Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

Running Head: A META-ANALYSIS 1

A Meta-Analysis of Communication Literature at the Intersection of Social Media and Branding

Joshua N. Morrison, MA

Texas State University


A META-ANALYSIS 2

The most important, definitive evolution brought about by Web 2.0 is the widespread

emergence of interactive digital tools. Social networks, online forums, blogs, and review sites

have all emerged and become diffuse throughout contemporary culture, rendering the digital

world more participatory than ever in the process. Each of these participatory, interactive

technologies falls under the larger umbrella of social media, a topic which has, in accordance

with its unmissable emergence as a major feature of contemporary life, received considerable

scholarly attention.

Academic research concerning social media has come from a variety of perspectives and

with a range of research priorities. Scholars are doing work which responds to calls for greater

understanding of how social media use impacts interpersonal relationships (Vaterlaus, Barnett,

Roche & Young, 2016), mental health (Burrow & Rainone, 2017), and the relationship between

social media and civic participation (Boulianne, 2015). A significant amount of scholarship has

also emerged which concerns social media as a tool for corporate branding. It is this branch of

scholarship concerning social media with which this piece is concerned.

This piece is written in a spirit following Royals (2005) meta-analysis of scholarship at

the intersection of gender and the internet. Her goal was to identify frequencies and trends,

highlight themes, trace methods and theories, or to identify gaps in coverage or analysis (p. 404)

in order to offer up a high-level perspective on the current scholarly state, and trajectory, of

scholarship surrounding this theoretical intersection. This piece is a meta-analysis of the

scholarship which concerns the intersection of social media and branding.

Research Questions

There is significant value in this endeavor. It has been reported that 96% of business use

social networks for brand purposes due to the wide audience such tactics make available (Phua,
A META-ANALYSIS 3

Jin & Kim, 2017, p. 412). Furthermore, there are fundamental differences between traditional

and social media contexts when it comes to the process of branding (Dijkmans, Kerkhof,

Buyukcan-Tetic & Beukeboom, 2015, p. 635). These differences are related primarily to the

level of interactivity which social media allows, and are significant enough that scholars have

referred to social media branding as an open source activity (Fournier & Avery, 2011, p. 194).

This piece serves as a snapshot into how the field of communication is attending to social media

as a site of brand activity by answering the following questions:

1. What is the recent trajectory in regard to the amount of research that is published on

the topic of social media and branding?

2. What journals, and what type of journals, publish research related to social media and

branding?

3. What methods or approaches to research are most frequently utilized in scholarship

which is at the intersection of social media and branding?

4. What is the amount of consideration that issues of identity, specifically gender and

race/ethnicity, receive in this field of scholarship?

5. What social media platforms receive the most attention from scholars working in this

area?

6. What are the prominent thematic focuses of research on social media and branding?

Method

One important distinction between this piece and Royals (2005) project is that the latter

sought to integrate scholarship across three divergent, broadly defined disciplines. She culled

scholarship from journals in the areas of communication, gender studies, and technology and

society journals to assess how scholars across a range of relevant issues addressed an issue that
A META-ANALYSIS 4

transcends any single discipline. For this piece, I seek to focus on the communication disciplines

approach to the intersection of social media and branding. Like Royal (2005), I have elected to

focus exclusively on scholarship published in journals. This decision is motivated by the ease of

access which working scholars have to such scholarship through their institutions, as well as

their peer-reviewed nature.

Given my emphasis on communication journals, I began the research process by

searching the Ebsco Communication Source database for the terms Social Media and Brand.

I then applied filters so that the sample of articles included only those from the last five years

(2013-2017), had their full text available in English and were peer reviewed and published in

academic journals. The resultant set of articles was then reviewed to ensure that each of the

samples were relevant or suitable for my purposes.

After thorough review, 13 articles were discarded for a variety of reasons. A small

portion of the articles were about personal branding, which engages a different set of issues and

practices than corporate branding. Others were included due to linguistic flukes, such as an

article about political communication as a brand of communication on social media. Another

piece was inadequately translated, while another was a piece which concerned social media from

a developer perspective. Finally, some articles did engage social media and branding, but did so

in a way that was not central to the articles focus. These articles were thus deemed to address

my area of interest without engaging it substantively enough for conclusion.

After the evaluation process, 63 articles were determined to be appropriate for inclusion.

These articles were published in the following 31 publications: Acta Universitatis Danubius.

Communicatio, Amity Journal of Media & Communication Studies, China Media Research,

Communicar , Communication & Society, Icono14, International Journal of Advertising,


A META-ANALYSIS 5

International Journal of Business Communication, International Journal of Information

Management, International Journal of Strategic Communication, Istanbul University Faculty of

Communication Journal, Journal of Advertising, Journal of Applied Communications, Journal of

Communication in Healthcare, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Journal of

Consumer Behavior, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal

of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Communications, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of

Media Business Studies, Journal of Promotion Management, Journal of the Academy of

Marketing Science, MIS Quarterly, Psychology & Marketing, Public Relations Review, Revista

Latina De Comunicacin Social, Styles of Communication, Telematics and Informatics, and The

Florida Communication Journal. Additional journals which are likely to have published relevant

research, but which are not included in the utilized database include Social Marketing Quarterly,

International Marketing Review, Marketing Theory, and Social Media + Society. After the

sample of articles was finalized, I analyzed and coded them to address the questions stated

above.

Analysis

Question 1

Figure 1 is a visual representation of the trajectory of the number of published articles in

this area of research from 2013 to this year. This figure reveals significant variation in the

amount of research published in this area in the last five years. In 2013, only 6 articles relevant to

this study were published, whereas the following two years the amount of relevant scholarship

tripled before falling to 11 articles last year. 2017 is on track to outpace each of these prior years,

with 10 relevant publications and over half of the year left for new material to receive

publication.
A META-ANALYSIS 6

NUMBER OF RELEVANT
ARTICLES BY YEAR
20 18 18
18
16
14
12 11
10
10
8 6
6
4
2
0
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Figure 1

Question 2

For table one, I conducted a count of how many relevant articles appeared in each of the

above-listed publications. As you can see, Psychology & Marketing and Journal of Marketing

Communications are the largest publishers in this area by a significant margin. This is

unsurprising considering that they are both journals dedicated to publishing research with the

ability to inform marketing practice.

It is of course unsurprising for journals emphasizing strategic communication practice to

be involved in the scholarly conversation about social media and branding. I was, however,

curious to see exactly what portion of the contributions to this dialogue do indeed come from this

sort of journal. I thus coded each of the represented journal by their emphasis within in the field

of communication and determined what number of articles originated in each sub-area of

communication scholarship. The results are included in figure 2.

Fittingly, 18 of 31, or 58% of the journals have a strategic communication focus, while 8,

or 26%, of the journals have a general focus on communication and publish pieces from a variety
A META-ANALYSIS 7

Journal title Number of articles


Psychology & Marketing 8
Journal of Marketing Communications 7
International Journal of Advertising 4
Journal of Marketing Research 4
Journal of Promotion Management 4
International Journal of Information Management 3
International Journal of Strategic Communication 2
Journal of Applied Communications 2
Journal of Consumer Behavior 2
Journal of Consumer Psychology 2
Journal of Marketing 2
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 2
Public Relations Review 2
The Florida Communication Journal 2
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Communicatio 1
Amity Journal of Media & Communication Studies 1
China Media Research 1
Communicar 1
Communication & Society 1
Icono14 1
International Journal of Business Communication 1
Istanbul University Faculty of Communication
Journal 1
Journal of Advertising 1
Journal of Communication in Healthcare 1
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 1
Journal of Consumer Research 1
Journal of Media Business Studies 1
MIS Quarterly 1
Revista Latina De Comunicacin Social 1
Styles of Communication 1
Telematics and Informatics 1

Table 1

of perspectives and sub-fields. A small portion of the articles came from journals emphasizing

technology, health, and education. It is an encouraging sign that more than a quarter of the
A META-ANALYSIS 8

discussions around social media and branding are being written for a general communication

audience given that marketing practice often has important ramifications for, or can provide

valuable insights into culture at large. A sterling example of this is Drapers (2014) work on the

impact and importance of the way mobile marketing campaigns construct family. Also

encouraging is the trickling of this type of research into more specialized realms, like the health

communication publication where Popovic, Smith & Hellebusch (2013) consider the ethical

ramifications of brining social media tools into the healthcare setting.

Percent of publications by journal


type
Strategic Communication

3%
3% General Communication
10%

Technology and
26% 58% Communication
Instructional Communication

Health Communication

Figure 2

Question 3

Figure 3 provides a breakdown of what research methods were most frequently used in

the sample of articles. Far an away, quantitative methods are the most frequently employed for

this research area, being the sole methodological approach for 81% of the articles. An additional

3% of the articles also use quantitative methods in conjunction with a qualitative approach. This

is unsurprising given Gummessons (2005) observation that marketing researchers historically

have difficulty and aversion to working with qualitative data (p. 311). However, his observation
A META-ANALYSIS 9

is paired with the argument that a high-velocity economy necessitates qualitative interpretive

skill on the part of marketing researchers (p. 318). Given this perspective, it is advisable that

those who research branding in the social media context expand their methodological palate for a

more holistic perspective of the still-young phenomenon.

Number of Articles by Resarch Method


30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Figure 3

Question 4

Royals (2005) meta-analysis of scholarship concerning the internet as a gendered space

remains an important point of entry to exploring a significant issue. In the years since its

publication, there has been some continued scholarly attention given to this issue. This research

has included considerations of the relationship between gender and the internet in international

contexts (Gray, Gainous & Wagner, 2017), a fascinating piece from Schwanen, Kwan & Ren

(2014) that relates the internet to ways in which household labor is divided along gendered lines,

and, yes, research on gender as it relates to social media use (Doorn, 2010). During the time

frame of the current project (2013-2017), there has also been interesting work published that

considers issues of gender in marketing (Tuncay Zayer & Coleman, 2015; Greenwell, Hancock,
A META-ANALYSIS 10

Simmons & Thorn, 2015; Krishnan, Sullivan & Aurand, 2016; Patino, Kaltcheva, Pitta, Sriram

& Winsor, 2014).

Despite this, there are very few articles in the present sample which engage the

relationship between gender and any aspect of social media in a meaningful way. While the

majority of articles which conducted survey or experimental research which involved human

subjects collected data on the gender breakdown of participants, very few of them substantively

engage that information or even attempt to account for gender as a mediating factor. Less than

10% of the 63 articles attempt any sort of substantive engagement of gender, and none of the

articles in this sample have gender as a primary focus. The same is true of race/ethnicity, which

suggests a general apprehension to engage in scholarship around identity at this particular

scholarly intersection.

Question 5

Another aspect of the article sample I was eager to explore is the frequency with which

particular social platforms were studied. Importantly, not every article studied explicitly named

platforms. Some, like Akpinar & Berger (2017), studied the features of individual content items,

while others, like Chan-Olmsted & Shay (2016) attempted to develop new models of digital

communication that were not platform-specific. Many articles, however, studied features of or

phenomena on particular platforms. A count of the frequency with which each platform was

specifically engaged is included here as table 2.

Given Facebooks massive popularity compared to other social media platforms

(PewResearch Center, 2016), it is unsurprising and understandable that it is handily the most

addressed social platform in this article sample. The representation of other platforms, however,

is disproportionately low. Instagram, for instance, is the second most used platform from the
A META-ANALYSIS 11

above list (Pew Research Center, 2016), yet it only accounts 3% of the scholarly attention from

articles in this sample which enumerate a platform of interest. This is similarly true for both

LinkedIn and Pinterest. Further research of these branding on these platforms should be

conducted so that we may develop an understanding of their branding possibilities and functions

that is as robust as what we have come to know about Facebook and Twitter.

Number of
Platform articles
Facebook 25
Twitter 20
Pinterest 3
YouTube 3
Instagram 2
LinkedIn 2
Sina Weibo 1
Snapchat 1
Flickr 1

Table 2

Question 6

Finally, within the 63 article sample used for this piece, there are several recurring

scholarly aims. Table 3 shows the frequency with which these aims recur. I will also provide

recommendations for future directions.

The most frequently explored topics among the samples articles were actions related to

branding on social media taken by brands and/or consumers. Among the sample, 30% of the

articles focused primarily on brand action, 25% focused specifically on consumer action, and an

additional 19% focused on two-way communication processes on social media between brand

and consumer. All in all, 74% of the surveyed articles considered brand and/or consumer action

specifically. These articles covered subjects ranging from the ways in which consumer use of
A META-ANALYSIS 12

branded social media generates new Value Creating Behaviors (VCBs) (Hassan, Mydock III,

Pervan & Kortt, 2016) to explorations of how television stations use Pinterest (Ferguson &

Greer, 2015) to how brands navigate negative User-Generated Content (UGC) (Mishra, 2015).

An additional 14% of the sampled articles develop tools or models which can be used in future

research. Liu, Burns & Hous (2017) development of a method for doing sentiment analysis of

UGC is a particularly useful example of this sort of work.

Number of
Area of exploration articles
Brand action 19
Consumer action 16
Communication between brand and consumer 12
Tool/Model Generation 9
Content features 2
Explorations of specific platform features 2
External processes which impact consumer/brand
communication 1
Ethical considerations 1
Theory 1

Table 3

Exploration of specific content and platform features each account for 3% of the articles

in the sample. Examples include Akpinar & Bergers (2017) exploration of what sort of content

is included in viral videos and Phillips, Miller & McQuarries (2014) exploration of how

Pinterest functions as a place to dream out loud. I was surprised by how little work was done in

these areas, and I would propose that further research could be done to analyze these two areas

specifically in relation to each other. I see great value in research which addresses what content

features might lead to greater success on particular platforms given their specific features and

uses.
A META-ANALYSIS 13

Three additional areas of emphasis are each addressed by just one article, or 2% of the

total sample, each. Chung & Cho (2017) explore how a communication process external to

brand-consumer interaction can impact that particular interaction by exploring interactions

between individuals and celebrity on social media. Popovic, Smith & Hellebusch (2013) provide

the samples sole piece dedicated to the ethics with their exploration of the ethical ramifications

of using social media in the healthcare context and Rosendale (2015) provides the sole

exclusively theoretical piece to propose new directions for research in this area. The body of

scholarship could benefit from additional work in each of these areas, but I definitely propose

that given the potential for persuasive action in branded social media, and the risk of that action

becoming coercive, the most pressing need is for further scholarship which takes an ethical lens

to branding and social media.

Conclusion

In this piece I gathered 63 articles across 31 communication journals over the last 5 years

that operate at the intersection of scholarly interest in branding and social media. I have found an

unclear trajectory in terms of the number of published articles in this area by year and that this

type of scholarship is primarily published in strategic communication journals. I was encouraged,

however, by the extent to which there was a presence of this sort of work in journals oriented

more generally to communication in a broad sense. I also laid out the most common aims of

scholarship working at this intersection and made recommendations for what type of work would

be beneficial moving forward.

I also interrogated this branch of scholarship in methodological terms, in regard to how it

handles identity and its primary platforms of interest. I found significant room for growth in each

of these areas. Specifically, I suggested that more qualitative approaches be adopted, that identity
A META-ANALYSIS 14

issues be attended too more substantively, and an increase in scholarship that takes an interest in

heavily-used but under-studied platforms, including Instagram, Pinterest, and LinkedIn. As a

branch of scholarship that should by all accounts be important for many years to come, I suggest

that each of these are important areas of study that will diversify our body of knowledge and

yield significant theoretical and managerial benefits.

Appendix: Journal Articles Under Study

Akpinar, E., & Berger, J. (2017). Valuable Virality. Journal Of Marketing Research

(JMR), 54(2), 318-330.

Allagui, I., & Breslow, H. (2016). Social media for public relations: Lessons from four effective

cases. Public Relations Review, 42(1), 20-30. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2015.12.001

Arvidsson, A., & Caliandro, A. (2016). Brand Public. Journal Of Consumer Research, 42(5),

727-748. doi:10.1093/jcr/ucv053

Ashley, C., & Tuten, T. (2015). Creative Strategies in Social Media Marketing: An Exploratory

Study of Branded Social Content and Consumer Engagement. Psychology &

Marketing, 32(1), 15-27. doi:10.1002/mar.20761

Becker, K., & Nobre, H. (2014). Social Network Reputation Management: An International

Study. Journal Of Promotion Management, 20(4), 436-451.

doi:10.1080/10496491.2014.930282

Borah, A., & Tellis, G. J. (2016). Halo (Spillover) Effects in Social Media: Do Product

Recalls of One Brand Hurt or Help Rival Brands?. Journal Of Marketing Research

(JMR), 53(2), 143-160. doi:10.1509/jmr.13.0009

Chan-Olmsted, S., & Shay, R. (2016). The New Digital Media Value Network: Proposing an
A META-ANALYSIS 15

Interactive Model of Digital Media Value Activities. Icono 14, 14(2), 46-74.

doi:10.7195/ri14.v14i1.986

Chen, K., Kim, J., & Lin, J. (2015). The effects of affective and cognitive elaborations from

Facebook posts on consumer attitude formation. Journal Of Consumer Behaviour, 14(3),

208-218. doi:10.1002/cb.1515

Chung, S., & Cho, H. (2017). Fostering Parasocial Relationships with Celebrities on Social

Media: Implications for Celebrity Endorsement. Psychology & Marketing, 34(4), 481-

495. doi:10.1002/mar.21001

Ciacu, N., Tasente, T., & Sandu, M. (2013). Facebook Pages and the Effects of Reputation

Management. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Communicatio, 7(1), 33-44.

Colliander, J., Dahln, M., & Modig, E. (2015). Twitter for two: investigating the effects of

dialogue with customers in social media. International Journal Of Advertising, 34(2),

181-194. doi:10.1080/02650487.2014.996197

Colliander, J., & Erlandsson, S. (2015). The blog and the bountiful: Exploring the effects of

disguised product placement on blogs that are revealed by a third party. Journal Of

Marketing Communications, 21(2), 110-124. doi:10.1080/13527266.2012.730543

Cuomo, M. T., Tortora, D., Festa, G., Giordano, A., & Metallo, G. (2016). Exploring Consumer

Insights in Wine Marketing: An Ethnographic Research on #Winelovers. Psychology &

Marketing, 33(12), 1082-1090. doi:10.1002/mar.20942

Dafonte-Gmez, A. (2014). The Key Elements of Viral Advertising. From Motivation to

Emotion in the Most Shared Videos. Comunicar, 22(43), 199-206. doi:10.3916/C43-

2014-20
A META-ANALYSIS 16

Daugherty, T., & Hoffman, E. (2014). eWOM and the importance of capturing consumer

attention within social media. Journal Of Marketing Communications, 20(1/2), 82-102.

doi:10.1080/13527266.2013.797764

De Moya, M., & Jain, R. (2013). When tourists are your friends: Exploring the brand

personality of Mexico and Brazil on Facebook. Public Relations Review, 39(1), 23-29.

doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.09.004

Dijkmans, C., Kerkhof, P., Buyukcan-Tetik, A., & Beukeboom, C. J. (2015). Online

Conversation and Corporate Reputation: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study on the Effects

of Exposure to the Social Media Activities of a Highly Interactive Company. Journal Of

Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(6), 632-648. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12132

Dimitriu, R., & Guesalaga, R. (2017). Consumers' Social Media Brand Behaviors: Uncovering

Underlying Motivators and Deriving Meaningful Consumer Segments. Psychology &

Marketing, 34(5), 580-592. doi:10.1002/mar.21007

Do, H., Ko, E., & Woodside, A. G. (2015). Tiger Woods, Nike, and I are (not) best friends: how

brand's sports sponsorship in social-media impacts brand consumer's congruity and

relationship quality. International Journal Of Advertising, 34(4), 658-677.

doi:10.1080/02650487.2015.1031062

Donlan, L., & Crowther, P. (2014). Leveraging sponsorship to achieve consumer relationship

objectives through the creation of marketing spaces: An exploratory study. Journal Of

Marketing Communications, 20(4), 291-306. doi:10.1080/13527266.2012.684068


A META-ANALYSIS 17

Eisingerich, A. B., Chun, H. H., Liu, Y., Jia, H. (., & Bell, S. J. (2015). Why recommend a brand

face-to-face but not on Facebook? How word-of-mouth on online social sites differs from

traditional word-of-mouth. Journal Of Consumer Psychology (Elsevier Science), 25(1),

120-128. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2014.05.004

Ferguson, D. A., & Greer, C. F. (2015). Pinning and Promotion: How Local Television Stations

Are Using Pinterest for Branding and Audience Connectivity. Journal Of Promotion

Management, 21(1), 64-81. doi:10.1080/10496491.2014.971210

Groeger, L., & Buttle, F. (2014). Word-of-mouth marketing influence on offline and online

communications: Evidence from case study research. Journal Of Marketing

Communications, 20(1/2), 21-41. doi:10.1080/13527266.2013.797736

Gutirrez, M., Mart, J. M., Ferrer, I., Moncls, B., & Ribes, X. (2014). Spanish primetime radio

shows in Facebook and Twitter: Synergies between on-air radio broadcasting and social

networks. Revista Latina De Comunicacin Social, (69), 418-434. doi:10.4185/RLCS-

2014-1018en

Habibi, M. R., Laroche, M., & Richard, M. (2014). Brand communities based in social media:

How unique are they? Evidence from two exemplary brand communities. International

Journal Of Information Management, 34(2), 123-132.

doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2013.11.010

Hassan, M., Mydock, S., Pervan, S. J., & Kortt, M. (2016). Facebook, self-disclosure, and brand-

mediated intimacy: Identifying value creating behaviors. Journal Of Consumer

Behaviour, 15(6), 493-502. doi:10.1002/cb.1586


A META-ANALYSIS 18

Hayes, R. A., & Carr, C. T. (2015). Does Being Social Matter? Effects of Enabled Commenting

on Credibility and Brand Attitude in Social Media. Journal Of Promotion

Management, 21(3), 371-390. doi:10.1080/10496491.2015.1039178

Hewett, K., Rand, W., Rust, R. T., & van Heerde, H. J. (2016). Brand Buzz in the

Echoverse. Journal Of Marketing, 80(3), 1-24. doi:10.1509/jm.15.0033

Hyoryung, N., & Kannan, P. K. (2014). The Informational Value of Social Tagging

Networks. Journal Of Marketing, 78(4), 21-40.

John, L. K., Emrich, O., Gupta, S., & Norton, M. I. (2017). Does "Liking" Lead to Loving? The

Impact of Joining a Brand's Social Network on Marketing Outcomes. Journal Of

Marketing Research (JMR), 54(1), 144-155. doi:10.1509/jmr.14.0237

Kumar, V., Choi, J., & Greene, M. (2017). Synergistic effects of social media and traditional

marketing on brand sales: capturing the time-varying effects. Journal Of The Academy Of

Marketing Science, 45(2), 268-288. doi:10.1007/s11747-016-0484-7

Laroche, M., Habibi, M. R., & Richard, M. (2013). To be or not to be in social media: How

brand loyalty is affected by social media?. International Journal Of Information

Management, 33(1), 76-82. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2012.07.003

Liu, X., Burns, A. C., & Hou, Y. (2017). An Investigation of Brand-Related User-Generated

Content on Twitter. Journal Of Advertising, 46(2), 236-247.

doi:10.1080/00913367.2017.1297273

Luangrath, A. W., Peck, J., & Barger, V. A. (2017). Textual paralanguage and its implications

for marketing communications. Journal Of Consumer Psychology (Elsevier

Science), 27(1), 98-107. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2016.05.002


A META-ANALYSIS 19

Manika, D., Papagiannidis, S., & Bourlakis, M. (2017). Understanding the effects of a social

media service failure apology: A comparative study of customers vs. potential

customers. International Journal Of Information Management, 37(3), 214-228.

doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2016.01.004

Miao, G. (2014). Relationship Marketing in an Online Social e Media Context: Newspaper

Versus Television Brand Websites Comparison. Journal Of Media Business Studies

(Journal Of Media Business Studies), 11(4), 1-26. doi:10.1080/16522354.2014.11073586

Mguez-Gonzlez, M. I., & Fernndez-Cavia, J. (2015). Tourism and online communication:

interactivity and social web in official destination websites. Communication & Society,

17-31. doi:10.15581/003.28.4.17-31

Ming-Yi, W. (2015). Customer Relations in Social Media: Social Media Usage Motives,

Expected Responses from Organizations, and Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM). China

Media Research, 11(3), 65-72.

Mishra, S. (2015). Corporate Response Strategies: Indian Brands Manage Negativity on

Social. Amity Journal Of Media & Communications Studies (AJMCS), 5(1/2), 55-65.

Northfell, A., Edgar, L. D., Graham, D. L., & Rucker, K. J. (2016). Millennial Alumni

Perceptions of Communications: A Look at One Land Grant University's Media

Use. Journal Of Applied Communications, 100(3), 32-43.

Phillips, B. J., Miller, J., & McQuarrie, E. F. (2014). Dreaming out loud on

Pinterest. International Journal Of Advertising, 33(4), 633-655. doi:10.2501/IJA-33-4-

633-655
A META-ANALYSIS 20

Phua, J., Jin, S. V., & Kim, J. (. (2017). Gratifications of using Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or

Snapchat to follow brands: The moderating effect of social comparison, trust, tie strength,

and network homophily on brand identification, brand engagement, brand commitment,

and membership intention. Telematics & Informatics, 34(1), 412-424.

doi:10.1016/j.tele.2016.06.004

Popovic, K., Smith, C., & Hellebusch, S. J. (2013). Attitudes on the use of social media in

healthcare communications. Journal Of Communication In Healthcare, 6(1), 22-28.

doi:10.1179/1753807612Y.0000000029

Rapp, A., Beitelspacher, L., Grewal, D., & Hughes, D. (2013). Understanding social media

effects across seller, retailer, and consumer interactions. Journal Of The Academy Of

Marketing Science, 41(5), 547-566. doi:10.1007/s11747-013-0326-9

Reichelt, J., Sievert, J., & Jacob, F. (2014). How credibility affects eWOM reading: The

influences of expertise, trustworthiness, and similarity on utilitarian and social

functions. Journal Of Marketing Communications, 20(1/2), 65-81.

doi:10.1080/13527266.2013.797758

Rosendale, J. A. (2015). New Communication Technologies in Organization Communications

and Branding: The Integral Role Social Media Now Play. Florida Communication

Journal, 43(2), 49-59.

Rubenking, B., & Rister, A. (2016). A Look at User Motivations with Restaurant Brands on

Facebook and Twitter. Florida Communication Journal, 44(2), 11-23.

Saridakis, C., Baltas, G., Oghazi, P., & Hultman, M. (2016). Motivation Recipes for Brand-

Related Social Media Use: A Boolean-fsQCA Approach. Psychology &

Marketing, 33(12), 1062-1070. doi:10.1002/mar.20940


A META-ANALYSIS 21

Schweidel, D. A., & Moe, W. W. (2014). Listening In on Social Media: A Joint Model of

Sentiment and Venue Format Choice. Journal Of Marketing Research (JMR), 51(4), 387-

402.

Shen, B., & Bissell, K. (2013). Social Media, Social Me: A Content Analysis of Beauty

Companies Use of Facebook in Marketing and Branding. Journal Of Promotion

Management, 19(5), 629-651. doi:10.1080/10496491.2013.829160

Stathopoulou, A., Borel, L., Christodoulides, G., & West, D. (2017). Consumer Branded

#Hashtag Engagement: Can Creativity in TV Advertising Influence Hashtag

Engagement?. Psychology & Marketing, 34(4), 448-462. doi:10.1002/mar.20999

Steinmann, S., Mau, G., & Schramm-Klein, H. (2015). Brand Communication Success in Online

Consumption Communities: An Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Communication

Style and Brand Pictorial Representation. Psychology & Marketing, 32(3), 356-371.

doi:10.1002/mar.20784

St, C. S., & Erdal, C. (2014). A Research On Effectiveness of Social Media Practices of

Hospitals' Public Relations Departments in Turkey. Istanbul University Faculty Of

Communication Journal, (46), 83-106.

Uzunolu, E., & ksz, B. (2014). New opportunities in social media for ad-restricted alcohol

products: The case of Yeni Rak. Journal Of Marketing Communications, 20(4), 270-

290. doi:10.1080/13527266.2012.684067

van Noort, G., Antheunis, M. L., & J. Verlegh, P. W. (2014). Enhancing the effects of social

network site marketing campaigns. International Journal Of Advertising, 33(2), 235-252.

doi:10.2501/IJA-33-2-235-252
A META-ANALYSIS 22

Vernuccio, M. (2014). Communicating Corporate Brands Through Social Media: An

Exploratory Study. International Journal Of Business Communication, 51(3), 211-233.

doi:10.1177/2329488414525400

Wagler, A., & Cannon, K. J. (2015). Exploring Ways Social Media Data Inform Public Issues

Communication: An Analysis of Twitter Conversation during the 2012-2013 Drought in

Nebraska. Journal Of Applied Communications, 99(2), 44-60.

Wang, Y., Qiao, F., & Peng, W. (2015). Is the Size or the Valence of Proactive Engagement

Associated with Purchase Intention? A Case Study of Branded Blogs of

Starbucks. International Journal Of Strategic Communication, 9(3), 197-216.

doi:10.1080/1553118X.2014.924125

Wich-Szymczak, U. (2015). City Brand Building in Social Media (Official Profile of Poznan on

Facebook). Styles Of Communication, 7(1), 162-187.

Wood, N. T., & Burkhalter, J. N. (2014). Tweet this, not that: A comparison between brand

promotions in microblogging environments using celebrity and company-generated

tweets. Journal Of Marketing Communications, 20(1/2), 129-146.

doi:10.1080/13527266.2013.797784

Zhang, K., Bhattacharyya, S., & Ram, S. (2016). Large-Scale Network Analysis For Online

Social Brand Advertising. MIS Quarterly, 40(4), 849-A12.

Zhang, J., & Mao, E. (2016). From Online Motivations to Ad Clicks and to Behavioral

Intentions: An Empirical Study of Consumer Response to Social Media

Advertising. Psychology & Marketing, 33(3), 155-164. doi:10.1002/mar.20862


A META-ANALYSIS 23

Zhang, X., Tao, W., & Kim, S. (2014). A Comparative Study on Global Brands Micro Blogs

between China and USA: Focusing on Communication Styles and Branding

Strategies. International Journal Of Strategic Communication, 8(4), 231-249.

doi:10.1080/1553118X.2014.886251
A META-ANALYSIS 24

References

Akpinar, E., & Berger, J. (2017). Valuable Virality. Journal Of Marketing Research

(JMR), 54(2), 318-330.

Boulianne, S. (2015). Social media use and participation: a meta-analysis of current

research. Information, Communication & Society, 18(5), 524-538.

doi:10.1080/1369118X.2015.1008542

Burrow, A., & Rainone, N. (2017). How many likes did I get?: Purpose moderates links between

positive social media feedback and self-esteem. Journal Of Experimental Social

Psychology, 69232-236. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2016.09.005

Chan-Olmsted, S., & Shay, R. (2016). The New Digital Media Value Network: Proposing an

Interactive Model of Digital Media Value Activities. Icono 14, 14(2), 46-74.

doi:10.7195/ri14.v14i1.986

Chung, S., & Cho, H. (2017). Fostering Parasocial Relationships with Celebrities on Social

Media: Implications for Celebrity Endorsement. Psychology & Marketing, 34(4), 481-

495. doi:10.1002/mar.21001

Dijkmans, C., Kerkhof, P., Buyukcan-Tetik, A., & Beukeboom, C. J. (2015). Online

Conversation and Corporate Reputation: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study on the Effects

of Exposure to the Social Media Activities of a Highly Interactive Company. Journal Of

Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(6), 632-648. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12132

Doorn, N. v. (2010). The Ties That Bind: The Networked Performance of Gender, Sexuality and

Friendship on MySpace. New Media & Society, 12(4), 583-602.

doi:10.1177/1461444809342766
A META-ANALYSIS 25

Draper, N. A. (2014). Defining Family: Representation and Rhetoric in the Marketing of Shared

Mobile Phone Plans. Critical Studies In Media Communication, 31(1), 57-71.

doi:10.1080/15295036.2013.831991

Ferguson, D. A., & Greer, C. F. (2015). Pinning and Promotion: How Local Television Stations

Are Using Pinterest for Branding and Audience Connectivity. Journal Of Promotion

Management, 21(1), 64-81. doi:10.1080/10496491.2014.971210

Fournier, S., & Avery, J. (2011). The uninvited brand. Business Horizons, 54, 193-207.

doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.001

Gray, T. J., Gainous, J., & Wagner, K. M. (2017). Gender and the Digital Divide in Latin

America. Social Science Quarterly (Wiley-Blackwell), 98(1), 326-340.

doi:10.1111/ssqu.12270

Greenwell, T. C., Hancock, M., Simmons, J. M., & Thorn, D. (2015). The Effects of Gender and

Social Roles on the Marketing of Combat Sport. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 24(1), 19-

29.

Gummesson, E. (2005). Qualitative research in marketing Road-map for a wilderness of

complexity and unpredictability. European Journal Of Marketing, 39(3-4), 309-327.

Hassan, M., Mydock, S., Pervan, S. J., & Kortt, M. (2016). Facebook, self-disclosure, and brand-

mediated intimacy: Identifying value creating behaviors. Journal Of Consumer

Behaviour, 15(6), 493-502. doi:10.1002/cb.1586

Krishnan, V., Sullivan, U. Y., & Aurand, T. W. (2016). The incorporation of brand

versatility in the assessment of brand value: Gender and brand category extension

considerations. Academy Of Marketing Studies Journal, 20(2), 85-92.


A META-ANALYSIS 26

Liu, X., Burns, A. C., & Hou, Y. (2017). An Investigation of Brand-Related User-Generated

Content on Twitter. Journal Of Advertising, 46(2), 236-247.

doi:10.1080/00913367.2017.1297273

Mishra, S. (2015). Corporate Response Strategies: Indian Brands Manage Negativity on

Social. Amity Journal Of Media & Communications Studies (AJMCS), 5(1/2), 55-65.

Patino, A., D. Kaltcheva, V., Pitta, D., Sriram, V., & D. Winsor, R. (2014). How important are

different socially responsible marketing practices? An exploratory study of gender, race,

and income differences. Journal Of Consumer Marketing, (1), 2. doi:10.1108/JCM-10-

2013-0733

Pew Research Center. (2016). Social Media Update 2016. Retrieved from

http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/11/11/social-media-update-2016/

Phillips, B. J., Miller, J., & McQuarrie, E. F. (2014). Dreaming out loud on

Pinterest. International Journal Of Advertising, 33(4), 633-655. doi:10.2501/IJA-33-4-

633-655

Phua, J., Jin, S. V., & Kim, J. (. (2017). Gratifications of using Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or

Snapchat to follow brands: The moderating effect of social comparison, trust, tie strength,

and network homophily on brand identification, brand engagement, brand commitment,

and membership intention. Telematics & Informatics, 34(1), 412-424.

doi:10.1016/j.tele.2016.06.004

Popovic, K., Smith, C., & Hellebusch, S. J. (2013). Attitudes on the use of social media in

healthcare communications. Journal Of Communication In Healthcare, 6(1), 22-28.

doi:10.1179/1753807612Y.0000000029
A META-ANALYSIS 27

Rosendale, J. A. (2015). New Communication Technologies in Organization Communications

and Branding: The Integral Role Social Media Now Play. Florida Communication

Journal, 43(2), 49-59.

Royal, C. (2005). A meta-analysis of journal articles intersecting issues of internet and

gender. Journal Of Technical Writing & Communication, 35(4), 403-429.

Schwanen, T., Kwan, M., & Ren, F. (2014). The Internet and the gender division of household

labour. Geographical Journal, 180(1), 52-64. doi:10.1111/geoj.12014

Tuncay Zayer, L., & Coleman, C. A. (2015). Advertising Professionals Perceptions of the

Impact of Gender Portrayals on Men and Women: A Question of Ethics?. Journal Of

Advertising, 44(3), 1-12.

Vaterlaus, J. M., Barnett, K., Roche, C., & Young, J. A. (2016). Full length article: Snapchat is

more personal: An exploratory study on Snapchat behaviors and young adult

interpersonal relationships. Computers In Human Behavior, 62594-601.

doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.04.029