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# Pile plain concrete strength as per EC2

## Eurocode 2 (Section 9.8.5)

Note:
- Factor of 0.85 for flexure and axial
= 0.85 fck / 1.5 [driven] - Factor of 0.6 due to less ductile
= 0.85 fck / (1.5 * 1.1) [bored-reinforced] properties of plain concrete (NA to
= 0.60 fck / (1.5 * 1.1) [bored-unreinforced)] EC2 12.3.1)

## Structural capacity of pile, Q = fcd Ac + f yd As

= 0.515 fck Ac + 0.87 f yk As [bored-reinforced] For piles with full cage reinforcement

## = 0.363 fck Ac [bored-unreinforced] For piles without full cage

reinforcement (e.g. 12m cage only)
ULS Structural capacity must be greater than the
reactions from DA1-C1 combos. See Eqn 6.10 or
6.10a/6.10b (SET B) from NA to SS EN 1990.

## For piles with full cage reinforcement, SLS

Structural capacity must be greater than the
reactions from DA1-C2 combos. See Eqn 6.10
(SET C) from NA to SS EN 1990. To get SLS
Structural capacity, divide ULS Structural capacity
by 1.4. See slide 5 for SLS structural capacity of
piles without full cage reinforcement.
Structure Capacity
Eurocode 2 Section 12.1.(2)

## So fck use 0.363 or 0.3 ???

Structure Capacity - Concrete

## fck (Cylinder) 0.8 fck,cube (Cube)

Note: Ratio increase with higher grade
Structure Capacity Pile Area
Ac to be based on 2.3.4.2 (2) In the absence of other
provisions the diameter used in design calculations, of
cast in place piles without permanent casing should be
taken as:

## - if dnom < 400mm, d = dnom - 20 mm

- if 400mm dnom 1000mm, d = 0,95.dnom
- if dnom > 1000mm, d = dnom - 50 mm

## Pile Area, Ac 0.9025 x Nominal Area, A0

EC 2 Vs CP4 Unreinforced Pile
EC2, Structural capacity of pile, Qst = fcd Ac, say Qst,ult = 1.4*Qst,sls
For piles without full cage
Minimum Reinforced = (0.363 fck Ac )/1.4 reinforcement. 1.4 was divided to
convert this to SLS Structural
= (0.363*0.8 fcube*0.9025 Ao)/1.4 capacity
= 0.187fcube Ao SLS Structural capacity must be greater than the
reactions from DA1-C2 combos. See Eqn 6.10
(SET C) from NA to SS EN 1990.
Totally Unreinforced = (0.3 fck Ac)/1.4
= (0.3*0.8 fcube*0.9025 Ao )/1.4
= 0.155fcube Ao

CP4,

## Unreinforced Qst = 0,25fcubeAo (Limited to 7,5 Mpa)

EC 2 Vs CP4 Unreinforced Pile
From BS EN 1536:2010, section 6.3.1.3
NOTE 1 Compressive strength classes for hardened
concrete are given in EN 206-1:2000. The range usually
used for bored piles is between C20/25 and C45/55.

## Concrete C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55

CP4 = 0.25 6.25 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5

## EC2 = 0.187 4.67 5.61 6.9 C32/40 to 8.42 9.35 10.29

obtain 7.5
EC2 = 0.155 3.87 4.65 5.74 6.975 7.75 8.53
Structure Capacity
From BS EN 1536:2010

## 7.1.5 A bored pile may be designed as an unreinforced concrete element

if pile head reinforcement is provided in accordance with 7.1.6 and 7.1.8

7.1.6 Bored pile heads for unreinforced bored piles shall be reinforced to cater
for accidental loads (e.g. resulting from all construction works on the site).
7.1.8 If there is no design requirement for reinforcement, starter bars or
another system should be placed in the bored pile head to locate the centre of
the pile.

7.1.7 A bored pile should be reinforced over any length of soft or loose
soil.
NOTE Examples of characteristics of soft and loose soil (e.g. cohesion of soft clay,
density index and cone resistance of loose sand) are given in EN 1997-2.