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Mitigation of Harmonic Current Produced by Wind

Turbine Throughout Converter Switching Control

Alex Reis Leandro P. Moura1, Jos C. de Oliveira2


University of Braslia UnB Federal University of Uberlndia UFU
Braslia, Brazil Uberlndia, Brazil
1
alexreis@unb.br leandropm91@gmail.com, 2jcoliveira@ufu.br

AbstractWhen considering grid integration, it is recognized affects the hosting capacity, limiting the amount of generation
that wind farms are able to bring about power quality impacts at that can be connected to the system without deteriorating the
the connection point. Focusing the attention towards this networks performance [5, 6].
framework, a large amount of effort has been given to achieve
Taking into account this scenario, a need arises for
the required level of compatibility between the wind turbine and
the AC grid. Amongst the various existing power quality deployment of mitigation techniques to reduce the impacts of
phenomena, harmonic distortion emerges as a relevant challenge. harmonic currents on the coupling point voltage. Passive [7]
In fact, the full or partial power electronics converters existing on and active filters [8] appear as traditional solutions to deal with
wind energy conversion systems has a direct effect upon the THD this situation. Although the effectiveness of these solutions,
and the search for solutions to reduce the harmonic current filters rated power is very sensitive to the existing harmonics
injection emerges as an important issue. Thus, this paper focuses on the coupling busbar of the wind farm. Therefore, a principal
on the use of a control strategy applied to full converter wind drawback is the necessity for extra financial investments during
systems aiming at reducing the level of harmonic currents similar the power plant construction, since there are some limitations
to an active filter based inverter technique. In addition to the
on sharing the harmonic responsibility and the costs of the
physical and mathematical principles, computational studies are
carried out to highlight the methodologys effectiveness.
solution between the utility and wind farm [9]. The use of
multilevel converters emerges as another solution to reduce the
Index Terms Harmonic distortion, Inverters, Power quality, amplitude of the harmonic currents; this subject is discussed
Wind energy. further in [10] and [11]. However, the high number of switches
can reduce the converters reliability, which implies the need
I. INTRODUCTION for further research on this topic.
An alternative technique consists of controlling the
The interests manifested in the use of wind energy have switching pattern of the converter, as described in [12-16],
been the cause of concern for system operators. In fact, the allowing for the harmonic content of a power converters to be
connection of such generation systems into electric network fixed to preset values, without hardware modifications. The
presupposes the fulfilment of various requests and procedures results achieved in [12] reveal that a technique called
related to system dynamics and power quality, which are Selective Harmonics PWM can be applied to high-power
established in specific standards [1, 2] or even in electrical grid converters, which have low switching frequency. By setting the
codes of each country. To cope with these demands, power switching angles to predefined values, this technique is able to
electronics converters play an important role on the wind reduce the amplitude of a limited number of harmonic
generation systems, guaranteeing the integration of control components. Consequently, there still exists the need for some
mechanisms that allow those systems to provide ancillary passive filters to meet the grid codes requirements. On the
functions of voltage and frequency regulation. In this way, other hand, [14, 16, 17] address the development of advanced
wind power is able to participate actively in grid operation. control functions which are dedicated to dynamic mitigation of
However, when considering the variability of the produced harmonic components. These strategies modify the converter
energy and the converters operation, the interaction between output voltage and can contribute to reduce the impacts upon
wind turbine and electrical network emerges as a field of strong the electrical network.
interests. Recently, an IEEE task force on distributed Based on the understanding of these latter strategies, it
generation, planning and optimization [3] has pointed out that arrives at the topic of the present paper, which is directed
the impacts on transmission system operation still represent a towards establishing a control strategy that integrates active
challenge when integrating wind power and other energy filters functions into full-converter wind turbines. It should be
sources. Among those aspects, it should be highlighted that the highlighted that the methodology is intended to reduce
harmonic currents emissions by power electronics devices harmonic currents produced by individual wind turbines,
directly affects quality standards of the supplied voltage. This ensuring a grid integration of a large-scale wind farm with
fact is aggravated through the sheer number of units existing on minimal changes to the existing harmonic distortion at the
a wind farm [4] and, in some cases, the harmonic currents

978-1-5090-3792-6/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE

255
Fig. 1. Full converter wind turbine control.

coupling point. This paper goes on to contemplate general Stressing the importance of these effects, equation (1) is
aspects associated with the objectives cited herein, followed by obtained through a Fourier analysis of a two-level inverter
a computational performance analysis of the investigated output voltage, and demonstrates the harmonic generation
methodology. dependence with the converter operating conditions. All those
factors previously presented can cause deviations on the
II. WIND TURBINE HARMONICS AND MITIGATION TECHNIQUE switching angle k and deteriorate the inverter output voltage.
Fig. 1 shows the full-converter wind turbines connected to
a commercial AC grid. The inverter unit is the main non-linear 4 M
V
element responsible for the harmonic current spectrum en =
n

1 + 2 ( 1) k cos( n k ) DC
2
injection onto the AC grid and this device has its harmonic
k =1
(1)
generation influenced by three factors:
PWM switching: The relationship between the inverter where en is the output voltage amplitude of the nth order (n =
fundamental output voltage and the modulation index 1, 2, , n), VDC is the inverter DC voltage and M is the number
determines the harmonic voltages produced by the of switching per half cycle.
PWM switching. When those variables have a linear A mechanism for harmonic currents mitigation can be
relationship, only high frequency harmonics are defined by controlling both the amplitude and phase of the
verified on the inverter output voltage. However, if a inverter output harmonic voltage en. The idea consists in
non-linear relationship is established, low-order eliminating the difference between the harmonic voltage
harmonics, besides high frequency components, are produced by the inverter and the corresponding voltage that
produced [18]; already exists at the coupling busbar.
Switches dead time: Although the delay in the In accordance with Fig 1, the harmonic mitigation system is
switching process is necessary to ensure proper feasible through controllers that operate simultaneously with
operation of the converter, a switchs dead time can the fundamental frequency control. The strategy superposes
increase or decrease the pulse width and, consequently, harmonic frequencies on the reference signal used by the Space
modify the inverter output voltage. In [19], a Vector PWM. Such a condition selects values for the switching
quantitative assessment of the voltage harmonics angles k, modifying the PWM pattern to attend both
fundamental frequency power supply and harmonic current
induced by dead time is performed;
mitigation.
Existing harmonic distortions on the coupling point: It
Figure 2 shows the diagram of a methodology that uses
needs emphasizing that currents flowing between the
proportional-integral (PI) controllers to the mitigation process
wind generator and the electric network are used as
herein focused. Based on a synchronous reference, the nth
feedback variables on the inverter control system. This
harmonic current is divided in two components, the direct-axis
situation can also influence the inverter control loops
and quadrature axis one, with the reference values set to zero.
and induce harmonic distortion on the output voltage.

256
Bus 03 Bus 04
Bus 01 Bus 02 Bus 05
T1
Line 1 Line 2 Line 4 Load 1

T2 Bus 06 Bus 07
G1 T3
Line 3 Line 5 Load 3

CB 2
Load 2
Bus 16
Bus 08 Bus 09 Bus 10
70 MW T10
CB 1 Line 6 Line 8 Load 4
Wind farm
Fig. 2. Current control diagram. T4
CB 3
Bus 11
Load 5
Equation (2) corresponds to the simplified transfer function Line 7
T5
establishing the relationship between the current injected onto CB 4
Bus 11
the electric power network with the obtained inverter output T6 Bus 12
voltage. Therefore, the general structure given herein can be Load 6
CB 5
summarized throughout the block diagram shown in Figure 3. Bus 13
T7
Load 7
in RfCf s +1
F (s) = =
en L1 L2 C f s 3 + R f C f (L1 + L2 )s 2 + (L1 + L2 )s Bus 14 T8 Bus 15
(2) Line 9 Load 8

CB 6
III. CASE STUDY T9

To demonstrate the efficacy of this approach at mitigating Fig. 4. AC grid network Single-line diagram.
the harmonics produced by the full-converter wind farm, a case
study associated to an electrical complex has been adopted for TABLE II. LINE PARAMETERS
simulation studies using the ATP/EMTP software. The main
Line Resistance () Inductance (mH) Capacitance (F)
grid parameters and the wind converter model are given below. 1 17.05 152.55 1.14
2 2.51 22.43 0.167
A. Electric system parameters 3 16.72 172.51 1.33
Figure 4 presents the single-line diagram of the electrical 4 9.88 60.34 0.48
power network with the AC grid and the wind farm. Tables I 5 0.06 0.36 0.003
6 2.37 14.48 0.11
up to V are related to the corresponding electrical parameters. 7 2.09 18.19 0.14
It is worth noting that the indicated loads have a non-linear 8 13.05 54.52 0.37
behavior responsible for producing harmonic currents inserted 9 0.7 6.06 0.05
into Table IV These yield to voltage distortions on busbar 3
which is the wind farm connection point. TABLE III. TRANSFORMERS PARAMETERS
Rated Power Rated Voltage Impedance
Transformer
(MVA) (kV) (%)
1 60 138/69 15.60
2 60 138/69 15.60
3 12 69/13.8 4.64
4 5 69/13.8 6.01
5 12 69/13.8 8.35
6 12 69/13.8 8.35
7 12 69/13.8 8.35
8 12 69/13.8 6.15
9 12 69/13.8 6.15
10 70 34.5/138 12.0

TABLE IV. LOADS PARAMETERS

Fig. 3. Inverter output voltage control diagram. Active Power Reactive Power Harmonics (A)
Load
(MW) (MVAr) 5th 7th 11th 13th
1 20.80 8.90 7.00 5.00 3.64 2.30
2 1.80 0.80 1.22 0.88 0.32 0.20
TABLE I. EQUIVALENT GENERATOR AT BUSBAR 01
3 5.40 2.30 9.00 7.00 4.72 2.99
Generator Nominal voltage (kV) Short circuit power(MVA) 4 2.10 0.90 7.05 5.11 1.84 1.16
G1 138 680 5 7.10 3.00 12.00 9.00 6.20 3.92
6 0.90 0.40 3.03 2.20 0.80 0.50
7 3.00 1.30 10.08 7.31 2.63 1.66
8 18.90 8.10 10.08 7.31 2.63 1.66

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TABLE V. CAPACITOR BANKS PARAMETERS
Busbar Rated Power (MVAr)
4 13,8
7 1,02
10 1,02
11 4,00
8 5,08
15 5,05

B. Wind farm modelling


Figure 5 presents the single-line diagram of the adopted
wind farm. It can be seen the arrangement is given by 35
individual generation units. Considering that the interest of this
paper is directed towards the harmonic currents flowing onto
the electric power grid and the mitigation technique itself, an
equivalent DC current source is used to represent the
synchronous generator and rectifier performance. This is Fig. 6. Wind generation system computational model
shown in Fig. 6 with the equivalent DC current representing
the level of the instantaneous input wind speed [20]. TABLE VI. WIND SYSTEM INVERTER - MAIN PARAMETERS
The inverter model in focus takes into account a two-level
voltage source converter with all its controllers and Parameter Value
Rated Power 2,00 MVA
components. The active and reactive power flow from the DC Inverter Input Voltage 1200,00 V
inverter to the electric power network is adjusted through the Switching Frequency 2500,00 Hz
control of the fundamental current, following the strategy LCL Filter Converter Side Inductance 0,14 mH
detailed in Fig 6. This uses a synchronous reference frame with LCL Filter Capacitance 780,00 F
LCL Filter Damping Resistance 0,10
the aim of keeping the DC bus voltage constant. PI controllers LCL Filter Grid Side Inductance 0,14 mH
are tuned with Modulus Optimum and Symmetrical Switches dead time 8,00 s
Optimal techniques[21]. Additionally, a Dual Second-Order
Generalized Integrator FLL (DSOGI-FLL) performs grid IV. PERFORMANCE RESULTS
synchronization [22]. Table VI presents the inverters main Figure 7 presents the amplitude of the harmonic currents
parameters. produced by the wind farm all over the simulation period. It
It should be highlighted that the wind condition adopted has can be noted that for the first 2 seconds, the wind generators
a constant speed corresponding to an active power production operate only with control loops intended at supplying active
of a 100% of the installed capacity of the power plant. Similar and reactive power associated to the fundamental frequency.
results were verified at different conditions. Following the referred instant, the harmonic mitigation
mechanism is activated, reducing to approximately zero the
amplitude of the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th harmonic
components. In addition, Figure 8(a) and 8(b) show the
waveforms of the current injected into the grid previously and
after the activation of the control strategy.

Fig. 7. Amplitude of harmonic currents injected into the electric network by


the wind farm without and with harmonic mitigation technique activation.

Fig. 5. Wind farm Single-line diagram.

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V. CONCLUSIONS
This paper was focused on the investigation of a control
strategy aimed at integrating functionalities into full-converter
wind turbines to mitigate harmonic currents responsible for
PCC voltage harmonic distortion. The methodology is an
intrinsic compensation mechanism, which dynamically
changes the inverter PWM switching patterns to achieve the
required goal.
It was shown that the main idea relies on the use of
controllers that operate in parallel to the fundamental frequency
control. To achieve such goal, a PI controller was used, which
(a) superposes harmonic frequencies onto the reference signal used
by the Space Vector PWM. This strategy changes the
amplitude and phase of the inverter output harmonic voltage,
allowing for harmonic emission control.
In order to verify the efficacy of this proposal a case study
associated to a typical wind farm connection to an existing AC
grid was considered. The investigations were carried out
considering that the PCC, prior the wind farm connection,
showed an initial harmonic voltage distortion produced by the
grid itself. After the insertion of the wind generation the THD
was found to increase about 50% with no activation of the
mitigation technique and, once this methodology was applied,
(b) the original distortion was restored i.e. no further changes on
Fig. 8. Zoom of the waveform of current injected into electric network by the the distortions other than those already existing were noticed.
wind farm. (a) without harmonic mitigation technique. (b) without harmonic
mitigation technique. The theoretical results have highlighted that the
compensation process shows consistency with field
Additionally, Fig. 10 shows the harmonic voltages at the applications due to its simplicity. In fact, the major changes
PCC in different moments and the corresponding relationship considered for implementation are related to the control of the
with the established limits [23]. Previously the activation of the power electronic switching components, as defined by the
harmonic mitigation technique, the connection busbar THD given strategy. Thus, no additional modifications to the
was around 1,81%. This is the result from the harmonics hardware structure are necessary to the wind farm have been
already existing at the PCC and the wind farm generation [24]. pointed out to achieve the operational performance herein
Once the mitigation technique is activated, the THD in the expected.
coupling busbar assumes values around 1.22%. Such ACKNOWLEDGMENT
magnitude is approximately the harmonic distortion originally
existing on busbar 3 before the connection of the wind farm. In The authors are grateful to CAPES for the financial support
this way, as stated before, the control strategy intends to for this research through its graduate scholarship program.
minimize the wind farm connection impacts, ensuring a grid Thanks are also directed to FAPEMIG for the financial support
integration of a large-scale wind farm with minimal changes on of this work through the Project TEC APQ 2381-13.
the existing harmonic distortion at the coupling point.
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