LABORATORY MANUAL
1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited
D.C.Generator.
2. Load test on DC shunt motor.
3. Swinburnes test and speed control of DC shunt motor.
4. Load test on single phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit test on single phase
transformer
5. Regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods.
6. Load test on three phase induction motor.
7. No load and blocked rotor tests on three phase induction motor (Determination of equivalent
circuit parameters and predetermination of performance characteristics at various loads)
8. Study of D.C. motor and induction motor starters.
9. Digital simulation of linear systems.
10. Stability analysis of linear system using MATLAB.
11. Study the effect of P, PI, PID controllers using MATLAB.
12. Design of lead and lag compensator.
13. Transfer function of separately excited D.C. generator.
14. Transfer function of armature and field controlled DC motor
2
Ex. No: 1A
Date:
To conduct no load and load test on separately excited generators and to obtain the
characteristics
Exercise
1. Obtain the open circuit characteristics (OCC) of a separately excited D.C generator and
determine critical resistance.
2. Draw the external and internal characteristics of a separately excited D.C generator and compute
full load regulation.
Apparatus Required:
No load test
10 % of rated current (full load current)
Load test
125 % of rated current (full load current)
Precautions
1. Motor side field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
2. Generator side field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
3. Starter should be in off position before switching on the supply.
4. The DPST switch must be kept open.
3
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT ON SEPARATELY EXCITED DC
GENERATOR
4
Procedure for Load test:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
2. The prime mover is started with the help of three point starter and it is made to run at rated speed
when the generator is disconnected from the load by DPST switch 2.
3. By varying the generator field rheostat gradually, the rated voltage [Eg] is obtained.
4. The ammeter and voltmeter readings are observed at no load condition.
5. The ammeter and voltmeter readings are observed for different loads up to the rated current by
closing the DPST switch 2.
6. After tabulating all the readings the load is brought to its initial position.
7. The motor is switched off by using DPST switch 1 after bringing all the rheostats to initial
position.
5
Circuit diagram for find the generator armature resistance [Ra]
Model graph
Open circuit characteristics Internal (Eg Vs Ia) and External (VL Vs IL)
characteristics
Load voltage in Volts [VL]
Generated emf in Volts [Eg]
Eo Vs If
Open circuit voltage in
Eg Vs Ia
VL Vs IL
Volts [Eo]
If
6
Ex. No: 1B
Date:
Aim:
To conduct no load and load test on self excited generators and obtain the characteristics
Exercise
1. Obtain the open circuit characteristics (OCC) of a self excited D.C generator
and determine critical resistance.
2. Draw the external and internal characteristics of a self excited D.C generator
and compute full load regulation.
Apparatus Required:
Load test
125 % of rated current (full load current)
Formula used:
Generated voltage Eg = VL + Ia Ra
Precautions
1. Motor side field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
2. Generator side field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
3. Starter should be in off position before switching on the supply.
4. The DPST switch must be kept open.
7
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT TEST ON SELF EXCITED DC SHUNT
GENERATOR
8
6. After tabulating all the readings the load is brought to its initial position.
7. The motor is switched off by using DPST switch 1 after bringing all the rheostats to
initial position.
Tabulation for Open Circuit Test on Separately Excited D.C Shunt Generator:
Sl.no Open circuit Field
voltage in current in
Volts [Eo] Amps [If]
9
Tabulation for Finding Armature Resistance:
Armature voltage Armature current
Sl.no Ra = Va/ Ia
Va I
Model graph
Open circuit characteristics
Open circuit voltage in
Eo Vs If
Volts [Eo]
If
Field current
[If] in amps
Internal (Eg Vs Ia) and External (VL Vs IL) characteristics
Load voltage in Volts [VL]
Generated emf in Volts [Eg]
Eg Vs Ia
VL Vs IL
Result:
10
Ex. No: 2
Date:
Aim:
To conduct load test on DC shunt motor and compound motor and draw the characteristic
curves
Exercise
Draw the following characteristic curves for DC shunt motor
i. Output Vs %
ii. Output Vs T
iii. Output Vs N
iv. Output Vs IL
v. Torque Vs N
Apparatus Required:
Sl.no Name of the component type Range Quantity

Formulae Used:
t
(i) Torque = ( S1 ~ S 2 ) 9.81 ( R ) in NM
2
S1, S2 spring balance readings in Kg
R Break drum radius in m
(ii) Input power = V x I in Watts
(iii) Output power = 2NT / 60 in Watts
N Speed of the motor in RPM
(iv) Percentage of efficiency = (Output power /Input power) x 100.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR
11
Precautions
Starter should be in off position before switching on the supply.
The DPST switch must be kept open.
The motor field rheostat must be kept at minimum resistance position
There should be no load on the motor at the time of starting.
Before connecting the meters check the polarity and zero error.
Procedure for DC shunt motor
Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
Observe the precaution and using threepoint starter the motor is started to run at the
rated speed by adjusting the field rheostat if necessary.
The meter readings are noted at no load condition.
By using break drum with spring balance arrangement the motor is loaded and the
corresponding readings are noted up to the rated current.
After observation of all the readings the load is released gradually
The motor is switched off by using DPST switch.
Spring balance
Load Load Input Output
speed Reading
Sl Voltage current Power Torque Power Efficiency
in In kg
No in I in in NM in in %
rpm
Volts Amps S1 S2 S1S2 Watts Watts
12
MODEL GRAPH
(A) Electrical characteristics
IL T % in %
N
T in Nm
Speed in rpm
IL in Amps
T Vs N
Torque ( T ) in Nm
13
Torque (T) in Nm IL Vs N
IL Vs T
Speed (N) in rpm
Graph:
Output Vs %
Output Vs T
Output Vs N
Output Vs IL
Torque Vs N
Result:
Ex. No: 3
Date:
SWINBURNES TEST AND SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR
Aim
To conduct Swinburnes test and predetermine the performance characteristics of DC
machine and speed control of DC motor
Exercise
1. Predetermine efficiency at various load current while operating as a motor and generator and
plot a graph output Vs %
Apparatus Required:
Sl.no Name of the component type Range Quantity
14
Name plate details:
Motor
Speed
Type
Field Armature
Precaution:
15
Starter should be in off position before switching on the supply.
The DPST switch must be kept open.
The motor field rheostat must be kept at minimum resistance position
The motor armature rheostat must be kept at maximum resistance position.
Before connecting the meters check the polarity and zero error.
Procedure
Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
Observe the precaution and switch ON the supply.
By adjusting the field rheostat get the motor speed to rated speed
A. Armature Control Method
Keep the Field Current Constant
By adjusting armature rheostat the speed and armature voltage are noted.
Repeat the same procedure for various positions.
B. Field Control Method
Keep the armature voltage constant.
By adjusting the field rheostat various field currents and voltage are noted.
Repeat the same procedure for various positions
16
Result:
Ex. No: 4
Date:
OC AND SC TESTS ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
Aim:
To conduct open circuit and short circuit test and to predetermine the efficiency of the
transformer at desired load and power factor and to calculate the regulation at different power factor
Exercise
1. Determine the equivalent circuit of the transformer.
2. Predetermine the efficiency at different load at UPF and 0.8 Power factor lagging.
3. Predetermine the full load regulation at different power factor.
4. Draw the following curves
a. Output Vs %
b. Power factor Vs %Regulation
Apparatus Required:
Sl.no Name of the component type Range Quantity

17
Fuse calculation for transformer (O.C and S.C test):
Primary current IP = KVA rating of the transformer /primary voltage.
Secondary current IS =KVA rating of transformer / secondary voltage.
O.C test
10 % of rated primary current
S.C test
125 % of rated secondary current
Formulae Used:
Open circuit test:
Woc
1. No load power factor (cos 0 )
Voc I oc
WOC = open circuit power in watts
VOC = open circuit voltage in volts
IOC = open circuit current in amps
VOC
2. No load working component resistance (RO); RO in ohms
I OC Coso
VOC
3. No load magnetizing component (XO); X O in ohms
I OC Sino
Short circuit test:
V
4. Equivalent impedance referred to HV side (Z02); Z O 2 SC in ohms.
I SC
W
5. Equivalent resistance referred to HV side (R02); RO 2 SC2 in ohms
I SC
6. Equivalent reactance referred to HV side (X02); X O 2 Z O 2 RO 2 in ohms
2 2
V2
7. Transformation ratio (K); K
V1
R
8. Equivalent resistance referred to LV side (R01); RO1 O22 in ohms
K
X
9. Equivalent reactance referred to LV side (X01); X O1 O22 in ohms
K
Efficiency and regulation
10. Output power = ( X KVA Cos ) in watts
11. Chopper loss = ( X 2 WSC ) in watts
12. Total loss WT = (Cu loss Iron loss ) in watts
Output power
13. Efficiency = 100 in %
Output power Total loss
X I SC [ RO 2 Cos X O 2 Sin
14. Regulation = 100 in %
V2O
18
Precautions:
1. Auto transformer should be kept at zero volt position.
2. At the time of starting the experiment DPST switch kept open and transformer should be no
load.
3. High voltage and low voltage sides of the transformer should be properly used as primary or
secondary respective to experiments.
Procedure (for Open circuit Test)
Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
Ensuring the precautions the supply is switched on by closing DPST switch.
Auto transformer is adjusted to energize the transformer with primary voltage on LV side.
Voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter readings are noted at no load condition.
Auto transformer is gradually decreased to its initial position.
Switch off the supply by DPST.
Procedure (for Short CKT Test)
Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
Ensuring the precautions the supply is switched on by closing DPST switch.
Auto transformer is adjusted to energize the transformer with primary current on the HV
side.
Voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter readings are noted at no load condition.
Auto transformer is gradually decreased to its initial position.
Switch off the supply by DPST.
Circuit diagram for open circuit test of 1 transformer
19
Tabulation for OC Test multiplication factor:
Open circuit Open circuit power
Open circuit Open circuit
Sl. primary current (Woc) in Watts
primary voltage Secondary
no (IOC)
(VOC) in Volts Observed Actual voltage in volts
In Amps
Predetermination of efficiency:
Core (or) Iron loss (Wi) = Watts, KVA rating of Transformer = .
Rated Short circuit current = Amps Short Circuit power (WSC) = .
20
Model graph
1) Efficiency 2) Regulation
21
Result:
THEORY:
Direct load test is conducted to determine the efficiency characteristics and regulation
characteristics of the given transformer.
An ideal transformer is supposed to give constant secondary voltage irrespective of the load
current. But, practically the secondary voltage decreases as the transformer is loaded due to primary
22
and secondary impedance drops. Since these drops are dependent on load current, this variation in
terminal voltage is found using direct loading.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Remove the fuse carriers before wiring and start wiring as per the circuit diagram.
2. Fuse Calculations: This being a load test, the required fuse ratings are 120% of rated current on
L.V side.
PROCEDURE:
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in figure.
2. Keeping the autotransformer in its minimum position and the DPST switch in open position, the
main supply is switched ON.
3. By slowly and carefully operating the Auto transformer the rated voltage (115V) is applied to the
L.V side of the transformer.
4. Under this noload condition one set of readings namely VH.V, IH.V, WH.Vs, VL.V, WL.V, are
recorded in the tabular column.
5. The DPST switch on the load side is now closed and the load is increased in gradual steps and at
each step all meter readings are noted down in the tabular column.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
6. The procedure is continued until the current on the H.V side is equal to its full load value.
7. After the experiment is completed, the load is decreased to its minimum, the auto transformer is
brought back to its original position and then the main supply is switched OFF.
CALCULATIONS:
23
I. EFFICIENCY CALCULATION:
i . The efficiency of the transformer for each set of reading is calculated and tabulated
using the expression,
Output
% X 100
Input
where,
The output of the transformer = VH.V * IH.V on the H.V side
The input of the transformer = WL.V = Wattmeter reading on the L.V side
ii . A Graph is plotted between the percentage efficiency and the output, taking %
efficiency on Yaxis and the output on Xaxis, as shown in figure.
II . REGULATION CALCULATIONS: 
i . The regulation is calculated and tabulated for each set of readings using the
expression ,
VH .V ( Nolaad) VH .V (load)
% Re gulation X 100
VH .V ( Noload)
where,
VH.V(Noload)  is the noload voltage on the H.V side .
VH.V(Load)  is the actual voltage on the H.V side under load condition .
ii . A Graph is plotted b= ween the percentage regulation and the output taking % regulation on
Yaxis and the output on X axis as shown in figure.
TABULAR COLUMN:
Input Out put
(%) %REG
VL.V IL.V WL.V VH.V IH.V WH.V
(W) (V) (A) (watts)
24
MODEL CALCULATION:
MODEL GRAPH:
RESULT: 
25
Ex. No: 5
Date:
Predetermination of Regulation of Three Phase Alternator by EMF and MMF Methods
AIM:
To predetermine the regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF method and also
to draw the vector diagrams.
Fuse rating:
125 % of current (Full load current)
For dc shunt motor.
For alternator
Apparatus required:
Formulae used:
Emf method:
Armature resistance Ra = 1.6 Rdc where  Rdc is the resistance in DC supply.
Synchronous impedance Zs = Open circuit voltage (E1 (ph))/short circuit current (Isc)
Synchronous impedance Xs = (Zs2Ra2)
Open circuit voltage Eo = ((Vrated cos + Ia Ra) 2 + (Vrated sin +IaXs)2)(For lagging power
factor)
Open circuit voltage Eo = ((Vrated cos + Ia Ra)2+(Vrated sin  IaXs)2) (For leading power
factor)
Open circuit voltage Eo = ((Vrated cos + Ia Ra)2+( IaXs)2) (For unity power factor)
Percentage regulation = (EoVrated /Vrated)*100(For both EMF and MMF methods)
Precaution:
26
i. The motor field rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position.
ii. The alternator field potential divider should be in the maximum voltage position.
iii. Initially all switches are in open position.
1. Draw the open circuit characteristics curve (generator voltage per phase Vs field current)
2. Draw the short circuit characteristics curve (short circuit current Vs field current)
3. From the graph find the open circuit voltage per phase (E1 (ph)) for the rated short circuit
current (Isc).
4. By using respective formulae find the Zs, Xs, Eo and percentage regulation.
27
28
Short circuit test:
Short Circuit Current
Field current(If) (120 to 150 % of rated
S.No
current ) (Isc)
Amps Amps
1. Draw the open circuit characteristics curve (generator voltage per phase Vs field current)
2. Draw the short circuit characteristics curve (short circuit current Vs field current)
3. Draw the line OL to represent If which gives the rated generated voltage (V).
4. Draw the line LA at an angle (90) to represent If which gives the rated full load
current.(Isc) on short circuit [(90) for lagging power factor and (90 ) for leading
power factor].
5. Join the points O and A and find the field current (If) measuring the distance OA that
gives the open circuit voltage (E0) from the open circuit characteristics.
6. Find the percentage regulation by using suitable formula.
Procedure to draw the vector diagram:
1. Draw the line OA that represents the rated voltage V.
2. Draw the line OB to represent the rated current Ia, which makes an angle (it may
lags/leads in phase) with the voltage.
3. Draw the line AC to represent IRa drop, which is parallel to current axis (OB)
4. Draw the perpendicular line CD with the line AC (IRa drop) to represent IXs drop.
5. Join the points D and A to represent the IZs drop.
6. Join the points O and D and measure the length OD by voltage scale to find open circuit
voltage Eo.
7. Find the percentage regulation by using suitable using formulae.
29
MODEL CALCULATION:
1. 0.2
2. 0.4
3. 0.6
4. 0.8
5. 1.0
RESULT
Ex. No:6
Date:
Load Test on Three  Phase Induction Motor(Squirrel cage)
Aim:
To conduct the load test on three phase squirrel cage induction motor and to draw the
performance characteristics curves.
Fuse rating:
30
125% of rated current (Full load current)
Apparatus required:
Formulae used:
Circuit diagram
PROCEDURE:
31
1. Note down the name plate details of motor.
2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
3. The TPSTS is closed and the motor is started using On Line starter to run at rated speed.
4. At no load the speed, current, voltage and power are noted.
5. By applying the load, for various values of current the abovementioned readings are noted.
6. The load is later released and the motor is switched off and the graph is drawn.
OBSERVATION:
Circumference of the brake drum =
MODELGRAPH:
The graph drawn for
Output power Vs speed
Output power Vs line current
Output power vs. Torque
Output power Vs power factor
Output power Vs Efficiency
Output power Vs %slip.
Mechanical Characteristics
Torque Vs Speed
Speed in rpm
Torque in Nm
Electrical Characteristics
32
%
Sli
S
N in rpm
T in Nm
Cos
IL
p
%
in N
T
m
N in
rpm
Cos
MODEL CALCULATION:
33
RESULT:
Ex. No: 7
Date:
NO LOAD TEST AND BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON THREE PHASE SQUIRREL
CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
Aim:
To conduct the No Load test and Blocked rotor on three phase squirrel cage induction Motor
and to predetermine the performance characteristics at various loaded conditions.
34
4.
5.
Formulae used:
Open circuit test:
No load power factor ( Cos o) = Po / Vo Io
Working component current (IW) = Io(ph) x Cos o
Magnetizing current (Im) = Io (ph) x Sin o
No Load resistance (Ro) = Vo / Io (ph) Cos o in
No load reactance (Xo) = Vo / Io (ph) Sin o in
Where:
Vo No load voltage per phase in volts
Io no load current per phase in amps
Po no load power per phase in watts
Short circuit test:
Motor equivalent impedance referred to stator (Zsc (ph)) = Vsc(ph) / Isc (ph) in
Motor equivalent resistance referred to stator (Rsc(ph)) = Psc(ph) / I2sc (ph) in
Motor equivalent reactance referred to stator (Xsc(ph)) = (Zsc(ph)2 / Rsc (ph)2 )in
ROTOR resistance referred to stator (R2 (ph)) = Rsc(ph) R1 in
Rotor reactance referred to stator (X2 (ph)) = Xsc(ph) / 2 = X1 in
Equivalent load resistance (RL) = R2 (1/s 1) in
Where:
R1 stator resistance per phase
X1 stator reactance per phase
R1= R (ac) = 1.6 x R (dc) = R2 (1/s1) in
Slip (S) = (NsN) / Ns
Ns Synchronous speed in rpm
N Speed of the motor in rpm
Circuit diagram of No load test of 3 induction motor
35
Circuit diagram of Blocked Rotor test of 3 induction motor
Procedure:
Note down the name plate details of motor
1. For noload or open circuit test by adjusting autotransformer, apply rated voltage and
note down the ammeter and wattmeter readings .In this test rotor is free to rotate.
2. For short circuit or blocked rotor test by adjusting autotransformer, apply rated current
and note down the voltmeter and wattmeter readings. In this test rotor is blocked.
3. After that make the connection to measure the stator resistance as per the circuit
Diagram
4. By adding the load through the loading rheostat note down the ammeter, voltmeter
reading for various values of load
Tabulation for No load test on three phase squirrel cage induction
Speed of the induction motor: ..
Type of the stator connection:
Multiplication factor: ..
36
Tabulation for blocked rotor test on three phase squirrel cage induction
37
Stator Resistance Rs
Stator current (I) Stator Voltage (V)
S No = V/I
Amps Volts Ohms
MODEL CALCULATION:
Equivalent circuit of 1 induction motor
P R1 X1 I1 I2 R2 X2
Io
230 V, 1,
50Hz Ro Xo RL = R2 (1/s1)
AC Supply
RESULT:
38
Expt. No: 8
Date:
39
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
THEORY:
The transfer function for DC generator is defined as ratio of Laplace Transform
Of output V1(t) to Laplace Transform of Input Vf(t).
Transfer function = V1(t) / Vf(t)
Ea(t) If(t)
= Kf If(t) 2
where Kf is proportionality constant
The KVL to armature circuit is given by
40
Ea(t) = Ia(t) (Ra +RL) +La (dIa /dt) 3
The load voltage
V1(t) = Ia(t) RL 4
Ia(t) = IL(t)
41
1. Remove the fuse carriers before wiring and Start wiring as per the circuit diagram.
2. Check the positions of the various rheostats as specified.
3. The SPST switch is kept open at the time of starting the experiments.
4. Fuse calculations: As this is a noload test the required fuse ratings are 20% of the rated
current.
5. Replace the fuse carriers with appropriate fuse wires after the circuit connections are checked
by the staffincharge.
PROCEDURE: (To Find K)
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram in the shown figure 4.1.
2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in its minimum position, generator field rheostat in
maximum position and the starter in its OFF position, the main supply is switched ON to the
circuit.
3. The motor is started using the 3point starter by slowly and carefully moving the starter
handle from its OFF to ON position.
4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting its rheostat and checked with the help of
a tachometer.
5. With the SPST switch open, the residual voltage is noted.
6. Now the SPST switch is closed and the generator field rheostat is gradually decreased in
steps and at each step the field current (If) and the corresponding induced EMF (Eg) are
recorded in the tabular column. This procedure is continued until the generator voltage
reaches 120% of its rated value.
7. After the experiment is completed the various rheostats are brought back to their original
position in sequence and then main supply is switched OFF.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
42
Procedure: (To Find Ra & La)
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in figure 4.2.
2. Keeping autotransformer in minimum position, Main is switched ON.
3. Slowly adjust the variac and apply a small voltage (say 20V) to the armature winding.
4. Note down voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter readings.
5. Bring the variac to minimum position and switch OFF the main supply.
Procedure: (To Find Rf & Lf)
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in figure 4.3.
2. Keeping autotransformer in minimum position, Main is switched ON.
3. Slowly adjust the variac and apply a small voltage (say 60V) to the field winding.
4. Note down voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter readings.
5. Bring the variac to minimum position and switch OFF the main supply.
CALCULATION:
1. The open circuit characteristic is drawn to scale as shown in model graph.
2. A tangent is drawn to the linear portion of this OCC.
3. The slope of tangent is found using the relation Kf = Ea / If
4. The inductance and resistance of the field winding are calculated as follows:
43
W1=If2Rf
Rf =W1 / If2
Zf=Vf / If
Xf = (Zf2 Rf2)1/2
Lf = Xf / 2f
5. The inductance of the armature winding is calculated using the equation
W2=Ia2Ra
Ra =W2 / Ia2
Za=Va / Ia
Xa = (Za2 Ra2)1/2
La = Xa / 2f
6. The transfer function of the given separately excited D.C shunt generator is then evaluated by
substituting the values Kf, Rf, Lf, Ra & La in the standard equations
For no Load
TABULAR COLUMN :
Tabulation 1: OCC test
S.NO If (A) Eg (V)
44
Tabulation 2: To find Rf and Lf
Sl.No. W1 If Vf
Model Graph
MODEL CALCULATION:
RESULT:
Thus the Transfer Function of Separately Excited D.C Shunt Generator is determined &
is given by
1. G(s)NL =
2. G(s)L =
Ex. No : 9A
Date:
Aim:
To derive the transfer function of the given DC Servomotor and experimentally determine
the transfer function parameters
Apparatus required:
Sl no Apparatus Name Type/ Range Quantity
45
Name plate details:
Voltage 220 V
Current 19 A
Speed 1500 RPM
H.P 5 hp
Load Brake drum
Fuse calculation:
Formula used:
(s) KT
1) Transfer function G(s)
E a (s) s[(R a sL a )(Js f o ) K T K b ]
Where:
KT Torque constant calculated from graph (T Vs Ia)
Ra Armature Resistance in
La Inductance of Armature in H
fo Viscous friction coefficient In NM / rad /sec
J Equivalent moment of inertia of motor and load referred to motor shaft (Kgm2)
Kb Is the back EMF constant.
2) Inertia constant: J
2
Vav * I av 60 t1t2
J In Kg/m2
N av * N 2 t1 t 2
46
Where:
T1 Time for fall of speed from N1 to N2 in no load condition
T2 Time for fall of speed from N1 to N2 in load condition
V V I I
Vav 1 2 , I av 1 2
2 2
N N2
N av 1 N N1 N 2
2
60
Theory:
Armature control method is used when speed below the no load speed are required. As
the supplied voltage is normally constant, the voltage across the armature is varied by inserting a
variable rheostat in series with the armature circuit as shown. As controlled resistance is
increased, potential difference across the armature is decreased. For load of constant speed
approximately proportional to the potential difference across the armature.
Consider the armature controlled d.c. servo motor shown in fig. below
In this system,
Ra = resistance of armature ().
La = Inductance of the Armature Winding (H).
ia= = Armature Current(A).
if = Field Current (A).
ea = Applied Armature Voltage(V).
eb = Back EMF (volts).
TM = torque developed by armature (Nm).
47
= angular displacement of motor shaft (rad).
J = equivalent moment of inertia of motor and load referred to motor shaft
(Kgm2)
fo = equivalent viscous friction coefficient of motor and load referred to motor
Shaft (N m/( rad/s))
If (costant)
Ra La
ea TM
ia

In servo applications, the d.c motors are generally used in the linear range of the magnetization
curve. Therefore, the air gap flux is proportional to field current
= Kfif
where, Kf, is a constant.
The torque TM developed by the motor is proportional to the product of the armature
current and air gap flux,
TM = K1Kf if ia
where, K1, is a constant.
In the armature controlled d.c motor, the field current is kept constant, so that TM =
kTia
where, KT, is motor torque constant.
The motor back emf being proportional to speed is given as
d
eb K b
dt
where, Kb, is the back emf constant.
The differential equation of the armature circuit is
di
La a R a ia eb ea
dt
The torque equation is
d 2 d
J 2 f0 TM K T i a
dt dt
Taking the Laplace transform and assuming zero initial conditions, we get
Eb(s) = Kb s (s)
(Las+Ra) Ia(s) = Ea(s)  Eb(s)
(Js2+fos) (s) = TM(s) = KTIa(s)
48
The transfer function of the system is obtained as
(s) KT
G(s)
E a (s) s[(R a sL a )(Js f o ) K T K b ]
Assumptions:
Procedure:
49
2. The DPST is switched on.
3. Adjust the armature side rheostat and keep in fixed position so that the value of Ia is
maintained constant through the experiment.
4. Note down If, Va, Ia in table.
5. Adjust the field rheostat and note down the Va, Ia, If and Speed.
6. Graph is drawn between the torque and If.
KT = T/If
50
Tabulation to find Torque constant [J]
51
Tabulation to find Back EMF constant [Kb]
Back EMF
Armature Armature Constant
Voltage Va in current Ia in Speed in RPM V I a Ra
Kb
Volts Amps 2N
60
52
Model graph Torque Vs Ia
T in
NM
T
T KT
I a
Ia
T
Ia in
Amps
Result:
Ex. No : 9B
Date:
Aim:
To derive the transfer function of the given D.C Servomotor and experimentally determine
the transfer function parameters
Apparatus required:
Sl No. Apparatus Name Type/ Range Quantity
2
Vav * I av 60 t1t2
J In Kg/m2
N av * N 2 t1 t 2
Where:
T1 Time for fall of speed from N1 to N2 in no load condition
T2 Time for fall of speed from N1 to N2 in load condition
V1 V2 I I
Vav , I av 1 2
2 2
N N2
N av 1 N N1 N 2
2
3) Frictional coefficient of motor and load
2 N N
2 2 2
f o * J * 1 2 2 In NM / rad /sec
60
Where:
2N av
60
In this system
Rf  Field Winding Resistance ()
Lf Field Winding Inductance (H).
e Field control voltage. (V).
if  Field Current(A).
TM  Torque Developed By Motor (Nm).
J Equivalent of inertia of motor and load referred to motor shaft (kgm2).
Nm
f Equivalent viscous friction coefficient of motor and load referred to motor shaft
rad/s
54
 Angular displacement of motor shaft (rad).
Rf
ia( constant)
ef Lf TM
If
J,f
In this field controlled motor, the armature current is fed from a constant current source.
Therefore
TM = K1Kfiaif = KT if where KT is a constant.
The equation for the field circuit is
di
Lf f R f if ef
dt
The torque equation is
d 2 d
J 2 f TM K T ' I f (s)
dt dt
Taking the Laplace transform and assuming zero initial conditions we get
(Lfs + Rf) If(s) = Ef(s)
(Js2+fs) (s) = TM(s) = KT If(s)
From the above equations, the transfer function of the motor is obtained as
(s) Km
E f (s) s( f s 1)( me s 1)
where
Km = KT/Rff motor gain constant
f = lf/Rf time constant of field circuit
me = J/f mechanical time constant.
Theory:
The speed of the dc motor is directly proportional to the armature voltage and inversely
proportional to the flux. In the field controlled dc motor, armature voltage is kept constant and
the speed is varied by varying the flux of the machine.
Precautions:
55
1) To find inertia constant [J]
56
Model graph Torque Vs If
T in
NM
T
If
If in
Amps
57
current Ia current If t
in Amps in Amps S1 in S2 in S1~ S2 9.81* S1 ~ S 2 R
Kg Kg in Kg 2
in NM
58
Calculation:
Result:
Expt. No: 10
Date
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. LEAD Lag network system kit
2. Capacitors 0.1F
3. Decade Resistance Box
4. CRO
DESIGN:
An electronic lead lag network using operational Amplifier is shown in Fig. 4.1.
59
The transfer function for this circuit can be obtained as follows:
Let
Z1 = R1  C1
Z2 = R2  C2
The second opamp acts as a sign inverter with a variable gain to compensate for the magnitude.
The transfer function of the entire system is given by G(j).
R4 R2 (1 R1C1 s)
G( s)
R3 R1 (1 R2 C 2 s)
TABULATION:
60
We have
R2 R4 (1 T12 2 )
G ( j )
R1 R3 (1 T22 2 )
Where
T1 = R1C1
T2 = R2C2 and
R2 R4 (1 T12 2 )
Yss (t ) Sin (t tan 1 T1 tan 1 T2 ) for an input Esint.
R1 R3 (1 T )
2
2 2
From this expression, we find that if T1>T2, then tan 1 T1 tan 1 T2 >0. Thus if T1>T2, then the
network is a lead network. If T1 <T2, the network is a lag network.
Hence the values of T1 and T2 are chosen from which the values of R1, R2, C1, and C2 can be
determined. For Example,
T1 = R1C1 = 0.1;
If C1 = 0.1F, R1=1M
T2 = 0.023sec
If C2 = 0.1 F, R2 =230K.
These values produce a phase lead of 14.5o, which is the desired compensation angle.
PROCEDURE:
61
1. Switch ON the power to the instrument.
2. Connect the individual blocks using patch chords bypassing the compensating
network and gain as shown in fig. 4.2.
3. Give a sinusoidal input as the set value to the error detector.
4. Measure the amplitude and frequency of the input signal.
5. Measure the amplitude and phase difference of the output signal with respect to the
input signal using DSO.
6. Using the technique explained previously, calculate the values of R1, R2, C2, and C1
to compensate for the phase shift of the output signal.
7. Connects the components at the points provided.
8. Now include the compensation block in the forward path before the process using
patch chords as shown in fig.4.2.
9. Observe the compensated wave form through DSO.
RESULT:
Thus the compensator is designed for the given process and the performance of
the compensated system is found to work satisfactorily.
Frequency : Hz R1 = C1 =
R2 = C2 =
Frequency : Hz R1 = C1 =
R2 = C2 =
62
Expt No: 11
Date
THEORY :
63
held in the ON position by the electromagnet E. The exciting coil of the holdon electromagnet
E is connected in series with the armature circuit. If the motor loses its load, current decreases
and hence the strength of the electromagnet also decreases. The control arm returns to the OFF
position due to the spring tension, Thus preventing the motor from over speeding. The starter
also returns to the OFF position
64
when the supply voltage decreases appreciably. L and F are the two points of the
starter which are connected with the motor terminals.
65
ii) THREE POINT STARTER: ( refer fig 2 )
It is used for starting the shunt or compound motor. The coil of the hold on electromagnet
E is connected in series with the shunt field coil. In the case of disconnection in the field circuit
the control arm will return to its OFF position due to spring tension. This is necessary because
the shunt motor will over speed if it loses excitation. The starter also returns to the OFF position
in case of low voltage supply or complete failure of the supply. This protection is therefore is
called No Volt Release
( NVR).
Over load protection:
When the motor is over loaded it draws a heavy current. This heavy current also flows
through the exciting coil of the over load electromagnet ( OLR). The electromagnet then pulls
an iron piece upwar6.ds which short circuits the coils of the NVR coil. The hold on magnet gets
deenergized and therefore the starter arm returns to the OFF position, thus protecting the motor
against overload. L, A and F are the three terminals of the three point starter.
The connection diagram of the four point starter is shown in fig 3. In a four point starter
arm touches the starting resistance, the current from the supply is divided into three paths. One
through the starting resistance and the armature, one through the field circuit, and one through
the NVR coil. A protective resistance is connected in series with the NVR coil. Since in a four
point starter the NVR coil is independent of the of the field ckt connection , the d.c motor may
over speed if there is a break in the field circuit. A D.C motor can be stopped by opening the
main switch. The steps of the starting resistance are so designed that the armature current will
remain within the certain limits and will not change the torque developed by the motor to a great
extent.
66
STUDY OF INDUCTION MOTOR STARTERS
AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTING
67
An auto transformer starter consists of an auto transformer and a switch as shown in the
fig. When the switch S is put on START position, a reduced voltage is applied across the motor
terminals. When the motor picks up speed, say to 80 per cent of its mornal speed, the switch is
put to RUN position. Then the autotransformer is cut out of the circuit and full rated voltage
gets applied across the motor terminals.
(Ref. To text book for fig)
The circuit dia in the fig is for a manual autotransformer starter. This can be made push button
operated automatic controlled starter so that the contacts switch over from start to run position as
the motor speed picks up to 80% of its speed. Overload protection relay has not been shown in
the figure. The switch S is airbreak type for small motors and oil break type for large motors.
Auto transformer may have more than one tapping to enable the user select any suitable starting
voltage depending upon the conditions.
Series resistors or reactors can be used to cause voltage drop in them and thereby allow low
voltage to be applied across the motor terminals at starting. These are cut out of the circuit as the
motor picks up speed.
The startor phase windings are first connected in star and full voltage is connected across its free
terminals. As the motor picks up speed, the windings are disconnected through a switch and they
are reconnected in delta across the supply terminals. The current drawn by the motor from the
lines is reduced to as compared to the current it would have drawn if connected in delta.The
motor windings, first in star and then in delta the line current drawn by the motor at starting is
reduced to one third as compared to starting current with the windings deltaconnected.
In making connections for stardelta starting, care should be taken such that sequence of supply
connections to the winding terminals does not change while changing from star connection to
delta connection. Otherwise the motor will start rotating in the opposite direction, when
connections are changed from star to delta. Stardelta starters are available for manual operation
using push button control. An automatic star delta starter used time delay relays(T.D.R)
through which star to delta connections take place automatically with some prefixed time delay.
The delay time of the T.D.R is fixed keeping in view the starting time of the motor.
(Ref. To text book for fig)
68
FULL VOLTAGE OR DIRECT ONLINE STARTING
When full voltage is connected across the stator terminals of an induction motor, large
current is drawn by the windings. This is because, at starting the induction motor
69
70
behaves as a short circuited transformer with its secondary, i.e. the rotor separated from the
primary, i.e. the stator by a small airgap.
At starting when the rotor is at standstill, emf is induced in the rotor circuit exactly
similar to the emf induced in the secondary winding of a transformer. This induced emf of the
rotor will circulate a very large current through its windings. The primary will draw very large
current from the supply mains to balance the rotor ampereturns. To limit the stator and rotor
currents at starting to a safe value, it may be necessary to reduce the stator supply voltage to a
low value. If induction motors are started directonline such a heavy starting current of short
duration may not cause harm to the motor since the construction of induction motors are rugged.
Other motors and equipment connected to the supply lines will receive reduced voltage. In
industrial installations, however, if a number of large motors are started by this method, the
voltage drop will be very high and may be really objectionable for the other types of loads
connected to the system. The amount of voltage drop will not only be dependent on the size of
the motor but also on factors like the capacity of the power supply system, the size and length of
the line leading to the motors etc. Indian Electricity Rule restricts direct on line starting of 3
phase induction motors above 5 hp.
RESULT:
Thus the construction and working of different starters for starting D.C series, shunt,
compound and three phase induction motors are studied.
Ex. No : 12
Date:
Digital Simulation of Linear Systems
71
Aim:
To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of higherorder MIMO linear systems
using state variable formulation
Equipments required:
PC system with mat lab
Theory:
What is MATLAB?
MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not
require dimensioning. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems, especially
those with matrix and vector formulations, in a fraction of the time it would take to write a
program in a scalar no interactive language such as C or FORTRAN.
The name MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. MATLAB was originally written to provide
easy access to matrix software developed by the LINPACK and EISPACK projects. Today,
MATLAB engines incorporate the LAPACK and BLAS libraries, embedding the state of the art
in software for matrix computation.
MATLAB has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. In university
environments, it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in
mathematics, engineering, and science. In industry, MATLAB is the tool of choice for high
productivity research, development, and analysis.
72
toolboxes are available include signal processing, control systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic,
wavelets, simulation, and many others.
Starting MATLAB
Instructions for starting MATLAB depend on your platform. For a list of supported
platforms, see the system requirements in the installation documentation, or the Products section
of the MathWorks Web site, http://www.mathworks.com
Transfer function:
s1

s^2 + s + 6.5
Transfer function:
s + 7.5

s^2 + s + 6.5
Transfer function:
s + 3.553e015

s^2 + s + 6.5
Transfer function:
s^2 + s + 13

s^2 + s + 6.5
Matlab program:
Open new m file and type the given program
% State Space Analysis of MIMO System
%X^ = Ax+Bu; y =Cx+Du %
A=[1 1; 6.5 0]; %State Matrix(nxn)%
B=[1 1;1 0]; %Input Mtrix(nxm)%
C=[1 0;0 1]; %Output Matrix(pxn) %
D=[0 0;0 1]; %Transistion Matrix(pxm)%
73
step(A,B,C,D,1)
hold
step(A,B,C,D,2)
title('Step Response of MIMO System')
grid
[num1,den1]=ss2tf(A,B,C,D,1)
[num2,den2]=ss2tf(A,B,C,D,2)
n1=num1(1,:)
n2=num1(2,:)
n3=num2(1,:)
n4=num2(2,:)
d1=den1(1,:)
d2=den2(1,:)
tf1=tf(n1,d1)
tf2=tf(n2,d1)
tf3=tf(n3,d2)
tf4=tf(n4,d2)
74
Step Response of MIMO System
3
2.5
1.5
Amplitude
0.5
0.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Time (sec)
75
1.0000 1.0000 6.5000
num2 =
0 1.0000 0.0000
1.0000 1.0000 13.0000
den2 =
1.0000 1.0000 6.5000
n1 =
0 1.0000 1.0000
n2 =
0 1.0000 7.5000
n3 =
0 1.0000 0.0000
n4 =
1.0000 1.0000 13.0000
d1 =
1.0000 1.0000 6.5000
d2 =
1.0000 1.0000 6.5000
Transfer function:
s1

s^2 + s + 6.5
Transfer function:
s + 7.5

s^2 + s + 6.5
Transfer function:
s + 3.553e015

s^2 + s + 6.5
Transfer function:
s^2 + s + 13

s^2 + s + 6.5
Result:
76
Ex. No : 13
Date:
Stability Analysis of Linear Systems
Aim
To analyse the stability of linear systems using Bode, Root locus, Nyquist plots
Equipments required:
PC system with mat lab
Program:
STABILITY ANALYSIS
Program For Nyquist Plot.
%Given System G(s)=1/(s^2+0.8s+1)%
%Nyquist plot%
num=[0 0 1];
den=[1 0.8 1];
nyquist(num,den);
axis(v)
grid
title('Nyquist plot of G(s)=1/(s^2+0.8s+1)')
xlabel('Real axis')
ylabel('Imag axis')
hold on
Program for Root Locus
77
clear all;
%Root Locus%
numz=[0 0 0 1 2 4];
denp=[1 11.4 39 43.6 24 0];
r=rlocus(numz,denp);
plot(r,'o');
axis(v)
grid
title('Root locus plot of G(s)=k(s^2+2s+4)/[s(s+4)(s+6)(s^2+1.4s+1)]')
xlabel('real axis')
ylabel('imag axis')
hold
78
%Plot the Nichols response of the system
num = [4 48 18 250 600];
den = [1 30 282 525 60];
H = tf(num,den)
nichols(H); ngrid
79
Bode plot of G( s)
s 2s 3
3
( s s s 3 s 2 s 1)
5 4
80
81
Result:
Ex. No: 14
Date:
STUDY THE EFFECT OF P, PI, PID CONTROLLERS USING MAT LAB
Aim:
To Study the effect of P, PI, PID controllers using Mat lab.
In so far were described proportional, integrative and derivative modes of the controllers
and a rational behind their use was explained. However, excerpt for a few tips, an attention was
not given to a question when to use different types of controllers. The rest of this section will
give some answers on that particular topic.
1.2 P Controller
82
When P controller is used, large gain is needed to improve steady state error. Stable
system do not have a problems when large gain is used. Such systems are systems with one
energy storage (1st order capacitive systems). If constant steady state error can be accepted with
such processes, than P controller can be used. Small steady state errors can be accepted if sensor
will give measured value with error or if importance of measured value is not too great anyway.
Example of such system is liquid level control in tanks when exact approximate level of liquid
suffice for the proper plant operation. Also, in cascade control sometime it is not important if
there is an error inside inner loop, so P controller can a good solution in such cases.
Derivative mode is not required if the process itself is fast or if the control system as
whole does not have to be fast in response. Processes of 1st order react immediately on the
reference signal change, so it is not necessary to predict error (introduce D mode) or compensate
for the steady state error (introduce I mode) if it is possible to achieve satisfactory steady state
error using only P controller.
1.3 PD controller
It is well known that thermal processes with good thermal insulation act almost as
integrators. Since insulation is good and thermal losses are small, the most significant art of the
energy that is led to the system is used temperature rise. Those processes allow 18 for large gains
so that integral mode in the controller is not needed. These processes can be described as
different connections of thermal energy storages. Thermal energy is shifted from one storage into
another. In general, with such processes there is present a process dynamics with large inertia.
Since dynamics is slow, derivative mode is required for control of such processes. Integral mode
would only already slow dynamics make more slowly. The other reason for using PPD
controllers in such systems is that is possible to measure temperature with low level of noise in
the measured signal.
PD controller is often used in control of moving objects such are flying and underwater
vehicles, ships, rockets etc. One of the reason is in stabilizing effect of PD controller on sudden
changes in heading variable y(t). Often a "rate gyro" for velocity measurement is used as sensor
of heading change of moving object.
1.3 PI controller
PI controllers are the most often type used today in industry. A control without D mode is
used when:
a) fast response of the system is not required
b) large disturbances and noise are present during operation of the process
c) there is only one energy storage in process (capacitive or inductive)
d) there are large transport delays in the system
If there are large transport delays present in the controlled process, error prediction is
required. However, D mode cannot be used for prediction because every information is delayed
till the moment when a change in controlled variable is recorded. In such cases it is better to
predict the output signal using mathematical model of the process in broader sense (process +
83
actuator). The controller structures that can be used are, for example, OttoSmith predictor
(controller), PIP controller or so called Internal Model Controller (IMC).
An interesting feature of IMC is that when the model of the process is precise
(A = AM and B = BM), then a feedback signal eM = y yM is equal to disturbance:
It follows that a control signal is not influenced by the reference signal and control
systems behaves as open loop. A usual problems with stability that arrise when closed loop
systems are used are then avoided. Control system with IMC controller will be stable and if IMC
and process are stable. With the exact model of process IMC is actually a feedforward controller
and can designed as such, but, unlike feedforward controllers, it can compensate for unmeasured
disturbances because feedback signal is equal to disturbance, which allows suitable tuning of the
reference value of the controller.
If model of the process is not exact5 (AM = B), then feedback signal eM will
contain not only disturbance d but a modeling error, also. Thus, a feedback will
have its usual role, and stability problem can arise. This requires for parameters6 to be tuned
again so the stability is not lost.
84
85
1.4 PID controller
Derivative mode improves stability of the system and enables increase in gain
K and decrease in integral time constant Ti, which increases speed of the controller
response. PID controller is used when dealing with higher order capacitive processes
(processes with more than one energy storage) when their dynamic is not similar to
the dynamics of an integrator (like in many thermal processes). PID controller is often
used in industry, but also in the control of mobile objects (course and trajectory
following included) when stability and precise reference following are required.
Conventional autopilot are for the most part PID type controllers.
86
It can be seen that P, I and D channels react on the error signal and that they are
unbundled. This is basic structure of PID controller most often found in textbooks.
There are other noninteractive structures.
RESULT:
Thus the effect of P, PI, PID controllers using Mat lab are studied.
87
OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF EXCITED
DC SHUNT GENERATOR
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Define critical field resistance and critical speed.
2. State the conditions to be satisfied by a DC shunt generator to buildup voltage.
3. What is residual flux and what happens to the generator induces EMF when
residual flux is zero?
4. What is the purpose of SPST switch connected in the field circuit of the
generator?
5. Why the speed must be maintained constant throughout the experiment?
VIVA QUESTIONS:
VIVA QUESTIONS:
88
LOAD CHARACTERISTICS ON SEPARATELY EXCITED DC SHUNT
GENERATOR
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is a prime mover?
2. Why the speed of generator should be maintained constant during the experiment?
3. Why does the terminal voltage fall as the load on the generator is increased?
4. What is armature reaction and what are its effects on the performance of DC
generator?
VIVA QUESTIONS:
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Which method of speed control is used for controlling the speed of the motor above its
rated speed? Give reason.
2. Which method of speed control is used for controlling the speed of the motor below its
rated speed? Give reason.
3. Explain the reasons for the shape of the graphs obtained.
4. State any method to control the speed of a D.C series motor?
SWINBURNE'S TEST
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What are the advantages of predetermination techniques?
2. Can the efficiency of a DC series motor be predetermined by Swinburne's test?
3. The efficiency of a generator is always more than the efficiency of motor at all load
conditions  Justify.
4. Enumerate the various losses in a DC machine.
89
LOAD TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Define Regulation of a Transformer.
2. What is the effect of load p.f on regulation of Transformer?
3. What is the condition for maximum efficiency?
4. Determine the percentage load at which maximum efficiency occurred for the given
singlephase transformer?
5. What is the effect of change in frequency on the efficiency of the transformer?
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Why O.C test is conducted on the L.V side and S.C test on the H.V side?
2. Define regulation in a transformer.
3. Why the regulation graph is not passing through the origin?
4. State the condition for maximum efficiency?
5. What is the regulation of an Ideal transformer?
6. At what fraction of full load does the efficiency of the given transformer is maximum?
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is squirrel cage induction motor?
2. What is Skewing?
3. What is cogging?
4. What is crawling?
5. What is the no load current of an induction motor?
6. Distinguish between rotating transformer and static transformer?
7. Define slip.
90
2. What is the necessity to have starter for three phase induction motor?
3. How mechanical load is represented in the equivalent circuit of induction motor?
4. Define synchronous speed.
5. Why induction motors cannot run at synchronous speed?
VIVA QUESTIONS:
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1) Define linear system.
2) What is impulse signal?
3) What is MIMO?
4) What is time invariant system?
5) What is step signal?
VIVA QUESTIONS:
91
1. What is compensation?
2. What is compensator?
3. When lag/lead/laglead compensators are employed?
4. What are the types of compensator?
5. Differentiate lag and lead compensators?
1. What are the draw backs of transfer function and advantages of transfer function?
2. What are the types of transfer function?
3. Define transfer function.
4. Mention few applications of Separately Excited DC generator.
5. What are the basic elements used for modeling electrical system?
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the need for transfer function of a system?
2. Mention few applications of DC motor.
3. Differentiate open loop and closed loop system
4. Write transfer function for field control DC motor
5. Define Mechanical time constant
6. Define Electrical time constant.
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