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Computer Security: Ciphers

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Ciphers

Practice #2

2

Block ciphers

If the message M is longer than the input of the algorithm

we divide it to blocks with the fixed length of the cipher

algorithm.

The block that shorter than the fixed length of the input is

padded.

Examples: DES, AES

3

Modes of Operation

Does the situation where Mi=Mj iff Ci=Cj exists?

Which block have to be re-encrypted because of

change in Mi?

Which blocks we wont be able to decrypt because of

error in Ci?

How fast is the mode?

4

Electronic codebook (ECB)

5

Electronic codebook (ECB)

Mi=Mj iff Ci=Cj

Change in Mi: encryption of Ci again.

Error in Ci: error in decryption of Ci only

The time for encryption of one block

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ECB - Disadvantage

same way:

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Cipher-block chaining (CBC)

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Cipher-block chaining (CBC)

Change in Mi: Change in all blocks MiMn

Error in Ci: error in decryption of Ci, Ci+1

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CBC - Disadvantages

Change in one bit in the plain text causes a change the

entire encryption

One bit change to the cipher text causes complete

corruption of the corresponding block of plaintext and

the one after

10

Output feedback (OFB)

11

Output feedback (OFB)

encrypted with Vi.

Mi=Mj iff Ci=Cj not happens

Change in Mi: change in Ci only

Error in Ci: error in decryption of Ci.

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Output feedback (OFB)

produce the key stream ahead.

with a pseudorandom cipher bit stream)

13

Cipher feedback (CFB)

14

Cipher feedback (CFB)

The same as OFB, but now the key stream depends also

on the previous Ci.

Mi=Mj iff Ci=Cj not happens

Change in Mi: Change of the encryption from Mi to Mn.

Error in Ci: Error in decryption in Ci and Ci+1

Fast decryption if the blocks arrive with some delay.

15

Cipher feedback (CFB)

The data divided to small blocks:2,4,8 bits.

Block Ci depends on:

Mi

K

i

M1Mi-1, C1Ci-1

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Stream Vs. Block Ciphers

Stream:

Can be used in hardware

Faster

Used in satellite and cellular systems

Block:

Safer

Widely used in all kind of systems

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Attacking Symmetric Encryption:

Brute-force

Try all possible keys on some cipher text until get an

intelligible translation into plaintext

An algorithm that finds a solution by trying every

possibility.

In security, we will try to find the encryption key for a

couple of plain text and cipher text.

18

Attacking Symmetric Encryption:

Cryptanalysis

Plus some knowledge of plaintext characteristics

Even some sample plain text cipher text pairs

Exploits characteristics of the algorithm to deduce

specific plaintext or key

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Types of Attacks on Ciphers

The attacker has only a set of {C}. His goal is to achieve

the corresponding set of {M}. E.g., frequency attack.

Known plain text attack

The attacker has pairs of {(M,C)}. His goal is to achieve

the encryption key K or the ability to encrypt messages

he doesnt know. E.g., in WWII The Bletchley Park team

would guess some of the plaintext based upon when the

message was sent (according to the weather) .

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Types of Attacks on Ciphers cont.

The attacker chooses a set of {M} so the attacked party

will encrypt the set of messages ({C}). His goal is to find

the encryption key for the set of chosen messages.

Important in algorithms that use public key.

Adaptive chosen plain text attack

The same as the chosen plaintext attack, but the attacker

will do it several times.

21

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