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Nervous System Reflex- automatic, involuntary reaction to

- Bodys main control system a stimulus

- Receives information about the Membranes- called meninges
environment -protects the brain and the
- Interprets information spinal cord
- Makes body reacts and responds to
Receptor- specialized cell which is
Brain- core of the nervous system
Stimulus- factor that cause a response
- Largest and most complex part
4 basic taste: sweet, sour, bitter, salty
Parts of the Brain
Olfactory nerve- receptor of the nose
Medulla oblongata- controls automatic
Auditory nerve- receptor of the ears
body functions
Sound waves- produce when matter
- Smallest region of the brain
>Pons- connects medulla oblongata to
2 kinds of eye receptors:
the cerebrum
Rods- dim light
Hypothalamus- regulates balance
Cones- bright light
- Involves in emotions
Optic nerve-send signals to the brain
Thalamus- relay incoming messages from
Peripheral nervous system- all the nerves
the spinal cord
connecting the brain and the spinal cord
Midbrain- visual,auditory reflex and
Nerve cell or neuron- functional unit of
motivation of movement
the nervous system
Reticular formation-sleep and arousal
humans have 100 billion neurons
Cerebellum- movements of muscles
cell body- looks like a star
- Looks like a little brain
axon- long threadlike structure
Cerebrum- largest part of the brain
dendrites- receive impulses form another
- Also called forebrain
Cerebral cortex-gray matter
impulse- message that travels through a
- Activities related to intelligence
nerve cell
4 lobes of cerebral cortex;
sensory or afferent neurons- carry
1. occipital lobe- receives and
messages from the sensory receptors
processes visual information
2. temporal lobe- auditory signals sensory receptors- cells on the skin
3. parietal lobe-touch, taste, pressure, surface
pain, heat and cold motor or efferent neurons- control
4. frontal lobe- motor activity voluntary and involuntary movements
Spinal cord- large rope-like nerve tissue interneuron or associated neurons-
- consist of the gray and white information between sensory and motor
matter neurons
a human spinal cord is about 43-45 2 kinds of nerves:
cm long Somatic nerves- control the muscles
Functions: Automatic nerves- control internal organs
a. organize information 2 subdivision of automatic nerves:
b. organize certain reflexes Sympathetic nerves- fight or flight
c. generate movements response
Vertebrae- series of bones that protects Parasympathetic nerves- return the body
the spinal cord to its normal state
Neurotransmitters- small molecules melatonin- skin color
stored in small vesicles thyroid gland- located at the neck
Synapse- junction between the nerve cell 2 kinds of hormones:
and another cell calcitonin- prevents release of calcium
Dopamine- sensation of pleasure thyroxine- increase overall metabolic rate
Parkinsons disease- dopamine cretinism-thyroxine deficiency
defieciency Goiter- iodine deficiency
Drugs: Parathyroid gland- secretes parathyroid
Drug- chemical substance that may bring hormone
physical, mental, emotional or behavioral Thymus gland- secretes thymosin
changes to a person ( needed for maturity of white blood
KINDS: cells)
Stimulants- increase alertness - secretes promine ( promotes
Depressants- slow down the central growth) and retine ( retards
nervous system. growth)
Hallucinogens- changes in behavior and adrenal gland- above each of the kidney
emotions of a person cortex- outer layer of adrenal gland
Hormones- chemical messengers medulla- inner layer
secreted by endocrine glands - synthesizes andrenaline
Endocrine glands- ductless glands andrenaline- epinephrine or emergency
- secrete hormones to the hormone
bloodstreams mineralocorticoids- controls amount of
- intergrate body functions water retained by the body
endocrine system- collection of glands glucocorticoids- response to stress
that secrete chemicals pancreas-hormone secreting cells
steroids- lipids or fats from cholesterol insulin- convert glucose to glycogen
testosterone- male sex hormone glucagon- breakdown of glycogen to
estradiol- female sex characteristics glucose
protein-made up hormones diabetes- inadequate level of insulin
amines- hormones obtained from tyrosin gonads- sex glands
ex. Epinephrine puberty- physical changes in the body
pituitary glands- hypophysis takes place
- master gland estrogen- secreted by the ovaries
2 lobes: progesterone- regulates during
Anterior and posterior menstruation and pregnancy
Growth hormone- essential for growth testosterone-stimulates the production of
Thyroid- stimulating hormone-production sperm cells
of thyroid hormones
Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin-
secreted by the posterior lobe
Pineal gland- near the center of the brain
- secretes melatonin