Advantages of Rotating Field Over Rotating Armature
The various advantages of rotating field can be stated as, 1) As everywhere a.c. is used, the generation level of a.c. voltage may be higher as 11 KV to 33 KV. This gets induced in the armature. For stationary armature large space can be provided to accommodate large number of conductors and the insulations. 2) It is always better to protect high voltage winding from the centrifugal forces caused due to the rotation. So high voltage armature is generally kept stationary. This avoids the interaction of mechanical and electrical stresses. 3) It is easier to collect larger currents at very high voltage from a stationary member than from the slip ring and brush assembly. The voltage required to be supplied to the field is very low (110 V to 220 V d.c.) and hence can be easily supplied with the help of slip ring and brush assembly by keeping it rotating. 4) The problem of sparking at the slip rings can be avoided by keeping field rotating which is low voltage circuit and high voltage armature as stationary. 5) Due to low voltage level on the field side, the insulation required is less and hence field system has very low inertia. It is always better to rotate low inertia system than high inertia, as efforts required to rotate low inertia system are always less. 6) Rotating field makes the overall construction very simple. With simple, robust mechanical construction and low inertia of rotor, it can be driven at high speeds. So greater output can obtained from an alternator of given size. 7) If field is rotating, to excite it be external d.c. supply two slip rings are enough. Once each for positive and negative terminals. As against this, in three phase rotating armature the minimum number of slip rings required are three and can not be easily insulated due to high voltage levels. 8) The ventilation arrangement for high voltage side can be improved if it is kept stationary. Due to all these reasons the most of the alternators in practice use rotating field type of arrangement. For small voltage rating alternators rotating armature arrangement may be used.
Constrution of Synchronous Generator (Stator and Rotor)
Most of the alternators prefer rotating field type of the construction. In case of alternators the winding terminology is slightly different than in case of d.c. generators. In alternators the stationary winding is called 'Stator' while the rotating winding is called 'Rotor'
Note : so most of alternator have stator as armature and rotor as field, in practice. Constructional details of rotating field type of alternator are discussed below.
1.1 Stator
The stator is a stationary armature. This consists of a core and the slots to hold the
armature winding similar to the armature of a d.c. generator. The stator core uses a
laminated construction. It is built up of special steel stampings insulated from each other with varnish or paper. The laminated construction is basically to keep down eddy current losses. Generally choice of material is steel to keep down hysteresis losses.
The entire core is fabricated in a frame made of steel plates. The core has slots on its periphery for housing the armature conductors. Frame does not carry any flux and serves as the support to the core. Ventilation is maintained with the help of holes cast in the frame. The section of an alternators stator is shown in the Fig. 1.
1.2 Rotor
There are two types of rotors used in alternators,
1) Salient pole type,
and
1.2.1 Salient Pole Type
2) Smooth cylindrical type.
This is also called projected pole type as all the poles are projected out from the surface of the rotor. The poles are built up of thick steel laminations. The poles are bolted to the rotor as shown in the Fig. 2. The pole face has been given a specific shape. The field winding is provided on the pole shoe. These rotors have large diameter and small axial length. The limiting factor fore the size of the rotor is the centrifugal force acting on the rotating member of the machine. As mechanical strength of salient pole type is less, this is preferred for low speed alternators ranging from 125 r.p.m. to 500 r.p.m. The prime movers used to drive such rotor are generally water turbines and I.C. engines.
.2.2 Smooth Cylindrical Type
This is also called nonsalient type or nonprojected pole type or round rotor
construction. The Fig. 3 shows smooth cylindrical type of rotor.
The rotor consists of small solid steel cylinder, having number of slots to accommodate the field coil. The slots are covered at the top with the help of steel or manganese wedges. The unslotted portions of the cylinder itself act as the poles. The poles are not projecting out and the surface of the rotor is smooth which maintains uniform air gap between stator and the rotor. These rotors have small diameters and large axial lengths. This is to keep peripheral speed within limits. The main advantage of this type is that these are mechanically very strong and thus preferred for high speed alternators ranging between 1500 to 3000 r.p.m. Such high speed alternators are called 'turboalternators'. The prime movers used to drive such type of rotors are generally steam turbines, electric motors.
1.3 Difference between Salient and Cylindrical Type of Rotor
E.M.F. Equation of an Alternator
E.M.F. Equation of an Alternator : Part1
Let 
Φ 
= Flux per pole, in Wb 

. 
P = Number of poles N _{s} = Synchronous speed in r.p.m. f = Frequency of induced e.m.f. in Hz Z = Total number of conductors Z _{p}_{h} = Conductors per phase connected in series Z _{p}_{h} = Z/3 as number of phases = 3. Consider a single conductor placed in a slot. The average value of e.m.f. induced in a conductor = dΦ/dt For one revolution of a conductor, 

. 
e _{a}_{v}_{g} per conductor = (Flux cut in one revolution)/(time taken for one revolution) Total flux cut in one revolution is Φ x P Time taken for one revolution is 60/N _{s} seconds. e _{a}_{v}_{g} per conductor = ΦP / (60/N _{s} ) 

= Φ (PN _{s} /60) 
(1) 

. 
But 
f = PN _{s} /6120 PN _{s} /60= 2f 
Substation in (1), e _{a}_{v}_{g} per conductor = 2 f Φ volts Assume full pitch winding for simplicity i.e. this conductor is connected to a conductor which is 180 ^{o} electrical apart. So there two e.m.f.s will try to set up a current in the same direction i.e. the two e.m.f. are helping each other and hence resultant e.m.f. per turn will be twice the e.m.f. induced in a conductor.
e.m.f. per turn = 2 x (e.m.f. per conductor) = 2 x (2 f Φ)
. ^{.}
.
= 4 f Φ volts
Let T _{p}_{h} be the total number of turn per phase connected in series. Assuming concentrated
winding, we can say that all are placed in single slot per pole per phase. So induced e.m.f.s in all turns will be in phase as placed in single slot. Hence net e.m.f. per phase will be algebraic sum of the e.m.f.s per turn.
Average E _{p}_{h} = T _{p}_{h} x (Average e.m.f. per turn) Average Eph = T _{p}_{h} x 4 f Φ
But in a.c. circuits R.M.S. value of an alternating quantity is used for the analysis. The form factor is 1.11 of sinusoidal e.m.f.
. ^{.} .
K _{f} = (R.M.S.)/Average = 1.11
......... R.M.S. value of E _{p}_{h} = K x Average value
E = 4.44 x f Φ T _{p}_{h}
volts
for sinusoidal
...........
(2)
Note : This is the basic e.m.f. equation for an induced e.m.f. per phase for full pitch, concentrated type of winding. Where T _{p}_{h} = Number of turns per phase
T _{p}_{h}
= Z _{p}_{h} /2
as 2 conductors constitute 1 turn
....... But as mentioned earlier, the winding used for the alternators is distributed and short pitch hence e.m.f. induced slightly gets affected. Let us see now the effect of distributed and short pitch type of winding on the e.m.f. equation.
Generalized Expression for E.M.F. Equation of an Alternator
E.M.F. Equation of an Alternator : Part4
Considering full pitch, concentrated winding.
E _{p}_{h}
= 4.44 f Φ T _{p}_{h}
Volts.
But due to short pitch, distributed winding used in practice, this will reduce by
factors and . So generlised expression for e.m.f. equation can be written as
For full pitch coil, K _{c} = 1. For concentrated winding K _{d} = 1. Note : For short pitch and distributed winding K _{c} and K _{d} are always less than unity. Example 1 : An armature of a three phase alternators has 120 slots. The alternators has 8 poles. Calculate its distribution factor. Solution :
n = Slots/Pole = 120/8
= 15
m = slots/pole/phase = n/3 = 15/3 = 5 β = 180 ^{o} /n = 180 ^{o} /5 = 12 ^{o}
= 0.957
Example 2: In a 4 pole, 3 phase alternator, armature has 36 slots. It is using an armature winding which is short pitched by one slot. Calculate its coil span factor. Solution :
. 
n = Slots/pole = 36/4 = 9 β = 180 ^{o} / = 20 ^{o} Now coil is shorted by 1 slot i.e. by 20 ^{o} to full pitch distance. α = Angle of short pitch = 20 ^{o} 

. 
K _{c} = cos (α/2) = 0.9848 
= cos (10) 
Line Value of Induced E.M.F.
E.M.F. Equation of an Alternator : Part5
If the armature winding of three phase alternator is start connected, then the value of induced e.m.f. across the terminals is √3E _{p}_{h} where E _{p}_{h} is induced e.m.f. per phase. While if it is delta connected line value of e.m.f. is same as E _{p}_{h} . This is shown in the Fig. 1(a) and (b).
Practically most of the alternators are star connected due to following reasons :
1. Neutral point can be earthed from safety point of view.
2. For the same phase voltage, available across the terminal is more than delta
connection.
3. For the same terminal voltage, the phase voltage in star is 1/√3 times line value.
This reduce stains on the insulation of the armature winding. Example 1 : An alternator runs at 250 r.p.m. and generates an e.m.f. at 50 Hz. There are
216 slots each containing 5 conductors. The winding is distributed and full pitch. All the conductors of each phase are in series and flux per pole is 30 mWb which is sinusoidally distributed. If the winding is star connected, determine the value of induced e.m.f. available across the terminals.
Solution :
. 
N _{s} = 250 r.p.m. , N _{s} = 120f/P 250 = (120 x 50)/P 
f = 50 Hz 

. 
P = 
24 

. 
n = Slots/Pole = 216/24 = 9 

. 
m = n/3 = 3 β = 180 ^{o} /9 = 20 ^{o} 
= 0.9597 K _{c} = 1 as full pitch coils. Total no. of conductors Z = 216 x 5 = 1080
. ^{.}
.
. ^{.}
.
Z _{p}_{h} = Z/3 = 1080/3 = 360 T _{p}_{h} = Z _{p}_{h} /2
.....
E _{p}_{h}
= 360/2 = 180 = 4.44 K _{c} K _{d} f Φ
T _{p}_{h} .
2 conductors → 1 turn
= 4.44 x 1 x 0.9597 x 30 x 10 ^{}^{3} x 50 x 180
E _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}
= 1150.48 V = √3 E _{p}_{h} = √3 x 1150.48
...........
star connection
= 1992.70 V. Example 2 : A 3 phase, 16 pole, star connected alternators has 144 slots on the armature periphery. Each slot contains 10 conductors. It is driven at 375 r.p.m. The line value of e.m.f. available across the terminals is observed to be 2.657 kV. Find the frequency of the induced e.m.f. and flux per pole.
Solution :
P = 16,
N _{s} = 375 r.p.m.
Slots = 144,
Conductors / slots = 10
. 
E _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} = 2.657 kV Ns = 120f/P 375 = (120 x f)/16 
. 
f = 50 Hz 
. 
Assuming full pitch winding , K _{c} = 1 n = Slots/pole = 144/16 
. 
= 9 m = n/3 
. 
= 3 β = 180 ^{o} /9 = 20 ^{o} 
= 0.9597 Total conductors = Slots x condutors/Slot
i.e.
Z = 144 x 10 = 1440
. 
Z _{p}_{h} = Z/3 = 1440/3 
Now 
= 480 T _{p}_{h} = Z _{p}_{h} /2 = 480/2 = 240 E _{p}_{h} = E _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} /√3 = 2.657/√3 = 1.534 kV E _{p}_{h} = 4.44 K _{c} K _{d} f Φ T _{p}_{h} 
. 
1.534 x 10 ^{}^{3} = 4.44 x 1 x 0.9597 x Φ x 50 x 240 
. 
Φ = 0.03 Wb = 30 mWb 
Concepts of Synchronous Reactance and Impedance
The sum of fictitious armature reaction reactance accounted for considering armature reaction effect and the leakage reactance of the armature called synchronous reactance of the alternator demoted as X _{s} . So X _{s} = X _{L} + X _{a}_{r} Ω/ph As both X _{L} and X _{a}_{r} are ohmic values per phase, synchronous reactance is also specified as ohms per phase. Now from this, it is possible to define an impedance of the armature winding. Such an impedance obtained by combining per phase values of synchronous reactance and armature resistance is called synchronous impedance of the alternator denoted as Z _{s} . So Z _{s} = R _{a} + j X _{s} Ω/ph And  Z _{s}  = √ (R _{a} ^{2} + j (Xs) ^{2} ) For getting a standard frequency, alternator is to be driven at synchronous speed. So word synchronous used in specifying the reactance and impedance is referred to the working speed of the alternator. Generally impedance of the winding is constant but in case of alternator, synchronous reactance depends on the load and its power factor condition, hence synchronous impedance also varies with the load and its power factor conditions.
Equivalent Circuit of an Alternator
From the previous discussion it is clear that in all there are three important parameters of armature winding namely armature resistance R _{a} , leakage reactance X _{L} and armature reaction reactance X _{a}_{r} . If E _{p}_{h} is induced e.m.f. per phase on no load condition then on load it changes to E' due to armature reaction as shown in the equivalent circuit. As current flows through the armature, there are two voltage drops across R _{a} and X _{L} as I _{a} R _{a} and respectively. Hence finally terminal voltage V _{t} is less than E' by the amount equal to the drops across R _{a} and X _{L} .
In practice, the leakage reactance X _{L} and the armature reaction reactance X _{a}_{r} are combined to get synchronous reactance X _{s} . Hence the equivalent circuit of an alternator gets modified as shown in the Fig. 1.
Thus in the equivalent circuit shown, E _{p}_{h} = induced e.m.f. per phase on no load V _{t}_{p}_{h} = terminal voltage per phase on load I _{a}_{p}_{h} = armature resistance per phase Z _{s} = synchronous impedance per phase
KVA Rating of an Alternator
The alternators are designed to supply a specific voltage to the various loads. This voltage is called its rated terminal voltage denoted as V _{L} . The power drawn by the load depends on its power factor. Hence instead of specifying rating of an alternator in watts, it is specified in terms of the maximum apparent power which it can supply to the load. In three phase circuits, the apparent power is √3V _{L} I _{L} , measured in VA (volt amperes). This is generally expressed in kilo volt amperes and is called kVA rating of an alternator where
I _{L} is the rated full load current which alternator can supply. So for a given rated voltage and kVA rating of an alternator, its full load rated current can be decided. Consider 60 kVA, 11 kV three phase alternator.
In this case
kVA rating = 60
10 ^{}^{3} to express the product in kilo volt amperes 

. 
Voltage Regulation of an Alternator
Under the load condition, the terminal voltage of alternator is less than the induced e.m.f. E _{p}_{h} . So if load is disconnected , V _{p}_{h} will change from V _{p}_{h} to E _{p}_{h} , if flux and speed is maintained constant. This is because when load is disconnected, I _{a} is zero hence there are no voltage drops and no armature flux to cause armature reaction. This change in the terminal voltage is significant in defining the voltage regulation. Note : The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the change in its terminal voltage when full load is removed, keeping field excitation and speed constant, divided by the rated terminal voltage.,
So if V _{p}_{h}
= Rated terminal voltage
E _{p}_{h} = No load induced e.m.f. the voltage regulation is defined as,
The value of the regulation not only depends on the load current but also on the power factor of the load. For lagging and unity p.f. conditions there is always drop in the terminal voltage hence regulation values are always positive. While for leading capacitive load conditions, the terminal voltage increases as load current increases. Hence regulation is negative in such cases. The relationship between load current and the terminal voltage is called load characteristics of an alternator.
Such load characteristics for various load power factor conditions are shown in Fig. 1.
Voltage Equation of an Alternator
In a d.c. generators, we have seen that due to the armature resistance drop and brush drop it is not possible to have all the induced e.m.f. available across the load. The voltage available to the load is called terminal voltage. The concept is same in case of alternators. The entire induced e.m.f. can not be made available to the load due to the various internal voltage drops. So the voltage available to the load is called terminal voltage denoted as. In case of three phase alternators as all the phases are identical, the equations and the phasor diagrams are expressed on per phase basis. So if E _{p}_{h} is the induced e.m.f. per phase in the alternator, there are following voltage drops occur in an alternator. i) The drop across armature resistance I _{a} R _{a} both I _{a} and R _{a} are per phase values. ii) The drop across synchronous reactance I _{a} X _{s} , both I _{a} and X _{s} are per phase values. After supplying these drops, the remaining voltage of E _{p}_{h} is available as the terminal voltage V _{p}_{h} . Note : Now drop I _{a} R _{a} is always in phase with I _{a} due to a resistive drop while current I _{a} lags by 90 ^{o} with respect to drop I _{a} X _{s} as it is a drop across purely inductive reactance. Hence all these quantities can not be added or subtracted algebraically but must be added or subtracted vectorially considering their individual phases. But we can write a voltage equation in its phasor from as,
This is called voltage equation of an alternator.
From this equation, we can draw the phasor diagram for various load power factor conditions and establish the relationship between E _{p}_{h} and V _{p}_{h} , in terms of armature current i.e. load current and the power factor cos(Φ).
Phasor Diagram of a Loaded Alternator
The above voltage equation is to be realised using phasor diagrams for various load power factor conditions. For drawing the phasor diagram consider all per phase values and remember following steps. Steps to draw the phasor diagram :
1. Choose current as a reference phasor.
2. Now if load power factor is cosΦ it indicates that angle between V _{p}_{h} and I _{a} is Φ as V _{p}_{h}
is the voltage available to the load. So show the phasor V _{p}_{h} in such a way that angle between V _{p}_{h} and I _{a} is Φ. For lagging 'Φ', I _{a} should lag V _{p}_{h} and for leading 'Φ', I _{a} should lead V _{p}_{h} . For unity power factor load Φ is zero, so V _{p}_{h} and I _{a} are in phase.
3. Now the drop I _{a} R _{a} is a resistive drop and hence will always be in phase with I _{a} . So
phasor I _{a} R _{a} direction will be always same as I _{a} , i.e. parallel to I _{a} . But as it is to be added to V _{p}_{h} , I _{a} R _{a} phasor must be drawn from the tip of the V _{p}_{h} phasor drawn.
4. The drop I _{a} X _{s} is drop across purely inductive reactance. In pure inductance, current
lags voltage by 90 ^{o} . So 'I _{a} X _{s} ' phasor direction will be always such that I _{a} will lag I _{a} X _{s} phasor by 90 ^{o} . But this phasor is to be drawn from the tip of the I _{a} R _{a} phasor to complete phasor addition of V _{p}_{h} , I _{a} R _{a} and I _{a} X _{s} .
5. Joining the starting point to the terminating point, we get the phasor E _{p}_{h} .
Whatever may be the load power factor, I _{a} R _{a} is a resistive drop, will be in phase with I _{a} while I _{a} X _{s} is purely inductive drop and hence will be perpendicular to I _{a} in such a way that I _{a} will lag I _{a} X _{s} by 90 ^{o} . This is shown in the Fig. 1.
By using the above steps, the phasor diagrams for various load power factor conditions can be drawn.
Lagging Power Factor Load The power factor of the load is cosΦ lagging so I _{a} lags V _{p}_{h} by angle Φ. By using steps
1.1
discussed above, phasor diagram can be drawn as shown in the Fig. 2.
To derive the relationship between E _{p}_{h} and V _{p}_{h} , the perpendicular are drawn on the current phasor from points A and B. These intersect current phasor at points D and E respectively. . ^{.} . (E _{p}_{h} ) ^{2} = (OD + DE) ^{2} + (BE  BC) ^{2} (E _{p}_{h} ) ^{2} = (V _{p}_{h} cosΦ + I _{a} R _{a} ) ^{2} + (V _{p}_{h} sinΦ  I _{a} X _{s} ) ^{2}
. ^{.}
.
It can be observed that the sign of the I _{a} X _{s} is negative as against its positive sign for lagging p.f. load. This is because X _{s} consists of X _{a}_{r} i.e. armature reaction reactance. Armature reaction is demagnetising for lagging while magnetising for leading power factor loads. So sign of I _{a} X _{s} is opposite for lagging and leading p.f. conditions.
1.3 Unity Poer Fcator Load
The power factor of the load is unity i.e. cosΦ = 1. So Φ = 0, which means V _{p}_{h} is in phase with I _{a} . So phasor diagram can be drawn as shown in the Fig. 3.
As cosΦ = 1, so sinΦ = 0 hence does not appear in the equation. Note : The phasor diagrams can be drawn by considering voltage V _{p}_{h} as a reference phasor. But to derive the relationship, current phasor selected as a reference makes the derivation much more simplified. Hence current is selected as a reference phasor.
It is clear from the phasor diagram that V _{p}_{h} is less than E _{p}_{h} for lagging and unity p.f. conditions due to demagnetising and cross magnetising effects of armature reaction. While V _{p}_{h} is more than E _{p}_{h} for leading p.f. condition due to the magnetising effect of armature reaction. Thus in general for any power factor condition,
(E _{p}_{h} ) ^{2} = ( V _{p}_{h} cos + I _{a} R _{a} ) ^{2} + (V _{p}_{h} sin + sign for lagging p.f. loads  sign for leading p.f. loads and V _{p}_{h} = per phase rated terminal voltage I _{a} = per phase full load armature current
I _{a} X _{s} ) ^{2}
Regulation of Synchronous Generator
Introduction
The regulation of an alternator can be determined by various methods. In case of small capacity alternators it can be determined by direct loading test while for large capacity alternators it can be determined by synchronous impedance method. The synchronous impedance method has some short comings. Another method which is popularly used is ampereturns method. But this method also has certain disadvantages. The disadvantages of these two methods are overcome in a method called zero power factor method. Another important theory which gives accurate results is called Blondel's two reaction theory. Thus there are following methods available to determine the voltage regulation of an alternator,
1. Direct loading method
2. Synchronous impedance method or E.M.F. method
3. Ampereturns method or M.M.F. method
4. Zero power factor method or potier triangle method
5. ASA modified from of M.M.F. method
6. Two reaction theory
Voltage Regulation by Direct Load
The Fig. 1 shows the circuit diagram for conducting the direct loading test on the three phase alternator. The star connected armature is to be connected to a three phase load with the help of triple pole single throw (TPST) switch. The field winding is excited by separate d.c. supply. To control the flux i.e. the current through field winding, a rheostat is inserted in series with the field winding. The prime mover is shown which is driving the alternator at its synchronous speed.
Procedure : The alternator is first driven at its synchronous speed N _{s} by means of a prime mover.
Now E _{p}_{h} α Φ
(From e.m.f. equation)
..... By giving d.c. supply to the field winding, the field current is adjusted to adjust the flux so that rated voltage is available across the terminals. This can be observed on the voltmeter connected across the lines. The load is then connected by means of a TPST switch. The load is then increased so that ammeter reads rated value of current. This is full load condition of the alternator. Again adjust the voltage to its rated value by means of field excitation using a rheostat connected. Then throw off the entire load by opening the TPST switch, without changing the speed and the field excitation. Observe the voltmeter reading. As load is thrown off, there is no armature current and associated
drops. So the voltmeter reading in this situation indicates the value of internally induced e.m.f. called no load terminal voltage. Convert both the reading to phase values. The rated voltage on full load is V _{p}_{h} while reading when load is thrown off is E _{p}_{h} . So by using the formula, the full load regulation of the alternator can be determined. The value of the regulation obtained by this method is accurate as a particular load at required p.f. is actually connected to the alternator to note down the readings. Note : But for high capacity alternators, that much full load can not be simulated or directly connected to the alternator. Hence method is restricted only for small capacity alternators. Example : While supplying a full load, running at synchronous speed, the terminal voltage of an alternator is observed to be 1100 V. When the load is thrown off, keeping field excitation and speed constant, the terminal voltage is observed to be 1266 V. Assuming star connected alternator, calculate its regulation on full load. Solution : On full load, terminal voltage is 1100 V.
So 
V _{L} = 1100 V 
. 
V _{p}_{h} = V _{L} /√3 = 635.0853 V When load is thrown off, V _{L} = 1266 V. But on no load, 
V L = E line
Synchronous Impedance Method or E.M.F. Method
The method is also called E.M.F. method of determining the regulation.
The method requires following data to calculate the regulation.
1. The armature resistance per phase (R _{a} ).
2. Open circuit characteristics which is the graph of open circuit voltage against the field current. This is possible by conducting open circuit test on the alternator.
3. Short circuit characteristics which is the graph of short circuit current against field current. This is possible by conducting short circuit test on the alternator.
Let us see, the circuit diagram to perform open circuit as well as short circuit test on the alternator.
The alternator is coupled to a prime mover capable of driving the alternator at its synchronous speed. The armature is connected to the terminals of a switch.
The other terminals of the switch are short circuited through an ammeter.
The voltmeter is connected across the lines to measure the open circuit voltage of the alternator.
The field winding is connected to a suitable d.c. supply with rheostat connected in series.
The field excitation i.e. field current can be varied with the help of this rheostat. The circuit diagram is shown in the Fig. 1.
M.M.F. Method of Determining Regulation
This method of determining the regulation of an alternator is also called Ampereturn method or Rothert's M.M.F. method. The method is based on the results of open circuit test and short circuit test on an alternator. For any synchronous generator i.e. alternator, it requires m.m.f. which is product of field current and turns of field winding for two separate purposes. 1. It must have an m.m.f. necessary to induce the rated terminal voltage on open circuit. 2. It must have an m.m.f. equal and opposite to that of armature reaction m.m.f. Note : In most of the cases as number of turns on the field winding is not known, the m.m.f. is calculate and expressed i terms of the field current itself. The field m.m.f. required to induce the rated terminal voltage on open circuit can be obtained from open circuit test results and open circuit characteristics. This is denoted as F _{O} .
We know that the synchronous impedance has two components, armature resistance and synchronous reactance. Now synchronous reactance also has two components, armature leakage reactance and armature reaction reactance. In short circuit test, field
m.m.f. is necessary to overcome drop across armature resistance and leakage reactance and also to overcome effect of armature reaction. But drop across armature resistance and also to overcome effect of armature reaction. But drop across armature resistance and leakage reactance is very small and can be neglected. Thus in short circuit test, field m.m.f. circulates the full load current balancing the armature reaction effect. The value of ampereturns required to circulate full load current can be obtained from short circuit characteristics. This is denoted as F _{A}_{R} . Under short circuit condition as resistance and leakage reactance of armature do not play any significant role, the armature reaction reactance is dominating and hence the power factor of such purely reactive circuit is zero lagging. Hence F _{A}_{R} gives demagnitising ampere turns. Thus the field m.m.f. is entirely used to overcome the armature reaction which is wholly demagntising in nature. The two components of total field m.m.f. which are F _{O} and F _{A}_{R} are indicated in O.C.C. (open circuit characteristics) and S.C.C. (short circuit characteristics) as shown in the Fig. 1.
If the alternator is supplying full load, then total field m.m.f. is the vector sum of its two components F _{O} and F _{A}_{R} . This depends on the power factor of the load which alternator is supplying. The resultant field m.m.f. is denoted as F _{R} . Let us consider the various power factors and the resultant F _{R} . Zero lagging p.f. : As long as power factor is zero lagging, the armature reaction is completely demagnetising. Hence the resultant F _{R} is the algebraic sum of the two components F _{O} and F _{A}_{R} . Field m.m.f. is not only required to produce rated terminal voltage but also required to overcome completely demagnetising armature reaction effect.
This is shown in the Fig. 2. OA = F _{O}
AB = F _{A}_{R}
demagnetising
OB = F _{R} = F _{O} + F _{A}_{R} Total field m.m.f. is greater than F _{O} . Zero leading p.f. : When the power factor is zero leading then the armature reaction is totally magnetising and helps main flux to induce rated terminal voltage. Hence net field m.m.f. required is less than that required to induce rated voltage normally, as part of its function is done by magnetising armature reaction component. The net field m.m.f. is the algebraic difference between the two components F _{O} and F _{A}_{R} . This is shown in the Fig. 3.
OA = F _{O} AB = F _{A}_{R} magnetising OB = F _{O}  F _{A}_{R} = F _{R} Total m.m.f. is less than F _{O} Unity p.f. : Under unity power factor condition, the armature reaction is cross magnetising and its effect is to distort the main flux. Thus and F are at right angles to each other and hence resultant m.m.f. is the vector sum of F _{O} and F _{A}_{R} . This is shown in the Fig.4.
OA = F _{O} AB = F _{A}_{R} cross magnetizing
General Case : Now consider that the load power factor is cos Φ. In such case, the resultant m.m.f. is to be determined by vector addition of F _{O} and F _{A}_{R} . cosΦ, lagging p.f. : When the load p.f. is cosΦ lagging, the phase current I _{a}_{p}_{h} lags V _{p}_{h} by angle Φ. The component F _{O} is at right angles to V _{p}_{h} while F _{A}_{R} is in phase with the current I _{a}_{p}_{h} . This is because the armature current I _{a}_{p}_{h} decides the armature reaction. The armature reaction F _{A}_{R} due to current I _{a}_{p}_{h} is to be overcome by field m.m.f. Hence while Finding resultant field m.m.f.,  F _{A}_{R} should be added to vectorially. This is because resultant field m.m.f. tries to counterbalance armature reaction to produce rated terminal voltage. The phasor diagram is shown in the Fig. 5.
From the phasor diagram the various magnitude are, OA = F _{O} , AB = F _{A}_{R} , OB = F _{R} Consider triangle OCB which is right angle triangle. The F _{A}_{R} is split into two parts as, AC = F _{A}_{R} sinΦ and BC = F _{A}_{R} cosΦ
(1)
From this relation (1), F _{R} can be determined. cosΦ, leading p.f. : When the load p.f. is cosΦ leading, the phase current I _{a}_{p}_{h} leads V _{p}_{h} by Φ. The component F _{O} is at right angles to V _{p}_{h} and F _{A}_{R} is in phase with I _{a}_{p}_{h} . The resultant F _{R} can be obtained by adding  F _{A}_{R} to F _{O} . The phasor diagram is shown in the Fig.6
From the phasor diagram, various magnitudes are,
AC = F _{A}_{R} sinΦ and BC = F _{A}_{R} cosΦ
OA = F _{O} ,
AB = F _{A}_{R} and OB = F _{R}
Consider triangle OCB which is right angles triangle.
. 
(OB) ^{2} = (OC) ^{2} + (BC) ^{2} 

. 
( F _{R} ) ^{2} = (F _{O}  F _{A}_{R} sinΦ ) ^{2} + (F _{A}_{R} cosΦ) From the relation (2), F _{R} can be obtained. 
(2) 
Using relations (1) and (2), resultant field m.m.f. F _{R} for any p.f. load condition can be obtained. Once F _{R} is known, obtain corresponding voltage which is induced e.m.f. E _{p}_{h} , required to get rated terminal voltage V _{p}_{h} . This is possible from open circuit characteristics drawn.
Once E _{p}_{h} is known then the regulation can be obtained as,
Note : To obtain E _{p}_{h} corresponding to F _{R} , O.C.C. must be drawn to the scale, from the open circuit test readings. Note : This ampereturn method gives the regulation of an alternator which is lower than the actually observed. Hence the method is called optimistic method. Important note : When the armature resistance is neglected then F _{O} is field m.m.f. required to produce rated V _{p}_{h} at the output terminals. But if the effective armature resistance is given then F _{O} is to be calculated from O.C.C. such that F _{O} represents the excitation (field current) required a voltage of V _{p}_{h} + I _{a}_{p}_{h} R _{a}_{p}_{h} cosΦ where V _{p}_{h} = rated voltage per phase I _{a}_{p}_{h} = full load current per phase R _{a} = armature resistance per phase cosΦ = power factor of the load It can also be noted that, F _{R} can be obtained using the cosine rule to the triangle formed by F _{O} , F _{A}_{R} and F _{O} as shown in the Fig. 8.
Using cosine rule to triangle OAB,
Using cosine rule to triangle OAB,
Students can use equations 1, 2 or 3 to calculate F _{R} . The angle between E _{o} and V _{p}_{h} is denoted as δ and is called power angle. Neglecting R _{a} we can write, I _{a} X _{s} cosΦ = E _{o} sinδ P _{d} = V _{p}_{h} I _{a} cosΦ = internal power of machine
Note : This equation shows that the internal power of the machine is proportional to sin δ.
ASA Modification of M.M.F. Method
We have seen that neither of the two methods, M.M.F. method and E.M.F. method is capable of giving the reliable values of the voltage regulation. The error in the results of these methods is mainly due to the two reasons, 1. In these methods, the magnetic circuit is assumed to be unsaturated. This assumption is unrealistic as in practice. It is not possible to have completely unsaturated magnetic circuit. 2. In salient pole alternators, it is not correct to combine field ampere turns and armature ampere turns. This is because the field winding is always concentrated on a pole core while the armature winding is always distributed. Similarly the field and armature m.m.f.s act on magnetic circuits having different reluctances in case of salient pole machine hence phasor combination of field and armature m.m.f. is not fully justified. Inspite of these short comings, due to the simplicity of constructions the ASA modified from of M.M.F. method is very commonly used fore the calculation of voltage regulation.
Consider the phasor diagram according to the M.M.F. method as shown in the Fig. 1 for cosΦ lagging p.f. load. The F _{R} is resultant excitation of F _{O} and F _{A}_{R} where F _{O} is excitation required to produce rated terminal voltage on open circuit while is m.m.f. required for balancing armature reaction effect.
Thus
OB = F _{R} = resultant m.m.f.
The angle between F _{A}_{R} and perpendicular to F _{O} is Φ, where cosΦ is power factor of
the load. But OB = F resultant is based on the assumption of unsaturated magnetic circuit which is not true in practice. Actually m.m.f. equal to BB' is additional required to take into account the effect of partially saturated magnetic field. Thus the total excitation required is OB' rather than OB. Let us see method of determining the additional excitation needed to take into account effect of partially saturated magnetic circuit. Construct the no load saturation characteristics i.e. O.C.C. and zero power factor characteristics. Draw the potier triangle as discussed earlier and determine the leakage reactance X _{L} for the alternator. The excitation necessary to balance armature reaction can also be obtained from the potier triangle. The armature resistance is known.
Construct ASA diagram, and draw phasor diagram related to the above equation. The ASA diagram has xaxis as field current and yaxis as the open circuit voltage. Draw O.C.C. on the ASA diagram. Then assuming xaxis as current phasor, draw V _{p}_{h} at angle Φ, above the horizontal. The V _{p}_{h} is the rated terminal voltage. Add I _{a} R _{a} in phase with I _{a} i.e. horizontal and I _{a} X _{L} perpendicular to I _{a} R _{a} to V _{p}_{h} . This gives the voltage E _{1}_{p}_{h} . Now with O as a central and radius E _{1}_{p}_{h} draw an arc which will intersect yaxis at E _{1} . From E _{1} , draw horizontal line intersecting both air gap line and O.C.C. These points of intersection are say B and B'. The distance between the points BB' corresponding to the field current scale gives the additional excitation required to take into account effect of partially saturated field. Adding this to F _{R} we get the total excitation as F _{R} '. From this F _{R} ', the open circuit voltage E _{1}_{p}_{h} can be determined from O.C.C. using which the regulation can be determined. The ASA diagram is shown in the Fig. 2.
The resultant obtained by ASA method are reliable for both salient as well as nonsalient pole machines.
From the Potier triangle IXL = 1000 volts