1
number Roman (Ctrl + E)
Chapter name HOW TO USE Times Now 16 Middle BOLD AIUB_2
THIS Roman (Ctrl + E)

Subheading Introduction (2.2), Times Now 14 Left BOLD AIUB_3

Level 1 Entering the Text Roman (Ctrl + L)
Subheading Text Times Now 12 Left BOLD AIUB_4
Level 2 Justification Roman (Ctrl + L)
Subheading Update Times Now 12 Left Bold/italic AIUB_5
Level 3 the Table ( Roman (Ctrl + L) /Underline
Normal Text Times Now 12 Justify NORMAL AIUB_T
Roman (Ctrl + J)
*Do not go beyond subheading level 3.

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 58

The custom style (look last column of the table) is very important. You can found them is MS WORD
ribbon Home Style. Select appropriate style. If you are just replacing your text in this template, you
will automatically use them.
The custom style is important because it is used to automatically generate the table of content. (See next
section 2.4: Table of contents)

4.4. Table of Content

You can manually edit the table of content. But a more efficient way is used here. The table of content will
be updated automatically when you change anything.

4.4.1. How to Update Table of content Automatically Mark your text according to Table 2.1

Suppose, I have created a chapter named How to use this template. After writing this, I have to select
the text (How to use this template) and go to Home Styles select AIUB_2 (table 2.1 says so).

If I am writing the caption 2.4.1 named How to Update Table of content automatically (This is in
subheading level 4), I have to select the lines (How to Update Table of content automatically) and select
the styles named AIUB_4 (see table 2.1).

If I am writing any normal text (inside any subsection), like this line, according to table 2.1, I have to
select this passage and select style AIUB_T (T for text). Update the Table

Just right click the Table of content and select Update field. Only make sure, you have used specific
style (see last column of the table) because Table of content uses the style to pick up the titles. If the
page number or any of the titles changes, update the table and the correction will be automatic.

You will see the content will be updated according to new page number automatically.

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 59

If you see any problem in table of content, just ctrl + click on the page number (from the right side of the
table of contents). This will take you to the page. Find there what you have mistaken.

2.4.2 How to Update Table of content Manually

This is quite straightforward. Edit as you like. Keep track of the page number by yourself. And, if you
change any page, correct all the pages by typing again.

4.5. List of Figures

Using list of figure is same as table of contents, only difference: Select the title of the figure and select
style AIUB_F (F stands for figure). Then right click list of figures and select update field. The
figure list will be updated according to new page number automatically.
4.6. Use of Table

Always give table no according to chapter (see Table 2.1 indicating that it is table from chapter 2 & 1 st
figure). Also give a good caption that explains the purpose of the table. Mention the table name in the text
(e.g. the result of our work is presented in Table 10.1 or something like that, etc).
Auto fit the table to windows
1. Select the whole table
2. Go to : layout AutofitAutofit to Windows

4.7. Use of Figures

Do not use directly copied figure from other publications. If you have to use some copyright contents,
then give reference of that source like fig.1 is taken from [1] (means this figure has been taken from
reference 1).

Figure 2.1 Logo of AIUB [1]

Always give a figure name, figure caption explaining what the figure implies and mention your figure in
your writings. Align the figure and its caption in the middle, e.g. see the above figure 2.1.
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 60
It is wise to keep the aspect ratio of figure fixed; do not distort it. Do not use blurred images (see figure

Figure 2.2 Example of an image with acceptable resolution (left one) and unacceptable resolution
(right one).

Please check all figures in your paper both on screen and on a black-and-white hardcopy. When you check
your paper on a black-and-white hardcopy, please ensure that:
The colors used in each figure contrast well,
The image used in each figure is clear,
All text labels in each figure are legible.
Keep the images properly sized and at the middle of the margin (Do not cross margin and do not
give extra-large or extra-small images)

In case of presenting graph, you can use color. But, use color that can contrast well even in black & white
print. Use symbols in your graph, label them properly with units (see figure 2.3).

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 61

Figure 2.3 An example of graph that uses color which can be easily distinguished even in black and
white print; the graphs are properly labeled also.

To draw the curves, it is highly recommended to use professional software ORIGIN 8.5. But you can
also use MATLAB. Microsoft Excel can also be used, but this is not professional.

4.8. Writing Equations

Use MS word equation writer (Insert Equation) to write the equations, e.g.
Pavg= A sin t dt (2.1)
T 0

Also use equation number according to the chapter, e.g. equation (2.1) is the 1st equation from chapter 2.
4.9. Using Symbols

(Go to the menu Ribbon) Insert Symbol to create symbols (, , , etc).

4.10. Appendices

In the appendix section, give those parts of your thesis which are not essential to understand the main idea
or findings of the thesis. But if the reader wants the details or more explanation, then the appendix will
help them.

Give the code you used in simulation or in project, the data sheets (only important parts, not full sheet),
and necessary diagrams for details understanding in the appendix.

For example, if you have worked on mathematical modeling, do not give the details derivation in your
results chapter because it will hamper the flow of reading and obscure the findings. Rather, present the
main equations and results there and give the detail derivation in the appendix.

4.11. References

It will contain list of references: books, journal / periodical papers, URL sites).
The heading of the References section must not be numbered.

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 62

All reference items must be in 12 point font.
Please use Regular and Italic styles to distinguish different fields as shown in the References section.
Number the reference items consecutively in square brackets (e.g. [1]).
When referring to a reference item, please simply use the reference number, as in [2]. Do not use
Ref. [3] or Reference [3] except at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. Reference [3] shows .
Multiple references are each numbered with separate brackets (e.g. [2], [3], [4][6]).
Examples of reference items of different categories shown in the References section include:
example of websites [1]
example of a book in [2]
example of a book in a series in [3]
example of a journal article in [4]
example of a conference paper in [5]
example of a patent in [6]
example of a website in [7]
example of a web page in [8]
example of a data book as a manual in [9]
example of a datasheet in [10]
example of a masters thesis in [11]
example of a technical report in [12]
example of a standard in [13]
For example, if you are using any book as reference, see [2] in reference section of this template to know
how to cite the book.

A more effective way is to use professional software named ENDNOTE that can automatically update
the references as you change anything. If you get time, better use that software.

4.12. Error Correction

Use Microsoft word spelling checker for possible error. If you get enough time and want to be perfect, I
can tell you a more effective way to check spelling: Get a hard copy of your thesis and read from
backwards of the line. This will lose your focus on content and increase attention on the spelling.

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 63

4.13. Summary

This section works as a thesis guide by demonstrating how to use this template in details. This section also
focuses on general techniques regarding how a dissertation should be written.

Chapter 3

Title of Chapter 3
5.1. Introduction

Start writing here

5.2. Headings

Start writing here

5.2.1. Subheading

Start writing here

5.2.2. Subheading

Start writing here

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 64
5.3. Novelty of Our Work

Start writing here

5.4. Summary

Start writing here

Chapter 4

Title of Chapter 4
6.1. Introduction

Start writing here

6.2. Headings

Start writing here

6.2.1. Subheading

Start writing here

6.2.2. Subheading

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 65

Start writing here

6.3. Summary

Start writing here

Chapter 5

Discussions and Conclusions

7.1. Discussions

Gibe your findings and results in details here.

7.2. Suggestion for future Work

Start writing here

7.2.1. Subheading

Start writing here

7.2.2. Subheading

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 66

Start writing here

7.3. Conclusions

Start writing here


[1] (2016) AIUB website. [Online]. Available:

[2] S. M. Metev and V. P. Veiko, Laser Assisted Microtechnology, 2nd ed., R. M. Osgood, Jr., Ed. Berlin,
Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998.
[3] J. Breckling, Ed., The Analysis of Directional Time Series: Applications to Wind Speed and Direction,
ser. Lecture Notes in Statistics. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1989, vol. 61.
[4] S. Zhang, C. Zhu, J. K. O. Sin, and P. K. T. Mok, A novel ultrathin elevated channel low-temperature
poly-Si TFT, IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 20, pp. 569571, Nov. 1999.
[5] M. Wegmuller, J. P. von der Weid, P. Oberson, and N. Gisin, High resolution fiber distributed
measurements with coherent OFDR, in Proc. ECOC00, 2000, paper 11.3.4, p. 109.
[6] R. E. Sorace, V. S. Reinhardt, and S. A. Vaughn, High-speed digital-to-RF converter, U.S. Patent 5
668 842, Sept. 16, 1997.
[7] (2002) The IEEE website. [Online]. [Cited: December 1, 2008.] Available:
[8] M. Shell. (2002) IEEEtran homepage on CTAN. [Online]. [Cited: December 1, 2008.]
[9] FLEXChip Signal Processor (MC68175/D), Motorola, 1996.
[10] PDCA12-70 data sheet, Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland.
[11] A. Karnik, Performance of TCP congestion control with rate feedback: TCP/ABR and rate adaptive
TCP/IP, M. Eng. thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, Jan. 1999.
[12] J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, and D. Towsley, A stochastic model of TCP Reno congestion avoidance and
control, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, CMPSCI Tech. Rep. 99-02, 1999.
Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 67
[13] Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specification, IEEE Std.
802.11, 1997.

[14] F. Yaman, Q. Lin, and Govind P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Parametric Amplifiers for Lightwave
Systems, [Online] May 21, 2005. [Cited: December 1, 2008.] cannot be used as a reference

Appendix A

Detailed Explanation

[In this template, Microsoft windows 2010 is used. This template is a restricted property of EEE
department, AIUB. Unauthorized use and Distribution without permission is strictly prohibited.

This template is created at 01 May, 2013 by Mr. Bishwajit Debnath.

For any queries and questions about formatting and writing any section, please mail

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 68

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 69
Appendix B

Datasheet of the Chips used in the circuit

Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 70