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Original Title: Poynting Vector _Theorem.pdf

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When electromagnetic wave travels in space, it carries energy and energy density is always

associated with electric fields and magnetic fields.

The rate of energy travelled through per unit area i.e. the amount of energy flowing through

per unit area in the perpendicular direction to the incident energy per unit time is called poynting

vector.

Mathematically poynting vector is represented as

EB

P = E H ...(i)

the direction of poynting vector is perpendicular to the plane containing E and H . Poynting

vector is also called as instantaneous energy flux density. Here rate of energy transfer P is

perpendicular to both E and H . Since it represents the rate of energy transfer per unit area, its

unit is W/m2.

Poynting theorem states that the net power flowing out of a given volume V is equal to

the time rate of decrease of stored electromagnetic energy in that volume decreased by the

conduction losses.

i.e. total power leaving the volume = rate of decrease of stored electromagnetic energy

ohmic power dissipated due to motion of charge

Proof : The energy density carried by the electromagnetic wave can be calculated using

Maxwell's equations

B

as div D = 0 ...(i) div B = 0 ...(ii) Curl E = ...(iii)

t

D

and Curl H = J ...(iv)

t

taking scalar product of (iii) with H and (iv) with E

B

i.e. H curl E = H ...(v)

t

D

and E. curl H = E.J E. ...(vi)

t

(23)

B D

doing (vi) (v) i.e. H.curl E E. curl H = H. E.J E.

t t

B D

= H. t E. t E.J

as

div A B = B. curl A A curl B

B D

so

div E H = H. t E. t E.J

...(vii)

But B = H and D = E

B 1 2

so H.

t

= H.

t

H

2 t

H

1

=

t 2 H.B

D 1 2 1

and E.

t t 2 t

= E. E E E.D

t 2

1

so from equation (vii)

div E H =

t 2

H.B E.D E.J

1

or

E.J = H.B E.D div E H

t 2

...(viii)

1

E.J dV

= t 2 H.B E.D dV div E H dV

V V V

(24)

1 1 2

or E.J dV 2

= 2 H 2 E dV E H .ds

V V S

as

B = H, D E and div E H dV = E H .ds

V S

1 2 1 2

or E . J dV = t 2 H

2

E dV H .ds

E

V V S

U em

or E H .ds = t

dV E . J dV

s V V

U em

or P.ds t

dV E . J dV as P E H ...(ix)

s V V

i.e. Total power leaving the volume = rate of decrease of stored e.m. energy -

ohmic power dissipated due to charge motion

This equation (ix) represents the poynting theorem according to which the net power

flowing out of a given volume is equal to the rate of decrease of stored electromagnetic energy

in that volume minus the conduction losses.

In equation (ix) P.ds represents the amount of electromagnetic energy crossing the

s

closed surface per second or the rate of flow of outward energy through the surface S enclosing

volume V i.e. it is poynting vector.

U em 1 1 2

The term dV or 2 H

2

E dV, the terms 1 H 2 and 1 E 2 represent

V

t t V

2 2 2

the energy stored in electric and magnetic fields respectively and their sum denotes the total

energy stored in electromagnetic field. So total terms gives the rate of decrease of energy stored

in volume V due to electric and magnetic fields.

E.J dV gives the rate of energy transferred into the electromagnetic field.

V

(25)

This is also known as work-energy theorem. This is also called as the energy conservation

law in electromagnetism.

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