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CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT

(Project Term January-April, 2016)

NUT SORTING MACHINE

Submitted by

Md Rahul Ahmed Registration Number: 11203603


Nishant Deshmukh Registration Number: 11203056
Purushottam Mahato Registration Number: 11208982
Shashi Kumar Registration Number: 11207525

Project Group Number: - 3

Course Code: - MEC 494

Under the Guidance of

Sunil Sharma
Asst. Professor

School of Mechanical Engineering

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DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the project work entitled Nut Sorting Machine is an authentic record of
our own work carried out as requirements of Capstone Project for the award of B.Tech degree in
Mechanical Engineering from Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, under the guidance
of Sunil Sharma, during January to April 2016. All the information furnished in this capstone
project report is based on our own intensive work and is genuine.

Project Group Number: 3

Name of Student 1: Md Rahul Ahmed

Registration Number: 11203603

Name of Student 2: Nishant Deshmukh

Registration Number: 11203056

Name of Student 3: Purushottam Mahato

Registration Number: 11208982

Name of Student 4: Shashi Kumar

Registration Number: 11207525

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the declaration statement made by this group of students is correct
to the best of my knowledge and belief. They have completed this Capstone Project
under my guidance and supervision. The present work is the result of their original
investigation, effort and study. No part of the work has ever been submitted for any other
degree at any University. The Capstone Project is fit for the submission and partial
fulfillment of the conditions for the award of B.Tech degree in Mechanical engineering
Program from Lovely Professional University, Phagwara.

Signature and Name of the Mentor

Designation

School of Mechanical engineering,


Lovely Professional University,
Phagwara, Punjab.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our deep gratitude to our project guide Mr. Sunil Sharma to give us the inspiration to
pursue the project and guided as in this endeavor. He has been a constant source of motivation
and encouragement for us. We thank him for all the initiative and zeal. He filled us with
throughout the project work.

Our profound sense of gratitude is due to our head of Mechanical engineering department Mr.
Gurpreet singh phul for constant encouragement and valuable guidance.

Last but not the least we are thankful to the faculty member without whose support at various
stages, this project would not have not materialized. We are also thankful to all the supporting
staff of the university who directly or in directly helped us in completing our project.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

We studied that a lots of problems are faced by the assembling industries related to the material
handling of the parts used like nuts which are difficult to sort mechanically and selected topic as
well as completed individual research and study on the theories of the topic. After thorough
study was conducted we were able to design and develop our own working model of the
automatic nut sorting machine.
Nut sorting machine is used for sorting nuts of different sizes. The nut sorting machine in the
market is costlier. The nut sorting machine we made is economical and convenient as per the
economics of scale; the cost of machine will be reduced for the common mechanics who have
low budget can buy the machine in cheap price.

If we talk about differentiating our machine with other machine we have added nut counti9ng
device along with the nut sorting machine which can help to provide us number counted of
sorted number of nuts. this modification has helped a lot because it becomes hard to count the
number manually but with this counting device we can easily detect how many number of nuts
are being sorted And all the further modification made, makes the nut sorting machine more
reliable and economical. Since, the nut sorting machine reduces the human efforts and provides
the low cost.

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List of Figure

Figure 1 Nut Sorting Machine ...................................................................................... 11

Figure 2 Block diagram of microcontroller .................................................................. 15

Figure 3 Microcontroller ............................................................................................... 16

Figure 4 Resistors.......................................................................................................... 18

Figure 5 Capacitors ....................................................................................................... 20

Figure 6 H-bridge circuit .............................................................................................. 21

Figure 7 Diodes ............................................................................................................. 22

Figure 8 OP-AMP as comparator ................................................................................. 24

Figure 9 Transistor ........................................................................................................ 25

Figure 10 Pin description of LM7805 ........................................................................... 27

Figure 11 LDR .............................................................................................................. 28

Figure 12 Transformer .................................................................................................. 33

Figure 13 LDR and Light .............................................................................................. 34

Figure 14 Comparator ................................................................................................... 34

Figure 15 Microcontroller ............................................................................................. 35

Figure 16 Guide ............................................................................................................ 36

Figure 17 Display .......................................................................................................... 37

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Contents
DECLARATION .................................................................................................................................... 2

CERTIFICATE ....................................................................................................................................... 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...................................................................................................................... 4

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................................................................................................. 5

List of Figure........................................................................................................................................... 6

1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 10

2. SCOPE OF MACHINE ........................................................................................................ 12

3. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY ..................................................................................................... 12

4. DIFFERENTS TYPES OF COMPONENTS USED ............................................................ 13

4.1 MICROCONTROLLER ....................................................................................................... 14

4.2 RESISTORS ......................................................................................................................... 17

4.3 CAPACITOR ........................................................................................................................ 19

4.4 H-BRIDGE CIRCUIT........................................................................................................... 21

4.5 DIODES ................................................................................................................................ 21

4.6 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER ............................................................................................. 23

4.7 TRANSFORMER ................................................................................................................. 24

4.8 TRANSISTOR ...................................................................................................................... 25

4.9 LED ....................................................................................................................................... 26

4.10 VOLTAGE REGULATOR................................................................................................... 26

4.11 SOLDERING ........................................................................................................................ 27

4.12 LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTANCE)...................................................................... 28

4.13 SERVO DRIVE ....................................................................................................................... 29

4.14 SERVO MOTOR ...................................................................................................................... 29

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5. PROGRAM ........................................................................................................................... 30

6. WORKING OF THE MACHINE ......................................................................................... 33

7. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS ............................................................................ 37

8. FUTURE SCOPE.................................................................................................................. 38

9. CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 39

10. REFERENCE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................... 40

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9
INTRODUCTION
As we visited number of industries, we found that there is a general problem occurs in handling
of scattered nuts. To overcome the problem of moving to the fasteners packaging and handling
we come through an idea of sorting nuts which manage the time as well as reduce the man
power. To provide the automation we observed that with change in diameter the height of nut
also changes and this can be used to detect the dimensional variation by using very cheap and
reliable sensor and in accordance to this idea we designed the automated nut sorting machine

Moving to the fasteners packaging and handling, fastener industry produces huge variety of jobs
not only different in physical or chemical properties but having small variation in size with all
other parameters remaining same, in this scenario the need of creating cheap and reliable
equipment is becoming of prime importance.

Now when the nut are being all place together and are being jumbled it become a very tough
job to separate them. In this case the machine could come very handy to separate or sort the
nut according to its height. To lower the human effort and work load we introduce the nut
sorting machine.

Sorting

It is any process of arranging item according to its ascending or descending order.

1. Ordering: - arranging items of the same kind class or nature in some order sequence.

2. Categorizing grouping and labeling items with similar properties together.

The main purpose of sorting information is to optimize its usefulness for specific tasks.
Sorting can be of any product and can be done by using various methods. In this report
sorting of fastener Nut is given main emphasis.

Different inspection parameter

1. Diameter

2. Length

3. Width

4. Breadth

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5. Thickness.

Figure 1 Nut Sorting Machine

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1. SCOPE OF MACHINE
This machine can reduce the consumption of time.

Can reduce the labor cost.

It can be used in industries where packaging of nut is done.

where it is used as hardware in large quantity like in fabrication of machine.

Construction of buildings and towers where nuts of close dimension are used.

2. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
To design and developed an industrial efficient nut sporting machine

Project Objective

General Objective

1. To lower to the issue of competition in mechanical industry the need for


automation is assess by all the industry.

2. To identify the key policy avenues considered to be appropriate to meet the


challenge of sustainable manufacturing and packaging industry for the future.

3. To provide alternative for industries aiming toward reducing human


effort and improvement in material handling system by implementing automation

4. Sustainable and practical automation solutions for the future industrial environment.

Technical Objectives

1. Design & Analysis.

2. Prototyping, fabrication & development.

3. Adding functionality for enhanced utility.

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DIFFERENTS TYPES OF COMPONENTS USED

1. Microcontroller

2. LDR

3. Transformer

4. Capacitor

5. Servo motor

6. Voltage regulator

7. Resistors

8. LED

9. LM324 (Comparator)

10. IC bases

11. Transistors

12. Gear Motors (100rpm)

13. Ribbon wire

14. Soldering Iron

15. Soldering Wire

16. Multimeter

17. PCB

18. Screw & Nuts

The basic definition and function of components are given below:-

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4.1 MICROCONTROLLER
A microcomputer on a single chip, used to control some device such as automobile engine or a
toy. Or it is a single chip microcomputer, more suited for control and automation of machine and
processes. It has central processing unit (CPU), memory, input/ output ports (I/O), timers and
counters, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog (DAC), serial ports and many
more functional chip on the block.

WHY IT IS USED ?

(A). It is used because it reduces the cost of automation.

(B). It provides more flexibility.

(C). Ease of integration within an application design.

The device can be used to make it intelligent. This is possible because of the data processing and
memory capability of microcontroller.

8 bits or 16 bits microcontroller

We are using 8 bits microcontroller because in 8 bits we can count till 512 number of nut counts
because it runs 2^8. And also we can perform 16 bits operation in 8 bits. But not vice versa.

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The microcontroller used is 8051 microcontroller. It is an 8-bit microcontroller available in DIP.
It can all be programmed in computer language as well as embedded C++. When the
programming is done it acts as the brain of the system.

The block diagram of a typical microcontroller, which is a true computer on a chip, is shown
in figure 1. The incorporates features found in all the micro-processor are CPU, ALU, PC,
SP, and registers. Some other features that are needed to make a complete computer: ROM,
RAM, I/O, timer & counters, and clock circuit.

Figure 2 Block diagram of microcontroller


The microcontroller which selected is 8051 microcontroller because of its certain features, is a
low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with8Kbytes of in-system
programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density non-
volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set
and pin out. It consist of certain feature they are it is a 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable
(ISP) Flash Memory, Endurance of 1000 Write/Erase Cycle operating at 4.0V to 5.5V, Fully
Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz, Three-level Program Memory Lock with 256 x 8-bit Internal
RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines three 16-bit Timer/Counters ,Eight Interrupt Sources, Full
Duplex UART Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes, Interrupt Recovery
from Power-down Mode Watchdog Timer, Dual Data Pointer, Power-off Flag, Fast
Programming Time Flexible, ISP Programming.

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Microcontroller

Figure 3 Microcontroller

WHY 8051?

1. Meeting the computing needs of the task efficiently and cost effectively

2. Speed, the amount of ROM and RAM, the number of I/O ports and timers, size,
packaging, power consumption.

3. Easy to upgrade.

4. Availability of software development tools

5. Assemblers, debuggers, C compilers, emulator, simulator, technical support.

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4.2 RESISTORS
The opposing forces in the flow of charge (or current) through any material, encounters an
similar force in many respect to mechanical friction. This opposing force is called resistance
of the material. It is measured in ohms. In some electric circuits resistance is deliberately
introduced in the form of the resistor.

What it does?

Resistors are one of the most fundamental components in electronics. It purpose is to impede
a flow of current and impose a voltage reduction. It consists of two wires or conductors
attached to opposite ends or sides of a relatedly poor electrical conductor, the resistance of
which is measured in ohms, universally represented by omega.

A resistor is commonly used for purpose such as limiting the charging rate of a capacitor;
providing appropriate control voltage to semiconductor such as bipolar transistors; protecting
LEDs or other semiconductor from excessive current

A potentiometer may be used instead of a resistor where variable resistance is required.

How it Works?

In the process of impeding the flow of current and reducing voltage, a resistor absorbs
electrical energy, which it must dissipate as heat. In most modern electronic circuits, the heat
dissipation is typically a fraction of a watt.

If R is the resistance in ohms, I is the current flowing through the resistor in amperes, and v is
the voltage drop imposed by the resistor.

Ohms law states:

V=I*R

Also it can be written as a resistor of 1 ohm will allow a current of 1 amp when the potential
difference between the ends of the resistance is 1 volt.

If w is the power in watts dissipated by the resistor in a DC circuit:

W=V*I

Using in ohm law

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W=I*I*R

It can also be written as

W=V^2/R

These alternates may be useful in situations where you do not know the voltage drop or the
current, respectively. Approximately similar relationships exist when using alternating
current, although the power will be a more complex function.

Different types of resistors are:

(1) Carbon Resistors

(2) Variable resistors

(1) Carbon Resistor- Carbon resistors are divided into three types:

a. Carbon composition resistors are made by mixing carbon grains with binding material
(glue) and module in the form of rods. After this an insulating material seals the resistor.
Resistors are available in power ratings of 1/10, 1/8, , 1/2 , 1.2 watts and values from 1 -
20 ohms.

b. Carbon film resistors are made by deposition carbon film on a ceramic rod. They are
cheaper than carbon composition resistors.

c. Cement film resistors are made of thin carbon coating fired onto a solid ceramic
substrate. The main purpose is to have more precise resistance values and greater stability
with heat. They are made in a small square with leads.

Figure 4 Resistors

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(2)VARIABLE RESISTORS
A variable resistor is a device that is used to change the resistance according to our needs
in an electronic circuit. It can be used as a three terminal as well as a two terminal device.
Mostly they are used as a three terminal device. Variable resistors are mostly used for device
calibration It has a resistive element as the track and a sliding contact called the wiper. The
wiper is connected with the help of another sliding contact to another terminal. The position
of the wiper depends on the

Type of POT used. For a panel POT, the wiper is kept in the middle. The resistive element
has a terminal on both the ends and can be linear or logarithmic. It is usually made up of
carbon or a mixture of ceramic and metal or even graphite.

4.3 CAPACITOR
The capacitor's function is to store electricity, or electrical energy.
The capacitor also functions as a filter, passing alternating current (AC), and blocking direct
current (DC).
This symbol is used to indicate a capacitor in a circuit diagram. A capacitor consists
of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The non-conductive region is
called the dielectric.

A capacitor connected across a DC power source will accumulate a charge, when then
persists after the source is disconnected. In this way, the capacitor stores energy like a small
rechargeable battery. The charge/discharge rate is extremely fast but can be limited by a
series of resistor, which enables the capacitor to be used as a timing component.

A capacitor can also be used to block DC current while it passes pulses. This capability
enables it to smooth the output voltage provided by power supplies.

How It Works?

In its simplest form, a capacitor consists of two plates, each with a lead attached to it for
connection with a DC power source. The plates are separated by a thin, insulating layer
known as the dielectric, which is usually a solid or a paste but may be liquid gel, gaseous or
vacuum.

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The plates in most capacitor are made from thin metal film or metallized plastic film. To
minimize the size of the component, the film may be rolled up to form a compact
cylindrical packaged or multiplate flat sections may be interleaved. Electron from the power
source will migrate on to the plate attached to the negative side of the source, and will tend
to repel electrons from the other plate. This will create electron holes in the other plate or it
may generate attracting positive charge. When the capacitor is disconnected from the power
supply, the opposite charge on the plate will remain in equilibrium as a result of their
mutual attraction, but the voltage will gradually decrease as there will be voltage leakage.

Breakdown voltage

When using a capacitor, you must pay attention to the maximum voltage which can be
used. This is the "breakdown voltage." The breakdown voltage depends on the kind of
capacitor being used. You must be especially careful with electrolytic capacitors because
the breakdown voltage is comparatively low. The breakdown voltage of electrolytic
capacitors is displayed as Working Voltage.

The breakdown voltage is the voltage that when exceeded will cause the dielectric
(insulator) inside the capacitor to break down and conduct. When this happens, the
failure can be catastrophic

Figure 5 Capacitors

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4.4 H-BRIDGE CIRCUIT
H-bridge is a circuit which is often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors
to run forwards and backwards. An H bridge is an electronic circuit which enables a voltage to
be applied across a load in either direction. It is derived from the typical graphical
representation of such a circuit. An H bridge is built with four switches (solid-state or
mechanical).When the switches S1 and S4 are closed (and S2 and S3 are open) a +ve voltage
will be applied across the motor. By opening S1 and S4 switches and closing S2 and S3
switches, this voltage is reversed, allowing reverse operation of the motor. Using the
nomenclature above, the switches S1 and S2 should never be closed at the same time, as this
would cause a short circuit on the input voltage source. The same applies to the switches S3
and S4. This condition is known as shoot-through. The H-bridge arrangement is generally
used to reverse the polarity of the motor, but can also be used to 'brake' the motor, where the
motor comes to a sudden stop, as the motor's terminals are shorted, or to let the motor 'free
run' to a stop, as the motor is effectively disconnected from the circuit.

Figure 6 H-bridge circuit

4.5 DIODES
Diodes are components that allow current to flow in only one direction. They have a positive
side (leg) and a negative side. When the voltage on the positive leg is higher than on the
negative leg then current flows through the diode (the resistance is very low). When the
voltage is lower on the positive leg than on the negative leg then the current does not flow (the

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resistance is very high). The negative leg of a diode is the one with the line closest to it. It is
called the cathode. The positive end is called the anode.

Figure 7 Diodes

Semiconductor diodes

Diode schematic symbol. Conventional current can flow from the anode to the cathode, but not
the other way around. Most modern diodes are based on semiconductor p-n junctions. In a p-n
diode, conventional current can flow from the p-type side (the anode) to the n-type side (the
cathode), but cannot flow in the opposite direction. Another type of semiconductor diode, the
Schottky diode, is formed from the contact between a metal and a semiconductor rather than by
a p-n junction

A rectifying diode of the 1N4001-07 ( 1A) type or even one of the high power is being selected
because of its certain feature they are:-

(1) Diffused Junction

(2) Low Reverse Leakage Current

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(3) Lead Free Finish

(4) High Current Capability and Low Forward Voltage


Drop

4.6 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER


The operational amplifier which is being used is LM324 is a 14 pin IC consisting of four
independent operational amplifiers (op-amps) compensated in a single package. Op-amps are
high gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential input and, usually, a single-ended
output. The output voltage is many times higher than the voltage difference between input
terminals of an op-amp. These op-amps are operated by a single power supply and need for a
dual supply is eliminated. They can be used as amplifiers, comparators, oscillators, rectifiers
etc. The conventional op- amp applications can be more easily implemented with LM324.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain blocks and all the conventional op
amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For
example, the LM324-N series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply
voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface
electronics without requiring the additional 15V power supplies.

OP-AMP COMPARATOR CIRCUIT WORKING

A comparator circuit compares two voltages and outputs either a 1 (the voltage at the plus
side; VDD in the illustration) or a 0 (the voltage at the negative side) to indicate which is
larger. Comparators are often used, for example, to check whether an input has reached some
predetermined value. In most cases a comparator is implemented using a dedicated comparator
IC, but op-amps may be used as an alternative. Comparator diagrams and op-amp diagrams
use the same symbols. Figure shows a comparator circuit. The circuit does not use feedback.
The circuit

Amplifies the voltage difference between Vin and VREF, and outputs the result at Vout. If Vin
is greater than VREF, then voltage at Vout will rise to its positive saturation level; that is, to
the voltage at the positive side. If Vin is lower than VREF, then Vout, will fall to its negative

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saturation level, equal to the voltage at the negative side. In practice, this circuit can be
improved by incorporating a hysteresis voltage range to reduce its sensitivity to noise.

Figure 8 OP-AMP as comparator

4.7 TRANSFORMER
A transformer is a static device, which transfer electric power from one circuit to another of
same frequency. It can raise or low the voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding increase or
decrease in current. The transformer has two windings primary or secondary. The winding,
which is to source of supply, is called primary & other from which the power is obtained is
called secondary.

How It Works?
A transformer requires an input in the form of alternating current. It transforms the input voltage
to one or more output voltage of higher or lower voltage. Mean it can setup or down the voltage.
Transformer works on the principle of mutual inductance. We know that if two coils or windings
are placed on the core of iron, and if we pass alternating current in one winding, back emf or
induced voltage is produced in the second winding. We know that alternating current always
changes with the time. So if we apply AC voltage across one winding, a voltage will be induced
in the other winding. Transformer works on this same principle. It is made of two windings
wound around the same core of iron. The winding to which AC voltage is applied is called
primary winding. The other winding is called as secondary winding. Transformers are of two
types Step Up transformer and Step Down transformer.

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STEP UP TRANSFORMER: These transformers are used to increase the voltage level at
the output means Voltage at secondary winding is more than the primary winding. In this
transformer secondary winding has more number of turns than primary winding. These types
of transformers are generally used in power station.

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER: These transformers are used to decrease the voltage level
at the output winding means voltage of secondary winding is less than the primary winding.
In this

Transformer secondary winding has less number of turns than primary winding. These types
of transformers have major applications in electronics industry.

A transformer cannot be 100% efficient but it can be more than 98% efficient. When the
transformer is not loaded the primary winding behaves like a simple inductor with reactance
that inhabits the flow of current.

4.8 TRANSISTOR
The schematic representation of a transistor is shown. Note the arrow pointing down towards
the emitter. This signifies it's an NPN transistor. A transistor is basically a current amplifier.
Say we let 1mA flow into the base. We may get 100mA flowing into the collector. Note: The
currents flowing into the base and collector exit through the emitter (sum off all currents
entering or leaving a node must equal zero). The gain of the transistor will be listed in the
datasheet as either DC or Hfe. The gain won't be identical even in transistors with the same
part number. The gain also varies with the collector current and temperature.

Figure 9 Transistor

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4.9 LED
LED means light emitting diode. It is similar to the diode. But these are not made up from
silicon or germanium. These are generally used as a indicating device. There are variety of
LEDs are available in market depending upon their size and color.

LED is an optical diode which emits light when forward biased. The symbol of led is similar
to p-n junction diode apart from the two arrows indicating that the device emits the light
energy

Basic Operation

Whenever a p-n junction is forward biased, the electrons cross the p-n junction from the n-
type semiconductor material and recombine with the holes in the p-types semiconductor
material. The free electrons are in the conduction band while the holes are present in the
valence band. Thus the free electrons are at higher energy level with respect to the holes.
When a free electrons recombines with the hole, it fall from conduction band to another band
which is valance band. Thus the energy level associate with it changes from higher to lower
level value. The energy release due to the difference of the band level is released by the
electron while travelling from conduction to the valence band. In simple diodes the energy
release is in the form of heat. But LED is made up of special material which release energy in
the form of photons which in this case release light energy. Hence diodes which release light
are called light emitting diodes. And the process is called electroluminescence.

4.10 VOLTAGE REGULATOR


A voltage regulator provides a fixed controlled DC output, which is derived from poorly
regulated DC input. The DC output remains Constant independent of load on the regulator. It is
cheap, simple and extremely robust component.

How It Works?

All voltage regulator function by taking feedback from the output, executing an error value and
comparing with output with a reference voltage, and it uses the error value to control the base of
a transistor that is placed between the input and the output of the regulator. As the transistor
operates below the level of saturation its output current varies linearly with the current applied to
its base.

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The regulator use is LM7805 3-terminal positive voltage regulators employ internal current-
limiting, thermal shutdown and safe-area compensation, making them essentially indestructible.
Heat sinking is provided; they can deliver over 1.0A output current. They are intended as fixed
voltage regulators in a wide range of applications including local (on-card) regulation for
elimination of noise and distribution problems associated with single-point regulation.

Figure 10 Pin description of LM7805


FEATURES

1. Output current up to 1 A

2. Output voltages of 5; 6; 8; 9; 12; 15; 18; 24 V

3. Thermal overload protection

4. Short circuit protection

4.11 SOLDERING
Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and
flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a relatively low melting point. Soft
soldering is characterized by the melting point of the filler metal, which is below 400 C
(800 F). The filler metal used in the process is called solder.

Applications

One of the most frequent applications of soldering is assembling electronic components to


printed circuit boards (PCBs). Another common application is making permanent but reversible
connections between copper pipes in plumbing systems. Joints in sheet metal objects such as

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food cans, roof flashing, rain gutters and automobile radiators have also historically been
soldered, and occasionally still are. Jewelry components are assembled and repaired by
soldering.

4.12 LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTANCE)


A light dependent resistor (LDR), it is also a photo resistor they are light sensitive device.
They are made up of semiconductors of high resistance. LDRs or Light Dependent
Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the resistance
of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms, but when they are
illuminated with light resistance drops very less time taken.

Working Principal of LDR

LDR work on the principal of photo conductivity. Whereas photo conductivity is an


optical phenomenon in which material conductivity is increase by absorbing light. When
light falls on the top of the material or photon falls on the device. The electron which is in
the valence band of the semiconductor gets excited to the conduction band. The photons
have energy greater than the band gap of the semiconductor to make the electron jump
from the valence band to conduction band. And when light strike continuously on the
device more and more electron gets excited and which results in a large charge carrier.
The result of this process generates large current flow through the device when the circuit
is closed and hence it is said that the resistance of the device has been decreased. This is
the working of LDR.

Figure 11 LDR

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4.13 SERVO DRIVE
It consists of a servo motor and a servo drive. It controls the drive of motor current. While most
of the electrical drive systems are operated at constant speed, a servo drive has a rather "hectic"
life. Often it has to accelerate to the rated speed within a few milliseconds only to decelerate a
short time later just as quick. And of course the target position is to be reached exactly with an
error of a few hundredths of a millimeter.

4.14 SERVO MOTOR


A servo system basically consists of three components they are: 1. Controlled device, a output
and a feedback system. It is a closed loop system.in this the device is actually being controlled
by a feedback single generated by comparing output signal and reference input signal. When its
reference input signal is applied to the device then it compares it with the output reference signal
of the system produce by output sensor, and a third signal produce by a feedback system. The
third signal produce by a feedback system acts as a input signal of controlled device. The
primary task of a servomechanism is to maintain the output of a system at the desired value in
the presence of disturbances.

Working Principal of Servo Motor

It is basically a DC motor in which some special components is adjusted which makes a DC


motor a servo motor. In a servo motor consists of a small DC motor, a potentiometer, gear
arrangement and an intelligent circuit. The intelligent circuit along with potentiometer makes the
servo to rotate according to our wishes. And the DC motor will rotate with high speed but it
generates very little torque which will not be able to move even a light load. That is why the
gear mechanism is provided.

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PROGRAM
Program for rotation of motor

#include<reg52.h>

#include<intrins.h>
sbit sensor=P1^2;
sbit output=P1^0; //Output to motor

unsigned char table[8]={0x03,0x01,0x09,0x08,0x0c,0x04,0x06,0x02};


unsigned char motor_pos=0,mdata=0;

void delay(unsigned int tym)


{
unsigned int x,y;
for(x=0;x<tym;x++)

for(y=0;y<1200;y++);
return;
}

void motor_rotate()
{
P2=0x00;
P2|=table[motor_pos];

delay(3);
return;
}

void timer(int msec) // Function for timer

30
{
unsigned int i;
for(i=0;i<msec;i++)
{
TL1=0xD1;
//TH1= -23; // 50usec timer
TR1=1;
while(TF1==0);
TF1=0;
TR1=0;
}
}

Program for counting

void main()
{
unsigned char count=0,i;
sensor=1;
while(1)
{
motor_rotate();
if(sensor==0)
{
for(count=0;count<5;count++)
motor_rotate();
P2=0;
delay(50);
mdata=P3&0x07;
switch(mdata)
{
case 0x04:
for(i=0;i<35;i++)
{

31
output=1;
timer(25);
output=0;
timer(360);
}
break;

case 0x00:
for(i=0;i<35;i++)
{
output=1;
timer(32);
output=0;
timer(360);
}
break;
default:
for(i=0;i<35;i++)
{
output=1;
timer(40);
output=0;
timer(360);
}

}
}

32
3. WORKING OF THE MACHINE
Main parts of machine with their role and working using real picture

Transformer

First as we know the power coming from main AC house hold supply which is 220 V is given
to transformer which steps down the voltage to 12 V because the microcontroller works on
low voltage.

Figure 12 Transformer

Power Supply

Then the stepped down voltage is given to power supply circuit for changing the AC supply to
DC supply. For changing the power supply from AC to DC rectifier is used.

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Sensor

As we have discuss LDR sensor is used. Whereas LDR which works on the principle of variable
resistance when the light directed to the LDR panel is obstructed by the nut the light intensity
decreases for the sensors on which the shadow of nut falls according to the height to the nut and
this decreases the resistance and gives signal to comparator circuit

Light

LDR

Figure 13 LDR and Light

Comparator

The comparator LM324 compares the voltage difference the sends the output to the
microcontroller in the form of high or low. It converts the analog signal which is given by the
LDR sensor to digital signal.

comparator

Figure 14 Comparator

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Microcontroller

Microcontroller in which the power converted to DC and output given by comparator is given to
the microcontroller where it applies algorithms to decide that the nut belong to which size range
and gives output to servo on which the guide is supported

Microcontroller also controls the motion of gear motor by cutting off power periodically to
stop the rotating disc so that the sensor can has sufficient data to read the change of light
intensity.

Microcontroller

Figure 15 Microcontroller

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Guide

The nut after recognized according to height falls to the container through the U shaped guide by
gravity method

Figure 16 Guide
Display
Gu
The nuts after being passed through the LDR sensor, the sensor detect the nuts belong to which
C
category. Then by the programming done in the microcontroller it tells and display the number of
counts of the nut weather it is large, small or medium. Two LDR are being attached if the nut
touched the height of both the sensor then it will display Large, if to touches only one then it will
display medium if none then small.

Figure 17 Display

4. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS


1. It cater the issue of competition in mechanical industry by automation

2. It helps to meet the challenge of sustainable manufacturing and packaging industry

3. It provide alternative for industries aiming toward reducing human effort

4. It helps to achieve improvement in material handling system by implementing


automation

5. It generates sustainable and practical automation solutions for the future industrial
environment.

6. It can save a lot of time by doing sorting of nuts with little dimensional variation which
otherwise can be cumbersome
7. It saves a lot of cost inventory as the power required for the functioning of machine is
very less as compared to labor cost and also its speed of nut sort is more than that
achievable by humans.

8. In the industry where it is manufactured, at the packaging sector.

9. Where it is used as hardware in large quantity like in fabrication of machine

10. Construction of buildings and towers where nuts of close dimension are used

5. FUTURE SCOPE
Fasteners are the basic hardware for any sector of fabrication or construction society. Fasteners are
used in all the industries for its specific use. The machine can improve or has added sorting
options to improve its future scope

Speed of the sorting

At present we can sort at the rate of 44 units per min. This speed may not be fit for industrial use
but it can be increased to more than ten folds by using high sensing capacity and more accurate
sensors, using high speed gear motor, using high speed servo drives which were not used in this
project due to cost inventory limitation

Color of nut to be sort

The machine can also have a sensor to detect the color of the nut which will allow us to sort
nuts of different nut with their count displaying on LCD screen

Material of the nut to be sort

The machine can also have a sensor to detect the material property by scanning their grain
structure and sort the nut ex nut with bronze alloy can easily be sorted from nut manufactured
from stainless steel or other alloy.
6. CONCLUSION
After completion of the project, the following points have come to light:

1. The machine can sort 44 units of nut for every minute

2. This speed can be increased many folds by taking high speed and
accurate sensors, high speed servo drives and gear motor

3. The machine can be very useful in the sector fasteners packaging and
handling

4. By using this machine huge variety of jobs produced by fasteners


industry which are not only different in physical or chemical properties
but have small variation in size with all other parameters remaining
same, the sorting of mingled nuts will become

5. C h e a p

6. R e l i a b l e

7. L e s s time consuming

Thus our aim to achieve realistic and practical sorting with the observation that with change in
diameter the height of nut also changes and this can be used to detect the dimensional variation by
using very cheap and reliable sensor designed as the nut sorting machine is achieve
7. REFERENCE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Printed Circuit Board Designer's Reference; Basics by Chris Robertson

2. Working of LDR; http://www.engineersgarage.com/electronic-components/ldr-light-


dependant-resistor

3. Electronic and PCB work ; http://www.technologystudent.com/

4. Mechanism of servo drive ; http://www.esr-pollmeier.de/en/FAQ.php

5. http://www.electrical4u.com/servo-motor-servo-mechanism-theory-and-working-principle/

6. Electronic Device and Circuit 2008 edition by U. A Bakshi

7. Encyclopedia of electronic components by Charles platt


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