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( Reaffirmed 2001 )

Indian Standard
PLANNINGANDDESIGNOF REVETMENT-
GUIDELINES

UDC 627,417 ( 026 )

Q BIS 1995

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002

April 1995 Price Group 4


River Training and Control Works Sectional Committee, RVD 22

FOREWORD

This Indian Standard was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft finalized by the
River Training and Control Works Sectional Committee had been approved by the River Valley
Division Council.
It is a common practice to use revetment for protecting the river bank, flood embankments, guide
bunds, spurs, etc, from the fury of floods. The protection work of this type is known by different
names such as stone pitchmg, rip-rap, revetment, etc. However, the most common technical term is
revetment. The size and mass of stone to be used for revetment is required to withstand flow velocity,
tractive force, etc, taking into consideration specific gravity of material in revetment, porosity, bank
slope, angle of repose of bank and protecting material, etc. A filter is also required below the protec-
tion layer to prevent possible soil loss. This standard covers the planning and design of revetment for
bank protection works. The construction and maintenance aspects of revetments are being covered in
a separate Indian Standard.
IS 14262 : 1995

Indian Standard
PLANNINGANDDESIGNOFREVETMENT-
GUIDELINES
1 SCOPE weight has to be increased. The limiting value
for the slope is the angle of repose of material
This siandard lays down the guidelines for of sub-base. Correction factor K for computing
planning and design of revetment used for weight of stone on sloping face may be obtained
embankments and bank protection works in from the following equation:
case of alluvial rivers and canals.
K=Jl ( sin B/sin%I#J)
2 REFERENCE where
The Indian Standard IS 8237 : 1985 Code of ti = angle of bank slope with horizontal,
practice for protection of slope for reservoir and
embankments ($rsl revision ) is a necessary 4 = an;i;;\f repose of material of protection
adjunct to this standard. _.
3 GENERAL DESIGN FEATURES Thus the weight of stone would be
3.1 Dry Revetment
Stone used in revetment for river bank protec-
tion is subjected to hydrodynamic drag and lift Weight of stone may also be calculated using
forces. These destabilizing forces are expressed the nomograph given in Fig. 1 ( see page 3 ).
in terms of velocity, tractive force, etc. The For river training works, sub-base is to be
stabilizing forces acting against these are com- graded to a stable slope depending upon the
ponent of submerged weight of stone and down- angle of repose and cohesion of bsnk material
ward component of the force caused by contact under saturated condition, and the height of
of the stones. the bank. For high bank a berm may be
Weight of the stone on horizontal bed may be necessary. For important works stability of
expressed as: bank with designed slope and berm should be
checked by slip circle method or by soil
W = 0.023 23 (X, s,
_ 1 1QV6 dynamic testing procedures. Mere large size
stones/crates would not be adequate for pro-
where tection if the same is not laid on a stable base.
For normal bank protection a slope of 2H : 1 V
w= weight of stone in kg, or flatter is recommended.
St? - specific gravity of stone, and 3.4 Size of Stone
V=== mean velocity of water in m/s over
the vertical under reference. Size of the stone D, may be determined from
the following relationship:
The weight of stone worked out is the minimum
required. Use of higher weight stones will be
based on the material available at site, ease of
construction, factor of safety, etc. where
3.2 Effect of Specific Gravity W = weight of stone in kg, and
In practice, density of stone could vary SS = specific gravity of stones.
from 2 000 to 3 300 kg/ma. The actual density Minimum dimension of the stones should not be
of stone should be determined for calculating less than Ds as obtained above. From the
the weight of stone given in 3.1. worked out weight and known specific gravity,
3.3 Effect of Bank Slope and Angle of Repose the volume of stone should be calculated.
Generally, the size of stone should be such that
The weight of stone estimated for horizontal its length, width and thickness should be more
bed would not be sufficient for same velocity on or less the same, that is stone should be approxi-
the sloping bank because only component of mately cubical. Round stones or very flat
self-weight normal to the slope acts as a stabi- stones having small thickness should be
lizing force. Therefore, for sloping banks, the avoided.

1
IS 14262: 1995

3.5 Thickness of Protectioo Layer Typical dry stone revetment is shown in Fig. 2
on page 5.
Minimum thickness of protection layer is
required to withstand the negative head created 3.7 Filter
by velocity. This may be determined by the
A graded filter of 150 to 300 mm thickness con-
following relationship:
forming to IS 8237 : 1985 should normally be
V$ provided below the revetment to prevent failure
TZ
2g(Ss-- 1) by sucking action of high velocity flow.
Syntheticigeotextile filter may be used from the
where point of view of quality control and conveni-
T = thickness of protection layer in m, ence of laying. The criteria for synthetic filter
is given in Annex A. A 150-mm thick sand
V 5 velocity in m/s, layer should be provided over the filter fabric
g = rtcdeleration due to gravity in m/s, to prevent the mechanical rupture of the fabric
by revetment stones.
& = specific gravity of stones. 4 REVETMENTS IN MORTAR
For safety purposes, two layers of stones 4.1 Sizes of the Stooes
according to the size obtained in 3.4 above
should be provided. Stones, bricks or concrete blocks may be used
for revetment in mortar. Size of stone, con-
3.6 Stones io Crates crete block, etc, in this type of pitching, is not
a critical aspect of design as every individual
At high velocities, weight of stone determined
piece is bonded by mortar. Average size of the
from relationship given in 3.3 works out very
available stone may be used for the purpose.
high which makes handling and placing of
Thickness should, however, be decided using
stones difficult. Under such circumstances,
equation given in 3.5 to achieve stability
small stones in crates are generally used. How-
against lifting. Typical revetment in mortar is
ever;the specific gravity of the crate is different
shown in Fig. 3 ( see page 5 ).
from that of the individual stone due to
presence of voids. Porosity in crates may be 4.2 Paoelling
worked out by the formula: Mortar revetment should not be constructed in
a continuous or monolithic form. To avoid
cracks, joints at suitable interval are required
to be provided. Generally, revetment is divided
where inpanels ofsize3m x 3mor3m x 5morso
( see Fig. 4 on page 5 ). The size of the panel
DE0 = mean diameter of stones used in
may be varied depending upon the river reach
crate in cm.
to be protected and the length of bank s1ope.
Mass specific gravity S, of crates may then be Standard granular filter or synthetic fabric
determined from the equation: filter should be provided below the joint.
S, = ( 1 -- e ) S, 4.3 Drain Holes
Volume of the crate should be determined Drain holes or weep holes are required to be
using S,,. provided in each panel for free drainage of pnre
water from the saturated bank soil beneath it,.
Crates should be laid with longer dimension
Depending upon the size of the panel, one or
along the slope of the bank. The size of the
more drain holes need to be provided. The pipe
mesh of crate should be smaller than the
provided in the drain hole should be up to the
smallest stone in the crate. The mesh should
natural bank. Inverted filter or synthetic filter
be double knotted. GI wire of minimum
fabric should be provided at the end in contact
diameter 4 mm should be used for crates. Crate
with soil to prevent escape of soil particles.
units may be tied to each other by 5 mm GT
Other end of the drain pipe should be flush with
wire as additional precaution.
the revetment face ( see Fig. 3 on page 5 ).
If crates are provided in layers, each layer 5 TOE PROTECTION
should be tied to lower and upper layer at
suitable intervals with 4 mm GI wire. To prevent the s!iding and failure of the revet-
ment on slope, toe is required to be protected.
Launching apron should not be tied to crate This may be in the form of simple key, a toe
on slope. A nomograph to determine the size wall, a sheet pile or a launching apron. Diffe-
and weight of stone or crates for revetment is rent types of toe protections are also shown
given in Fig. 1. in Fig. 2 to 6 ( see pages 5 and 6 ).
IS 14262:lYYS

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I
P; PIVOT 0 20
J-115 LINE V:VELOCITY VJ=WEIGHl D. DIAMETER
s.SPEClFlC GRAVITY

Velocity : 3 m/s

Bank alopc :2 : 1
Angle of repose : 30degree%
SpcciRc gravity : 2.65
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
IS 14262 : 1995

HFC (I
---

FREE BOARD

-.. .:. - . .
.;. - *.*s -.

FIG. 2 DRY PITCHING WITH APRON

. : .\ r FREE BOAR0
. --- -
.
. .
b &k-t
.
.
-=%b
WEEP PIPE WITH FILTER

JOINT OF PANEL WITH FlLTER

INVERTED FILTER

i.RODIHLE STRATA

i I!NFRC,I~IRLF SIRAT,

FIG. 3 PITCHING IN MORTARWITH TOEWALL

PANEL JOINT

w I *_
FIG. 4 FRONT VIEW OF PANEL
IS 14262: 195

5.1 Simple key may be provided at the toe when ed. The sheet pile may be made up of RCC or
rock or unerodible strata is available at the steel or bamboos depending upon the availabi-
river bed and the overlying banks are under lity of material. Sheet piles should be driver!
attack and subjected to erosion. The key is in below the anticipated maximum scour plus
the form of stones, bricks or concrete blocks grip length ( see Fig. 6 ).
filled in trench at the toe below the hard river
bed for depth equal to the thickness of pitching Depth of scour may be worked out from the
for proper anchorage ( see Fig. 5 ). Sole pur- equation:
pose of this key is to provide lateral support. DL = 0.473 ( Q/f)l/s
The stones, bricks or blocks may be laid in
mortar if pitching on slope is in mortar. or DL = 1.33 ( q/f )],a, 2nd
f = 1.76 42
5.2 When hard strata is available below the
river bed at a reasonable depth, toe wall is where
recommended. The thickness of toe wall Dr, = scour depth below HFL in m,
depends upon the height of the wall and height
of the overlying protection works. This wall Q = discharge in ma/s,
may be constructed in masonry ( see Fig. 3 ) q = discharge per unit width in ms/s;lm,
and designed as a retaining wall with weep f = silt factor, and
holes, etc.
d = mean particle diameter of river bed
5.3 When firm strata is not available at a material in mm.
reasonable depth below the river bed, toe pro- Maximum anticipated scour for launching apron
tection in the form of sheet piles is recommend- may be taken as = 1.5 DL.

rJ HFL
5s
FREE BOARU

ERODIBLE STRATA --

,- LlNEROOlBLE STRATA

Tr THICKNESS OF
PROTECTION LAYER

FIG. 5 TOE KBY

BED PROFILE
BEFORE SCOUR

BED PROFILE
Af7ER SCOUR

FIG. 6 TOE PROTECTION WITH PILEAND TOP KEY


IS 14262 : 1995

5.4 Sheet piles are difficult to drive.


Launching the laid apron may be kept 0.8 T near the toe of
apron is, therefore, preferred and generally the revetment and l-2 Tat the river end.
provided for dry rubble revetments ( see
Fig. 2 ). 5.7 Filter as mentioned in 3.7 should be provid-
ed below launching apron.
5.5 Launching apron should be laid at normal
water level or at as low a level as techno- 6 ANCHORING
*economically viable. The stones in the apron
should be designed to launch along the slope of 6.1 Proper anchor is required for keeping the
the scour and provide a strong layer that may revetment in place and serving the desired
prevent further scooping out of the river bed function.
material. The size and shap: of the apron
depends on the size of the stone, thickness of Upstream edge from where the revetment
the launched apron, depth of scour and slope starts, should be secured well to the adjoining
.of launched apron. Weight and size of the stone bank. Similarly, downstream edge where the
for launching apron should be determined as pitching ends also need to be secured well to
in 3.3 and 3.4. Thickness of launching apron the adjoining bank. For this purpose, the
should be determined as in 3.5. revetment should be properly anchored to the
ground at its two ends by sultably extending it
5.6 The slope of launching apron may be taken as may be required at site ( see Fig. 7 ).
as 2 H : 1 V. Adequate quantity of stones for the
apron has to be provided to ensure complete Anchorage is also required to be provided on
protection of the whole of the scoured face the top for submerged bank ( see Fig. 6 ). If
according to levels and slopes. The quantity of the top of bank is above HFL, the revetment
stones so calculated may be provided in a should be raised above HFL with adequate
wedge shape having width of 1.5 DL ( see free board. Under such situation, anchorage at
Fig. 2 ) and average thickness T. Thickness of the top is not required ( see Fig. 2 ).

FIG. 7 UPSTREAMAND DOWNSTREAMKEY FOR RBVBTMENT

7
IS 14262 : 1995

ANNEX A
( Clause 3.7 )

CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF FILTER FABRIC

Geotextile filters may be recommended because 0.149 mm. Thus the equivalent opening
of ease in installation and their proven effective- size of fabric should not be smaller
ness as an integral part of protection works. than 0.149 mm and should be equal to or
The following criteria, depending on the less than 85 percent passing size of the
gradation of bed material, may be used to select bed material.
the correct filter fabric:
b) For bed material containing at least
a) For granular material containing 50 per- 50 percent but not more than 85 percent
cent or less fines by weight, the following fines by weight, the equivalent opening
ratio should be satisfied: size of filter should not be smaller
than O-149 mm and should not be larger
8.5% passing size of
than O-211 mm.
bed material (mm)
-- -.- ) 1.0
Eqmvalent opening c) For bed material containg 85 percent or
size of bed of fabric (mm) more of particles finer than O-074 mm, it
is suggested that use of non-woven geo-
In order to reduce the chances of clogg- fabric filter having opening size and
ing, no fabric should be specified with an permeability compatible to the equivalent
equivalent opening size smaller than values given in (a) above may be used.
Bureau of Indian Standards

BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 to promote
harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods
and attending to connected matters in the country.

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of implementing the standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, typr or grade
designations. Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director ( Publications ), BIS.

Review of Indian Standards

Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. Standards are also
reviewed periodically; a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that
no changes are needed; if the review indicates that changes are needed, it is taken up for revision.
Users of Indian Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or
edition.

This Indian Standard has been developed from Dot No, RVD 22 (140)

Amendments Issued Since Publication

Amend No. Date of Issue Text Affected

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