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# RAID Technology

Overview

Background
Term coined by researchers at UC-Berkeley
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
Basics of RAID
Disk arrays
Logical/physical
Controller (software/hardware)
Techniques/Methods

Mirroring

Parity
10101010 XOR 11111111 = 01010101
11111111 XOR 01010101 = 10101010
10101010 XOR 01010101 = 11111111
Parity -Single Bit Error Detection

## A wants to transmit : 1001

A computes parity bit value: 1^0^0^1 = 0
A adds parity bit and sends: 10010
B computes parity : 1^0^0^1^0 = 0
B reports correct transmission after observing
expected even result.

## *** TRANSMISSION ERROR ***

B computes overall parity: 1^1^0^1^0 = 1
B reports incorrect transmission after observing unexpected odd
result.
Techniques/Methods (contd)

Striping
RAID 0
Uses striping
I/O performance gain
No Data redundancy
Not fault tolerant
Not considered true RAID
Minimum 2 disks
RAID 1
Uses mirroring
Also known as duplexing
Fault tolerant
Mirroring typically handled system software
Simplest RAID design
Minimum 2 disks
RAID 2
Error Detection and Correction
Bit level striping
Parity and Hamming Code
Used to identify and correct errors
Hamming Code
Uses parity bits to verify data integrity
Parity bits signify oddness of data bits
ECC (Error Correction Code)
Minimum 3 disks
RAID 2

Characterized by:
On the fly data correction
High Ratio of Data disks to ECC disks
Not a commercially viable solution
High Costs Involved
For 4 data bits, 3 parity bits needed
(m parity bits cover 2m -1 bit positions)
RAID 3: XOR

## Byte level striping

XOR Logic Table
Exit Hamming Code,
Enter XOR (eXclusive OR) A XOR B Result

0 0 0
XOR in Action:
01012 XOR 00112 = 01102 0 1 1

1 0 1
If ????2 XOR 11002 = 01102,
Then 11002 XOR 01102 = ????2 = 10102 1 1 0

## Thus we can use XOR results to recover lost

data
RAID 3: Pros and Cons

Transfer Rates by Parity Disk
Disk failures dont slow Complex Controller
the system Design
Low Ratio of Data Disks Software
to Parity Disks Implementation
Resource Intensive
RAID 3: Uses

Video Production

## Other uses that require high throughput of

data

Minimum 3 disks
RAID 4
Offshoot of RAID 3
No Striping, Entire files written to individual
disks (block level striping)
Parity Data created on a sector-by-sector
basis
Minimum 3 disks
RAID 4: Pros, Cons, and Uses

Very high read rates Very slow write rates
Multiple files read at once Even small writes fill up
parity write queue
Uses: Inefficient data recovery
Web Servers, and other Even more Complex
high read, low write Controller Design than
situations RAID 3

3
RAID 5
Block level striping with distributed parity
Medium Write data transaction rate
Most complex controller design
Used For Server Applications.
Minimum 3 disks, One disk failure tolerated
RAID 10

Characterized by:
- each drive duplicated
- high implementation cost
RAID 0+1

## Acts as a mirrored array whose parts

consist of RAID 0 arrays
Very expensive
Works well in handling images
very high data transfer rate
RAID 0+1

## - Not great reliability

- one disk failure leaves you left with only the
characteristics of a striped array (no fault tolerance)
Conclusion

## Grown more complex

Large price range
Huge step forward for industry
Not for the masses yet

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAID
New RAID Classification

## Failure Resistant (systems

that protect against loss of
data due to drive failure)
Failure-tolerant (systems that
protect against loss of data
access due to failure of any
single component).
S.M.A.R.T

## Self Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Tool

Monitor hard disk and report
Informs threshold of parameter exceeded or
not exceeded (OK / Fail)
Does not indicate past/present reliability
SMART

## Drive manufacture defines attributes

Sets raw value and worst case threshold
Lower value worst, higher value best case,
except temperature
Examples