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Coordinates: 7458S 1102930E

Prambanan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Candi Prambanan or Candi Rara Jonggrang is an 9th-century


Hindu temple compound in Central Java, Indonesia, dedicated to Prambanan
the Trimurti, the expression of God as the Creator (Brahma), the
Preserver (Vishnu) and the Destroyer (Shiva). The temple
compound is located approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi)
northeast of the city of Yogyakarta on the boundary between
Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces.[1]

The temple compound, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the


largest Hindu temple site in Indonesia, and one of the biggest in
Southeast Asia. It is characterized by its tall and pointed
architecture, typical of Hindu architecture, and by the towering Prambanan temple complex
47-metre-high (154 ft) central building inside a large complex of Type Hindu temple
individual temples.[2] Prambanan attracts many visitors from
Location Central Java, Indonesia
around the world.[3][4]
Coordinates 7458S 1102930E
Built 850 CE
Contents UNESCO World Heritage Site

1 History Official name: Prambanan Temple


1.1 Construction Compounds
1.2 Abandonment Type Cultural
1.3 Rediscovery
Criteria i, iv
1.4 Contemporary events
2 The temple compound Designated 1991 (15th session)
2.1 Shiva temple Reference no. 642 (http://whc.unesco.org
2.2 Brahma and Vishnu temples /en/list/642)
2.3 Vahana temples
Region Asia-Pacific
2.4 Apit temples and smaller shrines
2.5 Pervara temples
3 Architecture
4 Reliefs
4.1 Ramayana and Bhagavata Purana
4.2 Lokapalas, Brahmins and Devatas Location of Prambanan in Indonesia
4.3 Prambanan panel: Lion and Kalpataru
5 The Rara Jonggrang legend
6 Other temples around Prambanan
7 Gallery
7.1 Gallery of reliefs
7.2 Gallery of Prambanan
8 See also
9 References
10 Bibliography
11 External links

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History
Construction

The Prambanan temple is the largest Hindu temple of ancient Java, and the
first building was completed in the mid-9th century. It was likely started by
Rakai Pikatan as the Hindu Sanjaya Dynasty's answer to the Buddhist
Sailendra Dynasty's Borobudur and Sewu temples nearby. Historians suggest
that the construction of Prambanan probably was meant to mark the return of
the Hindu Sanjaya Dynasty to power in Central Java after almost a century
of Buddhist Sailendra Dynasty domination. The construction of this massive
Hindu temple signifies that the Medang court had shifted its patronage from
Mahayana Buddhism to Shaivite Hinduism.

A temple was first built at the site around 850 CE by Rakai Pikatan and
expanded extensively by King Lokapala and Balitung Maha Sambu the
Sanjaya king of the Mataram Kingdom. According to the Shivagrha
inscription of 856 CE, the temple was built to honor Lord Shiva, and its
original name was Shiva-grha (the House of Shiva) or Shiva-laya (the Realm
of Shiva).[5] According to the Shivagrha inscription, a public water project
to change the course of a river near Shivagrha Temple was undertaken
during the construction of the temple. The river, identified as the Opak Shivagrha inscription dated
River, now runs north to south on the western side of the Prambanan temple 856 CE
compound. Historians suggest that originally the river was curved further to
east and was deemed too near to the main temple. The project was done by
cutting the river along a north to south axis along the outer wall of the Shivagrha Temple compound. The
former river course was filled in and made level to create a wider space for the temple expansion, the space
for rows of pervara (complementary) temples.

Some archaeologists propose that the statue of Shiva in the garbhagriha (central chamber) of the main
temple was modelled after King Balitung, serving as a depiction of his deified self after death.[6]

The temple compound was expanded by successive Mataram kings, such as Daksa and Tulodong, with the
addition of hundreds of perwara temples around the chief temple. Prambanan served as the royal temple of
the Kingdom of Mataram, with most of the state's religious ceremonies and sacrifices being conducted there.
At the height of the kingdom, scholars estimate that hundreds of brahmins with their disciples lived within
the outer wall of the temple compound. The urban center and the court of Mataram were located nearby,
somewhere in the Prambanan Plain.

Abandonment

In the 930s, the court was shifted to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who established the Isyana Dynasty. An
eruption of Mount Merapi volcano, located north of Prambanan in central Java, or a power struggle probably
caused the shift. That marked the beginning of the decline of the temple. It was soon abandoned and began
to deteriorate.

The temples collapsed during a major earthquake in the 16th century. Although the temple ceased to be an
important center of worship, the ruins scattered around the area were still recognizable and known to the
local Javanese people in later times. The statues and the ruins became the theme and the inspiration for the
Loro Jonggrang folktale. After the division of Mataram Sultanate in 1755, the temple ruins and the Opak
River were used to demarcate the boundary between Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo) Sultanates, which was
adopted as the current border between Yogyakarta and the province of Central Java.

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Rediscovery

The Javanese locals in the surrounding villages knew about the temple ruins
before formal rediscovery, but they did not know about its historical
background: which kingdoms ruled or which king commissioned the
construction of the monuments. As a result, the locals developed tales and
legends to explain the origin of temples, infused with myths of giants, and a
cursed princess. They gave Prambanan and Sewu a wondorous origin; these
were said in the Loro Jonggrang legend to have been created by a multitude
of demons under the order of Bandung Bondowoso.

The temple attracted international attention early in the 19th century. In 1811
during British short-lived occupation of the Dutch East Indies, Colin
The Prambanan temple
Mackenzie, a surveyor in the service of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, came
upon the temples by chance. Although Sir Thomas subsequently compound amid the morning
commissioned a full survey of the ruins, they remained neglected for mist.
decades. Dutch residents carried off sculptures as garden ornaments
and native villagers used the foundation stones for construction
material.

Half-hearted excavations by archaeologists in the 1880s facilitated


looting. In 1918, the Dutch began reconstruction of the compound
and proper restoration only in 1930. Efforts at restoration continue to
this day. The reconstruction of the main Shiva temple was completed
around 1953 and inaugurated by Sukarno. Since much of the original
stonework has been stolen and reused at remote construction sites,
restoration was hampered considerably. Given the scale of the temple
complex, the government decided to rebuild shrines only if at least The ruins of Prambanan c. 1895, soon
75% of their original masonry was available. Most of the smaller after their rediscovery.
shrines are now visible only in their foundations, with no plans for
their reconstruction.

Contemporary events

In the early 1990s the government removed the market that had
sprung up near the temple and redeveloped the surrounding villages
and rice paddies as an archaeological park. The park covers a large
area, from Yogyakarta-Solo main road in the south, encompassing
the whole Prambanan complex, the ruins of Lumbung and Bubrah
temples, and as far as the Sewu temple compound in the north. In
1992 the Indonesian government created a State-owned Limited
Liability Enterprise (PERSERO), named "PT Taman Wisata Candi
Borobudur, Prambanan, dan Ratu Boko." This enterprise is the
Ramayana dance performance in
authority for the park management of Borobudur Prambanan Ratu
Prambanan.
Boko and the surrounding region. Prambanan is one of the most
visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.

The Trimurti open-air and indoor stages on the west side of the temple, across the Opak River, were built to
stage the ballet of the traditional Ramayana epic. This traditional Javanese dance is the centuries-old dance
of the Javanese court. Since the 1960s, it has been performed every full moon night in the Prambanan
temple. Since then, Prambanan has become one of the major archaeological and cultural tourism attractions
in Indonesia.

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Since the reconstruction of the main temples in the 1990s,


Prambanan has been reclaimed as an important religious center for
Hindu rituals and ceremonies in Java. Balinese and Javanese Hindu
communities in Yogyakarta and Central Java revived their practices
of annually performing their sacred ceremonies in Prambanan, such
as Galungan, Tawur Kesanga, and Nyepi.[7][8]

The temple was damaged during the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake.


Early photos suggested that although the complex was structurally
Prambanan night view from the
intact, the damage was significant. Large pieces of debris, including
Trimurti open-air stage.
carvings, were scattered over the ground. The temple was closed to
visitors until the damage could be fully assessed. Eventually, the
head of Yogyakarta Archaeological Conservation Agency stated that it would take months to identify the
full extent of the damage.[9][10] Some weeks later in 2006, the site was re-opened for visitors.

There is great interest in the site. In 2008, 856,029 Indonesian visitors and 114,951 foreign visitors visited
Prambanan. On 6 January 2009 the reconstruction of Nandi temple finished.[11] As of 2009, the interior of
most of the temples remains off-limits for safety reasons.

On 14 February 2014, major tourist attractions in Yogyakarta and Central Java, including Borobudur,
Prambanan, and Ratu Boko, were closed to visitors after being severely affected by the volcanic ash from
the eruption of Kelud volcano in East Java, located about 200 kilometers east of Yogyakarta. The Kelud
volcano erupted on 13 February 2014 with explosions heard as far away as Yogyakarta.[12] Four years
earlier, Prambanan was spared from the 2010 Merapi volcanic ash and eruption since the wind and ashfall
were directed westward and affected Borobudur instead.

In 2012, the Balai Pelestarian Peninggalan Purbakala Jawa Tengah (BP3) or Central Java Heritage
Preservation Authority suggested that the area in and around Prambanan should be treated as a sanctuary
area. The proposed area is located in Prambanan Plain measured 30 square kilometers spanned across
Sleman and Klaten Regency, which includes major temples in the area such as Prambanan, Ratu Boko,
Kalasan, Sari and Plaosan temples. The sanctuary area is planned to be treated in a similar fashion to the
Angkor archaeological area in Cambodia, which means the government should stop or decline permits to
construct any new buildings, especially multi-storied buildings, as well as BTS towers in the area. This is
meant to protect this archaeologically rich area from modern day visual obstructions and the encroachments
of hotels, restaurants, and any tourism-related buildings and businesses.[13]

The temple compound


This information does not take account of damage caused by the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake

Originally there were a total of 240 temples standing in Prambanan. The Prambanan Temple Compound
consist of:

1. 3 Trimurti temples: three main temples dedicated to Shiva, Visnu, and Brahma
2. 3 Vahana temples: three temples in front of Trimurti temples dedicated to the vahana of each gods;
Nandi, Garuda, and Hamsa
3. 2 Apit temples: two temples located between the rows of Trimurti and Vahana temples on north and
south side
4. 4 Kelir temples: four small shrines located on 4 cardinal directions right beyond the 4 main gates of
inner zone
5. 4 Patok temples: four small shrines located on 4 corners of inner zone
6. 224 Pervara temples: hundreds of temples arranged in 4 concentric square rows; numbers of temples

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from inner row to outer row are: 44, 52, 60, and 68

The Prambanan compound also known as Rara Jonggrang complex,


named after the popular legend of Rara Jonggrang. There were once
240 temples standing in this Shivaite temple complex, either big or
small.[14] Today, all of 8 main temples and 8 small shrines in the
inner zone are reconstructed, but only 2 out of the original 224
pervara temples are renovated. The majority of them have
deteriorated; what is left are only scattered stones. The Prambanan
temple complex consists of three zones; first the outer zone, second
the middle zone that contains hundreds of small temples, and third
the holiest inner zone that contains eight main temples and eight
small shrines.
The map of Prambanan temple
The Hindu temple complex at Prambanan is based on a square plan compound, shows concentric mandala
that contains a total of three zone yards, each of which is surrounded layout
by four walls pierced by four large gates. The outer zone is a large
space marked by a rectangular wall. The outermost walled perimeter,
which originally measured about 390 metres per side, was oriented
in the northeast-southwest direction. However, except for its
southern gate, not much else of this enclosure has survived down to
the present. The original function is unknown; possibilities are that it
was a sacred park, or priests' boarding school (ashram). The
supporting buildings for the temple complex were made from
organic material; as a consequence no remains occur.

Shiva temple An architectural model of the


Prambanan temple complex;
The inner zone or central compound is the holiest among the three
originally there were 240 temples in
zones. It is the square elevated platform surrounded by a square
this temple compound
stone wall with stone gates on each four cardinal points. This holiest
compound is assembled of eight main shrines or candi. The three
main shrines, called Trimurti ("three forms"), are dedicated to the three
Gods: Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Keeper, and Shiva the Destroyer.

The Shiva temple is the tallest and largest structure in Prambanan Loro
Jonggrang complex; it measures 47 metres tall and 34 metres wide. The
main stairs are located on the eastern side. The eastern gate of Shiva temple
is flanked by two small shrines, dedicated to guardian gods, Mahakala and
Nandhisvara. The Shiva temple is encircled with galleries adorned with
bas-reliefs telling the story of Ramayana carved on the inner walls of the
balustrades. To follow the story accurately, visitors must enter from the east
side and began to perform pradakshina or circumambulating clockwise. The
bas-reliefs of Ramayana continue to the Brahma temple galleries.

The Shiva shrine is located at the center and contains five chambers, four Main shrine dedicated to
small chambers in every cardinal direction and one bigger main chamber in Shiva of Prambanan temple
the central part of the temple. The east chamber connects to the central complex
chamber that houses the largest temple in Prambanan, a three-metre high
statue of Shiva Mahadeva (the Supreme God). The statue bears Lakana (attributes or symbol) of Shiva such
as skull and sickle (crescent) at the crown, and third eye on the forehead; also four hands that holds Shiva's
symbols: prayer beads, feather duster, and trisula (trident). Some historians believe that the depiction of
Shiva as Mahadeva was also meant to personify king Balitung as the reincarnation of Shiva. So, when he

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died, a temple was built to commemorate him as Shiva.[15] The statue of


Shiva stands on a lotus pad on a Yoni pedestal that bears the carving of Nga
serpents on the north side of the pedestal.

The other three smaller chambers contain statues of Hindu Gods related to
Shiva: his consort Durga, the rishi Agastya, and Ganesha, his son. A statue
of Agastya occupies the south chamber, the west chamber houses the statue
of Ganesha, while the north chamber contains the statue of Durga
Mahisasuramardini depicting Durga as the slayer of the Bull demon. The
shrine of Durga is also called the temple of Rara Jonggrang (Javanese:
slender virgin), after a Javanese legend of princess Rara Jonggrang.

Brahma and Vishnu temples

The two other main shrines are those of Vishnu on the north side of the The statue of Durga
Shiva shrine, and the one of Brahma on the south. Both temples face east Mahisasuramardini in
and each contain only one large chamber, each dedicated to respected gods; northern cella of Shiva
Brahma temple contains the statue of Brahma and Vishnu temple houses the temple.
statue of Vishnu. Brahma and Vishnu temple measures 20 metres wide and
33 metres tall.

Vahana temples

The other three shrines in front of the three main temples are dedicated to the vehicle (vahana) of the
respective gods the bull Nandi for Shiva, the sacred swan Hamsa for Brahma, and Vishnu's Kite Garuda.
Precisely in front of Shiva temple stands Nandi temple which contains a statue of Nandi bull, the vehicle
(vahana) of Lord Shiva. Beside it, there are also other statues, the statue of Chandra the god of the moon and
Surya the god of the sun. Chandra stands on his carriage pulled by 10 horses, and the statue of Surya also
stands on a carriage pulled by 7 horses.[16] Facing Brahma temple is the temple of Hamsa or Angsa (sacred
swan). The chamber of this temple contains no statue. But it seems likely that there was once a statue of the
sacred swan, vehicle of god Brahma. In front of Vishnu temple is the temple dedicated to Garuda, however
just like the Hamsa temple, the Garuda temple contains no statue. Probably this temple once contained the
statue of Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu. Garuda holds an important role for Indonesia, as it serves as the
national symbol of Indonesia, and also as the name of the airline Garuda Indonesia.

Apit temples and smaller shrines

Between these rows of the main temple, on the north and south side, stand two Candi Apit temples. Apit in
Javanese means "flank". It refers to the position of the two temples that flanked the inner courtyard on the
north and south sides. The room inside the Apit temples is now empty. It is not clear to which deities these
Apit temples were dedicated. However, examining the southern Apit temple bas-reliefs on the outer wall, a
female deity is depicted, most probably Sarasvati, the Shakti (consort) of Brahma. Considering the Hindu
pantheon represented in Prambanan temples, it is possible that the southern Apit temple was dedicated to
Sarasvati, while the northern Apit temple was dedicated to Lakshmi.

Beside these 8 main temples, there are also 8 smaller shrines; 4 Candi Kelir on four cardinal directions of
the entrance, and 4 Candi Patok on four corners of the inner zone. Kelir in Javanese means "screen",
especially referring to wayang kulit, fabric screen. It refers to a structure that obstructs the main cardinal
entry of gopura. It is similar to aling-aling in Balinese architecture. Patok in Javanese means "peg". It refers
to the shrine location at the four corners of the inner compound.

Pervara temples

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The two walled perimeters that surround the remaining two yards to the
interior are oriented to the four cardinal points. The second yard's walled
perimeter, which measures about 225 metres per side, surrounds a terraced
area that consists of four rows containing 44, 52, 60, and 68 pervara temples.
Respectively, each has a height of 14 metres and measures 66 metres at the
base, or 224 structures in total. The sixteen temples located at the corners of
the rows face two directions; the remaining 208 structures open to only one
of the four cardinal directions.[17]

The middle zone consists of four rows of 224 individual small shrines. There
are great numbers of these temples, but most of them are still in ruins and
only some have been reconstructed. These concentric rows of temples were
made in an identical design. Each row towards the center is slightly elevated.
These shrines are called "Candi Perwara", guardian or complementary
temples, the additional buildings of the main temple. Some believed it was An Apit temple
offered to the king as a sign of submission. The Perwara are arranged in four
rows around the central temples. Some believed it had something to
do with four castes, made according to the rank of the people
allowed to enter them; the row nearest to the central compound was
accessible to the priests only, the other three were reserved for the
nobles, the knights, and the simple people respectively. While
another believed that the four rows of Perwara had nothing to do
with four castes, it was just simply made as a meditation place for
priests and as a worship place for devotees.

Architecture
The architecture of Prambanan temple follows the typical Hindu
architecture traditions based on Vastu Shastra. The temple design A Perwara temple
incorporated mandala temple plan arrangements and also the typical
high towering spires of Hindu temples. Prambanan was originally
named Shivagrha and dedicated to the god Shiva. The temple was
designed to mimic Meru, the holy mountain, the abode of Hindu
gods, and the home of Shiva. The whole temple complex is a model
of the Hindu universe according to Hindu cosmology and the layers
of Loka.

Just like Borobudur, Prambanan also recognizes the hierarchy of the


temple zones, spanned from the less holy to the holiest realms. Each
Hindu and Buddhist concept has its own terms, but the concepts are
essentially identical. Either the compound site plan (horizontally) or
the temple structure (vertically) consists of three zones:[18]

Bhurloka (in Buddhism: Kmadhtu), the lowest realm of


common mortals; humans, animals also demons. Where The cross section of Shiva temple
humans are still bound by their lust, desire and unholy way of
life. The outer courtyard and the foot (base) part of each
temples is symbolized the realm of bhurloka.
Bhuvarloka (in Buddhism: Rupadhatu), the middle realm of holy people, occupied by rishis, ascetics,
and lesser gods. People here begin to see the light of truth. The middle courtyard and the body of each
temple symbolizes the realm of bhuvarloka.
Svarloka (in Buddhism: Arupadhatu), the highest and holiest realm, reserved for the gods. Also

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known as svargaloka. The inner courtyard and the roof of each temple symbolizes the realm of
svarloka. The roof of Prambanan temples are adorned and crowned with ratna (sanskrit: jewel), the
shape of Prambanan ratna took the altered form of vajra that represent diamonds. In ancient Java
temple architecture, ratna is the Hindu counterpart of the Buddhist stupa, and served as the temple's
pinnacle.

During the restoration, a well which contains a pripih (stone casket) was discovered under the center of the
Shiva temple. The main temple has a well 5.75 m deep in which a stone casket was found on top a pile of
charcoal, earth, and remains of burned animal bones. Sheets of gold leaves with the inscription Varuna (god
of the sea) and Parvata (god of the mountains) were found here. The stone casket contained sheets of copper,
charcoal, ashes, earth, 20 coins, jewels, glass, pieces of gold and silver leaves, seashells and 12 gold leaves
(which were cut in the shapes of a turtle, Nga serpent, padma, altar, and an egg).[19]

Reliefs
Ramayana and Bhagavata Purana

The temple is adorned with panels of narrative bas-reliefs telling the


story of the Hindu epic Ramayana and Bhagavata Purana. The
narrative bas-relief panels were carved along the inner balustrades
wall on the gallery around the three main temples.

The narrative panels on the balustrade read from left to right. The
story starts from the east entrance where visitors turn left and move
around the temple gallery in a clockwise direction. This conforms Ravana kidnapping Sita while the
with pradaksina, the ritual of circumambulation performed by Jatayu on the left tried to help her.
pilgrims who move in a clockwise direction while keeping the Prambanan bas-relief
sanctuary to their right. The story of Ramayana starts on Shiva
temple balustrade and continues to Brahma temple. On the
balustrades in Vishnu temple there is series of bas-relief panels
depicting the stories of lord Krishna from Bhagavata Purana.

The bas-relief of Ramayana illustrate how Sita, the wife of Rama, is


abducted by Ravana. The monkey king Hanuman brings his army to
help Rama and rescue Sita. This story is also shown by the
Ramayana Ballet, regularly performed at full moon at Trimurti
open-air theatre on the west side of the illuminated Prambanan
complex. Prambanan panel, lion in niche
flanked by two kalpataru trees each
Lokapalas, Brahmins and Devatas flanked by a pair of kinnaras or
animals.
On the other side of the narrative panels, the temple wall along the
gallery was adorned with statues and reliefs of devatas and brahmin
sages. The figures of lokapalas, the celestial guardians of directions, can be found in Shiva temple. The
brahmin sage editors of veda were carved on Brahma temple wall, while in Vishnu temple the figures of
male deities devatas are flanked by two apsaras.

Prambanan panel: Lion and Kalpataru

The lower outer wall of these temples was adorned with a row of small niches containing an image of sinha
(a lion) flanked by two panels depicting bountiful kalpataru (kalpavriksha) trees. These wish-fulfilling
sacred trees, according to Hindu-Buddhist belief, are flanked on either side by kinnaras or animals, such as

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pairs of birds, deer, sheep, monkeys, horses, elephants etc. The pattern of lion in niche flanked by kalpataru
trees is typical in the Prambanan temple compound, thus it is called a "Prambanan panel".

The Rara Jonggrang legend


The popular legend of Rara Jonggrang is what connects the site of
the Ratu Boko Palace, the origin of the Durga statue in the northern
cell/chamber of the main shrine, and the origin of the Sewu temple
complex nearby. The legend tells the story about Prince Bandung
Bondowoso, who fell in love with Princess Rara Jonggrang, the
daughter of King Boko. But the princess rejected his proposal of
marriage because Bandung Bondowoso had killed King Boko and
ruled her kingdom. Bandung Bondowoso insisted on the union, and
finally Rara Jonggrang was forced to agree to a union in marriage,
but she posed one impossible condition: Bandung must build her a
thousand temples in only one night. The multitude of temples scattered
around Prambanan inspired the local
The Prince entered into meditation and conjured up a multitude of legend of Rara Jonggrang
spirits (demons) from the earth. Helped by supernatural beings, he
succeeded in building 999 temples. When the prince was about to complete the condition, the princess woke
her palace maids and ordered the women of the village to begin pounding rice and set a fire in the east of the
temple, attempting to make the prince and the spirits believe that the sun was about to rise. As the cocks
began to crow, fooled by the light and the sounds of daybreak, the supernatural helpers fled back into the
ground. The prince was furious about the trick and in revenge he cursed Rara Jonggrang, turning her to
stone. She became the last and the most beautiful of the thousand statues. According to the traditions, the
unfinished thousandth temple created by the demons become the Sewu temple compounds nearby (Sewu
means "thousands" in Javanese), and the Princess is the image of Durga in the north cell of the Shiva temple
at Prambanan, which is still known as Rara Jonggrang or Slender Virgin.

Other temples around Prambanan


The Prambanan Plain spans between the southern slopes of Merapi
volcano in the north and the Sewu mountain range in the south, near
the present border Yogyakarta province and Klaten Regency, Central
Java. Apart from the Lara Jonggrang complex, the Prambanan plain,
valley and hills around it is the location of some of the earliest
Buddhist temples in Indonesia. Not far to the north are found the
ruins of Bubrah temple, Lumbung temple, and Sewu temple. Further
east is found Plaosan temple. To the west are found Kalasan temple
and Sari temple, and further to the west is Sambisari temple. While
to the south the Ratu Boko compound is on higher ground. The
discoveries of archaeological sites scattered only a few miles away
suggest that this area was an important religious, political, and urban
center.
Temples and archaeological sites in
North of the Lara Jongrang complex
Prambanan Plain
Lumbung. Buddhist-style, consisting of one main temple
surrounded by 16 smaller ones.
Candi Bubrah. Buddhist temple still in ruins.
Sewu. Buddhist temple complex, older than Roro Jonggrang. A main sanctuary surrounded by many
smaller temples. Well preserved guardian statues, replicas of which stand in the central courtyard at

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the Jogja Kraton.


Candi Morangan. Hindu temple complex buried several
meters under volcanic ashes, located northwest from
Prambanan.

Candi Plaosan. Buddhist, probably 9th century. Thought to


have been built by a Hindu king for his Buddhist queen. Two
main temples with reliefs of Boddhisatva and Tara. Also rows
of slender stupas.

South of the Lara Jongrang complex

Ratu Boko. Complex of fortified gates, bathing pools, and


elevated walled stone enclosure, all located on top of the hill.
Sajiwan. Buddhist temple decorated with reliefs concerning
education. The base and staircase are decorated with animal
fables.
Banyunibo. A Buddhist temple with unique design of roof. Sewu buddhist temple within
Candi Barong. A Hindu temple complex with large stepped Prambanan archaeological park
stone courtyard. Located on the slope of the hill. connected with local Loro Jonggrang
Ijo. A cluster of Hindu temple located near the top of Ijo hill. legend
The main temple houses a large lingam and yoni.
Arca Bugisan. Seven Buddha and bodhisattva statues, some
collapsed, representing different poses and expressions.

West of the Lara Jongrang complex

Kalasan. 8th-century Buddhist temple built in


commemoration of the marriage of a king and his princess
bride, ornamented with finely carved reliefs.
Sari. Once a sanctuary for Buddhist priests. 8th century. Nine
stupas at the top with two rooms beneath, each believed to be
places for priests to meditate. Candi Plaosan in Prambanan (9th
Sambisari. 9th-century Hindu temple discovered in 1966, century).
once buried 6.5 metres under volcanic ash. The main temple
houses a linga and yoni, and the wall surround it displayed the images of Agastya, Durga, and
Ganesha.
Gebang. A small Hindu temple discovered in 1937 located near the Yogyakarta northern ring-road.
The temple displays the statue of Ganesha and interesting carving of faces on the roof section.
Candi Gana. Rich in statues, bas-reliefs and sculpted stones. Frequent representations of children or
dwarfs with raised hands. Located in the middle of a housing complex. Under restoration since 1997.
Candi Kedulan. Discovered in 1994 by sand diggers, 4m deep. Square base of main temple visible.
Secondary temples not yet fully excavated.

Gallery
Gallery of reliefs

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Prambanan - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prambanan

Relief at Prambanan temple Relief at temple of Shiva Image of Rama Image of Devata and
compound Apsaras

Balarama is prying apart the Krishna tears apart the legs of Relief detail
jaws of Kaliya. his wicked uncle, Kamsa.

Gallery of Prambanan

The main Temple of Temple of Brahma Vishnu The Ganesha statue


temple Vishnu Nandi statue statue
dedicated to
Shiva

See also
Borobudur
Ratu Boko
Loro Jonggrang (Legend)
Indonesian architecture
Candi of Indonesia

References
1. Prambanan Temple Compounds UNESCO World 3. Prambanan Temple (http://www.indonesia-
Heritage Centre (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/642) tourism.com/yogyakarta/prambanan-temple.html)
2. http://www.borobudurpark.co.id/prambanan- 4. http://www.worldheritagesite.org
temple-complex.html /tags/tag.php?id=1070

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Prambanan - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prambanan

5. Shivagrha Inscription, National Museum of 12. "Borobudur, Other Sites, Closed After Mount Kelud
Indonesia Eruption". JakartaGlobe. February 14, 2014.
6. Soetarno, Drs. R. second edition (2002). Aneka Retrieved 15 February 2014.
Candi Kuno di Indonesia (Ancient Temples in 13. "Prambanan Diusulkan Jadi "Perdikan" ".
Indonesia), pp. 16. Dahara Prize. Semarang. ISBN Kompas.com (in Indonesian). 18 April 2012.
979-501-098-0. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
7. Nyepi di Prambanan (http://fotokita.net/browse 14. Ariswara 1993, p. 8.
/photo/521224606164_4362834/tag/8/perayaan) 15. Ariswara 1993, pp. 1112.
8. Nyepi di Candi Prambanan 16. Ariswara 1993. pp. 26.
(http://berita.liputan6.com/sosbud/200103/10186 17. "Prambanan: A Brief Architectural Summary".
/class='vidico') Borobudur TV. Retrieved 2011-10-31.
9. IOL (2006). "World famous temple complex 18. Konservasi Borobudur
damaged in quake". Retrieved 2006-05-28. (http://konservasiborobudur.org/?p=11) (in
10. Di sn th gii ti Indonesia b ng t hu hoi Indonesian)
(http://vnexpress.net/GL/The-gioi/Tu-lieu/2006 19. Candi Lara Jonggrang (http://hanacaraka.com
/05/3B9EA40A/) (Vietnamese) /CJLoroJonggrang.html)
11. Yogyakarta Online Candi Nandi Selesai Dipugar
(http://www.yogyakartaonline.com
/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&
id=188:candi&catid=74&Itemid=170)

Bibliography
Ariswara, third edition (1993) (English translation by Lenah Matius) Prambanan, Intermasa, Jakarta,
ISBN 979-8114-57-4
Bernet Kempers, A.J. (1959) Ancient Indonesian art Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press.
Dumarcay, Jacques. (1989) (Edited and translated by Michael Smithies) The temples of Java,
Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Holt, Claire (1967) Art in Indonesia: Continuities and change Ithaca, N.Y. Cornell University Press.
Jordaan, Roy http://www.iias.nl/iiasn/iiasn6/southeas/jordaan.html Prambanan 1995: A Hypothesis
Confirmed
Leemans, C. (1855) Javaansche tempels bij Prambanan BKI, vol.3. pp. 126

External links
Prambanan official site (http://borobudurpark.com
Wikimedia Commons has
/the-prambanan-temple/) media related to
PT. Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur Prambanan dan Ratu Prambanan.
Boko at Google Cultural Institute (https://www.google.com
/culturalinstitute/beta/partner/pt-taman-wisata-candi-borobudur-prambanan-dan-ratu-boko)
Prambanan travel guide from Wikivoyage
Prambanan map on wikimapia (http://wikimapia.org/#lat=-7.751986&lon=110.4913259&
z=16&l=0&m=b)
Entry on unesco.org (http://whc.unesco.org/sites/642.htm)
Prambanan Temple Compounds short documentary (https://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=_onpsWOkhq0) by UNESCO and NHK
Exploring Prambanan (http://www.borobudur.tv/temple_index.htm)

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prambanan&oldid=779502095"

Categories: Hindu temples in Indonesia Hindu World Heritage Sites World Heritage Sites in Indonesia
Archaeological sites in Indonesia Places of worship in Central Java Prambanan Medang Kingdom

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Prambanan - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prambanan

Hindu pilgrimage sites 9th-century Hindu temples Cultural Properties of Indonesia in Yogyakarta
Tourist attractions in Central Java

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