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F.M.E.

A
FAILURE MODE
EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

As part of practicing F.M.E.A. preparation &


understanding of its requirement, it is
necessary to understand the process flow of
any activity with its event, process,
parameters to monitor which will effect.
For e.g. In a bore of one product or one part,
the min. & max. dimension taken at one
plane or one specific height position can be
called as ovality.Which is A-A

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

In the same bore of same part, the min. &


max. dimension taken at another plane or
another specific height position can be
termed as B-B.
But the reading at A-B, A-B is termed as
taper & the entire variation in which the min.-
max. value is considered as ovality & taper
which can be considered as cylinderisity.
The same can be referred to //, parallelism,
perpendicularity error etc.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Hence the product parameter of outer dia.


Or inner dia. Will have min. 5 characteristics
to get controlled,
1. Bore undersize.
2. Bore oversize.
3. Ovality.
4. Taper.
5. Roundness.
6. Roughness
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

All these errors are called as Failure modes.


When we consider all these product
parameters inner/hidden characteristics then,
failure mode is effectively captured,
accordingly when we take the action for
these causes of the same then, it becomes
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS.Which
results in Preventive Action.
Failure in analyzing the failure mode often
results in Corrective Action which leads to
High Failure Cost.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Failure Mode can be termed as Defect


Mapping. Which is related to effect of the
defect, which is termed as Failure Mode
Effect or Defect Effect Mapping.
Normally in books it is mentioned as,If
vehicle stops at road, the severity is given at
8, if there is damage to vehicle the severity is
given at 9, any death resulting due to
accident is give at 10.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

But for understanding the concept of FMEA &


our objective & goal of the project taken 0
Hour At Final Inspection. We should consider
that the next process is our customer.
When we start thinking on this concept, It is
not CNC II set up to hobbling, deburring &
chamfering, shaving, H.T., grinding & then
final inspection is becoming a customer, like
any organization, there are internal
customers/external customers,

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

1. We could visualize internal customer within


the process.For e.g. The rough turning
operation to finish turning operation is
acting as internal supplier-customer.
2. On this account, it is required to monitor
the input from previous operation to rough
turning to finish turning machining
allowance.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

3. For this the material input condition,


raw material input condition, the
method like speed, feed, clamping
pressure, insert grade, life, are
required to get established with the
data base which will result in good
finish product characteristic which
mentions as Cp/Cpk.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

4. When these things are in condition, the


inspection time gets reduced & improves the
production+Quality as productivity,
increases the tool life, reduces the lead time
& in turn reduces the operating cost of any
process.
5. Hence to achieve the condition of point 4
effectively, we should be monitoring the tool
life, process parameter in relation to product
parameter.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Now for us, as manufacturer of gears,


shafts the process management which
consist of
1. Safety (People, Process, Product).
2. Quality (PPM, straight pass ratio, supplier
quality, in process quality).
3. Delivery (OEE, quantity, time , cycle/ lead
through input).
4. Cost (direct, indirect, hidden).
5. Morale (confidence of process builds it very
high of every function).
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

All these things become important to


achieve the product quality with highest
level of confidence at 99.73%.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

When we are having the target & goal


fixed, we should understand the parameters
affecting the any process in micro/macro
stage to eliminate/prevent/detect those
process parameters from occurring to avoid
the losses to product quality level.Like,
1. Man.
2. Machine
a) Inbuilt.
b) accessories.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

3. Method.
4. Material.
a)Input.
b)Consumables.
c)Raw material.
4. Measurement.
5. Mode (Environment).
6. Management(Process).
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

For e.g.
Macro = Machine
Micro = Spindle
Defect = Bearing play
Category = Inbuilt

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

It is my personal experience in one of


my problem solving/Q.A. activity a bore
of length 70 mm with dia.45 +0.025 mm
having variation up to 0.070 mm as
ovality, taper, chattering.The rejection
was high having application with press
fitted bimetallic bush/ boring required
as final operation.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Cost of one assembly is approximately


1800/- . Main front axle beam of tractor
having four bores is the component.
1. While analyzing it was observed that the
bore within 3 microns without coolant flow,
with coolant flow variation increases.
2. Coolant, its properties were checked &
found ok.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

3. While further working on coolant system as


a whole, it was observed that the coolant
pump is fitted with a metallic pipe which is
fitted on a machine column housing
consisting spindle assembly having bearing
& vibrations of coolant motor were getting
transmitted as, Motor Pump Pipe
Column Spindle assembly Bearing
Holder Insert Ovality.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

4. Then the pipe was changed from


metallic one to flexible plastic hose,
vibration transferring was stopped &
the ovality observed within 0.003 mm.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

The FMEA made for that part was updated


with corrective action & lesson learnt was
no vibrations to machine spindle knowingly
or unknowingly.
The machine spindle play can be OK in
testing conditions of machine when it is
static with dial indicator, but when the
dynamic condition, if any part/accessory
unit like mist collector or coolant unit
getting in contact directly or indirectly may
make the spindle play vibrations different.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

This is the relation of Macro to Micro


occurrence for each parameter. Please
refer the chart or checklist which is
forwarded to you for your study/input
& revert back for addition if required
more.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS
OCCURANCE/CAUSAL ANALYSIS
Escape Analysis Causes which are not
captured in frequency.
Causal Analysis Hidden causes.
System Analysis System/Common causes
as system is not 100% getting the defect
cause eradicated.
Mainly these occurrences can be written
from previous experiences, general
knowledge, process knowledge but it is a
multi function team approach as shown in
the sketch of 7ms to function relationship.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Occurrence chart of priority no. is


enclosed. This can be related to
Cp/Cpk as well as PPM.
For this all of us are top be clear with
SPC/MSA which is referring to the
calculation & understanding of these
techniques.(Ref. The ppt enclosed).

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS
CONTROLS
There are two control methods
prevention/detection in which there
are three types of controls,
a) Control detects the failure mode.
b) Control detects the causes of
occurrence .
c) Control prevents the causes of
occurrence.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Any method which is visual detection to be


made with grading type of measurement
with master as we are practicing in
deburring & chamfering operation with
master component reference & grading
points.
Any method which is having variable
measurement with online/100%
measurement is termed as good measuring
system.e.g. marposs in cylindrical OD
grinding & flagging unit in AWH grinding.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Any method which can not be measured


with respect to destructive method, only
controls of process parameters is termed as
special process which also have the
reliability,durability, guarantee, functional
importance.e.g.plating, grinding, heat
treatment, steel making, where the lot is
accepted by checking one sample where the
control on occurrence is very high priority,
prevention is the only solution.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Like carbon potential , loading pattern,


quantity, temperature of carburising,
quenching oil temperature, stirring, quench
medium, speed of quenching.In these
activities manual intervention is kept
minimal, wherein the input variation is also
expected to be low from steel to soft
machining avoiding stress, tool life
monitoring etc.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Like in grinding, cracks, burning marks,


case hardness, case depth, roundness,
roughness, lead & profile, PCD run out, face
run out, chattering marks are controlled by
many critical process parameters like
spindle run out, jaw boring, face boring,
wheel grade, wheel dresser grade, change
frequency, life monitoring, coolant grade,
concentration, top up, acceability of coolant
in cutting, method of cutting, spark out.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

In face grinding, worm cracks have a


tendency of being seen/unseen to visual eyes
immediately but after some hours it opens
up. This is mainly due to excessive machining
allowance, improper wheel dressing
frequency, excessive depth of cut.
These are very common defects to be
observed in face grinding particularly in
induction hardening/case carburised shaft
where length variation in input condition is
always concern for grinding operation.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

For all the occurrences, prevention,


detection is there & failure mode is
effectively captured, it is considered as the
best process.
If not then action plan is defined with short
term, long term activity with target
date/responsibility getting fixed.Again the
risk priority number is seen.
But as we are practicing zero defect Zero
Defect, all the causes are expected to be
addressed & corrected.
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

Please remember to practice 7Ms for


identifying the occurrence causes as given in
example. This will help us in making a very
good control plan/work instructions for each
process of product/process characteristic.
When this is done, we will respect the all
parameters as critical rather than terming as
Chalta Hai ! .With this, respect to all
parameters.Our internal failure cost is expected
to remain at less than 0.25% or 2500 ppm &
external failure cost is expected to remain at
less than 0.02% or 200 ppm
By VenkataRamani Ramalingam
FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS

The prevention/appraisal cost put


together will take care of the process
at 99.73% confidence level as seen in
cost of quality sheet.

By VenkataRamani Ramalingam