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CHAPTER-V

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The literary meaning of analysis according to the Encyclopedia and

Dictionary of Education is the study of a literary work for highlighting its special

feature in matter of style, composition, ideas, aesthetic appeal and moral or

philosophical values (Biswas, A. and Agarwal, J.C., 1971). Analysis of data

means the collected data are organized and tabulated systematically in order to

determine the inherent facts. Usually, the data are studied from as many angles

as possible to explore the new facts or the relationships. The analysis process

requires an alert, flexible and open mind. No similarities, differences, trends

and any outstanding feature should go unnoticed in data analysis process. It

involves breaking down of the existing complex factors into simpler parts and

putting the parts together in new arrangements for the purpose of

interpretation. Interpretation means deriving meaning from the analyzed data.

Hence, it follows the analysis of the data. Interpretation of data is process of

careful, logical and critical examination of results obtained after analysis of any

research data. It plays a vital role in the research process, essentially of stating

what the results (Findings) show, what does they mean, what is their (results)

significance and what are the answers to the original problem. The task of

interpretation has two major aspects viz., i) to establish continuity in search

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through linking the results of a given study with those of another, and ii) to

establish some explanatory concepts. Thus, interpretation means therefore be

considered as the device through which the factors what have been observed

by the researcher in the course of the study are explained. It provides a

theoretical concept that can serve as a guide for further researches.

Analysis and interpretation of data are the important phase of any

research work. The process of analysis begins on the point when the skeleton

plans of the actual collected data are put/set properly or meaningful order

whereas interpretation process starts after the analysis function is over.

After collection of necessary data and information from the various

primary and secondary sources the researcher has arranged all the documents

chronologically and interpreted with proper references on the basis of

objectives and mentioned in the following ways-

(i) The Causes of constituting various Commissions and Committees on

education regarding school education in India after independence.

(ii) Implementation of various recommendations given by various

Commissions and Committees in various times so far the

development of school education in India.

(iii) The impact of various Commissions and Committees with regard to

School education in Assam.

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5.2 COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES BEFORE AND AFTER

INDEPENDENCE

Today, the education system in India mainly comprises of primary

education (classes I-V), upper primary (middle school) education (classes VI-

VIII), secondary education (classes IX-X), senior secondary education (classes

XI-XII) and, thereafter, highereducation. In other words, elementary education

consists of eight years of schooling (classes I-VIII). Each of secondary and

senior secondary education consists of two years of schooling. Higher education

starts after passing the higher secondary education, also called intermediate

education. Depending upon the stream (general, medical, engineering, legal,

etc), doing graduation takes three to five years. Post-graduate courses are

generally of two to three years duration. After completing post-graduation,

scope for doing research in various educational institutes remains open. For

medium of instruction, three language formulas are followed during 5+3+2

years of schooling.

The origin of the present system of education in India can be traced to

the beginning of the nineteenth century when a controversy raged over the

issue -- whether oriental learning and science should be spread through the

medium of Sanskrit, Arabic or Persian, or Western sciences and literature be

spread through English as the medium of instruction? Lord Macaulay was a

central figure in this language debate. Though both the groups the Orientalists

and the Anglicists--stuck to their respective stands, neither of these groups


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wanted to suppress the local vernaculars, mother tongues of the people. In

other words, both the groups agreed that education would be conducted in the

vernacular during the initial years of education. Macaulay's Minute, 1835 did

finally pave the way for the continuance of schools and colleges where

indigenous learning was being imparted and also for promotion of European

literature and science among the natives of India. That marked the real

beginning of bilingualism in educational system of India. Subsequently,

Despatch of the Court of Directors of the East India Company popularly known

as Woods Education Despatch of July 19, 1854 formed the basis for creating a

system of education, from the primary school to the University. Since then

serious efforts were made by the Government to promote education at all

levels.

Nevertheless, it was not a simple and smooth journey for the

government of India to establish and evolve a system that could satisfy every

section of the society. Dissatisfaction of the people started surfacing as and

when the outcomes of educational and development measures undertaken by

the government did not seem to match their aspirations and expectations. As a

result, various measures for educational reconstruction followed, time and

again, in the form of institution of commissions and committees for

examining/reviewing/reforming the existing system, and initiation of new

policies, programmes, etc vis-a-vis the changing needs, problems and

challenges of different sections of the society and the country as a whole. Some

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landmark developments in the history of modern Indian education during the

pre-independence period include the following.

Hunter Commission, officially known as Indian Education Commission

(1882)

Indian Universities Commission (1902)

Government Resolution on Educational Policy (1913)

Calcutta University Commission (1917) also called Sadler Commission

Hartog Committee (1929)

Sapru Committee (1934)

Abbot-Wood Report (1936-37)

ZakirHussain Committee (1937)

Wardha Education Committee of the Central Advisory Board of

Education (1939) also called B. G. Kher Committee

Central Advisory Board of Education Report (1944) or Post-War

Educational Development Report popularly called the Sargent Report

(1944).

While some of these reports covered entire system of education, some

others focused on its selected sectors or levels. Similarly, the Government of

independent India, in pursuance of the constitutional mandate, has also

initiated several measures for social and economic reconstruction of the

country. As a result, measures for educational reconstruction had inevitably

followed. Various commissions and committees were appointed at different

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times to survey, study, review and recommend improvements in the existing

system, policies and programmes of education. Reserving the net effect of all

these for later sections of this paper, it is appropriate here to recall the

chronology of some landmark commissions, committees, policies, programmes

and frameworks.

University Education Commission (1948-49) popularly called Dr.

Radhaksrishan Commission

Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) popularly called Dr.

Mudaliar Commission

Committee on Higher Education for Rural Areas, Rural Institutions (1954)

-- Shri K. L. Shrimali Committee

National Committee on Women's Education (1958) --

ShrimatiDurgabaiDeshmukh Committee

University Grants Commissions Review Committee on Education (1960)

-- Prof. K.G. Saiyidain Committee

U. N. Dhebar Commission (1960)

Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) -- Dr. Sampurnanand

Committee

Committee on Plan Projects: Study Team for Selected Educational

Schemes (1961) Shri B. N. Jha Committee

Study Group on the Training of Elementary Teachers in India (1961)

Kothari Committee on Model Act for Universities (1961)

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University Grants Commissions Committee on Education as an Elective

Subject at the Undergraduate Stage (1963) -- Mr. A. R. Wadia

Committee

Study Group on the Study of English in India (1964) Prof. Gokak

Committee

Education Commission (1964-66), popularly called Dr. D. S. Kothari

Commission

Committee of Members of Parliament on Education (1967)

Three Delegations by University Grants Commission (1967-1971)

Steering Committee of Planning Group on Education (1968)

National Policy on Education (1968)

Review Committee on the Working of National Council of Educational

Research and Training (1968) -- Dr. Nag Chaudhuri Committee

Study Group on the Development of Pre-school Child (1970) Shrimati

Mina Swaminathan Committee

Gajendragadkar Committee on Governance of Universities and Colleges

(1971)

National Committee on 10+2+3 Educational Structure (1972) -- Dr.

Shukla Committee

Committee on Secondary Teacher Education of NCTE (1973-77) -- Dr.

Jha Committee

Committee on Elementary Teacher Education of NCTE (1975) -- Dr.

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Malcolm S. Adiseshaiah Committee

University Grants Commissions Panel on Teacher Education During Fifth

Plan Period (1974)

The Curriculum for Ten-Year School: A Framework (1975)

Standing Committee of National Council for Teacher Education (1975-76)

Review Committee on the Curriculum for Ten-Year School (1977) --

ShriIshwarbhai Patel Committee

Working Group on Vocationalisation of Education (1977-78) -- Dr.

Malcolm S. Adiseshaiah Committee

Draft National Policy on Education (1979)

Study Group on INSAT Television Utilisation for Education and

Development (1980) -- Shri S. SathyamCommittee

National Commissions on Teachers I & II: The Teacher and Society

(1983-85) Prof. Chattopadhyaya Commission

Working Group to Review Teachers' Training Programme (In the Light of

the Need for Value-Orientation) (1983)

Challenge of Education: A Policy Perspective (1985)

National Curriculum for Primary and Secondary Education: A Framework

(1985)

National Policy on Education (1986)

National Policy on Education: Programme of Action (1986)

National Curriculum for Elementary and Secondary Education A

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Framework (1988)

National Curriculum for Teacher Education: A Framework (1988)

Committee for Review of NPE 1986: Towards an Enlightened and

Humane Society (1990) -- AcharyaRamamurhty Committee

University Grants Commissions Report of the Curriculum Development

Centre in Education (1990)

NCTE Committee for Teacher Education Programme Through Distance

Education Mode (1990)

Central Advisory Board of Education Committee on Distance Education

(1992)

CABE Committee on Policy, 1992

National Policy on Education 1986: Programme of Action 1992

National Advisory Committee: Learning Without Burden (1992)

The National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993

Group to Examine the Feasibility of Implementation of the

Recommendations of the National Advisory Committee (1993) -- Prof.

Yashpal Committee

Committee on B.Ed. Correspondence (1993) -- Prof. Ramlal Parikh

Committee

University Grants Commissions Committee on B.Ed. Correspondence,

Distance Education Programme (1994)

Special Orientation Programme for School Teachers (SOPT) (1994-97)

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Committee of National Council for Teacher Education on Different Modes

of Education Used for Teacher Preparation in India (1995)

University Grants Commissions Committee on B.Ed. Through

Correspondence for In-service Teachers (1995) -- Prof. Takwale

Committee

Planning Commissions Report on Teacher Education in Five Year Plans

(1951-97)

NCTE Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education (1998)

National Curriculum Framework for School Education (2000)

National Curriculum Framework (2005)

Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2006)

National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009)

Panel to Review the functioning of the University Grants Commission

(UGC) and the All-India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) (2008),

later rechristened as The Committee to Advise on Renovation and

Rejuvenation of Higher Education (2009) -- Prof. Yashpal Committee

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009

The latest commission is the National Knowledge Commission (NKC)

2006-09, which is popularly called Sir Sam Pitroda Commission. Here, it is

important to note that the NKC, a high-level advisory body to the Prime Minister

of India, was set up with the objective of transforming India into a knowledge

society. In its endeavor to transform the knowledge landscape of the country,

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the NKC had reportedly submitted around 300 recommendations on 27 focus

areas during its three and a half year term. While the term of the NKC had

come to an end, the implementation of NKC's recommendations is currently

underway at the Central and State levels. The report with so many

recommendations itself speaks volumes about the need for revamping the

entire education system in India. The Report of NKC read with the latest

Yashpal Committee Report is likely to renovate, revamp and rejuvenate the

existing system. A National Commission for Higher Education and Research is

expected to subsume as many as 13 existing professional councils and

regulatory agencies including the University Grants Commission (UGC) and the

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).

Hence, it is observed from the above discussion that the Government of

India has constituted a good number of committees, commissions, policies and

initiatives have been taken up by the government after independence to

promote and develop the whole educational scenario of the country. Here the

researcher has make an efforts to study the emergence of the constitutions of

these committees and commissions after independence; which are shown in the

following ways-

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Section-I

5.3 THE CAUSES OF CONSTITUTING VARIOUS COMMISSIONS AND

COMMITTEES

The task before independence India was to remove all infirmities of the

inherited educational system and transform it into a social force geared to

socio-economic transformation of the Indian society and relate education to

live, needs and aspiration of the society. Within such conceptual framework,

education was conceived as being intertwined with the developmental process

as one of its importance components. It took some time to clearly outline the

directive principles of state policy (Article no 45) of our constitutions which

reads:

The state shall endeavor to provide, within a period of 10 years from

the commencement of this constitution, for free and compulsory education for

all children until they complete the age of 14 years.

Social reformers and Indian national leaders had realized long before

independence the value of education as one of most powerful instruments for

socio-economic development and modernization of our society. While struggling

for independence form colonial rule, they tried to expand educational facilities

in the country. When the colonial government prepared post war educational

development in 1944. (Sargent report 1944), it was criticized on the ground

that it took a long period of 40 years to universalize elementary education for

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children upto the age of 14 years. This concern for rapid expansion of

education in the country found expression in the constitution.

The constitution of India-the character of Indias Freedom is a unique

and rare blue print of our democracy. As it embodies Indias full self-expression

and mirrors the hopes and aspirations of people, it is natural that education

should find an honoured place in this document.

5.4 THE PREAMBLE OF CONSTITUTION

The preamble has a great bearing on educational policies and

programmes. It reads

We the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute

India into a sovereign democratic republic and to secure to all its citizens-

justice: social, economic and political;

Liberty: Of thought, expression, believe, faith and worship.

Equality: Of status and of opportunities; and to promote among them all.

Fraternity: Assuring the dignity of the individual and unity of nations.

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5.5 CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA

Article 28: According to our Constitution article 28 provides freedom as

to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in educational

institutions.

Article 29:This article provides equality of opportunity in educational

institutions.

Article 30:It accepts the right of the minorities to establish and

administrate educational institutions.

Article 45:According to this article "The state shall endeavour to

provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this

Constitution for free and compulsory education for all children until they

complete the age of 14 years."

We notice that the responsibility for universal elementary education lies with

the Central Government, the State Governments, the Local Bodies and

voluntary organizations.

Article 46: It provides for special care to the promotion of education

and economic interests of the scheduled caste, scheduled tribes and the weaker

sections of society.

Article 337: This provides for special provision with respect to

educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian community.

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Article 350A: This article relates to facilities for instruction in mother

tongue at primary stage.

Article 350B: It provides for a special offer for linguistic minorities.

Article 351: This article relates to the development and promotion of

the Hindi language. The seventh schedule of the Indian Constitution contains

legislative powers under three lists viz. The Union List, the State List and the

Concurrent List

5.6 THE UNION LIST

This list contains 97 subjects where the following entries are related to

education:

Entry 13: To provide Educational and Cultural relations with foreign

countries.

Entry 62: The institutions known at the commencement of the

Constitution as National Library, The Indian Museum, the Imperial War

Museum, the Victoria Memorial, and Indian War Memorial. Any other such

institutions financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared

by the Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance.

Entry 63: Institutions of national importance. The institution known at

the commencement of this Constitution as the BHU, AMU and Delhi University

etc. declared by Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance.

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Entry 64: The institution of scientific and technical education financed

by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by law to be

institutions of national importance like IITs and lIMs.

Entry 65: Union agencies and institutions for:

(i) Professional, vocational or technical training, including the training of police

officers.

(ii) The promotion of special studies or research.

(iii) Scientific or technical assistance in the investigation of detection of crime.

Entry 66: Coordination and determination of standards in the institution

of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.

5.7 STATE LIST

State list consists of 66 entries, out of which the following is the entry

related to education:

Entry 12: According to this entry all libraries, museums and other

similar institutions controlled or financed by the state, ancient and historical

monuments and records other than those declared by or under law made by

the Parliament to be of the national importance.

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5.8 CONCURRENT LIST

It comprises 47 entries, among them the following are related to

education:

Entry 20: Economic and social planning.

Entry 25: Education, including technical education, medical education

and universities subject to provision of entries 63,64,65,66 of list (Union List).

Entry 34: Newspapers, books and printing presses.

(A) Education of minorities

Article 28 of the Constitution has made certain provisions for the

education of the minorities including-

(i) No religious instruction shall be provided in educational institutions wholly

maintained out of state funds.

(ii) If any institution has been established under any endowment trust even if

administrated by state, can impart religious education.

(iii) None person attending an educational institution recognized by the state or

receiving funds from state government shall be required to take part in any

religious worship or instruction that may be conducted in such institutions or in

any premises attached there to unless such person or if such person in a minor

and his guardian has given his consent thereto.

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(B) Cultural and Educational Rights

Under article 29 and 30 for the protection of educational interest of minorities

viz.

(i) Article 29 (i): Any section of citizen residing in the territory of India

on any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall

have the right to conserve the same.

(ii) Article 30 (i): All minorities whether based on religion or language

shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their

choice.

(iii) Article 30 (ii):The state shall not in granting and to educational

institution discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it

is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language.

(iv) To make any law providing for the compulsory acquisition of any property

of any educational institutions established and administrated by minorities, the

state shall ensure that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for

acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict on abrogate the right

guaranteed to them.

(C) Admissions

(i) Article 29 (II) states that no citizen of India can be denied

admission into any educational institution, which is either maintained by the

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state or receiving aid out of state funds oil ground only of religion, race, caste,

language or any of them.

(ii)Article 15 (III) states that to make special provisions for women.

Hence, separate educational institutions for women can be established.

(D) Mother Tongue

For promotion of teaching of mother tongue the Constitution of India has made

some provisions for Hindi language.

Article 350 (A):It shall be endeavour of every state and local

authorities with the state to provide adequate faculties for instruction in the

mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to

linguistic minority groups : the President may issue directions to any state as he

considers necessary for recurring the facilities.

Article 351: It is to promote the development of Hindi language and

slates that it shall be the duty of the Central Government to promote the

spread of Hindi language in the entire country.

(E) Right to Education

Article 41 of the Constitution provides that "All the citizens have equal right to

education ''. It states. "The state shall, within the limits of its economic capacity

and development, make effective provisions for the right to work, to education

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and to public assistance in cases of employment, old age, sickness and

disablement''.

(F) Weaker Section

Our Constitution has made some special provisions for the weaker sections of

our society viz.

Article 45: The state shall endeavour to provide within a period often

years from the commencement of the Constitution for the free and compulsory

education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years.

Article 46:The state shall promote with special care the educational and

economic interests of weaker sections of the people and, in particular, of the

scheduled caste and scheduled tribes, and shall protect them social injustice

and all forms of exploitations''.

The Supreme Court of India has given the following guidelines to promote

education of the people:

(i) The state can make regulatory measures to promote efficiency

of education.

(ii) Educational institutions of minority groups cannot claim

immunity from general laws such as contract law, labour law

and industrial law etc.

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(iii) The state can take over the management of the institutions of

minority groups in case of irregularity and inefficiency.

(iv) Teachers have the right to approach to the Arbitration Tribunal

in case of any injustice to them by the institution.

After the constitutional provisions the government of India has initiated a

good numbers of programmes, policies, commissions, committees and action

plans for the development of education in India. The reasons of constituting

such programmes have been discussed in the following ways-

5.9 FIVE YEAR PLAN

In order to give concrete shape to the directives of the constitution, the

national Government put into operation four five year plans so far. These plans

aimed at speeding up the economic, social and cultural growth of the country

through a planned management of its human and material resources.The

essential element of the planning are summed up by the Planning Commission

in the draft outline of the first five year plan: the problem before the country is

firstly to rectify the disequilibrium in the economy caused by the war and

partition and secondly to initiate the development of certain basic resources so

as to the foundation of more rapid economic growth in the future. The

rehabilitation of displaced persons links up with both these aspects. Further, in

finding solution to these two fold problems, consideration of social justice and

the need for progressive reorientation of the economy along the lines

suggested in this constitution have to be borne in mind.

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5.10 TARACHAND COMMITTEE, 1948

The Central Advisory Board of Education at their 14th meeting held in

January, 1948, considered the question of secondary education in the country.

In view of its importance in the educational system in the country the Board

resolved that a Commission be appointed by the Government of India to:

a) Review the present position of Secondary Education in India, and

b) To make recommendations in regard to the various problems related

thereto.

This resolution was endorsed by the All-India Education Conference

convened by the Hon'ble Minister for Education in January 1948. In pursuance

of these recommendations, the Government of India appointed a Committee

under the Chairmanship of Dr. Tara Chand, the then Educational Adviser to the

Government of India. This Committee made some important recommendations

on different aspects of secondary education. The Report of this Committee was

further considered by the Central Advisory Board of Education at its 15th

meeting held at Allahabad in 1949 when it was resolved that the Government

of India be requested to appoint a Commission for Secondary Education to

which thequestions raised by some of the conclusions drawn in the Report be

referred and that it should, in addition to these items, go into the wider

question of the aim, objective and purpose of secondary education and the

relation of Secondary Education to-Basic and University Education. The Board

again at its meeting held in January, 1951 reiterated its conviction that the

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reorganization of secondary education in the country was of such vital

importance that the Government of India should appoint a Commission at an

early date.

5.11 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49)

In the meantime in pursuance of the recommendations of the Central

Advisory Board of Education and also of the Inter-University Board, the

Government of India appointed a University Education Commission in 1948

under the Chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. The Commission which had

to report primarily on University Education in India had necessarily to review

the position of Secondary Education as well and it made certain notable

suggestions. The Commission recommended that the standard of admission to

University courses should correspond to that of the present Intermediate

examination, i.e., after 12 years of the study at School and Intermediate

College. The Commission thought it unfortunate that neither the public nor the

Government had realised the importance of Intermediate colleges in the Indian

educational system, and remarked that "our Secondary Education remains the

weakest link in our educational machinery and needs urgent reforms."

5.12 COMMITTEE ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY

EDUCATION, 1951

It had been observed by the report of the Central Advisory Board of

Education on post war educational development in India (1944), (popularly

known as Sargent Committee Report) that the state Governments should

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immediately resume all educational powers and that in order to retain local

interests, school boards for smaller areas be set up where some people with

the requisite knowledge, enthusiasm, integrity and standing were available. In

1948 at the 18th meeting of the Central Advisory Board of Education, the

Government of Bihar raised the question of relationships between the State

Governments and local bodies in respect of administration of elementary

education. The Ministry of Education, therefore, appointed this committee in

1951. This committee was mainly constituted to examine, in detail, the present

set up of local administration of education (primary and secondary level) in the

different states, the experiments carried out in some of the states in the

assumption of more powers by the state government in this regard and to

recommend a more or less uniform pattern which may, with a few variations,

be adopted in all the states of India.

5.13 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53)

The Report of the Secondary Education Commission is the most

significant document in the history of the development of secondary education

in India. There had been several committees and commissions on education in

the pre-independence era, and almost all of them made some

recommendations regarding the reform, re-orientation or reconstruction of the

secondary level of education, but none devoted all the pages of their reports

solely to secondary education. The first education commission known as the

Hunter Commission (1882-83) recommended that the high schools should

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have two avenues, one leading to the entrance examination of the university

and the other of a more practical nature intended to fit the youths for

commercial, vocational or non-literary pursuits. Unfortunately, the time was not

so ripe as to appreciate the first visualization of a need for diversified courses

and secondary vocational education. The Calcutta University Commission

(1917) felt that the improvement of secondary education was the first to

recommend the attachment of Intermediate classes to the high schools and

the setting up of a Board of Secondary and Intermediate Education to control

high schools and intermediate education. The Hartog Committee in 1929 made

recommendations for more diversified curricula in the schools, and for the first

time emphatically observed that the pay of the teacher should be sufficient to

give him the status which his work demanded and to attract the best pupils to

the teaching profession.

With the independence came the University Education Commission

(1948-49) which realized that Our Secondary Education remains the weakest

link in our educational machinery and needs urgent reforms. It also observed:

Our provincial governments are naturally keen on basic education and are

financing schemes for its wide extension, but unfortunately they do not seem to

be equally keen on secondary education which is the real weak spot in our

entire educational machinery. They have not fully realized that the army of

competent teachers needed for the rapid expansion of basic education must be

provided by our secondary schools and intermediate colleges. Further, any

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university reform will remain largely ineffective unless the level of secondary

education is raised so as to furnish the necessary foundation for a sound

university system. The Central Advisory Board of Education had earlierrealized

the urgency and, therefore, in its Fourteenth Session (1948) it had

recommended the appointment of a commission to review the position of

secondary education in India and to make recommendations in regard to the

various problems related thereto. The result was the appointment of a

Committee, and not a Commission, by the government of India in 1948. This

Committee composed of 20 members including 12 Directors of Public

Instruction made some recommendations on different aspect of secondary

education. But this was not enough. The Report of the Committee on

Secondary Education in India was considered by the Central Advisory Board of

Education at its 15th Session in 1949, when it was resolved that the

Government of India should be requested to appoint a Commission for

Secondary Education to Which the questions raised by some of the conclusions

made in the report be referred, and that the proposed commission should, in

addition to this go into the wider question of the aim, objectives and purpose of

secondary education. Since nothing happened for some time, the Board in its

16th session (1951) reiterated its conviction that the reorganization of

secondary education was so vital for the country that it should not be delayed.

At last the Government of India set up the Secondary Education Commission in

September, 1952, under the chairmanship of Dr. A. Mudaliar, Vice-Chancellor,

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Madras University. The Secondary Education Commission appointed by the

Government of India in terms of their Resolution No. F. 9-5/52-B-1, dated 23rd

September 1952, having completed its labours, presents the following Report

based on its deliberations.

The Commission was inaugurated on 6 October, 1952. The report was

submitted in June,1953. Among its nine members, two (John Christie, Principal

of Jesus college, Oxford, and Kenneth Rast Williams of U.S.A.) were outside

India. It consists of references and ten appendices. It is well written document

and compares favorably with similar reports in other countries.

Members of the Commission

1) Dr. A. LakshmanswamiMudaliar,

Vice-Chancellor, Madras University (chairman).

2) Principal John Christie,

Jesus College, Oxford.

3) Dr. Kenneth Rast Williams,

Associate Director, Soutnern Regional Education Board, Atlanta (U.S.A.).

4) Mrs. Hansa Mehta,

Vice-Chencellor, Baroda University.

5) Shri J.A. Taraporevala,

Director of Technical Education, Government of Bombay .

6) Dr. K. L. Shrimali,

Principal, VidyaBhawan Teachers Training College, Udaidur.

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7) Shri M.T. Vyas,

Principal, New Era School, Bombay.

8) Shri K.G. Saiyidain,

Joint Secretary to the Government of India, Ministry of Education (ex-

officio Member).

9) Principal A. N. Basu, Central Institute of Education, Delhi (member-

Secretary).

Dr. S. M. S. Chari, Education Officer, Ministry of Educaion, acted as Assistant

Secretary to the Commission.

Terms of Reference

Under the terms of reference, the Commission was asked:

(a) To enquire into and report on the present position of Secondary

Education in India in all its aspects; and

(b) Suggest measures for its reorganization and improvement with

particular reference to

(i) The aims, organization and content of Secondary Education;

(ii) Its relationship to Primary, Basic and Higher Education;

(iii)The inter-relation of secondary schools of different types; and

(v) Other allied problems:

5.14 NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON WOMEN'S EDUCATION (1958)

The problem of the education of girls and women in our country have

acquired a new significance since the attainment of independence and there is

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an ever increasing realization, both in the minds of the people and the

government, that unless every effort is made to find solution for them, the

rapid progress of the country which is the aspiration of every one will be

seriously impleded. Planners and administrators, both at the centre and in the

states have been discussing these problems with this end in view.

The education panel of the Planning Commission, at its meeting held in

Poona in July, 1957, recommended that a suitable Committee should be

appointed to go into the various aspects of the question relating to the nature

of education for girls at the elementary, secondary and adult stages and to

examine whether the present system was helping them to lead a happier and

more useful life. This recommendation was placed before the Conference of

the State Education Ministers (held in September 1957) who also agreed that a

special Committee should be appointed to examine the whole question of

womens education.

The National Committee on Womens Education was accordingly set up

by the Government of India in the Ministry of Education under Government

resolution No. F.34-12/57-B.5 of 19th May, 1958. The members of the

Committee were-

(i) ShrimatiGurgabaiDeshmukh, Chairman, Central Social Welfare Board-

Chairman.

(ii) Kumari S. Mathur, Education Secretary, BanasthaliVidyapith, Rajasthan-

Member.

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(iii) Smt. KulsumSayani, Editor Rahber, Bombay-Member.

(iv)Shri J.P. Naik, MouniVidyapith, Gargoti, Bombay-Member.

(v) Smt. Zahra Ahmed, Member, Legislative Assembly, Bihar-Member.

(vi)Smt. O.C. Srinivasan, Retired Director of Public Instruction, Madras-

Member

(vii) KumariSarojiniRajan, Assistant Educational Advisor, Minister of

Education-Secretary.

At the special request of the Committee, Dr. PhulrenuGuha, Vice

Chairman, West Bengal State Social Welfare Board, agreed to associate herself

with its work and function as a member.

Term of Reference: The terms of reference of the Committee are as follows-

(i) To suggest special measures to make up the leeway in

womens education at the primary and secondary levels.

(ii) To examine the problem of wastage in girls education at these

levels;

(iii) To examine the problem of adult women who have relapsed

into illiteracy or have received inadequate education and who

need continuation education so as to enable them to earn a

living and participate in projects of national reconstruction;

(iv) To survey the nature and extent of material and other facilities

offered by voluntary welfare organizations for the education of

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such women and to recommend steps necessary to enable

them to offer larger educational facilities to them; and

(v) To examine the possibilities and methods of encouraging a

larger number of women to go into vocational trades by

providing suitable vocational training as a part of formal

education or through special courses designed for adult

women.

5.15 COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL INSTRUCTION (1959)

The Sri Prakasa Committee Moral/ religious/ spiritual/ character/ value

education that the education system was not able to address effectively was

reiterated time and again. As the issue began to get more and more attention,

the Central Advisory Board of Education appointed a special Indian Policies

Overview on Values Education Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction in

1959 called the Sri Prakasa Committee to study the question of such

instruction in educational institutions. The Committee upheld that instruction on

moral and spiritual values in educational institutions is desirable, and specific

provision for doing so is feasible with certain limitations.

Recommendations: It suggested modalities for such instruction from

the primary to the university stage such as morning assembly, community

singing, suitable books for every level, inclusion of stories about lives and

teaching of prophets, saints and religious leaders in the syllabi of language

teaching, , extra-curricular activities, teaching of good manners from traditional

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teachers such as the Muslim Maulvis, and physical education . It recommended

that content may include comparative and sympathetic study of the lives and

teachings of great religious leaders, their ethical systems and philosophies in

the syllabi of languages, showing audio-visuals on art and architecture

connected with religions across the world in the syllabi of Geography etc. Good

manners, virtues of reverence and courtesy, cooperation, social service, true

patriotism, duties they owe to themselves and others, self-sacrifice for the

cause of the country, spirit of sportsmanship are some of the values identified

in its report. It upholds the constitutional provision that religious instruction

given in institutions under any endowment or trust should not be interfered

with even when such institutions are ,helped by the State. It strongly states

that moral and spiritual instruction as recommended by the committee is not a

question of conscience but that it is necessary for building the character, and

that it cannot injure the susceptibilities of any religious group. Religion and

religious teachings as being the source of morals (and values) was once again

emphasized. The Kothari Commission 1964-66, in its review observes that the

response to the Sri Prakasa committees recommendations from educational

institutions was neither active nor enthusiastic.

5.16 COMMITTEE ON EMOTIONAL INTEGRATION (1961)

To consider how the fissiparous tendencies manifesting themselves in

the country can be counteracted, the Ministry of Education constituted a

committee in May, 1961, under the chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnanand to

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examine the role of education in promoting emotional integration in national life

and to suggest suitable programmes in this regard. The members were: Smt.

Indira Gandhi, Prof. T, M. Advani, Prof. HirenMukerjee, Shri M. Henry Samuel,

Prof. M. N. Srinivas, BhaiJodh Singh, Shri A. E. T. Barrow, Shri Asoka Mehta,

Shri A. A. A. Fyzee, Shri K. KuruvilaJacab and Dr. B. S. Haikerwal. The terms of

reference of the Committee were-

(i) to study the role of education in strengthening and promoting the

processes of emotional integration in national life and to examine the

operation of tendencies which come in the way of their development;

and

(ii) in the light of such study, to advise on the positive educational

programmes for youth in general and the students in schools and

colleges in particular to strengthen in them the processes of

emotional integration. The Committee submitted its preliminary

report to the Ministry in November, 1961.

5.17 COMMITTEE ON PLAN PROJECTS: STUDY TEAM FOR SELECTED

EDUCATIONAL SCHEMES (1961) SHRI B. N. JHA COMMITTEE

This Committee was appointed by the Ministry of Education in 1961 in

pursuance of the recommendation of Shrimali Committee Report. Chairman:

SHRI B. N. JHA. Terms of Reference were-

To examine the aims and objectives of the Institutes established in the

Second Plan (a) To see how far the objectives have been fulfilled; (b) To study

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the importance of the Institutes in relation to the requirements of trained

personnel in rural areas and in other sectors of economy; and (c) To make

recommendations for improvement as may be relevant to the success of the

programmes.

5.18 COMMITTEE ON DIFFERENTIATION ON CURRICULA FOR BOYS

AND GIRLS 1964

Issues, namely sex differences, equality of women, co-education and

differentiation of curricula for sexes, have been hotly debated for several

decades and formed an important part of review made by many expert bodies.

Differentiation of curricula for boys and girls was the main theme of a

committee set up by the National council for Womens Education authorized its

Chairman to set up a committee to examine comprehensively the problem of

curricula for girls at all stages of education. The chairman Smt. Raksha Saran,

set up a committee on November 1, 1961, in consultation with the Ministry of

Education. The committee comprises 11 members. Terms of reference were-

(a) To examine the present curricula of school education and to determine

the extent to which they take care of the individual and social needs

of women in the prevailing circumstances of the country.

(b) To suggest necessary reforms without, at the same time, causing an

upheaval in the general pattern of education.

(c) To view of the need of trained women personnel for development

projects under social services, to consider the need for providing


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additional diversified courses of pre-vocational nature, apart from fine

arts and home sciences, at the secondary stage.

(d) To review the content of courses under the group fine arts and home

science and to suggest such modifications as are necessary to enable

women to take up some gainful employment.

(e) To examine the types of suitable occupations for which training should

be given in the polytechnics and junior technical schools that is being

set up for girls.

5.19 INDIAN PARLIAMENTARY AND SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE 1961

The Indian Parliamentary and Scientific Committee was formed in August

1961 with Shri LalBahadur Shastri as its chairman. Its primary objective was to

study and examine the problem of Scientific Education in Schools. In 1962, it

formed a study group with Shri P.C. Dasappa M.P. as Chairman. The committee

had several meeting and members of parliament of both the houses took keen

interest in its deliberations. Terms of References were-

(a) To study and examine early in 1962 the problem of Science education in

schools, and

(b) To find out the position of how science courses are organized in our

primary, middle and high/higher secondary schools in relation to policies

and decisions arrived at the centre and states when the Third plan

Commenced.

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5.20 EDUCATION COMMISSION (1964-66)

The Education Commission of 1964-66 was appointed by a resolution of

the government India dated 14th July 1964. The commission was to advise the

government on the National pattern of education and the general principlesand

policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects. Prof.

D.S. Kothari, chairman, University Grant Commission was the chairman and Mr.

J.P. Naik, advisor, Ministry of education, was the secretary of the commission.

There were 16 members, 11 Indians and 5 Foreigners in the commission. The

Commission has an international composition. It set up 12 task forces and 7

working groups, interviewed about 9000 men and women distinguished in

public life; educators, scientists, industrialists and scholars in different fields

and others interested in education. It received and scrutinized over 2400

memoranda and notes. The Commission spent about hundred days in visiting

universities, colleges and schools and held discussions with teachers,

educationists, administrators and students. Expenditure amounting to Rs.

14,97,169.18 was incurred on it. The Commission began its task on October 2,

1964 and its reports were issued on 29th June, 1966.

Chairman

Prof. D.S.Kothari, Chairman, University Grants Commission, New Delhi.

Members

1) ShriA.R.Dawood,formamerly Officiating Director, Directorate of Extension

Programmes for Secondary Education, New Delhi.

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2)Mr. H.L. Elvin,Director, Institute of Education, University of London.

3) Shri R.A. Gopalaswami, Director, Institute of Applied Manpower

Research,

New Delhi.

4) Prof. Sadatoshi Ihara, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda

University, Tokyo.

5) V.S. Jha, formerly Director of the Commonwealth Education Liaison

Unit, London.

6)ShriP.N.Kirpal, Educational Adviser and Secretary to the Government of

India, Ministry of Education, New Delhi.

7)Prof. M.V. Mathur, Professor of Economics and Public Administration,

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur(later Vice-Chancelor, Rjasthan University)

8)Dr. B.P.Pal, Director Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

(later on Director-General, and Vice-President, Indian Council of Agricultural

Research and Additional Secretary to the Government of India, Ministry of Food

and Agriculture).

9)Kumari S. Panandikar, Head of the Department of Education, Karnatak

University, Dharwar.

10)Prof. Roger Revelle, Director, Centre for Population Studies, Harvard

School of Public Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.

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11)Dr. K.G Saiyidian, formar Educational Adviser to the Government of

India Director, Asian Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, New

Delhi.

12)Dr. T. Sen, Vice-Chancellor, Jadavpur University, Calcutta.

13)Prof. S.A. Shumovsky, Director, Methological Division, Ministry of

Higher and Special Secondary Education, RSFSR, and Professor of Physics,

Moscow University, Moscow.

14)M. Jean Thomas, Inspector-General of Education, France and

formerly Assistant Director-General of UNESCO,Paris.

Member-Secretary

Shri J.P. Naik, Head of the Department of Educational Planning, Administration

and Finance, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona.

Associate-Secretary

Mr. J.F. McDougall, Assistant Director, Department of School and Higher

Education, UNESCO, Paris. Terms of Reference were-

The Commission had to advise Government on the national pattern of

education and on the general principles and policies for the development of

education at all stages and in all its aspects. It need not, however, examine the

problems of medical or legal education, but such aspects of these problems as

are necessary forits comprehensive enquiry may be looked into.

Task Forces

1) Task Force on School Education.

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2) Task Force on Higher Education

3) Task Force on Technical Education

4) Task Force on Agricultural Education

5) Task Force on Adult Education

6) Task Force on Science Education and Research

7) Task Force on Teacher Training and Teachers Status

8) Task Force on Student Welfare

9) Task Force on New Techniques and Methods

10)Task Force on Manpower

11)Task Force on Educational Administration

12)Task Force on Educational Finance.

Working Groups:

1) Working Group on Womens Education.

2) Working Group on the Education of Backward Classes.

3) Working Group on School Buildings.

4) Working Group on School Community Relations.

5) Working Group on Statistics.

6) Working Group on Pre-primary Education.

7) Working Group on School Curriculum.

The report of the Education Commission (1964-66), chaired by Prof. D.S.

Kothari, is possibly the last education policy-related document of the Nehruvian

era. The very timing of the decision to constitute the Commission lent a special

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significance and critical perspective to the report. This was the time when the

emerging democratic society had gained the initial experience of five year

developmental planning. This was also the time when the agenda of ushering in

a scientific age was looked upon as a means to transform the traditional society

into a modern one by way of alleviating poverty, minimizing inequalities and

institutionalizing democratic and forward looking education.

At the same time, the immediate backdrop of the Commission was

provided by a historic food crisis that called for questioning the very notion of

agricultural productivity and role of science and technology in rural

development. The policy makers were also engaged in a public debate on

various models of development. Issues relating to land reforms, co-operatives,

foreign aid, federal structure of Indian polity, religious and linguistic identities,

and status of women, caste conflicts and the medium of education were

sources of major tensions. These dilemmas and challenges faced by the nation

were reflected in the Terms of Reference as well as in the composition of the

Commission. This is also the first Commission in the post Independence India

to be assigned the task of recommending a national system of education from

pre-primary stage to professional and higher education. The Causes of

Constituting the Commission were as follows-

Firstly, India attained Independence from the British in 1947 and after

this it was hoped that the traditional system of education would undergo a

great change. But, in spite of a number of committees and commissions on

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education, much change could not be achieved. Very naturally, a

comprehensive policy was needed. Hence, in 1964-66 the Education

Commission was appointed.

Secondly, in the post independent period, a good deal of expansion

took place in the field of education, but all this was at the expense of quality.

Thirdly, the commission was appointed to bring home to the people

that they should also have a share in the reconstruction of the country through

education, the government of course shouldering the main responsibility.

Moreover, there is an explosion of knowledge, particularly in science and

technology. The appointment of a commission was consequently felt to meet

this challenge.

Fourthly, in the past, several commission and committees examined

sectors and specific aspects of education. The new commission was to survey

the entire field of educational development as the various parts of the

educational system strongly interact with and influence one another. Education

needs to be considered as a whole and not in fragments. Hence this

commission was constituted.

Fifthly, the system of education could not be strengthened without

eliciting the co-education of teachers. The teacher community had hitherto

been altogether neglected. All these years, the teachers had been subjected to

great economic hardships. A positive approach to the problems of the teacher

was, therefore, badly needed.

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5.21 COMMITTEE OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT ON EDUCATION

(1967)

The Committee of Members of Parliament on Education was constituted

by the Government of India on 5th April, 1967, with the following objectives:

(1) To consider the Report of the Education Commission; (2) To prepare the

draft of a Statement on the National Policy on Education for the consideration

of the government of India; and (3) To identify a programme for immediate

action. In view of main terms of reference and their urgency, the Committee

did not think it necessary, at this stage, to examine all the recommendations of

the Education Commission. The Committee scrutinized only its major

recommendations along with the comments of the State Governments and

others thereon.

5.22 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1968)

In the post-independence period, a major concern of the Government of

India and of the States has been to give increasing attention to education as a

factor vital to national progress and security. Problems of educational

reconstruction were reviewed by several commissions and committees, notably

the University Education Commission (1948-49) and the Secondary Education

Commission (1952-53). Some steps to implement the recommendations of

these Commissions were taken; and with the passing of the Resolution on

Scientific Policy under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the development of

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science, technology and scientific research received special emphasis. Toward

the end of the third Five Year Plan, a need was felt to hold a comprehensive

review of the educational system with a view to initiating a fresh and more

determined effort at educational reconstruction; and the Education Commission

(1964-66) was appointed to advise Government on " the national pattern of

education and on the general principles and policies for the development of

education at all stages and in all aspects." The Report of the Education

Commission has since been widely discussed and commented upon.

Government is happy to note that a consensus on the national policy on

education has emerged in the course of these discussions.

The Government of India is convinced that a radical reconstruction of

education on the broad lines recommended by the education commission is

essential for economic and cultural development of the country, for national

integration and for realizing the ideal of a socialistic pattern of society. This will

involve a transformation of the system to relate it more closely to life of the

people; a continuous effort to expand educational opportunity; a sustained and

intensive effort to raise the quality of education at all stages; an emphasis on

the development of science and technology; and the cultivation of moral and

social values. The educational system must produce young men and women of

character and ability committed to national service and development. Only then

will education be able to play its vital role in promoting national progress,

creating a sense of common citizenship and culture, and strengthening the

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national integration. This is necessary if the country is to attain its rightful place

in the comity of nations in conformity with its great cultural heritage and its

unique potentialities.

A National Policy on Education was first adopted in 1968, immediately

after the release of the report of Indian Education Commission in 1966. In

pursuance of the desire by the Kothari Commission (1964-66) the Government

of India in 1968 announced some important principles for the onward march of

education in the country.

The National Policy of Education 1968 is based on the recommendations

of the Commission of 1964-66. The Commission recommended that the

Government of India should issue a statement on the National Policy on

Education which should provide guidance to the state Governments and the

local authorities in preparing and implementing educational plans. In 1967 the

Govt. of India constituted a committee of Members of parliament on Education

to prepare the draft of a statement on the National Policy of Education. The

Committee brought together the leading members of almost all the political

parties in the country and prepared a draft which was considered by the Central

Advisory Board of Education. A general consensus on the National Policy on

Education emerged in the course of the Boards deliberations.

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5.23 CURRICULUM COMMITTEE OF HIGHER SECONDARY

EDUCATION AND ITS VOCATIONALISATION 1976

The NCERT circulated a draft document on the vocationalisation of

secondary education in April 1976, setting out a model for implementing the

scheme. This was followed by a national conference in June 1976 attended by a

number of Vice-Chancellors, Education secretaries and DPIs of States,

representatives of Boards of Secondary Education and Ministries concerned with

Education, Health, Agriculture, Labour and industries etc. besides a number of

other distinguished educationists. The issues were thoroughly discussed and

ultimately the curriculum Committee initially set up the Ministry of Education

and later enlarged and supported by the NCERT was entrusted to finalize the

document. The curriculum committee again met on September 1, 1977 and

after careful consideration finalized its recommendations.

5.24 REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE CURRICULUM FOR THE TEN-YEAR

SCHOOL 1977

The Review Committee on the Curriculum for the Ten Year School was

appointed by Government of India, under the Chairmanship of Shri I.J. Patel.

The Committee was appointed to develop a new scheme in view of the new

dimension of work based education in relation to national development, to

review stage wise and subject wise objectives identified in National Council of

Educational Research and Training document "The Curriculum for the Ten Year

School", to scrutinize National Council of Educational Research and Training

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syllabus and text books, review the present scheme of studies and the time

allocated for various subjects.

Socially Useful Productive Work

The provision of properly skilled teachers for the implementation of the

programme of Socially Useful Productive Work is of the utmost importance. In

order to give this area of work its proper place in the school programme it is

recommended that:

(i) Professional status of teachers of Socially Useful Productive Work

should be the same as that of other teachers;

(ii) There should be provision for part time employment of skilled

personnel for different activities;

(iii) There should be cells for Socially Useful Productive Work in the State

Departments of Education and the State Institutes for development

programmes of in-service training;

(iv) The course content of Socially Useful Productive Work for Teacher

Training Colleges should be produced by National Council of Educational

Research and Training in collaboration with such other institutes which have

included manual labour in their regular programmes.

5.25 WORKING GROUP ON VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION

1977

The Ministry of Education and Social Welfare (Department of Education)

set up, in consultation with the Planning Commission a working group on

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Vocationalisation of Education under the Chairmanship of Shri P. Sabanayagam

in 1977. The terms of reference of the committee were to review the

developments in the field, formulate concrete proposals indicating financial

implications and structural arrangements and to apportion areas of

responsibility among the centre, States and voluntary agencies. In the first

meeting of the working group held on 24th October 1977, two sub-groups were

constituted viz.:

(i) Vocationalisation of Education - Rural Areas

(ii) Vocationalisation of Education - Non Rural Areas.

5.26 SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO

VOCATIONALISATION 1978

National Review Committee on Higher Secondary Education was

appointed by the Government of India, on 10th October 1977 under the

Chairmanship of Dr. Malcolm S. Adiseshaiah, Vice-Chancellor, University of

Madras on +2 stage of school education with special reference to

vocationalisation of education, to review the National Council of Educational

Research and Training document "Higher Secondary Education and its

Vocationalisation", to study the syllabi and courses of the Central Board of

Secondary Education with special reference to a few selected vocations and to

recommend a plan of action for introduction of vocationalisation at the

secondary/higher secondary stage. The Committee's report "LEARNING TO

DO" was submitted on 28th February 1978.

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5.27 DRAFT NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION 1979

In 1979 the Draft Policy on Education were prepared to modify and

design the curriculum for teacher education at Primary and Secondary level,

because in this stage of education the teacher needs to pay more attention to

the students. The curriculum of teacher education at the elementary and

secondary stages will be suitably changed in order to enable teachers to play

their proper role in reforming education. Pedagogical and professional

preparation for teachers in higher education should also be provided for.

Facilities for in-service training will be expanded. Centres for developing

curricular materials and teaching aids will be established especially for the

benefit of teachers in rural areas and for both formal and non-formal systems

of education.

5.28 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986)

Since the nation's independence in 1947, the Indian government

sponsored a variety of programmes to address the problems of illiteracy in both

rural and urban India. Maulana AbulKalam Azad, India's first Minister of

Education, envisaged strong central government control over education

throughout the country, with a uniform educational system. The Union

government established the University Education Commission (19481949) and

the Secondary Education Commission (19521953) to develop proposals to

modernize India's education system. The Resolution on Scientific Policy was

adopted by the government of India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

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The Nehru government sponsored the development of high-quality scientific

education institutions such as the Indian Institutes of Technology. In 1961, the

Union government formed the National Council of Educational Research and

Training (NCERT) as an autonomous organization that would advise both the

Union and state governments on formulating and implementing education

policies.

Based on the report and recommendations of the Education Commission

(19641966), the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi announced the

first National Policy on Education in 1968, which called for a "radical

restructuring" and equalize educational opportunities in order to achieve

national integration and greater cultural and economic development. The policy

called for fulfilling compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, as

stipulated by the Constitution of India, and the better training and qualification

of teachers. The policy called for focus on learning of regional languages,

outlining the "three language formula" to be implemented in secondary

education - the instruction of the English language, the official language of the

state where the school was based, and Hindi, the national language. Language

education was seen as essential to reduce the gulf between

the intelligentsia and the masses. Although the decision to adopt Hindi as the

national language had proven controversial, the policy called for use and

learning of Hindi to be encouraged uniformly to promote a common language

for all Indians. The policy also encouraged the teaching of the ancient Sanskrit

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language, which was considered an essential part of India's culture and

heritage. The NPE of 1968 called for education spending to increase to six

percent of the national income.

Having announced that a new policy was in development in January,

1985, the government of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a new National

Policy on Education in May, 1986. The new policy called for "special emphasis

on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity,"

especially for Indian women, Scheduled Tribes (ST) and the Scheduled

Caste (SC) communities. To achieve these, the policy called for expanding

scholarships, adult education, recruiting more teachers from the SCs, incentives

for poor families to send their children to school regularly, development of new

institutions and providing housing and services. The NPE called for a "child-

centred approach" in primary education, and launched "Operation Blackboard"

to improve primary schools nationwide. The policy expanded the Open

University system with the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which had

been created in 1985. The policy also called for the creation of the "rural

university" model, based on the philosophy of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi,

to promote economic and social development at the grassroots level in rural

India robin.

5.29 OPERATION BLACKBOARD 1987

The scheme of Operation Blackboard was launched in 1987 in pursuance

of NPE-POA, to provide minimum essential facilities to all primary schools in the

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country.External evaluation of the scheme has indicated that lack of training of

teachers in using the teaching material, specification of a large number of

uniform facilities to be provided without modification according to local needs

and lack of provision for breakage of equipment have been some of the draws

of implementation of the scheme.

In order to operationalise the Revised Policy Formulations, the modified OB will

contain the following three sub schemes:

i) Continuation of ongoing OB to cover all the remaining primary schools

especially those in SC/ST areas;

ii) Expanding the scope of OB to provide three teachers and three rooms

to primary schools wherever enrolment warrants them; and

iii) Expanding OB to upper primary schools to provide (a) at least one

room for each class/section (b) a Headmaster-cum-office room, (c) separate

toilet facilities for girls and boys, (d) essential teaching learning equipment

including a library, (e) at least one teacher for each class/section and (f) a

contingency grant for replenishment of items, consumable and minor repairs,

etc.

5.30 SHIKSHA KARMI PROJECT (SKP) 1987

Education attainments in Rajasthan have been among the lowest in India

even till the 1990s. During the period 19912001, however, there has been a

substantial improvement in the literacy, which was over 75 per cent. Despite

such improvements, the enrolment rate in the state was as low as 60 per cent.

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The proportionate share of girls in total enrolment in the pre-primary and

primary level education has been as low as 36.8 per cent even in 1995-96.

Another fact is the high drop-out rate of girl children. Several measures have

been implemented in recent years to improve formal education system, and/or

to facilitate access to education. Among these, the Government of Rajasthan

initiated two ambitious and innovative education programmesthe Shiksha

Karmi Project (SKP) in 1987 and The Lok Jumbish project (LJP) in 1992. These

projects have developed novel responses to deep-rooted problems of education

and have transformed the delivery of education in the state. Both Shiksha

Karmi and the Lok Jumbish were initiated as micro-level initiatives and later

integrated into state-wide strategies to meet the educational needs of deprived

rural communities. Some of the objectives of the SKP were to achieve the

following:

Universalization of primary education in remote, socio-economically

backward villages in those blocks of Rajasthan where the existing

primary schools have been dysfunctional.

A qualitative improvement of primary education in such villages by

adapting the form and content of education to local needs and

conditions.

Improvement in enrolment of all boys and girls in the age group 6-14

years.

Building of a level of learning equivalent to the norms of Class V.

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The Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP) literally means education worker and

aims to transform dysfunctional schools into more efficient ones through the

provision of quality education with the help of locally available youth albeit with

lower qualification. The programme was formulated on the basis of a successful

project of a non-government organisation (NGO) called the Social Work and

Research Centre (SWRC) at Tilonia in Rajasthan. During a pilot project in 1984-

86, SWRC ran three experimental primary schools using local teachers and

providing continual in-service training. The curriculum and textbook design

related directly to life in a rural environment, and the education outcomes were

impressive. When the project was evaluated, these schools compared very

favourably with government primary schools.

5.31 SCHEME OF VOCATIONALISATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

AT + 2 LEVEL

The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary

Education provides for diversification of educational opportunities so as to

enhance individual employability, reduce the mismatch between demand and

supply of skilled manpower and provides an alternative for those pursuing

higher education. The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of

Secondary Education at + 2 level is being implemented since 1988. The revised

scheme is in operation since 1992-93. The Scheme provides for financial

assistance to the States to set up administrative structure, area vocational

surveys, preparation of curriculum, text book, work book curriculum guides,

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training manual, teacher training programme, strengthening technical support

system for research and development, training and evaluation etc. It also

provides financial assistance to NGOs and voluntary organizations towards

implementation of specific innovative projects for conducting short-term

courses.

The Scheme, so far, has created infrastructure of 21000 sections in 9619

schools and creating a capacity of about 10 lakh students at + 2 level. The

grants released so far since the inception of the scheme is Rs. 765 crore. Based

on the recommendations of various Committees/Review Groups, the existing

Scheme is being revised. Besides the above mentioned programmes and

scheme; there are some other centrally sponsored schemes were launched to

effect radical qualitative changes in the secondary school system in India. They

are-

National Population Education Project, 1980

Computer Literacy and Studies in Schools, 1984-88

English Language Teaching Institutes, 1986

Indian Culture, Arts and Value Education, 1987

Revised Educational Technology Scheme, 1987

Scheme for Improvement of science education, 1987-88

Reorganization of Teacher Education, 1988

Environmental Orientation to School Education, 1988-89

Centrally Sponsored Scheme for vocational Education, 1988-89

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Centrally scheme for Yoga Education

School Computer Programme Everywhere (SCOPE)

Scheme of Navodaya Vidyalayas

5.32 ANDHRA PRADESH PRIMARY EDUCATION PROJECT (APPEP)

To address the shortfall in the provision of schools in the state of Andhra

Pradesh, the APPEP Phase-I was carried out from 1984 to 1988. APPEP Phase II

was agreed to between the Government of India (GoI), and DFID in 1989 and

was implemented through to 1993. The overall objective of APPEP-II was to

achieve quality improvement by the year 2000 in teacher competence and

classroom practice to contribute to attaining universal primary education.

Specifically the programme focused on comprehensive training for large

numbers of primary school teachers, Mandal resource persons, teacher trainers

and local school inspectors. Despite the implementation of similar projects

under Operation Blackboard and Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, this was considered

an ambitious plan and a tremendous task for the Department of Education to

achieve.

Physical development consisted of the design and construction of 3393

classrooms covering 23 districts. In particular designs were to provide adequate

space per child, light and ventilation, blackboard and storage provision together

with display facilities. Additional facilities were also required to enable a school

to function as a Teacher Centre (TC). In line with this strategy one school per

mandal was proposed to be upgraded as a fully equipped TC and

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additional/new classrooms provided where needed most. 1104 teacher centres

were established in this period. The building programme was executed by PRED

at district level using conventional technologies and specifications.

The APPEP II programme was one of the biggest school resource and

building programmes ever undertaken in India and the DFID regularly

monitored its progress. The APPEP Review Mission in 1993 drew attention to

many positive aspects of progress and proposed that a team of consultants be

appointed to formulate a proposal to develop an integrated approach to

primary education provision in the state.

The engineering sector with financial assistance and guidance from DFID

ESG responded by conducting a research programme into the multitude of

alliterative construction techniques on offer all over India using experts and

consultants to evaluate the various options available. The research findings

were presented and discussed at a workshop during November 1993.

The areas identified (as a part of research findings) where savings were to be

made were:

Locally available materials-

a) Construction techniques b) Design c) Community Participation

Also a nation-wide survey of the various options available the technologies were

short-listed to be tried using the following criteria:

Durability

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Availability of materials and skills

Energy consumption

Cost

Acceptability

Maintenance requirements

5.33 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1992)

The National Policy on Education (NPE) was adopted by Parliament in

May 1986. A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharya

Ramamurti in May 1990 to review NPE and to make recommendations for its

modifications. That Committee submitted its report in December 1990. At the

request of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) a committee was set

up in July 1991 under the chairmanship of Shri N. Janardhana Reddy, Chief

Minister of Andhra Pradesh, to consider modifications in NPE taking into

consideration the report of the Ramamurti Committee and other relevant

developments having a bearing on the Policy, and to make recommendations

regarding modifications to be made in the NPE. This Committee submitted its

report in January 1992. The report of the Committee was considered by the

CABE in its meeting held on 5-6 May, 1992.

5.34 DISTRICT PRIMARY EDUCATION PROGRAMME (DPEP) 1993

The 1990s is a decade that marks a new phase of developments in

education in general and primary education in particular in India. International

assistance for primary education has been the most significant development, as

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external assistance was not sought even for other levels of education for a long

time by the government of India. Rather for the first time, primary education

sector was opened to external assistance. Starting with World Bank assistance

for primary education in ten districts in Uttar Pradesh and that of UNICEF in

Bihar, a plethora of international aid organisations are seen today in India

working on primary education system. In order to ensure better co-ordination

from the point of view of the government of India and governments of various

states in India on the one hand, and various international aid organisations on

the other, the government of India has launched a programme of District

Primary Education Programme (DPEP), as a broad overall umbrella of

international aid programmes in primary education in the country. Again, to

evaluate the effectiveness of the New Education Policy 1986, a committee was

appointed by the Govt of India in 1990. A review of NPE, 1986 was conducted

during 1990 1992. The programme of Action, 1992 stressed the need of

development of education in backward districts. Accordingly, the Government of

India formulated the District Primary Education Programe (DPEP) scheme in

1993. In December 1993 the Cabinet accorded its approval for the scheme in

principle: in January 1994 the full Planning Commission approved DPEP as a

centrally sponsored scheme. DPEP is an effort to decentralize educational

planning at the district level. It is planned in such a way that it suits the

educational needs and demands of the district concerned. Initially district

projects were prepared in 44 districts in eight states: Assam, Haryana,

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Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Gradually it was followed in 273 districts spreads over 18 states.

Objectives of DPEP scheme:

To provide access to all children of primary education (Class I to IV/V)

To reduce dropout rates to less than 10 percent

To increase learning achievement at primary level by 25 percent

To reduce gender gaps and differences in Social group to less than 5

percent.

5.35 UP BASIC EDUCATION PROJECT (UPBEP)

One-sixth of the world's population is in India and one-sixth of Indians

live in Uttar Pradesh (UP). With 160 million people, it is not only themost

populous Indian state but also one of the poorest. Despite its rich natural and

human resources, 42 percent of UP's rural population is below the poverty line.

UP also has a female literacy rate of 25.3 percent which is well below the

national average of 39.2 percent (Census, 1991).The low literacy rates are

further compounded by enormous inequalities in terms of region, urban and

rural population, gender and social groups such as scheduled castes (SC),

scheduled tribes (ST) and minorities. The keysector issues in UP are: (i)

inadequate access to primary school and disparate enrollment especially for

girls, SC and ST children, working children and children with disabilities; (ii) low

efficiency resulting in low retention and high drop-out and repetition rates; (iii)

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poor learning outcomes resulting in dismally low achievement rates in

mathematics and language; (iv) inadequate pedagogical support; and (v) weak

management. To address this social and educational backwardness, the

Government of Uttar Pradesh (GOUP) has implemented several large-scale

operations with the assistance of the Bank. The UP Basic Education Project

(UPBEP), approved in FY93, was designed to expand access to primary

school(especially of socially disadvantaged groups), improve student learning

and enhance GOUP's capacity to manage elementary education in

17educationally disadvantaged districts. The Second District Primary Education

Project (DPEP II), with similar objectives, was approved in FY97and covers 18

additional disadvantaged districts. Finally, to address the upsurge of enrollment

growths in UPBEP districts resulting in unacceptably large classes and acute

shortage of teachers and classrooms, UPBEP II was approved in FY98. The

Objectives were-

To assist GOUP in its efforts towards building capacity for ensuring that

all 6-10 year old children in 42 districts of the state, especially from socially

disadvantaged groups, complete a five-year primary education cycle of

appropriate quality. This project will contribute to further increasing the

geographical scope of the Bank-assisted UPBEP I and II and DPEP II in the

context of the current GOUP's reform.

The proposed project will have the following three

components:(i)Expanding access to and increasing retention levels in primary

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education, especially for children from disadvantaged groups. This project

component includes the following activities to be financed under the proposed

credit: appointment of para-teachers in new schools and classrooms;

construction and rehabilitation of schools and classrooms and provision of

toilets and water facilities; introduction of double shifts; provision of AS

facilities; provision of interventions specifically designed to address the

educational needs of different focus groups (girls, SC and ST children, working

children and children with disabilities); implementation of a school-health

program; and mobilizing and strengthening community organizations,

particularly VECs, and carrying out awareness campaigns. In addition, this

component includes the filling of teacher vacancies (tobe fully financed by the

state's budget) and redeployment of teachers in project districts.(ii) Improving

quality of classroom processes and enhancing learning achievement levels in

primary education. This project component includes the following activities to

be financed under the proposed credit: instituting a holistic pedagogical

renewal approach for comprehensive and continuous support for teacher

development and supervision; providing in-service training and school-based

support to teachers; developing and supplying improved and more child-friendly

textbooks and supplementary instructional materials and providing funds for

teachers to acquire and/or develop TLMs; providing book banks; and improving

procedures for assessment of children's learning, both internal, carried out by

teachers, and external, carried out by the district and state authorities.(iii)

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Improving state, district and sub-district level capacity to manage primary

education. This component includes the following activities to be financed

under the proposed credit: strengthening the current state project office;

strengthening and integrating existing state and district resource institutions in

project implementation; strengthening district project management structures;

fostering the involvement of qualified NGOs in project implementation; and

building state and district capacity for monitoring, research and evaluation.

Public Disclosure

5.36 JUMBISH PROJECT (LJP), AND TEACHER EDUCATION

The Lok Jumbish(Peoples Movement) programme is a joint initiative

developed by the Government of Rajasthan in cooperation with local NGOs. The

programme, which has been underway since 1992, is functioning in 13 districts

of Rajasthan. It aims at providing elementary education by mobilizing the

community and soliciting its involvement in the running of local schools. Lok

Jumbish (LJ) Education for All - is a movement started in 1989 aimed at

ensuring education for all in the Indian state of Rajasthan through mobilization

of the community. The three major focal points of LJ are:

universal access to primary education

universal retention of children up to 14 years of age

a substantial improvement in the quality of education to enable all

children to achieve essential levels of learning

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The activities of LJ have been in the villages and schools. They include

environment building, the formation of village level bodies and the

improvement of school facilities and of the teaching-learning process in the

schools.

In-service training of teachers has been given paramount importance to

improve the quality of primary education. Major emphasis in this training is on

sensitization, pedagogical skill development, insight into competency based

learning/evaluation and gender equity. LJ also focuses on making teachers

accountable and involves the community in achieving this. There have been

cases of community groups formed with the LJ who exert pressure on the

Teachers to come to school regularly.

The community is involved in analyzing educational situations in the

village. This enables the community to understand the existing educational

situations especially of girls as well as the nature of support required in the

village in terms of new schools, upgrading existing primary schools, and

starting non-formal centers.

Gender participation in this is an important element of the strategy because

women's development is necessary for achieving primary education for all.

5.37 MAHILA SAMAKHYA(MS)

The Mahila Samakhya (MS) programme was launched by the

Government of India to enhance the female participation in education especially

in the backward areas in each and every district of the country. The scheme

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would be applicable only in those identified Educationally Backward Blocks

(EBBs) where, as per census data of 2001, the rural female literacy is below the

national average and gender gap in literacy is more than the national average.

Among these blocks, schools may be set up in areas with: concentration of

tribal population, with low female literacy and/or a large number of girls out of

school; concentration of SC, OBC and minority populations, with low female

literacy and/ or a large number of girls out of school; areas with low female

literacy; or areas with a large number of small, scattered habitations that do

not qualify for a school. The criteria for eligible EBB will be the same as in the

NPEGEL scheme of SSA. The main goal of the programme was to gender

disparities still persist in rural areas and among disadvantaged communities.

Looking at enrolment trends, there remain significant gaps in the enrolment of

girls at the elementary level as compared to boys, especially at the upper

primary levels.

5.38 SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN 2001 (SSA)

As a follow up to the NPE, a number of programmes were initiated in

India with a view to achieving UEE. These efforts were intensified in the 1980s

and 1990s through several interventions such as Operation Blackboard (OBB),

the Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP), the Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project

(APPEP), the Bihar Education Project (BEP), the UP Basic Education Project

(UPBEP), Mahila Samakhya (MS), the Lok Jumbish Project (LJP), and Teacher

Education, which put in place a decentralized system of teacher support

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through District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) and the District

Primary Education Programme (DPEP). The latest is the SSA, a centrally-

sponsored scheme implemented in partnership with state governments for the

UEE across the country. Due to these initiatives, over the years there has been

significant spatial and numerical expansion of elementary schools in the

country. Today, access and enrolment at the primary stage of education have

reached very close to universal levels. The number of out-of-school children at

the elementary level has reduced significantly. The gender gap in elementary

education has narrowed and the percentage of enrolled children belonging to

scheduled castes and tribes has increased successively. Despite this, the goal of

universal elementary education is yet to be achieved in the country. There

remains the unfinished agenda of universal education at the upper primary

stage. The number of children particularly those from disadvantaged groups

and weaker sections who drop out of school before completing upper

primary education remains high. The quality of learning achievement is not

always entirely satisfactory even in the case of children who complete

elementary education. The Objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan are-

All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, -

to-School camp by 2003;

All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007.

All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010.

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Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on

education for life.

Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and

at elementary education level by 2010.

Universal retention by 2010.

5.39 NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR EDUCATION OF GIRLS AT

ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 2003 (NPEGEL)

The National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level

(NPEGEL), is a focused intervention of Government of India, to reach the

Hardest to Reach girls, especially those not in school. Launched in July 2003,

it is an important component of SSA, which provides additional support for

enhancing girls education over and above the investments for girls education

through normal SSA interventions. The programme provides for development

of a model school in every cluster with more intense community mobilization

and supervision of girls enrolment in schools. Gender sensitisation of teachers,

development of gender-sensitive learning materials, and provision of need-

based incentives like escorts, stationery, workbooks and uniforms are some of

the endeavours under the programme.

5.40 CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEME INCENTIVES TO GIRLS FOR

SECONDARY EDUCATION

The Finance Minister in his budget announcement 2006-07 (Para-38-

Credit of funds under Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas) has inter-alia stated

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as under: - The initial results of the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme

launched in 2004 are encouraging. 1,000 new residential schools for girls from

SC, ST, OBC and Minority communities will be opened in 2006-07. I have

provided Rs.128 crore, and I have agreed to provide an additional sum of

Rs.172 crore during the year. I propose to provide a further Incentive to the girl

child who passes the VIII Standard Examination and enrolls in secondary

school. A sum of Rs.3, 000 will be deposited in her name, and she would be

entitled to withdraw it on reaching 18 years of age.

The above announcement has been made to promote the girl childs

enrolment of 14-18 years age group at secondary stage, who passes class VIII

and subsequently drops out for various socio-economic reasons. The proposed

scheme is further intended to retain such girl child up to class XII. In the year

2004-05, the dropout rates of girls from classes I-VIII was about 50.8%. For

classes I-X the dropout rate of girls was about 64 % in the same year. Hence,

only 36% of the countrys girl students could be retained up to class-X. This is

the combined result of several socio economic factors, but a major contributor

is no doubt the inability of the parents to afford the cost of education of girl

child. The Objective were-

To establish an enabling environment to reduce the drop outs and to promote

the enrolment of girl child belonging to SC/ST communities in secondary

schools and ensure their retention up to the 18 years of age.

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5.41 RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT 2009 (RTE)

The milestone step has been taken up by the government of India in the

field of education i.e. Right to Education Act, 2009. The RTE has been

introduced to directly counter the problems of illiteracy, poor quality

infrastructure and learning level in the elementary education sector. However,

the road to the RTE Act has not been easy. The exercise of consulting all

stakeholders including the states and taking them on board has been time-

consuming. The main provisions in the RTE Act include the responsibilities of

appropriate government and local authorities towards establishing

neighbourhood schools; sharing of financial and other responsibilities between

the central and state governments; prohibition of capitation fee and screening

procedure for admission; prohibition of detention, expulsion and corporal

punishment; specification of norms and standards for schools including those

related to the infrastructure and teachers; laying down of teacher qualifications

and their duties; prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational

purposes; and ensuring that curriculum and evaluation is in accordance with

the Constitution of India and as per child-centred principles and values.

Children with disabilities and those belonging to minority communities are also

covered under the Act. As per the RTE Act, 2009, every child has the right to

full-time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal

school that satisfies certain essential norms and standards. The need to address

inadequacies in retention, residual access, particularly of un-reached children,

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and the questions of quality are the most compelling reasons for the addition of

Article 21A in the Constitution of India. As has already been stated, even prior

to the RTE, the GoIs efforts were towards universalisation of elementary

education in the country. The SSA was the most prominent among all efforts

initiated by the GoI before 2010 and was approved by the union cabinet in

November 2000 as a centrally-sponsored scheme. The goals of the SSA are (a)

enrolment of all children in schools, Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS)

centres, alternate schools, back-to-school camps, (b) retention of all children

till the upper primary stage, (c) bridging of gender and social category gaps in

enrolment, retention and learning, and (d) ensuring significant enhancement in

the learning achievement levels of children at the primary and upper primary

stages.

5.42 RASHTRIYA MADHYAMIK SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (RMSA) 2009

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) 2009is a Programme of

the Government of India, implemented in partnership with the State

Governments with the main objective to make secondary education a good

quality available, accessible and affordable to all young persons. The scheme

seeks to enhance enrolment in classes IX and X by providing a secondary

school within a reasonable distance of every habitation, to improve quality of

education imparted at secondary level by ensuring all secondary schools

conform to prescribed/ standard norms, to remove gender, socio-economic and

disability barriers and to achieve universal access to secondary level education

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by 2017, i.e. by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan. RMSA was launched in

2009, funded through national resources (central government + state

government) and now has tied up for external funding by Development

Partners (DP) World Banks International Development Association (IDA),

United Kingdoms Department of International Development (DFID) and

European Union (EU). As part of the agreement for external aid from the DPs

which came into effect in November, 2012, the Joint Review Mission (JRM) is to

be conducted every six months in the months of January and July each year.

The January Mission undertakes States visits, while the July mission is a desk

review. The field visits to the selected States/UTs implementing RMSA will be

by a Joint team of nominees of both the GOI and the DPs, after which there will

be discussions on the findings of the State visits followed by report writing and

wrap up in which the Education Secretaries/SPDs of the States will also be

participating.

5.43 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF THE DISABLED AT SECONDARY

STAGE (IEDSS)

The Scheme of Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage

(IEDSS) has been launched from the year 2009-10. This Scheme replaces the

earlier scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) and would

provide assistance for the inclusive education of the disabled children in classes

IX-XII. The main aim of the programme is to enable all students with

disabilities, after completing eight years of elementary schooling, to pursue

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further four years of secondary schooling in an inclusive and enabling

environment. The Objectives are-

The scheme covers all children studying at secondary stage in

Government, local body and Government-aided schools, with one or more

disabilities as defined under the Persons with Disabilities Act (1995) and the

National Trust Act (1999) in the class IX to XII, namely blindness, low vision,

leprosy cured, hearing impairment, locomotor disabilities, mental retardation,

mental illness, autism and cerebral palsy, and may eventually cover speech

impairment, learning disabilities, etc. Girls with disabilities receive special focus

to help them gain access to secondary schools, as also to information and

guidance for their developing potential. Setting up of Model inclusive schools in

every State is envisaged.

5.44 SCHEME FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN MINORITY

INSTITUTES (IDMI)

IDMI has been operationalised to augment Infrastructure in Private

Aided/Unaided Minority Schools/Institutions in order to enhance quality of

education to minority children. The salient features of IDMI scheme are:-

i. The scheme would facilitate education of minorities by augmenting and

strengthening school infrastructure in Minority Institutions in order to

expand facilities for formal education to children of minority communities.

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ii. The scheme will cover the entire country but, preference will be given to

minority institutions (private aided/unaided schools) located in districts,

blocks and towns having a minority population above 20%.

iii. The scheme will inter alia encourage educational facilities for girls, children

with special needs and those who are most deprived educationally amongst

minorities.

iv. The scheme will fund infrastructure development of private aided/unaided

minority institutions to the extent of 75% and subject to a maximum of Rs.

50 lakhs per institution for strengthening of educational infrastructure and

physical facilities in the existing school including (i) additional classrooms,

(ii) science / computer lab rooms, (iii) library rooms, (iv) toilets, (v)

drinking water facilities and (vi) hostel buildings for children especially for

girls.

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SECCTION-II

IMPLEMENTATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS OF VARIOUS

COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES WITH REGARDS TO SCHOOL

EDUCATION IN INDIA

As it has been discussed earlier that the task before independence

India was to remove all infirmities of the inherited educational system and

transform it into a social force geared to socio-economic transformation of the

Indian society and relate education to live, needs and aspiration of the society.

Within such conceptual framework, education was conceived as being

intertwined with the developmental process as one of its importance

components. It took some time to clearly outline the directive principles of state

policy (Article no 45) of our constitutions which reads:

The state shall endeavor to provide, within a period of 10 years from

the commencement of this constitution, for free and compulsory education for

all children until they complete the age of 14 years.

Social reformers and Indian national leaders had realized long before

independence the value of education as one of most powerful instruments for

socio-economic development and modernization of our society. While struggling

for independence form colonial rule, they tried to expand educational facilities

in the country. When the colonial government prepared post war educational

development in 1944. (Sargent report 1944), it was criticized on the ground

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that it took a long period of 40 years to universalize elementary education for

children upto the age of 14 years. This concern for rapid expansion of

education in the country found expression in the constitution.

The constitution of India-the character of Indias Freedom is a unique

and rare blue print of our democracy. As it embodies Indias full self-expression

and mirrors the hopes and aspirations of people, it is natural that education

should find an honoured place in this document. After implementation of the

constitution, its ideals and aims are reflected in all the commissions and

committees made for the development of the education. After independence

this constitution has become the milestone to be achieved through the various

policies, documents, commissions and committees.

After independence another action of a great significance in the field

of education taken by the Government of India was the appointment of the

University Education Commission in December 1948, under the chairmanship of

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, an eminent scholar and former Vice-Chancellor of

Banaras Hindu University, who later on became the President of India. The

report of the Commission is a unique document of great importance as it has

guided the development of university education in India till the formation of the

National Policy on Education, 1968. The second most significant document in

the history of the development of education is the Report of Secondary

Education Commission 1952-53. In 1966, an important event in the history of

education in India took place. This was the publication of the report of the

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Education Commission 1964-66., popularly known as the Kothari Commission.

The report went into all aspects of education and at all levels and suggested a

blue print of educational reforms to be carried out during the coming twenty

years. The report appropriately subtitled Education and National

Development begins with these words, The destiny of India is now being

shaped in our classrooms.

The Commission recommended that the Government of India should

issue a statement on the National Policy on Education which should provide

guidelines to the State Governments and the local authorities in preparing and

implementing educational plans in their areas. Therefore, in 1967, the

Government of India constituted the Committee of members of Parliament on

Education to prepare the draft of a statement on the National policy on

Education. Dr. Triguna Sen, the Union Education Minister was the chairman of

the Committee which included 29 leading members of all the different political

parties in the parties in the country.

In this way a good number of commissions and committees have been

constituted in different times. But unfortunately recommendations given by all

these commissions and committees have not been implemented in toto because

of numbers of reasons. In the following sections the implementations of

Commissions and Committees recommendation on school education have been

discussed.

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5.45 IMPLEMENTATION OF TARA CHAND COMMITTEE (1948)

Tara Chand Committee (1948) recommended secondary schools should

be multilateral and the teaching of Hindi and English should be compulsory at

the secondary stage. It gave emphasis on the pay and condition of service of

teachers. The recommendations of the committee were not completely

implemented.

5.46 IMPLEMENTATION OFUNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION

(1948-49)

University Education Commission (1948-49) considered that the

secondary education was really the weakest link in our educational machinery

and thus needed urgent reform. It gave importance on the establishment of

well-equipped and well-staffed intermediate colleges in each province. It

emphasized that admission to the university should be after intermediate

examination, not matriculation. But the recommendations of the commission

were not sincerely implemented.

5.47 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SECONDARY EDUCATION

COMMISSION 1952-53

The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 recommended various

bold and far-sighted measures like establishment of multipurpose schools,

improvement of teaching and school libraries. Training of teachers, introduction

of crafts in middle schools and conversion of high schools into higher secondary

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schools by increasing the duration of secondary stage by one year to give a

new orientation to secondary education as a whole. As a result of these

recommendations, the secondary education in various states began to take a

new shape. The Chairman of the Central Advisory Board of Education appointed

a Special Implementation Committee in 1953 to carry on the various schemes

that were started with the help of the Central Government. The Government of

India had accepted most of the recommendations of the Mudaliar Commission.

It had decided to do away with the diverse patterns of education in India and

establish a uniform structure for the whole country. It had been pointed out

that the recommendations of the previous Commissions have not been given

effect to largely because the necessary financial resources could not be made

available either by the state or by the Centre. It is an irony of fate that the

recommendations of this Commission also met the same fate. The Secondary

Education Commission did not give sufficient thought to the financial aspect of

the various reforms. Diversification of courses and vocationalisation was

proposed to commence at the end of class VIII. This was criticized as early

pushing and was not acceptable to the middle class which constitutes the most

forceful opinion group. The scheme of multipurpose higher secondary schools

proposed by it was not put into practice with vigor and commitment.

The report fails to make a powerful impact on education in India:

a) The secondary education commission observed as regards financial aid

to secondary Education. It has been pointed out that the

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recommendations of the previous commissions have not been given

effect to largely because the necessary financial resources could not be

made available either by the state or by the centre. It is an irony of fate

that the recommendations of this commission have also met the same

fate. The secondary Education Commission did not give sufficient

thought to the financial aspect of the various reforms.

b) The Secondary Education Commission did not suggest any short term

and long term plans for the implementation of its recommendations.

c) Regarding agricultural education in secondary schools the commission

observed, The need, therefore, to educate the youth of the country to a

proper appreciation of the role that agriculture plays in the national

economy must be stressed in all states should provide much greater

opportunities for agricultural education in rural schools, so that more

students may take it and adopt it as a vocation. Thus it is evident that

the commission was fully aware of the importance of agricultural

education but it did not suggest concrete measures for introducing it.

The Commission thought it fit only to append a note on Agricultural

Education in the U.S.A. by Dr. K.R. Williams. This note should have been

thoroughly examined in the light of the situation existing in India.

d) The Commissions important recommendations on the new

Organizational Pattern of Secondary Education are:

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(i) The Middle or Senior Basic or Junior Secondary Stage of three

years; and

(ii) The higher secondary stage of four years.

It may be seen from these recommendations that the commission did

not state in clear and unambiguous language what the total duration of the

school course would be. This created a lot of confusion.

e) The financial implications of the upgrading of a large number of high

schools into higher secondary pattern in every state were not worked

out.

f) The commission suggested that the minimum qualifications required for

teaching in the last two years of the higher secondary school were and

MA degree or first class BA degree with a degree in teaching. An

adequate number of qualified Post Graduate teachers are not available in

certain subject.

g) The introduction of core subject like-crafts and general science in the

curriculum of the higher secondary school has created further difficulties

regarding staff requirement.

h) The serious difficulties in the process of implementing the

recommendations of establishing multipurpose school could not be

forcing with the result that out of 22581 higher secondary schools in

1963-64, there were only 2000 multipurpose schools. Thus we find that

our schools remain as bookish and stereotype as at the time of

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recommendations of the secondary education commission. One may

aptly put this question: what has been the impact of the secondary

education commission? The answer is quite obvious. We are where we

were fifteen years ago.

i) The multipurpose school have benefited neither the school live us nor

seekers of higher education.

j) A close scrutiny of the implementation of the recommendations of the

commission reveals that the quantitative expansion of secondary

education has not been simultaneously accompanied by an expansion in

the facilities that are necessary for the imparting of this education to a

large number of the students population. Our zeal for implementing the

recommendation has lead to a dilution of standards at the institutional

level.

k) The commission did not give a clear cut path of vocationalized education

adequately. In no way our education has facilitated the task of finding

suitable man-power for various sectors of development of industries and

other services.

l) The commission did not suggest methods of coordination between

growth of economy, man-power needs, employment opportunities and

the output of secondary schools.

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The Reasons for Unsatisfactory Implementation

The reasons for the unsatisfactory implementation in most of the states

regarding the reorganization of secondary schools may be states as under:

(a) There is a variety of school patterns in the country. The primary or junior

basic stage covers a period of four years in some states and five years in

others. There is a variation in the high school stage from two to four

years. The age of admission to class I is 5 plus in some states and 6 plus

in the others and this has increased the confusion all the more. It is felt

that the mere addition of one year to the school course is not helpful in

evolving a common pattern of school education as envisaged by the

secondary education commission.

(b) The pattern of the school course which existed in Delhi seems to have

greatly influenced the reorganization elsewhere. According to this

pattern n elementary (or primary plus middle school) course should be of

eight years and a higher secondary course of three years. In states,

where school education is generally covered by a period of ten years

followed by a University course of four years for the first degree, this

reorganization meant in effect either the transfer of one year from the

college to the secondary school so that the high school became a higher

secondary school, or the separation of one year from the university

course to form a pre-university class. In other states where the total

period of school and college education required for the first degree is

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generally 15 years (eleven years in school and four years in college) the

reform implied the reduction of one year in the 15 years school and

college education. This happened because these states were not

prepared to extend the duration of the school course from eleven years

to twelve. Madras tried to compress its old 11 years school course into a

ten years course for the purpose of bringing it s school system into the

recognized pattern, but when it was about to reach its goal, it went back

to its old pattern of 11 years of school education.

(c) From the very beginning the old Bombay state (now Maharashtra and

Gujarat) did not agree with the proposed pattern of reorganization and

made no attempt to change its system of secondary education. In Uttar

Pradesh which has the system of intermediate colleges it is claimed that

its intermediate course is followed by a two-year university course, Uttar

Pradesh may also be regarded as a state which has not accepted the

new pattern.

(d) While undertaking the reforms the financial implications of the upgrading

of a large number of schools in every state to the higher secondary

pattern were not worked out. Even with Central aid the states that

accepted the pattern could convert not more than a certain number of

schools into higher secondary institutions.

(e) The selection of high schools for conversion into higher secondary

schools was to be governed by strict and carefully defined conditions.

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The commissions report stated that only those schools would develop

into efficient higher secondary institutions which satisfied definite criteria

prescribed regarding accommodation, equipment, qualifications of the

staff, salaries and grades and adequate finances, and that such

conditions have to be fulfilled scrupulously before the schools were

recognized as higher secondary schools. The establishment of higher

secondary schools in certain areas unfortunately became a matter of

prestige for the people concerned. Social and political pressures were

sometimes used for getting the necessary recognition for their

institutions. This resulted in the upgrading of a number of schools which

did not satisfy the minimum criteria regarding accommodation,

equipment, qualifications of staff etc., and though the conversion has

been effected it has not led to any marked improvement in the quality of

education imparted in the institutions.

(f) A successful reorganization implied that teachers with higher

qualifications should be made available for the teaching of the upgraded

courses, at least in the additional year of the higher secondary stage.

The commissions report suggested that the minimum qualifications

required for teaching in the last two years of the higher secondary

school were an M.A. degree or a first class B.A degree with a degree in

teaching. An adequate number of qualified post graduates, however,

were not available for the few courses. Moreover, the introduction of

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core subjects like crafts and general science in the curriculum of the

higher secondary school created further difficulties regarding staff

requirement. On account of the mediocre quality of the teaching

personnel the standards of the higher secondary school have not been

adequately raised and the reputation of the new organizational pattern

has suffered as a consequence.

(g) In view if the fact that it was not possible to convert all the high schools

into higher secondary schools in the near future, the pre-university

course was introduced as a transitional experiment. But the pre-

university course has come to be regarded as an institution which could

continue for an indefinite time, particularly with the expansion in

secondary education that has taken place during the last few years

resulting in the establishment of a large number of new high schools all

over the country. The one year pre-university course has not served the

purpose as it is a course of only seven to eight months. It takes several

months to the students out of this short period for adjusting themselves

to the new conditions, for adapting themselves to the methods of

instruction different from what they have been accustomed to in schools,

and (in the case of the majority of students) to a new medium of

instruction, which is English. The pre-university year has thus become an

ineffective period of study.

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5.48 IMPLEMENTATION OF KOTHARI COMMISSION 1964-66

Professor D.S. Kothari submitted the report of the Education

Commission, titled Education and National Development Minister of

Education, to the, Government of India, on June, 29, 1966. Perhaps the most

significant feature of the report was its emphasis on the social process of

education, on the need to use it as a tool for the realization of national

aspirations or for meeting national challenges. It rejected as native belief the

view that all education is necessarily good, both for the individual and for

society and that it will necessarily lead to progress. Quantitatively, it stated,

Education can be organized to promote social justice or retard it. History

shows numerous instances where small social groups and elites have used

education as a prerogative of their rule and as a tool for maintaining their

hegemony and perpetuating the values upon which it rested. On the other

hand, there are cases in which a social and cultural revolution has been brought

about in a system where equality of opportunity is provided and education is

deliberately used to developed more and more potential talent and to harness it

to the solution of the national problems. It further stated: judged from this

point of view, it becomes evident that the present system of education,

designed to meet the needs of an imperial administration within the limitations

set by a feudal and traditional society, will need radical changes if it is to meet

the purposes of a modern democratic and socialistic society. Principal

Recommendations of the Education Commission, 1964-66 Are-

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A. Education and National Objectives

Education and National Development: The most important and urgent

reform needed in education is to related it to the life, needs and aspirations of

the people and thereby make it a powerful instrument of social, economic and

cultural transformation necessary for realisation of the national goal. For this

purpose the following five-fold programme has been suggested;

(a) Relating education to productivity;

(b) Strengthening social and national integration through educational

programmes;

(c) Consolidation of democracy through education;

(d) Modernisation of society through awakening of curiosity,

development of attitudes and values and building up certain essential skills.

(a) Education and productivity

The following programmes are needed to relate productivity to education:

(i) Science education should be an integral part of school education and

ultimately become a part of all courses at University stage;

(ii) Work experience to become an integral part of all education;

(iii) Every effort should be made to orient work experience to technology

and industrialisation and the application of science to productive processes,

including agriculture; and

(iii) Vocationalisation of secondary education and agricultural and

technical education to be emphasised.

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(b) Social and national integration

The following steps have been suggested to strengthen national

consciousness and unity:

(i) Adoption of a common school system of public education as the

national goal and its effective implementation in a phased programme spread

over 20 years.

(ii) Organisation of social and national service programmes concurrently

with academic studies in schools and colleges and to make them obligatory for

all students at all stages;

(iii) Participation in programmes of community development and national

reconstruction should be an integral part of all education from the primary to

the undergraduate stage;

(iv) Continuance of N.C.C. on its present basis till the end of the Fourth

Five Year Plan;

(v) Development of an appropriate language policy for the education

system;

(vi) Adoption of regional language as the medium of instructions;

(vii) Energetic action for production of books and literature, particularly

scientific and technical, in regional languages. This should be the responsibility

of universities assisted by U.G.C.

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(viii) Continuance of the use of English as the medium of instructions in

the All-India institutions. The eventual adoption of Hindi to be considered in

due course subject to certain safeguards;

(ix) Regional languages to be made language of administration for the

regions concerned at the earliest possible time.

(x) Continuation of the promotion of the teaching and study of English

right from the stage. Special attention to be given to the study of Russian;

(xi) English language to serve as a link-language in higher education for

academic work and intellectual inter-communication. Hindi to serve as the link

language of the majority of our people and also adoption of all measures for

the spread of Hindi in non-Hindi areas;

(xii) Combining two modern Indian languages at the B.A and M.A level;

and

(xiii) Promotion of national consciousness through the promotion of

understanding and re-evaluation of our cultural heritage and the creation of a

strong driving faith in the future towards which we aspire.

(c) Education for Democracy

The following Programme has been suggested for consolidation of democracy:

(i) Provision of free and compulsory education of good quality for all

children up to the age of 14 years as envisaged in Art. 45 of the Constitution;

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(ii) Promotion of programmes of adult education aiming not only at

liquidation of illiteracy, but also at raising the civic and vocational efficiency and

general cultural level of the citizens;

(iii) Training of efficient leadership at all levels by expanding secondary

and higher education and providing equal opportunities for all children of merit

and promise, irrespective of economic status, caste, religion, sex or place of

residence;

(iv) Development of a scientific mind and outlook, tolerance, concern

for public interest and public service, self -discipline, self reliance,

initiative and a positive attitude to work.

(d) Social Moral and Spiritual Values

The education system should emphasise the development of

fundamental social, moral and spiritual values. From this point of view the

Centre and State Governments should adopt measures to introduce education

in moral, social and spiritual values in all institutions under their(or local

authority) control on the lines recommended by the University Education

Commission and the Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction.

(e) Education and Modernisation

The following has been suggested in this regard:

(i) Awakening of curiosity, the development of proper interest, attitudes

and values and the building up of such essential skills as independent study and

capacity to think and judge for oneself; and

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(ii) Creation of an intelligentsia of adequate size and competence.

B. The educational system: Structure and Standard

(1) Stages in Education and their Inter-relationship

In this regard the following has been suggested:

(i) The new educational system should consist of (a) one to three years

of pre-school education; (b) a primary stage of 7 to 8 years divided into lower

primary stage of 4 to 5years and a higher primary stage of 3 or 2 years; (c) a

lower secondary stage of 3 or 2years ; (d) a higher secondary stage of two

years of vocational education (e) a higher education stage having a course of 3

years or more for the first degree and followed by course for the second or

research degree of varying durations;

(ii) Age of admission to Class 1 ordinarily not to be less than 6

(iii) First public examination to come at the end of 10 years of schooling;

(iv) Secondary schools should be of two types -high schools providing a

ten-year course and higher secondary schools providing a course of 11 to 12

years.

(v) New Higher Secondary course beginning in Class XI and XII to

provide specialised subjects; and

(vi) Transfer of the Pre-University course from the Universities and

affiliated colleges to secondary schools by 1975-76 and the duration of the

course to be lengthened to two years by 1985-86. The University Grants

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Commission should be responsible for affecting the transfer of all pre-university

or intermediate work from university and affiliated colleges to schools.

(2) Reorganisation of the University stage

The following has been recommended in this respect:

(i) Duration of the first degree should not be less than three years and

the duration of the second degree to be 2 to 3 years;

(ii) Some universities should start graduate schools with 3 years Master

Degree courses in certain subjects; and

(iii) Three year special courses for the first degree which begin at the

end of the first year of the present 3 year degree courses should be started in

selected subjects and in selected institutions.

(3) Utilisation of Facilities

The following methods have been suggested to make full utilisation of

available facilities:

(i) Instruction days in the year to be increased to about 39 weeks for

schools and 35weeks for colleges and pre-primary schools; and

(ii) Standard calendar in the worked out by the Ministry of Education and

the University Grants Commission in consultation with State Governments and

Universities respectively.

C. Teacher Status

The Commission has emphasised that the most urgent need was to

upgrade the remuneration of teacher substantially, particularly at the school

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stages, and recommended that the Government of India should lay dawn for

the school stage, minimum scales of pay for teachers and assist the States and

Union Territories-to adopt equivalent or higher scales to suit their conditions.

Scales of pay of schools teachers belonging to the same category but working

under different managements such as Government, Local bodies or private

managements should be the same.

D. Teacher Education

The Professional preparedness of teachers being crucial for the

qualitative improvement of education, the Commission has urged that this

should be treated as a key-area in educational development and adequate

financial provisions should be made for it. It further recommended:

(i) In order to make the professional preparation of teachers effective,

teacher education must be brought into the mainstream of the academic life of

the Universities. On the one hand, and of the school life and educational

development, on the other;

(ii) The quality of the programme of teacher education should be

improved;

(iii) New professional courses should be developed to orientate

headmasters, teachers, educators and educational administrators to their

special field of work;

(iv) The post -graduate courses in education should be flexible and be

planned to promote an academic and scientific study of education and to

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prepare personnel for special fields of education, requiring special knowledge

and initiation, and

(v) Improvement of teacher education institutions and expansion of

training facilities should be undertaken.

E. Towards Equalisation of educational Opportunity

Observing that every attempt should be made to equalise educational

opportunities or at least to reduce some of the most glaring inequalities which

now exist, the Commission has stressed the need for the following

programmes:

(i) The development of a common school system of public education in

which no fees would be charged, where access to good schools will be open to

all children on the basis of merit, and where the standard maintained would be

high enough to make the average parent feel no need to send his child to an

independent institution;

(ii) The development of adequate programmes of student-service at all

stages which will include free supply of books and writing materials at the

primary stage, the provision of book banks and textbooks, libraries in all

institutions of secondary and higher education, the provision of transport, day

study centres or hostels, and the institution of guidance facilities and health

services;

(iii) The development of a large programme of scholarships at all stages

and in all sectors combined with a programme of placement and maintenance

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of quality institutions, to ensure that the brighter children at least will have

access to good education and that their further education will not be

handicapped on economic grounds.

(iv) Special encouragement to the education of girls and the backward

classes;

(v) The reduction of imbalances in educational development between the

different parts of the country -districts and States; and

(vi) The development of a comparatively small but effective programme

for the education of the handicapped children.

F. School Education Curriculum

(1) Essentials of Curricular Improvement

For the improvement and upgrading of school curricula. The following

measures have been suggested.

(i) Essential of Curricular Improvement of school curricula research

should be undertaken by University Departments of Education, Training

Colleges, State Institutes of Education and Boards of School Education ;

Revision of curricula should be based on such research; (c) Basic to the success

of any attempt at curriculum improvement is the preparation of text books and

teaching-learning materials; and (d) the orientation of teachers to the revised

curricula through in-service be achieved through seminars and refresher

courses;

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(ii) Schools should be given the freedom to devise and experiment with

new curricula suited to their needs. A lead should be given in the matter of

training colleges and universities through their experimental schools;

(iii) Advanced curricula should be prepared by State Board of School

Education in all subjects and introduced in phased manner in schools which

fulfil certain conditions of Staff and facilities;

(iv) The formation of Subject Teachers Associations for the different

schools subjects will help to stimulate experimentation and in upgrading of

curricula.

(2) Study of Languages

The following has been suggested for the study of languages at school

stage:

(i) The language study at the school stage needs review and a new

policy requires to be formulated particularly in view of the fact that English has

been mostly used as an associated official language of the country for an

indefinite period;

(ii) The modification of the language formula should be guided by the

following principles:

(a) Hindi as the official language of the Union enjoys an importance next

only to that mother tongue.

(b) A workable knowledge of English will continue to be an asset to

students.

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(c) The proficiency gained in a language depends as much upon the

types of teachers and facilities as upon the length of time in which it is learned.

(d) The most suitable stage for learning these languages is the lower

secondary ( Classes VIII-X)

(e) The introduction of the additional language should be staggered.

(f) Hindi or English should be introduced at a point where there is

greatest motivation and need.

(g) At no stage should the learning of four languages be made

compulsory.

(3) Three Languages Formula: The modified Three Language

Formula should include the following:

(i) The mother tongue or the regional languages;

(ii) The official language of the Union or the associate official language

of the Union so long as it exist; and

(iii) A modern Indian or Foreign Language not covered under (a) and (b)

and other than that used as the medium of instruction.

J.P. Naik, who had served as Member Secretary of the Education

Commission and had played a leading role in preparing its report, published The

Education Commission and After in 1982. The book written in 1979, examined

the Report of the Education Commission and the steps taken give effect to its

recommendations during the preceding 12 years. Malcom S. Adiseshiah, in his

foreword to the book, described it as an extraordinary work which is as

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illuminating for its in formativeness as for the deep perception it exhibits of the

meshing process of educational, economic and political decision making. The

process of discussion of the report after its submission to the Minister of

Education, its consideration by committee of members of Parliament and,

finally, the drafting of the resolution issued by the Government of India on the

report of the Education Commission, which was the first statement on the

National Policy on Education, described in the book is highly instructive. It also

illustrates the seriousness with which issues of education are deliberated and

decisions taken. The statement on the National Policy on Education issued in

1968 is described by Naik as far from satisfactory, mainly because of the

political and economic circumstances of the period and the violent eruption of

the language controversy. It should not be forgotten, he states, that it was

finalized by a weak Central Government, which was more anxious to avoid

controversies than to bring about radical educational changes. As it has stated

above that the Education Commission had covered every aspect of education in

its recommendations. But, all the recommendations were not implemented

properly because of certain reasons. It is worthwhile to mention here is that the

Commission itself was not against a selective implementation. Of course the

main issue was, not the principle of selective approach which had became

inevitable, but the specific recommendations to be selected because, depending

on the nature of this selection, the whole objective of the commission would be

gained or destroyed. But a selection approach was come from different

186
circumstances. There are some important recommendations provided by the

Education Commission which were attracted wide attention, these are as

follows-

a) National system of Education: A question was raised whether all our

pre-occupation with the national system of education was not a mere hangover

of the past, whether the concept was still valid in the post independence

period, and if so how precisely would a national system of education be

defined.

b) Relating education to the past and future: The Education

Commission had observed that Indian education will have to be related both to

the past and the future of the country. This raised a discussion on several

difficult problems relating to Indian tradition and national development.

c) Medium of Instruction at the university stage: The commission had

underplayed the language issue but it did say that the regional languages

should become the media of instruction at the university stage in a period of 10

years.

d) Non-formal education: The commission was one of the first in the

world to point out the severe limitations of an exclusive dependence on the

formal system of full-time education and to emphasize the need for non-formal

education which can be pursued on a part time or own-time basis. It also

highlighted the need to move form a single point to a multi-point entry system.

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e) Education for the people: Report of the commission did succeed in

inviting the attention of the country to the massive problem of the education of

our people. This is but right because it is the only commission after 1882 to

deal with elementary education and the only commission ever to deal with adult

education.

f) Pattern of school and college classes: The idea that the country

should adopt a common pattern of 10+2+3 was first put forward by the

Calcutta University Commission (1917-19). Since then, every commission had

toyed with the idea. It was also highlighted by the Education Commission,

although at a lower of priority.

g) Teachers salary: Revisions of teacher salaries has been a continual

programme since 1947. It, however, goes without saying that perhaps the

maximum in the field have been made in the period following the report of the

Education Commission.

i) Common School system: The Commission had drawn pointed attention

to the segregation that now takes place between the education of the children

of the upper and middle classes who generally attend private, fee charging and

good quality institution and children of the poor who can only avail themselves

of the publicly supported, free but poor quality institution conducted by

government and local bodies. Its proposal to do away with desegregation

through the adaption of a common school system has created a debate on

future of public and special school in the country.

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Besides the above recommendations the commission had also provided

some recommendations which were attract the less attention of the public.

These recommendations are-

i) Making work experience and social or national service and integral

part of education at all stages.

ii) Emphasis on science education and research.

iii) Vocationalisation of secondary education,

iv) Cultivation of moral and social values or character formation,

v) Promoting decentralization, diversification, elasticity and dynamism in

the education system,

vi) General education and professional preparation of teachers,

vii) Integrating the different stages of education for qualitative

improvement,

viii) Creating a nationwide movement for improvement of standard,

including institutional planning,

ix) Creating a climate of sustained hard work,

x) Identification and development of talent, scholarships,

xi) Improvement of curricula teaching and learning materials, and

method of teaching and evaluation,

xii) Development of pre-school education

xiii) Education of girls, Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes,

xiv) Reduction of regional imbalances and

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xv) Increase of educational expenditure from 3% in 1965-66to 6% in

1985-86.

The report received wide attention and aroused great hopes. Though the

Education Commission had recommended a good number of suggestions for

the developments of education all most in all levels, but these

recommendations were least implemented directly in our country. Basically, the

Education Commission (1964-66) was appointed to advise Government on the

national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the

development of education at all stages and in all aspects." The Report of the

Education Commission has since been widely discussed and commented upon.

Government is happy to note that a consensus on the National Policy on

Education (1968) has emerged in the course of these discussions.

5.49 IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 1968

Since the adoption of the 1968 policy on Education, there had been

considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.

However, the general formulation incorporated in the 1968 policy did not get

translated into detailed study of implementation. As result problems of access,

quality, quantity, utility and financial outlay, accumulated over the years,

assumed such massive proportions that they must be tackled with the utmost

urgency. Accordingly, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister, announced in

January 1985, that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.

A status paper, Challenge of Education A policy perspective was issued by

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the Ministry of Education, Government of India in which comprehensive

appraisal of the existing system of education was made. There was a country

wide debate on educational reforms in the country. Finally the New National

Policy on Education, 1986 was approved by the parliament in May 1986.

5.50 IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 1979&

1986

Twenty one years after becoming independent, the nation had its first

National Policy on Education in 1968. After eleven years, in 1979, a Draft

national Policy on education was printed and circulated by the Central

Government (DOE 1979). After sixteen years of this attempt, in 1985, the

Central Government brought out the Challenge of Education document and

got it widely circulated so as to get suggestions for formulating a new Policy. In

1986, a new National Policy on Education (NPE 1986) was formulated. In 1990,

the Central government got the Policy of 1986 reviewed by a Committee

chaired by Acharya Ramamurti. Before the Policy could be modified in lines of

the recommendations of this Committee, there was a change in the Central

Government. In 1992, The Central Advisory Board of Education appointed

Committee chaired by N. Janardan Reddy reviewed the recommendations of

Acharya Ramamurti Committee. In 1992, based on the recommendations of this

Committee, the Central Government brought out a modified version of NPE

1986. During the period 1986-1992, the Central Government brought out a few

Programme of Action documents. It has been more than seventeen years since

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the modified NPE Policy document was published. During these seventeen

years, a plethora of changes have taken place. Early childhood care and

education has replaced elementary education in the article 45 of the Directive

principles of the Constitution. The NPE 1986 had stated that The

implementation of the various parameters of the New Policy must be reviewed

every five years. Appraisals at short intervals will also be made to ascertain the

progress of implementation and the trends emerging from time to time. Hence,

in view of vast changes in education scenario since 1992, it may be appropriate

for the Central Government to take necessary steps for formulating a new

policy on education. Some of the issues that the new policy may need to

consider may be as follows:

A few strategies mentioned in the National Policy on Education as

modified in 1992 are yet to be implemented. Some of the strategies which may

need to be reviewed are : (a) Common educational structure, (b) Inclusion of

+2 as part of school education (In 2010, many States have +2 as part of higher

education and teachers teaching these classes need not have a B. Ed. degree

and the concerned State government approved general class size is more than

100), (c) Checking of substandard institutions and substandard programmes,

(d) Spending six per cent of national income for education; (e) Operationalising

State advisory boards of education, (f) Providing training for educational

planners, administrators and heads of institutions (Existing provision is

adequate), (g) Making systematic assessment of performance of teachers (

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Existing provision is inadequate), (h) Creating Indian Education Service, (i)

Appraising performance of institutions ( NAAC gradation does not give

assessment of performance of each of the Departments of the University or of a

college and does not assess classroom teaching performance of teachers and

school education is not covered by NAAC), (j) Making Payment of adequate

salary to teachers and banning part time appointment in regular posts and

enforcing teacher accountability, (k) De-linking of degrees from jobs, (l) Making

network arrangements; (m) Operationalising national examination reform

framework, (n) Operationalising Councils of Higher Education, (o) Increasing

flexibility in the combination of courses, (p) Establishing National Evaluation

Organisation, etc..

A few new issues that may be considered while formulating a new NPE

may be (a) Establishing world class universities ( It may take many years to get

world recognition), (b) In view of proliferation of shadow education at a cost

making private coaching by regular teachers punishable, (c) Bringing all

educational programmes for SC & ST under one umbrella, (c) Making initial

teacher training and study for first degree in medical education free and

introducing grant in aid system for private institutions, (d) Utilising non

teachers instead of regular teachers in coaching classes being run under

government schemes, (e) Banning open university and other distance education

and self-financed programmes and coaching programmes utilise teachers in

service, (f) Ensuring regular inspection of teaching; (g) Making provision for

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special coaching facilities for first generation learners, (h) Having teaching

competency test included in existing NET and SETs, (i) Considering the

situation arising out of large scale increase in opportunities of self-initiated

learning and private coaching, making university and board examinations open

for all irrespective of previous formal qualifications, (j) Cancelling holidays in

lieu of teaching days lost due to strikes and late admissions and providing

proportionate benefit to the concerned teachers, (k) Making month wise time

tables to give scope for flexibility in curricula and teaching techniques, (l)

Making extension work included as part of duty of all categories of teachers,

(m) Ensuring maintenance of record for daily activities for all categories of

teachers, (n) Ensuring payment of salaries to teachers by cheques as condition

for recognition, (o) Making it mandatory for institution to assess their

programmes of the previous academic session and make it available for public

use by placing these in their web sites, (p) Abolishing statutory bodies like

AICTE, NCTE, UGC etc. or changing nature of their functioning by modifying

concerned Acts, etc.

A few issues related to school education which may be considered are:

(a) Modifying the National Council for Teacher Education Act so as to make it

applicable to all States and the Union Territories and making it compulsory for

all the members of the General Council and Regional Committees to have

experience in school teaching in addition to a M. Ed. or M. A. (Education)

degree, (b) Considering the sub standard programmes in preparation of teacher

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educators, instituting teacher educator selection tests at national and state level

( a large number of M. Ed. degree holders have been produced by universities-

government and private without bothering for NCTE norms), (c) Modifying

existing Central Government scheme -Establishing institutions instead of giving

grants to States run institutions as per Central Government Schemes ( Large

numbers of IASEs, CTEs and DIETs being funded by the Central Government

scheme do not maintain adequate staff and material resources and in many

cases there have been large scale wastage of human and material resources),

(d) Making provision for special initial teacher training for teaching gifted

children in schools such as Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, and providing better

salary to such teachers, (e) Making qualifications for a Lecturer in Education

specified by the UGC and by the NCTE same, (f) Instead of extending duration

of B. Ed. programme from one year to two years, providing increased duration

to existing B. Ed. programmes by making institutions and departments of

education offering such programmes function without long holidays and giving

faculty members proportionate leave salary benefits, as found in case of

Regional Institutes of Education of NCERT, (g) Developing and notifying

standards for various types of school teachers and teacher educators, (h)

Developing and notifying standards for teacher trainees for various types of

initial teacher training programmes, (i) Making school teaching for a specific

period mandatory for all faculty members involved in teacher training

programmes, (j) Making provision for induction programmes for beginning

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teachers with provision for selection and training of mentors for training new

teachers, (k) Making provision for National level and State level school teacher

and teacher educator selection tests and making such tests open for persons

with or without formal teacher training qualifications or M. Ed. or M.

A.(Education) degrees (There have been instances of Professors of Education in

Central Universities and NCERT and Principals of Government Training Colleges

of many States having no B. Ed. or M. Ed. degrees), (l) Allowing States, having

high proportion of untrained teachers, especially NE States, to go for alternative

mode of initial teacher training- teacher training through schools as found in

case of the UK and the USA, (m) Modifying EGS & AES to have regular teachers

instead of para teachers, (n) Making child labour punishable and abolishing

schools for child labour, (o) Converting all Anganwadis to preschool centres and

making preschool teaching part of elementary school initial teacher training

programmes, and (p) Bringing all types of teacher training under higher

education.

In order to formulate NPE 1986, in 1985, the Central Government had

brought out the Challenge of Education document that highlighted pros and

con of various strategies proposed for improving education. There is perhaps

necessity for developing such a publication in 2010 that may generate effective

dialogue over various issues and provide inputs for formulating a new NPE.

The Parliament of India discussed and adopted the National Policy on

Education, 1986 in its budget session of 1986. During the course of the debate

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the Minister of Human Resource Development promised to preset the

programme of Action for implementation of the policy in the monsoon session

of the parliament. Immediately thereafter twenty three Task Forces were

constituted and each was assigned a specific subject of the policy. Each Task

Force had eminent educationists, experts and senior representatives of the

Central and several State Governments. One Task Force dealt with Secondary

Education and Navodaya Vidyalayas. It outlined the parameters, priorities and

strategies of programme implementation relating to secondary education.

The Task Force was requested to examine the present situation relating to

Secondary Education and to elaborate the implications of the specific

statements contained in the NPE. It was also expected to project the actions

that would be necessary and indicate the broad financial implications.... Such

detailed exercises had not been undertaken earlier; and that is one of the

major reasons for the non-implementation of the earlier policies with rigour.

The Reports of the Task Forces were ready by July, 1986. These

reports were discussed at length in a series of meetings convened by the

Ministry of Human Resource Development. The POA, 1986 was discussed in a

meeting of the Secretaries of the Education Departments of the several State

and Union Territory Governments. The CABE attended by the Education

Ministers of the state & UT Governments considered it on 1 st and 2nd August,

1986.

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5.51 MAJOR INITIATIVES TAKEN FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF

REVISED NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION 1992

Programme of Action POA (1992)

The POA for the revised NPE was evolved by constituting twenty-two

Task Forces on the following dimensions of education.

a) Education for Womens equally.

b) Education of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other

Backward Sections.

c) Minorities Education.

d) Education of the Handicapped.

e) Adult and Continuing Education.

f) Early Childhood Care and Education.

g) Elementary Education.

h) Secondary Education.

i) Navodaya Vidyalaya.

j) Vocational Education.

k) Higher Education. Open Education.

l) Delinking Degrees from Jobs and Manpower Planning

m) Rural Universities and Institutions.

n) Technical and Management.

o) Research and Development.

p) The Cultural Perspective.

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q) Development of Languages.

r) Media and Education Technology.

s) Sports, Physical Education and Yoga.

t) Evaluation Process and Examination Reforms.

5.52 UNIVERSALISATION OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

Since the formulation of the NPE (1992), following major programmes

have been initiative for achieving the objectives of Universalisation of

Elementary.

(i) District Primary Education Projection (DPEP).

(ii) Sarve Shiksha Abhiyan

(iii) National programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education

(NPNSPE) or Mid-day Meals.

(iv)Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative

Education.

(v) National Programme of Education of Girls at Elementary Stage

(NPEGL) Scheme

(vi) Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme.

(vii) Prthmik Shiksha Kosh.

5.53 IMPLEMENTATION OF SSA

Regarding SSA programme it has been launched in 2001 and it has

been adopted in all the states of the country. At the initial stage it was guided

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that the implementation of SSA programme would be universal in the country

and the financial assistance will be in the following ways.

a) The assistance under the programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will be

on 85.15 sharing arrangement during the IX Plan, 75:25 sharing

arrangement during the X Plan and 50:50 sharing thereafter between

the Central Government and State Governments. Commitments

regarding sharing of costs would be taken from State governments in

writing.

b) The State Governments will have to maintain their level of investment in

elementary education. The contribution as State share for SSA will be

over and above this investment.

c) The Government of India would release funds to the State

Governments/Union Territories only and instalments (except first) would

only be released after the previous instalments of Central Government

and State share has been transferred to the State Implementation

Society.

d) The support for teacher salary appointed under the SSA programme

could be shared between the central government and the State

government in a ratio of 85:15 during the IX Plan, 75:25 during the X

Plan and 50:50 thereafter.

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e) All legal agreements regarding externally assisted projects will continue

to apply unless specific modifications have been agreed to, in

consultation with foreign funding agencies.

f) Existing schemes of elementary education of the Department (except

National Bal Bhawan and NCTE ) will coverage after the IX Plan. The

National Programme for Nutritional Support to Primary Education (Mid-

day-Meal) would remain a distinct intervention with food grains and

specified transportation costs being met by the Centre and the cost of

cooked meals being met by the State Government.

g) District Education Plans would inter-alia, clearly show the funds/resource

available for various components under schemes like JRY, PMRY,

Sunshchit Rozgar Yojana, Area fund of MPs/MLAs,, State Plan, foreign

funding and resources generated in the NGO sector.

h) All funds to be used for up-gradation, maintenance, repair of schools and

Teaching Learning equipment and local management to be transferred to

VECs/School Management Committees/Gram Panchayat/or any other

village/School level arrangement for decentralisation adopted by that

particular State/UT. The village/school-based body may make a

resolution regarding the best way of procurement.

i) Other schemes like distribution of scholarships and uniforms will

continue to be funded under the State Plan. They will not be funded

under the SSA programme.

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5.54 IMPLEMENTATION OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT 2009

After enacting the RTE Act, 2009, the state governments have taken

steps for implementing the same. All state and union territory governments

have issued the RTE Rules, or adopted the Central RTE Rules, except for Goa

and Karnataka, which are yet to notify the state RTE rules. Several states have

issued instructions/notifications for (a) banning capitation fees, corporal

punishment, detention and expulsion, and private tuition by school teachers;

(b) specifying working days/instructional hours; and (c) constituting the SCPCR

or Right to Education Protection Authority (REPA). The central government has

also taken several steps for implementation of the RTE Act. The National

Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) and the NCERT have been notified as the

academic authorities under Sections 23(1) and 29(1) of the RTE Act

respectively. The NAC has been constituted under Section 33(1) of the Act. The

NCTE has laid down the minimum qualifications for a person to be eligible for

appointment as a teacher in schools. The main challenges under the RTE Act

include bringing out-of-school children into the schools, filling up the large

vacancy of teacher posts, training of untrained teachers, and bad herence by

schools to the norms and standards specified in the Schedule of the RTE Act.

The central government, along with the state governments, is taking several

steps for addressing these issues, including resource allocation for meeting the

infrastructural and manpower gaps as per the revised SSA norms.

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5.55 IMPLEMENTATION OF RASHTRIYA MADHYAMIK SHIKSHA

ABHIYAN (RMSA) 2009

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is a Programme of the

Government of India, implemented in partnership with the State Governments

with the main objective to make secondary education a good quality available,

accessible and affordable to all young persons. The scheme seeks to enhance

enrolment in classes IX and X by providing a secondary school within a

reasonable distance of every habitation, to improve quality of education

imparted at secondary level by ensuring all secondary schools conform to

prescribed/ standard norms, to remove gender, socio-economic and disability

barriers and to achieve universal access to secondary level education by 2017,

i.e. by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan. RMSA was launched in 2009, funded

through national resources (central government + state government) and now

has tied up for external funding by Development Partners (DP) World Banks

International Development Association (IDA), United Kingdoms Department

of International Development (DFID) and European Union (EU). As part of the

agreement for external aid from the DPs which came into effect in November,

2012, the Joint Review Mission (JRM) is to be conducted every six months in

the months of January and July each year. The January Mission undertakes

States visits, while the July mission is a desk review. The field visits to the

selected States/UTs implementing RMSA will be by a Joint team of nominees of

both the GoI and the DPs, after which there will be discussions on the findings

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of the State visits followed by report writing and wrap up in which the

Education Secretaries/SPDs of the States will also be participating.

5.56 IMPLEMENTATION OF OTHER CENTRAL SPONSORED SCHEME

Again some of the centrally sponsored schemes for school education

such as- DPEP, KBV, NV,Non-Formal Education, Mahila Samakhya, Bihar

Education Project (BEP),Minimum Levels of Learning (MLLs),Vocationalisation of

Secondary Education, Improvement of Science Education in Schools, Computer

Education in Schools, National Population Education Project (NPEP),Integrated

Education for the Disabled Children, etc. have been implemented and running

in different states and districts successfully of the country.

Besides, the above mentioned Commissions and Committees, there are

some others commissions and committees which recommended valuable

suggestions for the growth and development of school education and its

various others aspects. However, all the recommendations and suggestions

were not fully implemented just after the programmes. But there are some

programmes initiated by the state as well as central government, whose

recommendations if no directly but indirectly some of their recommendations

and suggestions were implemented soon after the programmes. Again, some of

the programmes are still continuing and whose impacts are being observed day

by day.

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SECTION-III

IMPACT OF VARIOUS COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES WITH

REGARD TO SCHOOL EDUCATION IN INDIA

Since independence it has been observed that a good number of

commissions and committees have been constituted in different periods to

promote the school education in India. And each and every commissions and

committees have made their every possible endeavor to extend most

acceptable recommendations for the growth and development of school

education in India. However, because of certain reasons all the

recommendations have not been fully functionalized in different stages of

development in overall education in general and school education in particular.

But, some of the recommendations were aptly functionalized; and as a result

growth and development of education in general and school education in

particular have been observed from the very beginning. In the present section

the researcher has attempted to show the impact of those recommendations

and suggestions made by various commissions and committees regarding the

school education by showing the chronological growth and development of

school education in India. However, the impact of those recommendations may

be observed from the developmental trends occurred just after the

implementations of the recommendations of the particular committees and

commissions.

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During the first decade preceding the attainment of independence,

efforts were made to prepare a plan of educational development for the whole

country, both at the official and non-official levels. It was in 1938 that the

Indian National Congress appointed a National Planning Committee under the

chairmanship of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to prepare a comprehensive plan of

national development. Educational planning was taken up by two sub-

committees, one for General education and other for Technical Education and

Development Research. Unfortunately, the struggle for political freedom did not

allow any time to the chairman and other members of the committee to do

justice to the work. The result was a sketchy document. This, however,

remained the first unofficial effort to relate educational development to the

overall socio-economic development of the country.

On the official side, the Central Advisory Board of Education prepared

the post war plan of educational development (1944), popularly known as the

Sargent Report. Much spade work had gone before it. The Board, ever since its

revival in 1935, had been engaged in critically examining different aspects of

Indian education and suggesting measures for their reconstruction. By 1943,

the Government of India was required o prepare plans of post war

development. In the field of education, as a part of the overall plan, the Board

was required to prepare a plan for education. The Board made good use of the

several reports it had prepared so far, and consolidated all its findings in the

form of a comprehensive Post-war Plan of Educational Development (1944). Its

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objects was to create, in India, in a period of not less than forty years, the

same standard of education attainments as had already been admitted in

England. It planned to provide pre-primary education covering one child out of

every 21 in the age group 3-6; primary 6-14; secondary education, both

academic and technical, to the extent of one child selected out of every 5 who

completed the junior primary school; and higher education to one students out

of every 15 who completed secondary education. Though attempts were made

to assess the cost of plan, no measures were taken to relate the proposals to

the man-power needs or to the overall plan of socio-economic development.

5.57 IMPACT OF CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION AFTER

In January 1950, the country adopted a constitution which lay down,

among other things, the divisions of responsibilities and duties relating to

Education between the centre and the states, ours being a quasi federal

constitution. The seventh and eight schedules are of special importance to us.

The seventh schedule lists out the division of responsibilities in all matters

including Education. The eighth schedule lists out the languages recognized by

the constitution.

Education is now in the concurrent list. It was originally a state subject

(entry 11 of list II in the list of state functions). With the 42 nd constitutional

amendment act of 1976, this entry in list II was deleted and Education was

placed in the concurrent list as entry 25.

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5.58 PROGRESS OF SCHOOL EDUCATION JUST AFTER

INDEPENDENCE

The pattern of the general education system before independence

comprised the school system and the college/university level of studies. The

school system had classes I to X leading to Matriculation or Secondary school

Certificate examination. The primary sections in school were and are, generally

from class I to IV, upper primary or middle school from class V to VIII and high

school/secondary classes IX and X. There could be variation as between states

on the dividing lying between primary and upper primary, say Class I to V

(instead of I to IV) and VI to VIII (instead of V to VIII). But the total numbers

of school years remain 10 years. At the time of independence, there was a two

year course, called intermediate at college level, i.e., after matriculation and

before the Bachelor of Arts/Science (BA, B.Sc which was also of two years

duration), the intermediate course was a bridge between school education and

the university. So the whole education system up to graduation was a 10+2+2

system. The intermediate course was later abolished and instead of that we

now have what is called plus 2 which is really the Higher Secondary classes of

Eleven and twelve which belong to the school system. At the university level,

the first degree can be obtained only after a minimum period of study of three

years, leading to post graduation of two years duration. In some universities,

M.Phil is a one year prerequisite for registration for a Doctorate Degree.

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In 1946-47, the number of primary schools was 1,72,000, with 13 million

students and the total expenditure was Rs. 15.48 crores. There were 17,258

secondary schools and the number of students 3.6 million, with expenditure at

Rs.17.9 crores. There were less than 20 universities and these had a student

strength of 16,000,297 Arts and Science Colleges, had 96,000 students; there

were 199 Intermediate College. Expenditure on universities was Rs.2.03 crores,

and on colleges Rs.3.53 crores. There were 16 engineering colleges and 82

other professional colleges. The number of students in professional colleges

was 71,897, expenditure being 2.75 crores.

5.59 IMPACT OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION 1948 AND

AFTER

Though the University Education Commission was constituted in 1948

and which had recommended few suggestions for the development of school

education also; but these were not implemented properly. So it is observed that

the suggestions of this commission had no any impact on school education so

far. Here after the Central government and state governments have been

endeavoring to give a concrete shape to various programmes under the Five

Year Plans. After independence The first four years of independence witnessed

great educational expansion on a year to year budgetary planning till the birth

of the National Planning Commission in 1951, the year of launching the First

Five Year Plans that form the content of this Section provide a graphic

description of the successive educational programmes planned during 1951-56,

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1956-61 and 1969-74. In the years from 1966 to 1969 the general economic

conditions in the country were very difficult. The country had to divert her

energies to fight drought and near famine and their aftermath. This resulted in

the reduction of long-term planning to three short annual plans.

The achievements of the three Five Year Plans and three annual Plans in

the field of education have been very significant. There has been expansion at

all level of education. The enrolment in classes I-V increased from 19.1 million

in 1950-51 to 55.5 million in 1968-69; in classes VI-VIII from 3.1 to 12.3

million; in classes IX-XI from 1.2 million to 6.6 million. The total educational

expenditure from all sources is estimated to have increased from Rs. 1,144

million in 1950-51 to Rs. 8,500 million in 1968-69. During these years, many

educational problems were overcome. And yet, fresh challenges face us.

The overall progress of education with respect to the number of

institutions, pupils and the expenditure incurred by the government could be

seen from the following table:

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Table 5.1 Progress of school education during the period of

Planning

Item 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1973-74

A. Number of Institutions

(1) Primary 209,671 330399 404,418 429,888

(2) Middle 13,596 49,663 88,567 97,356

(3) Secondary 7,288 17,257 35,773 40,127

B. Enrolment by Stages (in000)

(1) Primary 18,678 33,631 59,252 63,193

(2) Middle 3,330 7,480 13,399 14,689

(3) Secondary 1,481 3,463 7,167 7,475

C. Government Expenditure (Rs. In crores

Total 71 234 846 1,311

Plan 20 90 115 225

Non-Plan 51 144 731 1,086

Source: Draft Five Year Plan (1978-83), P.226.

The above figures indicate the gradual upward trend in the number of

institutions and students and the amount spent by the government. The

number of institutions since 1950-51 has increased from 2.31 lakhs to 5.72

lakhs in 1973-74. Their number grew up to 6.07 lakhs in 1976-77. Similarly, the

number of student at every level is surging forward. From about 2.4 corers in

1950-51 their number swelled up to 8.8 corers in 1973-74 and 9.86 corers in

1976-77. It may further rise up to 11.41 corers at the end of 1978-79. There

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has been an increase in governmental spending on education from mere Rs. 71

corers in 1950-51 to 1311 corers in 1973-74. Since then the expenditure is

constantly on increase.

As regards the progress of secondary education during the periods; it is

found that the number of schools has increased from 7,288 in 1950-51 to

44,579 in 1977-78. Similarly, the number of students and teachers has

increased from 12.2 lakhs and 1.27 lakhs to 8.75 million and 7.95 lakhs

respectively. Though these figure on their face value appear to be quite

impressive, yet viewed in the context of the magnitude of the problems of

imparting secondary education to the millions of our children, pale into

insignificance. In order to improve the quality of secondary education, the

Kothari Commission suggested among other things nationwide programme of

school improvement, strengthening of the District Educational officers and the

State Institutes of Education, establishment of state Board of school education

and state evaluation organizations in all the state and the development of

educational programme by the central government in the centrally sponsored

sector with a view to improve the standard of education at the secondary level.

5.60 IMPACT SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION 1952-53

The mass scale provision of elementary education and an increasing

aspiration for secondary education during the post independence period has

resulted in the tremendous growth of secondary education in India. One of the

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most important events that have taken place in the realm of secondary

education during the post-independence era, is the appointment of the

Secondary Education Commission in 1952. Some of the significant reforms that

have been carried out in the wake of the recommendations of the Secondary

Education Commission with the object of making the secondary education self

contained and complete stage upto the age of 17 could be summarized as

below:

(i) enriching the content of secondary education by adding one more

class to the high school and making it higher secondary course of 11 years

duration and providing in selected Higher Secondary Schools a diversified

system of education in which students could offer, in addition to a common

core of studies, a group of three subjects from any one of seven, namely,

Humanities, Sciences, technology, Commerce, Agriculture, Fine Arts and Home

Science.

(ii) Provision of facilities for improvement in teaching science, opening of

libraries, introduction of crafts in middle schools and training of teachers, etc.

(iii) The establishment of the All-India Council of Secondary Education to

advise the central and state Governments.

(iv) The compulsory study of languages at the secondary stages.

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(v) The implementation of a long range programme of examination

reform aiming at a closer integration of educational objectives, learning

processes and methods of evaluation.

(vi) The establishment of the Extension Services Projects in selected

training colleges to carry out a programme of in-service teacher preparation in

all the subjects of the secondary school curriculum.

The Central Board of secondary Education has since been set up for

conducting a common all-India higher secondary examination. It will cater to

the needs of children of Union Government employees and will make its

services available to any secondary school in or outside India wishing to

prepare candidates for its examinations.

The Third Five Year Plan made a provision for a large-scale conversion of

high schools into higher secondary schools. But in certain States this

programme was not implemented successfully. There have been difficulties due

to the shortage of staff, lack of equipment and other materials.

Two major tendencies have been discernible at the secondary stage

since 1950, viz. - a gradual transition of traditional pattern of bookish

education into a vocational one and attempts to make secondarily education a

self contained stage. A large number of courses have been provided for at this

stage catering to the needs of vocational technical training encouraged by a

tremendous demand for skilled and semi-skilled man power created in the

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context of the development and construction activities going on in the country.

This has helped in the diversification and vocationalisation of secondary

education to some extent. The Education Commission has also recommended a

rapid vocationalisation of secondary education so as to provide enrolment in

vocational courses to 20 per cent of the total enrolment at the lower secondary

stage and 50 per cent at the higher secondary stage. This might, apart from

changing the out moded pattern of education, lead to making the secondary

stage a self-contained one in itself and related more and more to the needs of

the life of the individual as well as of the community.

In the light of the recommendations of the Education Commission,

efforts were made during the fourth and fifth Plans to see how far these diverse

courses could be offered in the same institutions and to what extent they

required the setting up of specialized institutions. A greater stress was also laid

on science education. Science teachers are now being encouraged to take

correspondence courses and to attend summer schools in order to improve

their knowledge of the subject and skill to teach. Attempts are also being made

to upgrade high schools into higher secondary schools in at least those States

which have already made significant progress in this direction. The government

aims at strengthening the multi-purpose schools and encouraging research on

various problems of secondary education. Efforts are being made to reorient

secondary education and diverse a system to prevent the current rush to the

universities and, at the same time, give to the secondary schools leavers a

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training which has an employment value and would make them productive

workers when they go out into the world.

5.61 PROGRESS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

The secondary Education Commission recommended various bold and

far-sighted measures like establishment of multi-purpose schools, improvement

of teaching and schools libraries. Training of teacher, introduction of crafts in

middle schools and conversion of high schools into higher secondary schools by

increasing the duration of secondary stage by one year to give a new

orientation to secondary education as a whole. As a result of these

recommendations, the secondary education in various states began to take a

new shape. The Chairman of the Central Advisory Board of Education appointed

a Special Implementation Committee in 1953 to carry on the various schemes

that were started with the help of the Central Government.

The main schemes consisted of the following:

(1) The establishment of multipurpose schools by the introduction of

diversified subjects in the school curriculum;

(2) Improvement of teaching in existing schools- particularly for teaching

science, social studies and of crafts-at the rate of Rs. 15,000 per

school;

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(3) Improvement of school libraries at the rate of Rs. 2,500 per library if

the library belongs to an ordinary school; and at the rate of Rs. 5,000

if it belongs to a multipurpose school;

(4) Introduction of crafts in middle schools at the rate of Rs. 3,000 non-

recuring and Rs. 4,500 recurring per school;

(5) Training of teachers- particularly for crafts and practical subjects

at the rate of Rs. 60,000 non-recurring and Rs. 20,000 recurring per

school for practical subjects.

On the basis of the principles laid down above, financial assistance has

been given for the various schemes and as such during the Five-Year Plans

liberal grants were given to various states for the purpose. All these efforts of

the Government of India have helped in expanding the secondary education in

the country. This progress is evident in the number of secondary schools as

well as in the number of students receiving education therein and also in the

quantum of public expenditure.

In the year 1950-51 the number of pupils in the secondary schools was

12.2 lakhs, which became 18.8 lakhs in 1955-56, 28.9 lakhs in 1960-61, 50.4

lakhs in 1965-66 and 87.0 lakhs at the end of the 1978. At present, of the total

population in the age group of 14-17 in the country, 20.2% is studying in

secondary schools from class IX to XII. Similarly the number of secondary

schools has increased from 7,288 in 1950-51 to 44,579 in 1977-78 showing

about six fold increases. This number of schools does not include about 2.5

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thousand multipurpose schools. The number of teachers engaged at the

secondary stage has increased from 1.27 lakhs in 1950-51 to 7.95 lakhs in

1977-78 showing about seven fold increase during a little more than a quarter

of a country.

As the expansion of elementary education is bound to lead to the

expansion of secondary education, the expenditure on the latter has also

increased as a result of such expansion. For instance, the total expenditure

during the four five year plans was Rs.366.6 crores, while in the fifth and sixth

Five Plans the total outlays have been Rs. 250 crores and Rs. 300 Crores

respectively. The anticipated expenditure during the Fifth Plan however, had

been Rs. 156 crores. But one thing that has to be marked here is the relative

lowering percentage of outlay from 19.5 in the Fifth Plan to 15.00 in the Sixth

Plan. This is precisely because of the increased importance being attached to

elementary education in the Sixth Plan.

The figures speak of a steady growth of secondary education. But by this

we should not conclude that the growth is rapid enough, for a vast sub-

continent like India where only a small minority of boys and girls get the

opportunity of secondary schooling. In fact the problem of expansion is

stupendous and requires an all-round effort to solve the same.

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5.62 IMPACT OF 10+2+3 STRUCTURE

The Education Commission had suggested a uniform (10+2+3) pattern

of 15 years duration leading to the first degree (10 years of high school and 2

years of higher secondary education +3 years of the first degree course). The

National Policy on Education had also recommended in 1968 a structural

change in the formal secondary education in the country by adopting the

10+2+3 structure. This would mean that school education would compromise

elementary, secondary and higher secondary stages of 12 years duration. This

new structure has been adopted in Andhra, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Jammu

&Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland,

Orissa, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, U.P, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh and

rest of the Union Territories. The States of Haryana and Punjab had adopted it

by the end of 1980. The states of Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh have agreed to

adopt it in principle, but no final dates have yet been determined. The Union

Education Ministry had appointed two Committees in 1977 to review the Higher

Secondary education with special reference to vocationalisation. The former

Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Iswarbhai J. Patel, Vice-Chancellor of

Gujarat University, laid stress on the need for the all-round development of the

childs personality, while the second Committee under the chairmanship of Dr.

Malcolm S. Adi-Sheshiah, Vice Chancellor of Madras University took a

comprehensive view of several important issues like giving work a central place

in education and learning, course- pattern for both general as well as vocational

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education curriculum and text books and nature of vocational courses, etc. both

the Committees emphasized introduction of socially useful productive work as

an integral part of the curriculum both at secondary and higher secondary

levels. These objectives are not being achieved in the implementation of the

Sixth Five Year Plan.

5.63 ALL INDIA COUNCIL FOR SECONDARY EDUCATION

In pursuance of the policy to implement the recommendations of the

Secondary Education Commission, the All India Council for Secondary Education

was set up in August 1955. Its main functions are to review from time to time

the progress of secondary education throughout the country and to serve as an

expert as an expert body to advise the State and Central Governments on the

improvement and expansion of secondary education in all its phases.

The secondary education in this country is faced with the problem of

text-books. In most of the cases, the text books used are entirely unsatisfactory

and of a low standard both with regard to the quality of the contents and also

the standard of printing and set up. In order to do away with these defects by

undertaking research and giving guidance to the state in the production of the

right type of text-books, the Central Bureau has helped some State

governments in the formulation of syllabus and examination of the contents of

the text-books and rendered advice on the choice of illustrations and other

matters relating to printing and get-up etc.

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The Secondary Education Commission had recommended establishment

of a Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance in every state in view of

the special needs of the students of the secondary schools. Consequently, this

Bureau was established in October 1954. Since the establishment of the Central

Bureau, the states of Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh have set

up states Bureaux of guidance. Besides, some private educational organizations

in the states of Punjab, U.P., Bombay, Madras and Mysore etc. have also

established guidance units. Other states are also following suit.

Besides the above mentioned major schemes, that have either been

implemented or are being implemented, there are others such as promotion of

Gandhian Teachings and Way of Life in Secondary Schools, research on the

various aspects of secondary education, assistance to voluntary educational

organizations and formulations of a suitable syllabus for the multipurpose and

higher secondary school. But most of the schemes were in experimental stage.

5.64 IMPACT OF KOTHARI COMMISSION 1964-66

The Kothari Commission or Education Commission 1964-66 in India was

a landmark steps towards the development of education system in the country.

This commission had covered almost all aspects and levels of education and

extended every possible suggestion for the development. The impact of the

Education Commission may be observed from the growth and development of

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primary education institutions, middle schools and the enrollments in various

classes.

General Observations

The period of twelve years between 1965-66 and 1977-78 falls naturally

within three sub-periods:

(1) The three annual plan years (1966-68)

(2) The Fourth Five -Year Plan (1969-74) and

(3) The truncated Fifth Plan which consisted of four years only (1974-78)

As compared with the earlier period of fifteen years (1950-51 to 1965-

66) or the first three Five -Year Plans, the post-Commission period of twelve

years (1965-66 to 1977-78) shows several interesting variations and common

features such as:

Expansion of educational facilities at all stages was the principal feature

of the first three Plans. In also continued to be the dominating feature of

the post-Commission period in spite of its plea for according higher

priority to programmes of transformation and qualitative improvement.

The development of secondary and university education (with special

emphasis on agricultural, technical and medical education) was accorded

high priority in the educational development in the first three Plans. This

priority continued to dominate the scene even in the post-Commission

period, in spite of the lip-service paid to mass education.

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The goal of universalizing elementary education for children in the age-

group 6-14 is being pursued since 1950-51. As may be readily seen, the

progress was comparatively easy in the first three Plans when we were

working at lower levels of enrolment and costs were comparatively low.

In the post-Commission period, the problem has become more difficult

because of rising costs and because we are now working at higher levels

of enrolments where further progress becomes exponentially difficult.

The tensions within the education system remained under reasonable

control in the first two Plans (1950-51 to 1961-62). But since the third

plan, they have come to the surface and have assumed an increasingly

acute form which has led, during the past seventeen years, to continued

disturbances in the system, especially at the university stage. This has

made the task of educational reconstruction more difficult and

complicated.

The successful implementation of programmes of educational

development needs two essential conditions: (1) a strong political

authority to make and implement decisions, as well as favorable social

and economic conditions; and (2) large investment of financial

resources. As stated earlier, both these factors were more favorable in

the first three Plans when we really spent our time in dealing with less

important issues. In the post-Commission period, we have tried and are

still trying to face up to some of our fundamental problems which need a

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far stronger investment of funds. Unfortunately, we do not have even

the same political, economic and social support that we had in the first

two or three Plans.

The overall picture of educational developments between 1965-66 and

1977-78 is therefore one of a growing gap between the big challenges which

are becoming increasingly complex and our attempts to deal with them which

are proving to be increasingly inadequate. With these few broad observations,

let us survey quickly the major developments in the different sectors of

education, from the pre-school stage to the university stage.

5.65 PROGRESS IN PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION

Pre-school education has been a comparatively neglected sector of

education. The education Commission (1964-66) was the first to discuss the

issue and support the idea that the state should accept a limited responsibility

for pre-school education, especially among the underprivileged groups. But this

is one of those recommendations with which everyone agrees and no one does

anything special about. Hence pre-school education has development, both

before and after 1965-66, in response to market forces rather than to planned

action. The principal demand for it has come from the urban upper and middle

classes for whom it has become either a prestige symbol or a necessity

(because of women working outside home). The data to Table 5.2 show its

progress during the period under review.

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Table 5.2 Pre-school Education (1965-66 to 1977-78)

1965-66 1975-76 1977-78

1. No. of pre-school 3,235 5,658 7,050

2. No. of teachers 6,832 9,951 11,021

3. No. of pupils 262,073 569,296 734,757

4. Expenditure (Rs. In million) Direct only) 11.4 33.0 41.0

The officially published statistics (Table 5.2) of the Ministry of Education

do not include the data about unrecognized pre-schools (the most numerous

categories) and also about Balwadis, conducted by the Department of Social

Welfare. Even if due allowance is made for all such inadequacies, pre-school

education was available to only about one million children or to about 2 per

cent of the total population in the age-group 3-6 in 1971. The position has not

altered materially since then; and the target suggested by the Commission that

we should provide pre-school education to five per cent of the children by

1985-86 in still a far cry.

5.66 PROGRESS IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

Article 45 of the Constitution provided that free and compulsory

education should be provided for all children till they complete the age of 14

years. Since independence, they had been trying to reach the goal, and our

principal method of achieving it is twofold (1) they were trying to establish

primary and middle schools in all areas so that an elementary school becomes

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available to every child within easy distance from home; and (2) they were

trying to enroll every child in school so that the total enrolments in the age-

group 6-11 (to allow for over-age and under-age children admitted to these

classes) and those in classes VI-VIII would be about 90 per cent of the children

in the age-group 11-14. This is of course a purely statistical approach which is

unsatisfactory because it ignores the qualitative aspects altogether. But that is

all what they had been doing. Table 5.3 shows the number of primary and

middle schools during the period under review.

Table 5.3 Primary and middle schools (1950-51 to 1977-78)

Year Number of Primary schools Number of Middle schools

1950-51 209,671 13,596

1965-66 391,064 75,798

1975-76 454,270 106,571

1977-78 462,567 110,036

The needs of additional primary and middle schools were ascertained

through specially conducted Educational Surveys in 1957, 1965, and 1973. A

quick survey for the same purpose was also attempted during 1979. The rough

estimate was that they had need about 600,000 primary schools and about

200,000 middle schools to reach the goal of universal education. The rate of

establishment of new schools has obviously slackened in the post-Commission

period. But in spite of the long distance they had yet to travel, it is not beyond

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them, if they make the effort, to reach the target in a period of five years or so

from now. But the Sixth Five -Year Plan has fought shy of the target and one is

one quite sure whether they will reach it even by 1985-86. The date relating to

enrolments in classes I-V or children in the age-group 6-11 are given in table

000.

Table 5.4 Primary and middle schools (1950-51 to 1977-78)

Enrolment in Classes I-V (in millions)

Boys Girls Total

1950-51 13.77 (60.6) 5.39 (24.8) 19.16 (43.1)

1965-66 32.18 (96.3) 18.29 (56.5) 50.47 (76.7)

1975-76 40.65 (100.4) 25.01 (66.1) 65.66 (83.8)

1977-78 40.54 (97.4) 24.52 (62.6) 65.06 (80.5)

Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the total

population in the age-group 6-11

It will be seen that between 150-51 and 1965-66, enrolments in classs

I-V increased at an average of two million per year. In spite of all the talk and

debates on the subject since the Report of the Commission, the enrolments at

this stage have increased only by about 1.6 million a year, a level of

performance which is even lower than that between 1950-51 and 1965-66. We

have run very hard indeed not even to keep where we are, but to fall a little

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behind. The position of enrolments in classes VI-VIII is also somewhat similar.

This is given in Table 000.

Table 5.5 Enrolments in Classes (1950-51 to 1977-78)

Enrolment in Classes VI-VIII (in millions)

Boys Girls Total

1950-51 2.59 (20.6) 0.53 (4.6) 3.12 (12.9)

1965-66 7.68 (44.2) 2.85 (17.0) 10.53 (30.8)

1975-76 10.99 (48.6) 5.03 (23.9) 16.02 (36.7)

1977-78 12.19 (48.6) 5.96 (24.4) 18.15 (36.5)

Note: Figures in parentheses show the percentages to the population in

the age-group 11-14.

In contrast with the position at the primary stage, the enrolments in

classes VI-VIII in the post-Commission period (1966-78) are slightly larger than

those in the first three Plans. But the journey they had yet to complete is very

long; and what is worse, the additional enrolments in these classes in some

areas are not even keeping pace with the growth of population. One must also

note that this game of enrolments does not always tell the truth. Bogus and

inflated enrolments have become a routine and these unfortunately are the

highest in the backward States. It is obvious however those mere targets of

enrolments in Classes I-VIII do not tell whole story. The following related facts

also deserve to be noted:

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The rate of drop-outs is very high: out of every 100 children enrolled in

class I only about 50 reach class V and only about 25 reach class VIII.

These rates have remained almost constant since 1950.

The expenditure on elementary education increased from Rs. 2,130 million

(or 34 per cent of total educational expenditure) in 1965-66 to Rs. 7,873

million (or 37 per cent of the total) in 1975-76. The very large increase in

absolute figures in due mainly to rise in prices and upgrading of salaries of

teachers. But it is also evident that the low priority accorded to elementary

education in 1965-66 (or as a matter of fact throughout the post-

independence period) continues unchanged to this day.

The qualitative aspects of the problem show marked deterioration. In many

schools, the teachers salaries constitute about 98 per cent of the total

expenditure. The condition of the school plant has deteriorated; and even

academic achievements of students show a trend towards decline.

The revised enrolment target for the Sixth Plan shows that it will not be

possible to make elementary education universal even at the end of the

Seventh Plan, i.e. 1989-90.

In 1965-66, the total estimated population of children in the age-group

6-14 was 90 million, of whom 61 million were enrolled and 29 million were not

attending. In 1977-78, the total population of children in the age-group 6-14 is

expected to be 131.50 million, of whom 83.21 million are enrolled and 48.29

million are not attending. In other words, the children out of school even in

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1977-78 are more numerous than those in 1965-66, showing that, as a country,

our additional enrolments at the elementary stage in the post-Commission

period are not keeping pace even with the growth of population! If the

increases in costs and deterioration in standards are also taken into account, it

is obvious that the task of reaching the goal of universal elementary education

has become more difficult in 1977-78 than it was in 1965-66. The crisis of non-

performance in elementary education which has persisted throughout the post-

independence period has only deepened over the past 12 years.

5.67 PROGRESS IN SECONDARY EDUCATION

With these introductory observations, let us see the main developments

in general secondary education during the period under review.

(1) Institutions: The number of general secondary schools

increased from 7,288 in 1950-51 to 27,477 in 1965-66, to 43,054 in 1975-76

and to 45,489 in 1977-78. The Education Commission made several

recommendations regarding control over the unplanned expansion in the post-

Commission period is larger than that prior to 1965-66. During the recent years,

however, the State Governments have been unwilling, on financial grounds, to

give permission to start new secondary schools. This has slowed down

expansion to some extent.

(2) Enrolments: Enrolments in general secondary educations in

classes IX-XI/XII (and corresponding to age-group 14-17/18) have also shown

a rapid increase in keeping with the earlier policies of providing access to all

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students who desire to join secondary schools policies which have continued

to dominate the scene in spite of suggestions of the Commission to the

contrary. The details are given in Table 000.It will be noticed that there is no

marked difference in the expansion of enrolments in secondary level institution

in the fifteen years before the Education Commission and the twelve Years after

it.

Table 5.6Enrolments in Classes IX-XI/XII (1950-51 to 1977-78)

Enrolment in Classes IX-XI/XII (in millions)

Boys Girls Total

1950-51 1.62 (8.7) 0.2 (1.8) 1.22 (5.3)

1965-66 3.87 (24.3) 1.17 (7.17) 5.04 (16.2)

1975-76 5.34 (25.6) 2.08 (10.5) 7.42 (18.3)

1977-78 6.50 (29.0) 2.65 (12.8) 9.15 (20.2)

Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to population in the

Corresponding age-group.

There is of course a sharp increase in the period between 1975-76 and

1977-78, due mainly to the adoption of the new pattern; and this represents

more an adjustment than a real increase. The obvious implication and its

restriction have had no major impact on the overall enrolment situation in

secondary education which continues to be more or less what it was before

1965-66.

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(3) Expenditure: The expenditure on secondary education increased

from Rs. 1,377 million in 1965-66 (or 22.2 per cent of the total expenditure) to

Rs. 4,936 million (or 23.5 per cent of the total expenditure) which implies that

its overall priority also did not change to any significant extent.

(4) Vocational secondary education: Coming to the provision of

vocational education at the secondary stage, one finds that the progress has

been disappointing. Owing to the failure to promote industry in a big way, there

were no increasing opportunities for employment at the middle level in

industry. Opportunities for employment in other sectors also did not show any

rapid increase. On the whole, the employment profile remained in a low key so

that vocational secondary education also showed a recession. Table 9.7 shows

the position of vocational secondary education between 1965-66 and 1975-76.

Table 5.7Vocational Secondary education (1965-66 to 1975-76)

1965-66 1975-76

1. No. of Secondary vocational schools 2,775 2,496

2. Enrolments in above (Rs. Million) 293,444 224,210

3. Expenditure on above (Rs. Million 76,611 134,252

4. Proportion of this expenditure to total educational 1.2 0.6

expenditure

A word of explanation is needed. Owing to a change in the classification

system of educational statistics adopted during this period, the figures for

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1975-76 are not strictly comparable to those of 1965-66. For example,

polytechnics which were shown as vocational education at secondary level in

1965-66 are now classified as vocational education of the collegiate standard.

But even after due allowance is made for these changes, it is still found that the

increase in secondary vocational education between 1965-66 and 175-76 is

marginal. At any rate, there is hardly any increase in the proportion of students

at the secondary stage diverted to the vocational courses. This is of course a

sad comment on all the debate on vocationalisation secondary education that

has gone on in the country during the past 12 years.

How does the overall situation in secondary education in 1977-78

compare with that in 1965-66 and what difference did the Report of the

Education Commission make to this overall situation? Perhaps the main

contribution of the Education Commission to secondary education was to undo

the damage which had been done by the concept of the multipurpose

secondary schools adopted after the Report of the Secondary Education

Commission (1952). Under this programme, secondary education was

streamed into Arts, Science, Engineering, Agriculture, etc. and a student was

called upon to decide his future career at the end of class VIII or the age of 12

or 13. Dr. D.S. Kothari said that was as bad as child-marriage. All this has now

ceased to be and this attempt at a premature specialization has come to an

end. On the positive side, the adoption of the new pattern of 10 + 2 + 3 + has

strengthened secondary education, especially where classes XI-XII have been

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added to schools. These have definitely been changes for the better. The basic

issues however remain mostly unsolved. Secondary education in India has

suffered from a number of weaknesses: a rapid and uncontrolled expansions

(more than 50 per cent of the secondary schools have small enrolments of less

than 250); poor standards; lack of diversification (i.e., more than 90 per cent of

the students take up only the academic courses leading to the university);

absence of terminal vocational courses on an adequate scale; and above all,

lack of relevance. The Report of the Commission did not make any meaningful

dent on these issues to which the educational planner of tomorrow will have to

address himself.

5.68 IMPACT OF NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION 1968

The National Policy of 1968 marked a significant step in the history of

education in post independence of India. It aimed to promote national

progress, a sense o common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national

integration, it laid stress on the need for a radical reconstruction of the

education system, to improve its quality at all stages, and gave, much greater

attention to science and technology.

Since the adoption of the 1968 Policy, there has been considerable

expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. More than 90

percent of the countrys rural habitations now have schooling facilities within a

radius of one kilometer. There has been sizeable augmentation of facilities of

the other stages also. The government of India accordingly resolves to promote

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the development of education in the country in accordance with the following

principles:

(i) Free and compulsory Education for all children upto the age of 14;

(ii) Status, Employment and Education of Teachers;

(iii) Development of languages: (a) Regional languages, (b) three

language formula;

(iv) Equalization of Educational Opportunity: Strenuous efforts should

be made to equalize educational opportunity;

(v) Identification of Talent;

(vi) Work-Experience and National Services;

(vii) Science, Education and Research;

(viii) Education for Agriculture and Industry;

(ix) Production of Books;

(x) Examination; and

(xi) Secondary, university, part-time, correspondence courses, spread

of literacy and Adult Education etc.

Perhaps the most notable development has been the acceptance of a

common structure of education throughout the country and the introduction of

the 10+2+3 system by most states. The higher secondary stages of two years

are being located in schools and colleges or both according to local conditions.

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5.69 IMPACT OF NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL POLICY 1986

The NPE was adopted by Parliament in 1966 and its implementation

commenced soon thereafter. Universalisation of elementary education,

equalization of educational opportunities, womens education and development,

vocationalisation of school education, consolidation of higher education,

modernization of technical education, improvement of quality content and

process of education at all levels are themes of national endeavor in the field of

education as envisaged in NPE.

5.70 IMPACT ON ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

In elementary education, the focus shifted from enrolment, per se, to

retention and achievement a shift which reflects the renewed concern for

improving efficiency of investment and for monitoring programmes in terms of

outcomes rather than in terms of inputs such as coverage and expenditure

alone. The focus also shifted from exclusive concern with schooling to a holistic

perception which stressed the need of providing alternative system of education

of comparable quality to working children and girls whom the schools cannot

reach.

5.71 IMPACT ON UNIVERSALISATION OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

(UEE)

Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) is a constitutional

mandate. Article 45 of the Constitution stipulates, as a Directive Principle of

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State Policy, that the State shall endeavor to provide, within a period of ten

years from the commencement of this Constitution for free and compulsory

education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

Indeed, over the years, the Centre and the States have made considerable

investments in promoting elementary education. Facilities in elementary

education have grown from about 2.34 lakh to 7.05 lakh schools, enrolment

from 22.28 million to 132.4 million children (Table 5.8) and outreach of primary

education facilities to over 94 per cent of the rural population within 1 km

walking distance of their houses. Over the last five years in pursuant of the

NPE, effort has been made to focus attention on the quality of educational

being provided by this vast and possibly the largest, educational network of the

world. Several schemes have been launched to improve retentions and reduce

disparities; provide basic minimum facilities to schools; open non-formal

education centres for part-time education of school dropouts and working

children; lay down Minimum Levels of Learning (MLLs); decentralize educational

management and involve the community in the running of schools. Most of

these schemes are ambitious in target and scope, and require sustained efforts

and considerable resource support to make an impact.

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Table 5.8 Expansion of Elementary Education since 1950-51

1950-51 1990-91

Number of primary schools 2.20 lakh 5.59 lakh

Number of middle schools 0.14 lakh 1.46 lakh

Enrolment in classes I to V 19.15 million 99.1 million

of boys 13.77 million 58.1 million

of boys 5.38 million 41.0 million

Enrolment in classes VI to VIII 3.13 million 33.3 million

of boys 2.59 million 20.9 million

of girls 0.54 million 12.4 million

Enrolment in classes I to VIII 22.28 million 132.4 million

of boys 16.36 million 79.0 million

of girls 5.92 million 53.4 million

5.72 IMPACT OF OPERATION BLACKBOARD

The Scheme of Operation Blackboard, started in 1987-88 to bring about

substantial improvement in facilities in primary schools with the aim of

improving retention, has three interdependent components, namely:

(i) Proving of a building comprising at least two reasonably large all-

weather rooms with a deep verandah and separate toilet facilities

for boys and girls;

238
(ii) At least two teachers in every school, as far as possible one of

them a woman; and

(iii) Provision of essential teaching learning material including

blackboards, maps, charts, toys and equipment for work

experience. Funds for construction of school building are provided

mainly from rural development schemes. Funds for the other two

components are provided by Department of Education, Ministry of

primary schools in all the blocks/municipal areas in the country in

a phased manner.

In the period 1987-88 to 1990-91, the scheme was implemented in 69

per cent of the blocks in the country comprising 64 per cent primary schools.

An assistance of Rs. 523.41 crore was released by the Department of

Education. Of this Rs. 150.09 crore was released in 1990.01. There was a

provision of Rs. 100 crore for Opeation Blackboard during 1991-92. The scheme

would continue during the Eighth Plan till completion.

In order to move towards a position where every class has a class room

and a teacher, it has been proposed to expand Operation Blackboard during the

Eighth Plan to provide a third teacher and a third class room to every primary

school where enrolment warrants it. Central assistance will be provided for the

third teacher, while State Government will be expected to find resources for the

construction of class rooms from the Jawahar Rozgar Yojna and State Plan

239
budgets. Data on achievements under Operation Blackboard till 1991-92 is

presented in Table 5.9.

Table 5.9 Operation Blackboard- Achievements

1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

Amount spent (Rs. in crores) 110.61 135.73 126.98 150.09 168.44

Amount committed by States for 300.00 340.00 64.60 140.00 140.00

school buildings (Rs. in crores)

No. of States/UTs covered 27 22 22 25 15

No. of Blocks covered 1703 1795 578 343 1000

No. of schools covered (in lakhs) 1.13 1.40 0.52 0.39 0.76

% of primary schools covered 21.00% 26.40% 9.90% 7.35% 9.22%

Post of primary teachers sanctioned 36891 36327 5274 14379 22032

5.73 IMPACT OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

The role of non-formal part-time education in providing education to

working children, and children in habitations without schools has been

recognized since the education Commission of 1964-66. During 1979-80, the

scheme of Non-Formal Education (NFE) was introduced as an alternative

strategy to impart education to children, who for various reasons cannot attend

formal schools. The NPE envisaged a large and systematic programme of NFE

to achieve UEE. The scheme was revised in its content and emphasis in 1987-

88. Although its focus is on the ten educationally backward States, namely,

Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya

240
Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, it has been

extended to cover urban slums, hilly, tribal & desert areas and areas with

concentration of working children in the other States as well. Financial

responsibility is borne by the Central and State Governments in the ratio of

50:50 for general (co-educational) and 90:10 for girls NFE centres. Assistance

to the extent of 100 per cent is provided to voluntary agencies for running NFE

centres and for experimental and innovative projects.

The (revised) NFE scheme has been visualized as child-centred,

environment-oriented, flexible system to meet the educational needs of the

comparatively deprived geographical areas and socio-economic sections of

society. Other features of the scheme are its organisational flexibility, relevance

of curriculum, diversity in learning activities to relate them to the learners

needs and decentralized management. The programme is being implemented

on a project basis, generally co-terminus with the community development

Block comprising about 100 NFE Centres.

Particulars of achievements under the programme during the year 1991-

92 (anticipated by 31.3-1992) are given in Table 5.10.

241
Table 5.10 Non-Formal Education -Achievements

1991-92

1 Amount spent (Rs. in crores) 50.00

2 NFE Centres brought to function (in lakhs) cumulative. 2.72

3 No. of exclusive girl centres sanctioned (cumulative). 81,607

4 No. of voluntary organisations approved for NFE programme (cumulative). 419

5 NFE Cetres brought to function by voluntary agencies (cumulative). 27,342

Estimated enrolment (in lakhs) 68.00

No. of experimental innovative projects approved (cumulative). 49

No. of District Resource Units 19

No. of States/UTs. Covered. 18

During the year 1991-92, action was initiated to improve the technical

aspect of the scheme. The NCERT and voluntary agencies have been involved

in the development of teaching and learning materials of a standard quality in

conformity with MLLs designed to suit learners needs.

A project has been sanctioned to the NCERT for the development of

training module and in being implemented in the States. Multi-level training

personnel have been made available to provide technical and administrative

support to NFE field functionaries.

5.74 IMPACT OF MAHILA SAMAKHYA SCHEME

In pursuance of para 4.2 of the NPE, Mahila Samakhya was launched in

April, 1989. This programme seeks to mobilize rural women for education

through Mahila Sangas in each of the villages concerned. This is a Central

242
Sector scheme where 100 per cent financial assistance is provided to Mahila

Samakhya Societies in Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat, set up under the

chairmanship of the concerned State Education Secretary. As an Indo-Dutch

programme it receives 100 per cent assistance from the Government of the

Netherlands.

Essentially, the programme revolves around Mahila Sanghas where

women are mobilised around issues like access to health, education, water,

information about development programmes, general information about their

immediate environment, and above all, issues related to their personality and

self-image in society.

Mahila Samakhya is currently operational in 1,500 villages in 10districts.

It is proposed to expand the programme to 20 districts in the three States and

3 districts of Andhra Pradesh in a phased manner in Eighth Plan period.

5.75 IMPACT OF BIHAR EDUCATION PROJECT

The Bihar Education Project (BEP) has been conceived as a societal

mission for bringing about fundamental change in the basic mission for bringing

about fundamental change in the basic education system and through it the

overall socio-cultural situation.

The BEP will cover all components of basic education and will be expanded

in a phased manner to cover 20 districts over a period of five years. The outlay

will be Rs. 360 crore of which the UNICEF will contribute Rs. 180 crore,

243
Government of India Rs. 120 crore and Government of Bihar Rs. 60 crore. A

simultaneous process of mobilization and micro-planning characterizes the

project. The most important characteristic of the BEP management is a mission

made which pre-supposes a time-bound scheme of things in which specific

responsibility is attached to institutions, agencies, or individuals. Accordingly,

the management of the project has been vested in a state-level autonomous

registered body namely Bihar Shiksha Pariyojana Parishad (BSPP) which has

been constituted having two bodies-a Council with the Chief Minister as

Chairman, and an Executive Committee with State Education Secretary as its

Chairman. Representation of Teachers, NGOs Government of India and

institutions of national stature

5.76 IMPACT OF SHIKSHA KARMI PROJECT

The Shiksha Karmi Project is being implemented since 1987 in Rajasthan

with assistance from the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

Its aim is UPE in selected remote and socio-economically backward villages of

the State.

The project identifies teacher absenteeism as a major obstacle in

achieving the objective of universalisation. It accordingly, envisages substitution

of the primary school teacher in single teacher schools by a team of two locally

resident educational workers called Shiksha Karsmis. To ensure appointment

of local persons, educational qualification prescribed for teachers are not

insisted upon in the selection of Shiksha Karmis. But they are provided training

244
and academic support on a sustained and intensive basis to enable them to

function efficiently as teachers. The existing primary school when run by

Shiksha Karmis is called a Day Centre. Besides, each Shiksha Karmi also runs a

Prehar Pathshala (Night Centre) for children who cannot attend the day

Centre. The project also lays emphasis on recruitment of female Shiksha Karmis

and establishment of Mahila Shiksha Karmi Training Centres in order to prepare

local women to function as Shiksha Karmis.

As of 31st December, 1991, the project was being implemented in 359

villages of 33 block units in 30 blocks of 17 districts in the State. The number of

Shiksha Karmis was 750 and amongst them, they were looking after 359 Day

Centres and 706 Prehar Pathshalas with a total enrolment of 35,795.

An independent study of the Shiksha Karmi Project was done in the

second half of 1990. The study revealed that the achievement levels of the

children in Shiksha Karmi Schools compared favorably with the children in the

Panchayat Samiti schools.

5.77 IMPACT OF MINIMUM LEVELS OF LEARNING (MLLS)

The strategy of MLLs seeks to improve learning acquisition in schools by

focusing attention on what is happening in the classroom, and bringing the

principles of equity to bear upon it.

245
Table 5.11 Growth of Recognized Educational Institutions and

Enrolment since 1951-91

Year Hig/Hr. Secondary Schools, Inter/Pre Degree Jr. Colleges Enrolment in Lakhs

Boys Girls Total

1950-51 7416 13 2 15

1960-61 17329 27 7 34

1970-71 37051 57 19 76

1980-81 51624 84 35 119

1990-91 78619 140 69 209

5.78 IMPACT OF VOCATIONALISATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

Keeping in view the priorities accorded to vocationalisation of education

in the NPE-86, the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of

Secondary Education was started in February, 1988. The main objectives of the

scheme are to provide diversification of educational opportunities so as to

enhance individuals employability, reduce the mismatch between demand and

supply of skilled manpower, and provide an alternative avenue for those

pursing higher education.

The selection of vocational courses is made on the basis of area

vocational surveys, registration in the Employment Exchanges, and a general

assessment of manpower needs made under District Developmental Plans. This

ensures, to some extent, that students are trained in those occupational areas

246
wherein self or wage employment opportunities are assured. On-the-job

training is an integral part of the curricula. The remaining time is allocated to

the study of language and general foundation course. Under the scheme, a

Joint Council of Vocational Education (JCVE) has been set up at the national

level, with counterpart bodies at the State level, for laying down policy

guidelines, planning and coordination of vocational programmes conducted by

different agencies/organisations. The JCVE has as its members representatives

from various Ministries/Departments, members of Parliament, State

Governments, voluntary organisations, experts in vocational education and all-

India professional bodies. Union Education Minister is its Chairman. A Standing

Committee of the JCVE has also been set up under the Chairmanship of the

Union Education Secretary to ensure that the tasks laid down by JCVE are

effectively performed.

The scheme is presently being implemented in 27 States/UTs. Up to the

end of the Seventh Plan 7888 Vocational sections had been approved with an

enrolment capacity of 3.9 lakh students in classes XI and XII together. During

1990-91 an additional 1128 sections were approved. During 1991-92 it was

proposed to sanction another 1400 vocational sections. Thus by the end of 191-

92 facilities would have been created for 5.85 lakh students in the vocational

stream. The estimated enrolment during 1991-92 at +2 level was 66.05 lakh.

This would mean a diversion of about 8.7 per cent to the vocational stream.

247
The actual enrolment is however likely to be less as optimum utilisation of

facilities created may not be achieved.

5.79 IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION IS SCHOOLS

In order to improve the quality of science education and promote

scientific temper, as envisaged in NPE, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of

Improvement of Science Education in Schools was started during the last

quarter of 1987-88. Under this Scheme, financial assistance is provided to

States/Union Territories for provision of science kits to upper primary schools;

up gradation and strengthening of science laboratories in secondary and higher

secondary schools up to a desired standard; up gradation of libraries in

secondary and higher secondary schools; setting up of District Resource

Centres for science education, development of instructional materials; and

training of Science and Mathematics teachers. The scheme also provides for

assistance to voluntary organizations active in the field of science education for

undertaking innovative projects and resource support activities in science

education.

248
Table 5.12 Educational Technology - Achievements

1987- 1988-89 1989- 1990-91 1991- Total (as

88 90 92 on

12.12.91)

Amount Spent (Rs in crore) 14.14 16.20 16.50 14.57 3.15 64.56

No. of States covered (Cumulative) 13 29 31 32 32

No. of TV sets distributed 10049 12049 2799 6232 - 31129

No. of Radio cum Cassette Players 37562 67735 49963 72883 3115 231228

distributed

Continuing Schemes

1. Amount released to CIET (Rs. in 5.28 3.10 3.146 2.37 2.00 15.89

crores)

2. Amount Released to SIETs (Rs. in 1.40 1.53 2.20 0.44 0.63 6.65

Crores) (6 INSAT States A.P., Bihar, Plan

Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa and U.P.)

3. Amount released to ET Cells (Rs in 0.22 0.26 0.54 0.45 - 1.02

crores) Non Plan

4. Amount released to States/UTs. For 7.15 11.19 10.60 11.66 0.33 40.93

TVs/RCCPs (Rs in crores)

5. Development of Software for RCCPs - - - 0.10 0.19 0.29

(Rs. in crores)

The actual achievements up to 1990-91 and the anticipated achievements

during 1991-92 are given in Table 6.7.

249
5.80 IMPACT ON COMPUTER EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

A pilot project on Computer Literacy and studies in Schools (CLASS) was

initiated in 1984-85 in 248 selected secondary/higher secondary schools jointly

by the Department of Electronics and the Department of Education to acquaint

students and teachers with the range of computer applications and its potential

as a learning medium. In pursuance of the objectives laid down in the NPE, an

expanded programme was prepared in 1987-88 to cover 13,000 higher

secondary schools all over the country. However, due to paucity of funds and

other administrative reasons, the proposal to cover 13,000 schools was not

finalized. In the Table 5.13, a summary of achievements under CLASS Project is

presented.

Table 5.13 Class Project - Achievements

1987- 1988- 1989- 1990- 1991- Total


88 89 90 91 92 (anticipated)

Amount spent Rs. in crore 5.39 5.98 6.00 5.86 6.00 29.23

No. of States assisted 30 31 32 - - 32

No. of schools covered 1949 2327 2598 - - 2.598

5.81 IMPACT ON NATIONAL POPULATION EDUCATION PROJECT

The National Population Education Project (NPEP) was launched in April

1980 with the main objective of institutionalizing population education into the

formal and non-formal education system. The programme activities have been

250
developed in collaboration with the United Nations Fund (UNPFA) and UNESCO

and also with the active involvement of the Ministry of Health and Family

welfare. The NCERT provides technical assistance. The Ministry of Human

Resource Development has decided to extend the NPEP into the Eighth Five

Year Plan. Population Education aims at making young students aware of the

inter-relationship between population, development and the quality of life. It

further seeks to develop in them a rational attitude and responsible behaviour

towards population issue and to foster in them positive value orientation so that

they may take informed decisions which, in turn, would promote the small

family norm. The project is currently being implemented in twenty-nine States

and Union Territories.

5.82 IMPACT ON INTEGRATED EDUCATION FOR THE DISABLED

CHILDREN

It has been established scientifically that children with mild handicaps

make better progress academically and psychologically if they study in common

schools alongside normal children. The Scheme of Integrated Education for

Disabled Children provides 100 per cent financial assistance to State

Governments, Union Territory administrations and voluntary organisations for

creating necessary facilities in the schools. Admissible items of expenditure are

books and stationery allowance, transport allowance, uniform allowance,

readers allowance (for blind children), escort allowance for orthopedically

handicapped children with lower extremity disabilities, equipment allowance

251
and wherever necessary, hostel charges. Besides, the scheme also provides for

meeting the cost of salary and incentives for teachers, setting up of resource

rooms, carrying out assessment of disabled children, training of teachers,

removal of architectural barriers in schools, development and production of

special instructional materials for disabled children, etc. Assistance is also given,

through the UGC, to selected universities and institutions for running training

courses in special education for teachers of the handicapped children. Training

facilities are also provided by the NCERT and the four Regional Colleges of

Education.

The scheme is at present being implemented in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar,

Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka,

Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab,

Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Daman & Diu, Delhi and A & N

Islands.

There is one UNICEF assisted Project of Integrated Education for

Disabled (PIED) which envisages development of context-specific strategies for

education of Children with disabilities in general schools. Assistance is give to

the States/Union Territories implementing this project also for meeting the

expenditure on account of various facilities provided to disabled children. One

block each in the States of Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram,

Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu and the Municipal Corporations of

Delhi and Baroda are covered under this project.

252
About 28,000 children spread over 6000 schools are presently receiving benefits

under this scheme. A much large number are receiving indirect benefit through

special teachers and other learning material.

5.83 MORE REPORTS, MORE CONFUSION AND EDUCATION SUFFERS

It will be of interest to note that since Independence about one hundred

Committees and Commissions have been appointed by the Government of India

to investigate into the malaise afflicting the education system in the country.

Remedial measures have also been identified but the desired results are still

elusive. In this context, an editorial of The Hindustan Times dated May 25,1992

has made very pertinent observations.

Frequent changes in education policy do not make a sound education

system. While the comprehensive education reforms suggested by the

Radhakrishna and Kothari Commissions remain largely unimplemented,

frequent review exercises continue. The National Front Government showed

undue haste in rejecting the 1986 National Policy on Education (NPE) even

without giving it a proper trial and appointed a committee to review the NPE.

The Narasimha Rao Government was equally keen to review the review

undertaken by the Ramamurti Committee. The 16-member committee headed

by the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Mr N. Janardhana Reddy, has broadly

endorsed the basic thrust of the NPE and recommended only minor changes.

Thus it has taken full six years for the Government to realize that the 1986

policy on education is basically sound. The result of frequent changes and

253
reviews is the inevitable drift. As a result of such tinkering with education even

modest schemes like the universalisation of primary education have failed to

yield the desired result. Now the target of achieving universalisation of primary

education by 1995 has once again been extended by five years. The malaise

afflicting the education system has been diagnosed more or less accurately.

Even the corrective measures have been identified by various committees from

time to time. What is indeed missing is the necessary political will to make the

system viable and meaningful.

5.84 IMPACT ON PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION

Public expenditure on Education as a proportion of GNP, over the years,

has been as indicated in Table 5.14 which shows that while it has increased, as

of 1986-87, it feel far short of 6%.

Table 5.14Share of Education in GNP (%)

1950-51 1.2

1960-61 2.5

1970-71 3.1

1984-85* 3.7

1985-86** 4.0

1986-87@ 3.9

Budget expenditure (actual).

Budget expenditure (Revised Estimates).

@ Budget expenditure (Budget Estimates).

254
The Central Statistical organization has recently released the quick

estimates of National Income (GNP) for the year 1988-89 which has been

placed at Rs. 3,06,822 crores at current prices on the basis of which the plan

and non-plan budget of Education Departments at the Centre and the States as

a percentage of national income comes to 4.2 % for the year 1989-90.

India ranks 115th in the world in terms of investment in Education as a

percentage of GNP. Amongst the countries with a population of 10 crores and

above, India is at the very bottom, barring Bangladesh. That Indias educational

expenditure as a proportion of GNP compares very unfavorably vis--vis

worldwide expenditure on Education is brought out by Table 5.14.

The need of the hour is to implement the recommendations of the

Ramamurti Committee Report on raising resources for education. World public

expenditureon education as a percentage of GNP increased during the mid

period 1970 as the consequence of in-crease in both developed and developing

countries, but in the 1980s it slipped back to the level of early 1970s mainly as

the result of a decrease in developed countries.

255
Table 5.15 Share of Education in Five Year Plan Outlays/Expenditures

(%)

Share of Education in Total Plan


Plans
Outlays/Expenditure (%)

First Five Year Plan 7.86

Second Five Year Plan 5.83

Third Five Year Plan 6.87

Annual Five Year Plan 4.86

Fourth Five Year Plan 5.04

Fifth Five Year Plan 3.27

Sixth Five Year Plan 2.70

Seventh Five Year Plan 3.55

5.85 DECLINING SHARE OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

The share of Elementary Education has come down from the level of

56% in First Plan to 29% in the Seventh Plan. The share of secondary

Education has remained somewhat stable with marginal difference between

13% and 18%.

5.86 HIGH DROP-OUT RATES AND NEED FOR MORE RETENTION

A large percentage of children drop out in the early stages of primary

education with 46.97% of them dropping out by class V. At the middle Level,

256
about 62% of the children who began education at class I drop out before

reaching class VII. This percentage is 67% in the case of girls at the middle

stage. Similarly, the children of SC/ST communities drop out at a faster rate

than those of the non-SC/ST communities. The dimension of regional disparities

is also reflected in State-wise analysis of dropout at both the primary and

middle school levels.

Table 5.16 Dropout Rates 1987-88

Sl State/UT. Class I-V Class I-VIII


No
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Andhra Pradesh 52.42 58.52 55.03 67.77 77.01 71.68
2 Arunachal Pradesh 58.75 58.43 58.63 75.20 75.91 75.44
3 Assam 51.59 59.47 55.01 70.91 74.45 72.44
4 Bihar 63.88 68.93 65.63 76.77 84.19 79.08

5 Goa 2.19 8.78 5.33 20.69 27.63 23.95

6 Gujarat 38.06 46.87 41.92 56.30 67.69 61.67

7 Haryana 24.35 31.61 27.32 33.01 48.22 38.62

8 Himachal Pradesh 28.06 29.32 28.63 16.92 34.42 24.68

9 Jammu & Kashmir 28.08 41.45 33.44 46.63 58.51 51.25

10 Karnatka 43.28 57.36 50.16 61.04 72.07 66.10

11 Kerela -5.12 -3.62 -4.39 -15.97 15.00 15.49

12 Madhya Pradesh 36.64 48.04 41.04 49.88 66.65 55.78

13 Maharashtra 34.69 45.71 39.82 53.07 68.01 59.87

14 Meghalaya 31.43 33.40 32.35 66.42 61.61 64.22

15 Mizoram 37.28 38.72 37.98 45.35 42.49 43.98

16 Nagaland 37.22 33.43 35.45 58.15 55.13 56.90

257
17 Orissa 4.05 37.32 38.97 60.28 71.25 64.86

18 Punjab 36.81 37.81 37.27 59.69 67.26 63.23

19 Rajasthan 53.12 60.75 52.25 62.81 76.82 66.35

20 Sikkim 60.19 58.50 59.86 63.83 60.11 62.51

21 Tamilnadu 19.44 24.46 21.78 44.08 53.14 48.22

22 Tripura 59.14 58.02 58.65 73.95 75.96 74.83

23 Uttar Pradesh 47.84 47.24 47.65 49.88 63.34 54.20

24 West Bengal 62.35 65.76 63.81 74.32 75.91 75.41

25 A&N Islands 18.60 22.74 20.54 38.35 39.59 36.31

26 Chandigarh -21.00 24.41 4.78 5.54 13.01 8.94

27 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 29.37 45.58 36.14 63.98 70.52 66.81

28 Daman & Diu 2.24 8.82 5.34 21.03 27.97 23.95

29 Delhi 14.40 25.40 19.76 9.64 24.20 16.73

30 Lakshadweep -2.96 11.38 4.02 40.96 56.82 48.45

31 Pondicherry 11.55 0.83 -5.59 3.11 31.52 16.29

32 Manipur 71.35 72.04 71.67 76.58 87.86 77.90

Total 43.35 49.42 46.97 58.80 67.55 62.29

258
Table 5.17 Intra-Sectoral Resource Allocation for Education in

the Five Year Plans (Centre and States)

(Figures in crores of rupees) (Figures in brackets are in %)

EXPENDITURE OUTLAY

1st Plan 2nd 3rd Plan Plan 4th Plan 5th Plan 6th Plan 7th Plan

Plan Holiday

Elementary 85 (56) 95 (35) 201 (34) 75(24) 239(30) 317(50) 906(36) 1830(29)

Secondary 20 (13) 51 (19) 103 (18) 53(16) 140 (18) 156 (17) 398 (16) 1000 (16)

**

University 14(9) 48 (18) 87(15) 77(24) 195 (25) 205 (22) 486 (19) 750 (12)

Other 14 (9) 30 (10) 73(12) 37(11) 106(14) 127(14) 457(18) 2121(33)

General

Total 133(87) 224(82) 464(79) 241(75) 680 (87) 805 (88) 2247(89) 5710(89)

General

Technical 20(13) 49(18) 125(21) 81(25) 106(13) 107(12) 278(11) 682(11)

Grand 153(100 273 589 322 786 912 2524 6383

Total ) (100) (100) (100) (100) (100) (100) (100)

% to total 7.86 5.83 6.87 4.86 5.04 3.27 2.59 3.55

plan outlay

* includes pre-school education

** includes teacher education, social education (youth serv *


Draft)

259
5.87 UNIVERSALISATION OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

Since the formulation of the NPE (1992), following major programmes

have been initiative for achieving the objectives of Universalisation of

Elementary.

1. District Primary Education Projection (DPEP).

2. Sarve Shiksha Abhiyan

3. National programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education

(NPNSPE) or Mid-day Meals.

4. Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education.

5. National Programme of Education of Girls at Elementary Stage (NPEGL)

Scheme

6. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme.

7. Prthmik Shiksha Kosh.

5.88 IMPACT OFDISTRICT PRIMARY EDUCATION PROGRAMME

(DPEP)

The District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) launched in 1993 is a

Centrally Sponsored Scheme for holistic development of primary education

covering Classes I to V. The three major objectives of the DPEP are to (i)

reduce drop-out rates to less than 10 per cent, (ii) reduce disparities among

gender and social group in the areas of enrolment, learning achievement, etc.

260
To less than 5 per cent and (iii) improve the level of learning achievement

compared to the baseline surveys.

The Programme components include construction of classrooms and new

schools, opening of Alternative Schooling Centres, appointment of new teacher,

setting up early childhood education centres, strengthening of state councils of

Educational Research and Training (SCERTs)/District Institutes of Educational

Training (DIETs), setting up of Block Resource Centres/Cluster Resource

Centres, teacher training development of teaching-learning material, special

interventions for education of girls, SC/ST, working children, etc. Initiatives for

providing integrated education to is able children and distance education for

teacher training have also been incorporated in the DPEP Scheme.

Additionality Factor of DPEP DPEP is based on the Principle of

additionality and is structured to fill in the existing gaps by providing inputs

over and above the provisions made under Central and State Sector Schemes

for primary education.

District Selection Criteria (a) Educationally backward districts with

female literacy below the national average, and (b) Districts where Total

Literacy Campaigns (TLCs) have been successful leading to enhanced demand

for elementary education.

Funding of the Project DPEP is an externally aided project. 85 per

cent of the project cost is met by the Government of India and the remaining

15 per cent is shared by the concerned State Government. The Government of

261
India share is resourced through external assistance. External assistance of

about Rs. 6938.00 crore, comprising Rs. 5137.00 crore as credit from IDA and

Rs. 1801.00 crore as grant from BC/DFID/UNI CEF/Netherlands has been tied

up for DPEP till date.

Coverage of DPEP At present, DPEP is in operation in 9 states

covering 129 districts. DPEP at its peak, was operational in 273 districts in 18

states. However, with the progressive closure of different phases of the

programme, it now exist in 129 districts only.

Monitoring and Evaluation of DPEP The programme is periodically

reviewed through the mechanism of Hoint Review Missions, Project

Management Information System (PMIS), Educational Management System

(EMIS), programme impact studies, etc. A midterm in-depth reviews of DPEP

Phase-I, II and III states have also been carried out by the Join Review

Missions in 1997-98, 1999-2000 and 2003-04. The review and evaluation

studies of the programme have brought out that the programme has resulted in

significant increase in enrolment, improvement in learning achievement,

reduction in repetition rates/drop-outs with increased community involvement

and improvements in classroom processes.

Allocation of Funds under DPEP Portion of Budget Estimates,

Revised Estimates and Actual Expenditure for last three years is given as under:

262
Table 5.18Allocation of Funds under DPEP (Rs. in crore)

Year BE RE Actual

2000-01 969.00 820.00 856.39

2001-02 1098.00 1198.00 1198.00

2002-03 1380.00 1380.00 1285.03

2003-04 1200.00 800.00 791.19

Expenditure on DPEP The cumulative expenditure on DPEP up to

February 2004, works out to Rs. 6076.75 crore and the cumulative

reimbursement to Rs. 4807.51 crore. Expenditure incurred during the financial

year 2003-04 is Rs. 847.68 core and reimbursement Rs. 609.57 crore.

5.89 IMPACT OF SARVE SHIKSHA ABHIYAN

The Scheme of Sarve Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) evolved from the

recommendations of the State Education Ministers Conference held in October

1998 to pursue universal elementary education in a mission mode. The scheme

of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was approved by the Cabinet in its meeting held on

16 November 2000. It was started in 2001.

The assistance under the programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiya was on an

85:15 sharing arrangement during the Ninth Plan, 75:25 sharing arrangement

during the Tenth Plan, 50:50 sharing thereafter, between the Central

Government and the State Government.

The programme covers the entire country and addresses the needs of

192 million children in 11 lakh existing primary and upper primary schools and

263
33 lakh existing teachers would b covered under the scheme. The programme

seeks to open new schools in habitations which do not have schooling facilities

and strengthen existing schools infrastructure through provision of additional

class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school

improvement grant. Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength would be

provided additional teachers under the programme. The capacity of existing

teacher would be built by extensive training, provision of grant for developing

teaching-learning material and development of academic support structure. SSA

has a special focus on girls and children of weaker sections A number of

initiatives, including free textbooks, target these children under the programme.

SSA also seeks to provide computer education even in rural areas, to bridge the

digital divide.

The approach is community owned, and the village education plans

prepared in consultation with Panchayati Raj Institutions, will form the basis of

district elementary education plans. The Sarve Shiksha Abhiyan covers the

entire with a special focus on educational needs of girls, Scheduled Castes and

Scheduled Tribes and other children in difficult circumstances.

264
Goals of SarvaShikshaAbhiyan

All 6-14 age children in school/EGS centre/bridge course by 2003.

All 6-14 age children complete five year primary education by 2007.

All 6-14 age children complete eight years of schooling by 2010.

Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on

education for life;

Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at

elementary education level by 2010;

Universal retention by 2010.

National Level Mission

The Ministry has also set up national-level mission under the

chairmanship of Prime Minister vide Resolution dated 2-1-2001. During Tenth

Plan, an allocation of Rs. 17,000 crore has been made for SSA. For 2003-04, BE

is Rs. 1951.25 crore, RE is Rs. 2732.32 crore and the final grant is Rs. 2732.32

crore. The total expenditure under SSA for the year 2003-04 was Rs. 3,650

crore.

Monitoring Under SSA

Monitoring under SSA is a three-tiered monitoring at the local community

level, at the state level and the national level. The community, through its

representative institutions like village education committees, has been

entrusted with the primary level of ensuring that the schools are functioning

265
effectively. Being local stakeholders, they are best placed to ensure quality

education in the schools.

For assisting the various levels of management in the task of monitoring,

two kinds of information System (EMIS), also known as District Information

System on Education (DISE), under which school-level data is collected every

year with 30 September as the record date. This was first developed in DPEP in

1995 for capturing school-level information from primary sections. Starting from

42 districts, it grew to 273 districts during the peak of DPEP programme. With

the advent of SSA, the system was expanded to the upper primary sections also

and to all districts in the country. The data, as on 30 September 2002, was

received from 459 districts in the 18 DPEP states. It is expected that the data

from 30 September 2003 would become available for all the 600 districts in the

country.

Table 5.19 Approved Annual Plans under SSA during 2002-03

and 2003-04

2002-2003 2003-04

No. of Districts 592 596

Amount Approved under SSA (Rs. in crore) 3411 crore 8547 crore

Amount Approved under DPEP (Rs. in crore) 2291 crore 1253 crore

Total Amount Approved (Rs. in crore) 5702 crore 9600 crore

The second information system developed is the Project Management

Information System (PMIS), in which the emphasis is n recording the progress

266
made, towards the implementation of the annual plans, as well as to capture

the quality of the education process. The system has been developed with the

assistance of NIEPA and NCERT, and is a complete monitoring framework for

every tier of management. Several formats have been prescribed at various

levels to assist in monitoring the implementation of the programme at those

levels. Only the abstract useful at the national level is received nationally under

the system.

Seeing the enormity of this task of monitoring, assistance has been

taken from professional institutions, such as IIMs, departments of education of

different universities and the ICSSR. These institutions have been allocated

individual states, the number of institutions allocated to the states depending

on the size of the State and the extent of monitoring required. They not only

carry out the task of supervision and.

267
Table 5.20 Physical Items approved in 2002-2003 and 2003-

2004

2002-2003 2003-2004

SSA DPEP Total SSA DPEP Total

No. of schools approved 18.159 1,640 19,699 67,190 57 67,247

No. of teachers sanctioned 25,782 17,108 42,890 2,98,189 5,201 4,03,390

No. of school buildings 8,095 8,849 16,944 40,960 1,586 42,546

Additional classrooms 32,028 7,485 39,523 68,779 3,950 72,729

Toilets 39,699 11,130 50,829 46,272 5,488 51,760

Drinking water 26,805 6,590 33,395 33,161 6,053 41,214

Teacher grant 21,16,514 8,52,445 30,13,959 29,67.053 3,70,798 33,37,851

School grant (No. of schools) 5,61,558 3,07,414 8,68,972 6,33,303 1,46,143 8,29,446

Repair grants (No. of 5,15,700 0 5,15,700 7,33,000 42,133 7,75,133

schools)

Free text books (No. of 31139754 14086909 45226663 4,60 1.21 5.81

children) crore core crore

Monitoring but also act as partners of the states in the implementation of

the programme. The selected institutions make field and send their reports

every quarter. Their quarterly visits to select districts help in assessing the

ground-level realities.

Apart from the above, an independent agency has also been engaged to

monitor the programme from the financial management aspect. The agency

selected is the Institute of Public Auditors of India (IPAI) whose patron is CAG,

268
and which consists of personnel formerly working with the Audit and Accounts

Department. They take up six states every year for monitoring the financial

aspects of the programme, such as fund flow, utilisation of funds, propriety of

procurement, etc. this monitoring is apart from the statutory audit of the State

Societies as per law and the audit by CAG of India.

Implementation of SSA in the first two years of the Tenth Plan has seen

significant developments in the field of education sector. There has been a

particular emphasis in these two years to ensure that all out-of- school children

are brought to school through multi-pronged strategies. The focus has been on

improving the existing infrastructure of regular schools as well as on alternate

strategies for mainstreaming children who are left out of the schooling process

due to a number of reasons.

Towards the objective of improving the infrastructure, arrangements

have been made to open more than 80,000 new schools and appointing around

4.5 lakh teachers in the last two years. Further, physical infrastructure has been

sought to be improved through provision of more than 1 lakh additional

classrooms, around 60,000 school buildings, 1 lakh toilets and 75,000 drinking

water facilities. With the objective of improving the quality of teaching and

classroom atmosphere, grants are given to all teachers for developing teaching-

learning materials, 20-day training is expected to be given to all teachers and

free textbooks distributed to all girls and children belonging to Scheduled

269
Castes and Scheduled Tribes. In addition, maintenance grant for civil repairs

and a school grant for replacement of equipment is give to all schools.

For children who are difficult to bring to school, SSA has relied on the

Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education to bring

these children to school. In the last two years approvals have been given for

getting 1.42 crore children to school.

As a result of all these interventions, the number of out-of-school children

has come down from 3.5 crore in 2001 to 2.3 crore in the beginning of 2003-

04.

5.90 EDUCATION GUARANTEE SCHEME AND ALTERNATIVE AND

INNOVATIVE EDUCATION

The Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative and Innovative

Education (AIE) component of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is operationally

proactive and proactive and provides avenues to children in the age group of 6-

14 years. This component was designed to cover those children who are

habitants of remotely located inaccessible habitations, never been to school,

dropouts or could not continue/complete their elementary education because of

one or the other reason.

EGS & AIE is, therefore, a vital component of SSA for achieving Universalisation

of Elementary Education (UEE). It has the following broad strategies:

Setting up of EGS schools in school-less habitations.

270
Interventions for mainstreaming of out-of-school children through

bridge courses (residential as well as non-residential), back to school

camps, etc.

Strategies for specific groups of children, who need flexible and

innovative interventions to meet their requirements of elementary

education.

FGS & AIE programme also envisages centres for street and a state on

this component is 75:25 respectively. In case of support to voluntary agencies

(VAs), Central Government bears 100 per cent cost (within the overall cost

ceiling). The EGS & AIE, being a part of SSA, has no separate budget provision

and expenditure on the scheme is incurred from overall budget provision of

SSA.

The scheme is largely implemented and monitored by state-level

societies set up for SSA by the State/UT Governments, which have powers to

appraise and approve proposals running either through state agencies or

voluntary sector.

The Department of Elementary Education and Literacy Persuaded the

State Governments to constitute state-level GIACs as per the framework of SSA

and a Hand Book for EGS/AIE, in order to encourage the participation of NGOs.

The GIACs have already been constituted in 22 states. The States of Bihar,

Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh have processed 289,272 and 425 proposals

respectively from NGOs.

271
In order to enhance state capacities for implementation of the EGS/AIE

scheme in SSA, one national and three regional-level workshops to strengthen

the capacity of implementers at state as well as district-level were organized. A

three-day national-level workshop was organized in Kolkata in April 2003 and

2004 and three regional workshop workshops were organized in Pune,

Allahabad and Kolkata.

The Department of Elementary Education and Literacy regularly monitors

the implementation of EGS/AIE component in the States through convening

quarterly meetings of Alternative Schooling Coordinators of the State SSA

programmes regularly, wherein state-wise progress is reviewed, interstate

experiences and good practices are shared and the issues concerning the

programme are deliberated upon for better execution.

5.91 NATIONAL PROGRAMME OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT TO

PRIMARY EDUCATION

A nation-wide programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education

(popularly called Mid-day Meals Scheme or MDM) was launched on 15 August

1995, with the objectives to give a boost to UPE and simultaneously impacting

on the nutritional status of students in primary classes studying in government,

local body and government-aided schools. During the current year, the

programme has also been expanded to children of EGS centres which are being

opened in the school-less habitations.

272
The programme aims to provide wholesome cooked/processed food

through local bodies/authorities such as Panchayats and Nagar Palikas who are

expected to develop institutional arrangement has not taken place, food grains

(wheat/rice) at the rate of 3kg per month are distributed to the targeted

children, subject to a minimum attendance of 80 percent. The programme was

expanded in a phased manner and has seen all-India coverage during 1997-98

except for Lakshadweep, which runs its own programme. The Central Support

under this programme is to provide food grains free of cost to children through

the Food Corporation of India. The cost is being reimbursed at BPL rate. The

year-wise details of children targeted for coverage and quantity of food grains

allocated and lifted by state agencies and expenditure incurred is given below.

Recently, the Honble Supreme Court in its order dated 29 November

2001 directed that under the Scheme, cooked meals be provided in a time

bound manner by those States/UTs that do not have such a programme. As a

result, cooked meals are now being served in a number of States.

273
Table 5.21 National Programme Of Nutritional Support To

Primary Education

Year No. of Children Quantity of foodgrains Expenditure incurred

Allocated Lifted

1995-96 3.34 713223 536016 441.21

1996-97 5.57 1585388 1112489 800.00

1997-98 9.10 2567372 1810164 1017.38

1998-99 9.79 2706274 1147917 1600.15

1999-2000 9.90 2767251 1401765 1500.00

2000-01 10.54 2480692 1517816 1300.00

2001-02 10.35 2862475 2076764 1030.27

2002-03 10.25 2826248 901756 952.44

(up to Sept. 2002)

5.92 IMPACT ON NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR EDUCATION OF GIRLS

AT ELEMENTARYLEVEL (NPEGEL) SCHEME

In July, 2003, Government of India approved a new programme called

National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) as an

amendment to the existing scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) for

providing additional support for education of underprivileged/disadvantaged

girls at the elementary level. The scheme is implemented in Educationally

Backward Blocks (EBBs) where the level of female literacy is below, and the

gender gap is above the national average in blocks of districts which are not

274
covered under EBBs but have at least 5 per cent SC/ST population and where

SC/St female literacy is below 10 per cent, also in select urban slums.

5.93 IMPACT ON KASTURBA GANDHI BALIKA VIDYALAYA SCHEME

An estimated provision of Rs. 1064.80 crore has been kept for the Tenth

Plan. Apart from NPEGEL, a new scheme called Kasturba Gandhi Balika

Vidyalaya (KGBV) was approved for launching during 2004-05 for setting up

750 residential schools with boarding facilities at elementary level for girls

belonging predominantly to the SC,ST, other backward castes (OBC) and

minorities in difficult areas. a provision of Rs. 489 crore has been made for the

Tenth Plan; and Annual Plan allocation for the year 2004-05 is Rs. 100 crore.

525 KGBVs have been approved by the Department of Elementary Education,

involving an Amount of Rs. 123.03 crore for 2004-05.

5.94 IMPACT ON PRATHMIK SHIKSHA KOSH

An education cess of 2 per cent on all direct and indirect Central taxes

has been imposed through the Finance (No. 2) Act, 2004. Soon after he

relevant Bill was introduced in Parliament on July 8, 2004, action was initiated

for the creation of a separate, dedicated, non-lapsable Fund to be named as

Prathmik Shiksha Kosh and maintained by the Ministry of HRD, Department of

Elementary Education and Literacy. The proceeds would be available on a

roolover basis for the schemes of Basic Education and the Mid-day Meal

Scheme. Budget provision for the Mid-day Meal Scheme during 2004-05 was

Rs. 1,675 crore. In addition Rs. 1,232 crore has been provided to the

275
States/UTs as Additional Central Assistance (ACA) under State Sector as

earmarked outlay for meeting cooking cost.

Table 5.22 Gross Enrolment Ratios at the Elementary Stage (GER) (in per cent)

Year Primary (I-V) Upper Primary Elementary

(VI-VIII) (I-VIII)

Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total

1950-51 60.6 24.8 42.6 20.6 4.6 12.7 46.4 17.7 32.1

1960-61 82.6 41.4 62.4 33.2 11.3 22.5 65.2 30.9 48.7

1970-71 95.5 60.5 75.6 46.5 20.8 33.4 75.5 44.4 61.9

1980-81 95.8 64.1 80.5 54.3 28.6 41.9 82.2 52.1 67.5

1990-91 114.0 85.5 100.1 76.6 47.0 62.1 100.0 70.8 86.0

1991-92 112.8 86.9 100.2 75.1 49.6 61.4 101.2 73.2 87.7

1993-94 90.0 73.1 81.9 62.1 45.4 54.2 80.2 63.7 72.3

1994-95 96.6 78.2 87.7 68.9 50.0 60.0 87.2 68.8 78.4

1995-96 97.1 79.4 88.6 67.8 493.8 59.3 86.9 69.4 78.5

1996-97 97.0 80.1 88.8 65.8 49.2 58.0 85.9 69.4 78.0

1997-98 99.3 82.2 91.1 66.3 49.7 58.5 87.4 70.7 79.4

1998-99* 100.9 82.9 92.1 65.3 49.1 57.6 87.6 70.6 79.4

1999- 104.1 85.2 94.9 67.2 49.7 58.8 90.1 72.0 81.3

2000

2000-01* 104.9 85.9 95.7 66.7 49.9 58.6 90.3 72.4 81.6

2001-02* 105.3 86.9 96.3 67.8 52.1 60.2 90.7 73.6 82.4

2002-03* 97.5 93.1 95.4 65.3 56.2 60.9 85.4 79.3 82.5

Provisional

276
Source: Selected Education Statistics 2002-03, Ministry of Human

Resource Development.

Drop-out Rates

Of the estimated population of 205 million in the age group of 6-14 years

on March 1, 2002, nearly 82.5 per cent was enrolled in schools, compared to

82.4 per cent in 2001-02. The retention rate of students at the primary school

stage was about 59 per cent (1992-97).

The rates of drop out decreased from 64.5 per cent in 1960-6 to 39.0

per cent in 2001-02 primary classes. The rate of dropouts which was 78.3 per

cent in 1960-61 came down to 54.6 per cent in 2001-2002 in the Classes I-VIII.

Similarly the rate of dropouts which was 82.5 per cent in 1980-81, decreased to

66.0 per cent in 2001-2002 in the secondary classes, implying an improvement

in retention rates as would be evident from Table 5.23.

277
Table 5.23 Dropout rates from Class I to X

1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1992-93 1999-2000 2001-2002

Classes I-V

Boys 61.7 64.5 56.2 40.1 43.8 38.7 38.4

Girls 70.9 70.9 62.5 46.0 46.7 42.3 39.9

Total 64.9 67.0 58.7 42.6 45.0 40.3 39.0

Classes I-VIII

Boys 75.0 74.6 68.0 59.1 58.2 52.0 52.9

Girls 85.0 83.4 79.4 65.1 65.2 58.0 56.9

Total 78.3 77.9 72.7 60.9 31.1 54.5 54.6

Classes I-X

Boys N.A. N.A. 79.8 67.5 70.0 66.6 64.2

Girls N.A. N.A. 86.6 76.9 77.3 70.6 68.6

Total N.A. N.A. 82.5 71.3 72.9 68.3 66.0

Provisional

The situation cannot be said to be satisfactory. Strenuous efforts are needed

to ensure that the Students once enrolled in the school do not drop out.

Teacher pupil ratio of 1.43 at the primary stage is very high. It leaves very little

scope for individual attention.

Expenditure on Education

The NPE 1986 and as modified in 1992 set a goal of expenditure on

education at 6 percent of the GDP. As against the target, the combined total

expenditure on education by Central and State Government was 3.74 percent of

GDP in 2003 (B.E.)

278
Table 5.24 Expenditure on Education in India (1951-52 to 2001-

2002) (In Crore)

Years Total expr. Total expr. on all GDP at current % of Edu. % of Edu.

on education sectors (Rev.) prices (at factor Exp. To all Exp. To GDP

% trg. (Rev.) cost) base year sectors Exp.

1993-94

1951-51 64.46 814.13 10080 7.92 0.64

1952-53 72.26 857.67 9941 8.43 0.73

1953-54 80.06 908.20 10824 8.82 0.74

1954-55 95.82 973.74 10168 9.84 0.94

1955-56 118.39 1111.26 10332 10.65 1.15

1956-57 132.88 1158.01 12334 11.47 1.08

1957-58 150.26 1614.62 12610 10.61 1.19

1958-59 173.78 1594.36 14106 10.90 1.23

1959-60 207.59 1770.06 14816 11.73 1.40

1960-61 239.56 1997.93 16220 11.99 1.48

1961-62 260.30 2225.40 17116 11.70 1.52

1962-63 278.76 2942.67 18302 9.47 1.52

1963-64 313.93 3488.97 20916 9.00 1.50

1964-65 369.29 3844.91 24436 9.60 1.51

1965-66 432.61 4404.82 25586 9.82 1.69

1966-67 487.83 5100.24 29123 9.56 1.68

1967-68 593.14 5619.77 34225 10.55 1.73

1968-69 649.13 6922.07 36092 9.38 1.80

169-70 960.23 7908.07 39691 9.61 1.92

279
1970-71 892.36 8787.12 42222 10.16 2.11

1971-72 1011.07 10610.89 44923 9.53 2.25

1972-73 1150.43 11863.56 49415 9.70 2.33

1973-74 1300.72 12884.48 60560 10.10 2.15

1974-75 1570.67 14625.03 71283 10.74 2.20

1975-76 1849.47 17958.99 75709 10.30 2.44

1976-77 2039.09 20482.83 81381 9.96 2.51

1977-78 2630.60 22666.31 92881 11.61 2.83

1978-79 2994.69 26134.84 99823 11.46 3.00

1979-80 3347.57 30915.39 108927 10.83 3.07

1980-81 3884.20 36398.39 130178 10.67 2.98

1981-82 4435.29 33667.31 152056 13.17 2.92

1982-83 5509.17 43996.18 169525 12.52 3.25

1983-84 6229.53 61889.25 198630 10.07 3.14

1984-85 7455.88 69025.45 222705 10.80 3.35

1985-86 8713.02 67091.41 249547 12.9 3.49

1986-87 9497.13 80454.66 278258 11.78 3.41

1987-88 11798.35 92518.38 315993 12.75 3.73

1988-89 14069.82 107543.75 378491 13.08 3.72

1989-90 17192.50 126045.97 438020 13.64 3.93

1990-91 19615.85 146711.53 510954 13.37 3.84

1991-92 22393.69 170370.38 589086 13.14 3.80

1992-93 25030.30 190327.45 673221 13.15 3.72

1993-94 28279.22 218535.15 781345 12.94 3.62

1994-95 32606.22 251691.92 917058 12.95 3.56

1995-96 38178.09 286194.55 1073271 13.34 3.56

280
1996-97 43896.48 329389.92 1243546 13.33 3.53

1997-98 48552.14 380728.45 1390148 12.75 3.49

1998-99 61578.91 439768.11 1598127 14.00 3.85

1999-2000 74816.09 512519.33 1761932 14.60 4.25

2000-2001 82486.43 572160.14 191772 P 14.42 4.30

2001-2002 84179.46 639048.06 2094013 Q 13.17 4.02

(R. E.)

P Provisional estimates, Q-quick estimates, RE Revised estimates

Source: 1. National Accounts Statistics published by C.S.O.

2. expenditure on Education. Figure is taken from the publication

titled Analysis of Budgeted on Education published by D/o.

Secondary and Higher Education.

3. Selected Education Statistics (2002-2003).

Adult Education was 0.05% during 1990-91 showing a gradual decrease

of 0.01% in 2000-2001. It improved slightly to 0.02% during 2001-2002. The

percentage expenditure on University and Higher Education to GDP, which was

0.77% in 1990-91 shows a gradual decrease to 0.62% during 1997-98 and rise

to 0.88% in 2000-2001.

The share of expenditure on Elementary Education to total expenditure on all

sectors was 6.19% during 1990-91 and which shows irregular rise and fall and

finally settled at 6.61% during 2001-2002. The share of Secondary and Higher

secondary Education to total expenditure on all sectors was highest in 1999-

281
2000 i.e. 4.97% and the lowest (4.09%) during 2001-2002. The share of adult

expenditure in total expenditure on all sectors was the highest in 1990-91

(0.19%) and shows a gradual decreasing trend to 0.05% in 2001-02. The

percentage share of higher education to total expenditure remained between

2.32% to 2.96% in the last decade.

Besides the above discussion the growth and development of school

education in India may be observed in overall basis from the following tables.

282
Table 5.25 Development of Enrolment by stages since

independence in school education

Middle/Upper High/Hr.Sec./Inter/Pre-
Primary (I-V)
year Primary (VI-VII) Degree (IX-XII)
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
1950-51 13.8 5.4 19.2 2.6 0.5 3.1 1.3 0.2 1.5
1955-56 7.1 7.5 24.6 3.8 1 4.8 2.2 0.4 2.6
1960-61 23.6 11.4 35 5.1 1.6 6.7 2.7 0.7 3.4
1965-66 32.2 18.3 50.5 7.7 2.8 10.5 4.4 1.3 5.7
1970-71 35.7 21.3 57 9.4 3.9 13.3 5.7 1.9 7.6
1975-76 40.6 25 65.6 11 5 16 6.5 2.4 8.9
1980-81 45.3 28.5 73.8 13.9 6.8 20.7 7.6 3.4 11
1985-86 52.2 35.2 87.4 17.7 9.6 27.1 11.5 5 16.5
1990-91 57 40.4 97.4 21.5 12.5 34 12.8 6.3 19.1
1991-92 58.6 42.3 100.9 22 13.6 35.6 13.5 6.9 20.4
1992-93 57.9 41.7 99.6 21.2 12.9 34.1 13.6 6.9 20.5
1993-94 55.1 41.9 97 20.6 13.5 34.1 13.2 7.5 20.7
1994-95 60 45.1 105.1 22.1 14.3 36.4 14.2 7.9 22.1
1995-96 60.9 46.2 107.1 22.7 14.8 37.5 14.6 8.3 22.9
1996-97 61.4 46.8 108.2 22.9 15.2 38.1 15.3 8.7 24
1997-98 62.3 48 110.3 23.6 15.9 39.5 16.1 9.3 25.4
1998-99 62.7 48.2 110.9 24 16.3 40.3 17.3 10.5 27.8
1999-00 64.1 49.5 113.6 25.1 17 42.1 17.2 11 28.2
2000-01 64 49.8 113.8 25.3 17.5 42.8 16.9 10.7 27.6
2001-02 63.6 50.3 113.9 26.1 18.7 44.8 18.4 12.1 30.5
2002-03 65.1 57.3 122.4 26.3 20.6 46.9 19.5 13.7 33.2
2003-04 68.4 59.9 128.3 27.3 21.4 48.7 20.3 14.5 35.4
2004-05 70.1 61.5 131.6 28.7 22.9 51.6 20.9 14.8 36.1

283
Table 5.26 Growth of recognized Educational Institutions

(School Level) since independence in India

High/Hr.Sec./Inter/Pre.Jr.
year Primary Upper Primary
Coleges

1950-51 209671 13596 7416

1955-56 278135 21730 10838

1960-61 330399 49663 17329

1965-66 391064 75798 27614

1970-71 408378 90621 37051

1975-76 454270 106571 43054

1980-81 494503 118555 51573

1985-86 528872 134846 65837

1990-91 560935 151456 79796

1991-92 566744 155926 82576

1992-93 571248 158498 84608

1993-94 570455 162804 89226

1994-95 586810 168772 94946

1995-96 593410 174145 99274

1996-97 603646 180293 103241

1997-98 619222 185961 107140

1998-99 626737 190166 112438

1999-2000 641695 198004 116820

2000-2001 638738 206269 126047

2001-2002 664041 219626 133492

2002-2003 651382 245274 137207

284
Table 5.27 Number of teachers engaged in different types of

schools since independence in India in 000) yh

High/Hr.
Primary Upper Primary Secondary/Intermidate

Year Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total

1950-51 456 82 538 73 13 86 107 20 127

1955-56 574 117 691 132 19 151 155 35 190

1960-61 615 127 742 262 83 345 234 62 296

1965-66 764 180 944 389 139 528 368 111 479

1970-71 835 225 1060 463 175 638 474 155 629

1975-76 955 283 1248 554 224 778 559 200 759

1980-81 1021 342 1363 598 253 851 669 257 926

1985-86 1094 402 1496 663 305 968 793 339 1132

1990-91 1143 473 1616 717 356 1073 917 417 1334

1991-92 152 492 1644 714 365 1079 931 450 1381

1992-93 1137 514 1651 709 376 1085 941 454 1395

1993-94 1110 513 1623 723 406 1124 953 492 1445

1994-95 1157 531 1688 746 410 1156 986 495 1481

1995-96 1176 558 1734 758 424 1182 1030 519 1549

1996-97 1190 566 1756 769 431 1200 1069 544 1613

1997-98 1226 597 1823 640 597 1237 1086 558 1644

1998-99 1246 658 1904 814 464 1278 1168 579 1747
1999-
2000 1236 683 1919 829 469 1298 1142 578 1720
2000-
2001 1221 675 1896 820 506 1326 1184 577 1760
2001-
2002 1213 715 1928 921 547 1468 1157 620 1777
2002-
2003 1167 746 1913 936 645 1581 1221 812 2033

285
5.95 IMPACT ON RASHTRIYA MADHYAMIK SHIKSHA ABHIYAN

(RMSA)

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is a Programme of the

Government of India, implemented in partnership with the State Governments

with the main objective to make secondary education a good quality available,

accessible and affordable to all young persons. The scheme seeks to enhance

enrolment in classes IX and X by providing a secondary school within a

reasonable distance of every habitation, to improve quality of education

imparted at secondary level by ensuring all secondary schools conform to

prescribed/ standard norms, to remove gender, socio-economic and disability

barriers and to achieve universal access to secondary level education by 2017,

i.e. by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan. RMSA was launched in 2009, funded

through national resources (central government + state government) and now

has tied up for external funding by Development Partners (DP) World Banks

International Development Association (IDA), United Kingdoms Department

of International Development (DFID) and European Union (EU). As part of the

agreement for external aid from the DPs which came into effect in November,

2012, the Joint Review Mission (JRM) is to be conducted every six months in

the months of January and July each year. The January Mission undertakes

States visits, while the July mission is a desk review. The field visits to the

selected States/UTs implementing RMSA will be by a Joint team of nominees of

both the GoI and the DPs, after which there will be discussions on the findings

286
of the State visits followed by report writing and wrap up in which the

Education Secretaries/SPDs of the States will also be participating.

5.96 IMPACT OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION

As a follow up to the NPE, a number of programmes were initiated in

India with a view to achieving UEE. These efforts were intensified in the 1980s

and 1990s through several interventions such as Operation Blackboard (OBB),

the Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP), the Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project

(APPEP), the Bihar Education Project (BEP),the UP Basic Education Project

(UPBEP), Mahila Samakhya(MS), the Lok Jumbish Project (LJP), and Teacher

Education, which put in place a decentralized system of teacher support

through District Institutes of Education and Training(DIETs) and the District

Primary Education Programme(DPEP). The latest is the SSA, a centrally-

sponsored scheme implemented in partnership with state governments for the

UEE across the country. Due to these initiatives, over the years there has been

significant spatial and numerical expansion of elementary schools in the

country. Today, access and enrolment at the primary stage of education have

reached very close to universal levels. The number of out-of-school children at

the elementary level has reduced significantly. The gender gapin elementary

education has narrowed and the percentage of enrolled children belonging to

scheduled castes and tribes has increased successively. Despite this, the goal of

universal elementary education is yet to be achieved in the country. There

remains the unfinished agenda of universal education at the upper primary

287
stage. The number of children particularly those from disadvantaged groups

and weaker sections who drop out of school before completing upper

primary education remains high. The quality of learning achievement is not

always entirely satisfactory even in the case of children who complete

elementary education. With a view to address these issues, the RTE has been

introduced to directly counter the problems of illiteracy, poor quality

infrastructure and learning level in the elementary education sector. However,

the road to the RTE Act has not been easy. The exercise of consulting all

stakeholders including the states and taking them on board has been time-

consuming. The main provisions in the RTE Act include the responsibilities of

appropriate government and local authorities towards establishing

neighborhood schools; sharing of financial and other responsibilities between

the central and state governments; prohibition of capitation fee and screening

procedure for admission; prohibition of detention, expulsion and corporal

punishment; specification of norms and standards for schools including those

related to the infrastructure and teachers; laying down of teacher qualifications

and their duties; prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational

purposes; and ensuring that curriculum and evaluation is in accordance with

the Constitution of India and as per child-centred principles and values.

Children with disabilities and those belonging to minority communities are also

covered under the Act.

288
As per the RTE Act, 2009, every child has the right to full-time

elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school

that satisfies certain essential norms and standards. The need to address

inadequacies in retention, residual access, particularly of un-reached children,

and the questions of quality are the most compelling reasons for the addition of

Article 21A in the Constitution of India.

As has already been stated, even prior to the RTE, the GoIs efforts were

towards universalisation of elementary education in the country. The SSA was

the most prominent among all efforts initiated by the GoI before 2010 and was

approved by the union cabinet in November 2000 as a centrally-sponsored

scheme. The goals of the SSA are (a) enrolment of all children in schools,

Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) centres, alternate schools, back-to-school

camps, (b) retention of all children till the upper primary stage, (c) bridging of

gender and social category gaps in enrolment, retention and learning, and (d)

ensuring significant enhancement in the learning achievement levels of children

at the primary and upper primary stages. There is little difference between the

objectives of the RTE and those under the SSA. Yet, there are fundamental

variations between the two. While the provisions under the SSA were not part

of the fundamental rights enshrined in the Indian Constitution, the RTE

provisions form an integral part. Under the RTE, free education has been

defined, and it states that no child, other than one who has been admitted by

his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate

289
government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which

may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

Compulsory education casts an obligation on the appropriate government and

local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of

elementary education by all children in the age group of 614 years. With this,

India has moved forward to a rights-based framework under the RTE Act that

casts a legal obligation on the central and state governments to implement this

fundamental right. The roadmap for universalizing elementary education is

derived from the definite timeframes mandated in the RTE Act; it prescribes a

timeframe of three years for the establishment of neighborhood schools,

provision of school infrastructure with an all-weather building and basic

facilities, and provision of teachers as per prescribed PupilTeacher Ratio (PTR)

(30:1). Further, the RTE Act stipulates that all untrained teachers in the system

must be trained within a period of five years from the date of enforcement of

the Act. The rest of the provisions are required to be implemented with

immediate effect. The RTE Act has had considerable implications for the overall

approach and implementation strategies of the SSA. With the enactment of the

RTE, there was a need to review the interventions under the SSA and align its

norms with the RTE mandate. Today, the SSA is the main implementation

vehicle for the RTE Act, 2009: the Implementation Framework of the SSA has in

fact been revised to coordinate with the provisions of the RTE Act. A

comprehensive monitoring mechanism has also been put in place to ensure

290
smooth implementation of the SSA. The major changes in the SSA norms

effected by the executive committee of the SSA in January 2010 are:(a) School

to be established/ensured within the limits of the neighborhood as laid down by

the state government pursuant to the RTE Act;(b) All existing EGS centres that

have been functioning for two years or more to be upgraded to regular schools,

or closed down. No new EGS centres to be sanctioned from 201011

onwards;(c) Special training to be carried out for age-appropriate enrolment of

out-of-school and dropout children through residential and non-residential

courses;(d) School infrastructure norms to include libraries, including one-time

grant for books worth `3,000 for primary schools and `10,000 for upper

primary schools;(e) Ceiling on school repairs up to a maximum of 5 per cent of

the existing schools for each district in a particular year, which inhibited the

demand for repairs, removed;(f) School grant to be utilized for play material

and sports equipment, in addition to the existing provision for replacement of

non-functional school equipment another recurring costs such as

consumables;(g) Training norms to include training of resource persons, master

trainers, and Block Resource Centre (BRC) and Cluster Resource Centre (CRC)

coordinators for up to10 days each year at `100 per person per day;(h)

Financial provisions for children with special needs increased from `1,200 to

`3,000 per child per year, provided that at least `1,000 per child will be used

for the engagement of resource teachers;(i) Community mobilization provisions

strengthened by raising the number of training days for community personnel

291
from two to six, comprising three-day residential and three-day non-residential

training. Financial limits for training also hiked, from `30 to `100 per day per

person for residential training and `50 per day per person for non-residential

training;(j) Management cost for districts with small annual plan and size

increased from `2 million per district to `4million subject to the overall ceiling

of 6 per cent being maintained at the national level.

5.97 IMPLEMENTING THE RTE ACT

One of the most crucial aspects of the RTE is a strong monitoring

system. The central government has via notification dated 29 March 2010

constituted the National Advisory Council (NAC) under the RTE Act, 2009 (PIB

2010).The RTE Act provides for mechanisms for monitoring its implementation,

including the following. (a) The National Commission for Protection of Child

Rights (NCPCR) and the State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights

(SCPCRs)have been empowered to protect and monitor the rights of children

under the Act; (b) in States where the SCPCR is not constituted, the state

government may constitute an authority to perform the functions of the SCPCR

under the Act; (c) any person with any grievance relating to right of the child

under the Act can make a written complaint to the local authority, which shall

decide the matter within a period of three months; and (d) the School

Management Committee (SMC) constituted under the Act is empowered to

monitor the working of the school. As per the RTE Act, 2009, every school

other than an unaided private school shall constitute an SMC, which will

292
perform various functions including preparation of the school development plan.

At least three-fourths of the members of SMCs shall be parents or guardians,

with a proportionate representation of parents and guardians of children

belonging to disadvantaged groups and weaker sections, and 50 per cent of the

members shall be women. The Model Rules prepared by the central

government and circulated to all states and union territories for

adoption/adaption inter alia specify the manner of constituting the SMCs and

the additional functions that they should perform. States and union territories

have undertaken the process of constituting SMCs in schools. The SMC is likely

to take care of local needs and act as a body ensuring checks and balances.

This will also strengthen the efficiency of the scheme at the grassroots level. In

addition to this, 42 independent agencies of national repute have been engaged

on a two-yearly basis to monitor the SSA programme. These Monitoring

Institutions (MIs)submit reports every six months to the central authority. The

half-yearly reports submitted by the MIs are shared with the concerned State

Project Directors of the SSA of states and union territories for appropriate

follow-ups and remedial action. The reports of the MIs are posted on the SSA

website.1 An independent agency, the Institute of Public Auditors of India

(IPAI), has also been appointed for concurrent financial review to cover all the

states and union territories. It submits reports to the Ministry annually which

are further shared with the concerned states and union territories for taking

necessary corrective action. The SSA also conducts third-party evaluation

293
through independent agencies for civil work taken up in the states of Andhra

Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya

Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

The development of a sound information system is critical for successful

monitoring and implementation of any programme, particularly in social sectors.

The design of the school information system has, therefore, been accorded

priority from the very beginning of the DPEP, as a result of which the District

Information System for Education (DISE)was developed by the National

University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), New Delhi.

When the SSA was launched in 2001, not only was the cover age extended to

all states and districts of the country, its scope was also expanded to include

the entire elementary level of education including government-aided and

private schools. Today, among various other sources, DISE data are used for

evaluating the progress made so far as well as in framing policy initiatives.

From the above it is revealed that RTE Act has been launched very

recently in the country wide; hence its impact may be observed after few years.

294
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