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OXFORDCAMBRIDGEANDRSAEXAMINATIONS

AdvancedGCE

PHYSTCSB (ADVANCTNGPHYSTCS) RiseandFalloftheClockworkUniverse

Thursday

20 JANUARY2OO5

Candidatesansweron the questionpaper. Additionalmaterials:

Data,Formulaeand RelationshipsBooklet Electroniccalculator Ruler

TIME

CandidateName

t hour15minutes

Morning

INSTRUCTIONSTOCANDIDATES

+

OCRM*{

2863/01

t hour15minutes

CentreNumber

Candidate

Number

[T-i-n

o

Writeyournameinthespaceabove.

o

WriteyourCentrenumberandCandidatenumberintheboxesabove.

o

Answerallthequestions.

o

Writeyouranswersinthespacesprovidedonthequestionpaper.

.

Readeachquestioncarefullyandmakesureyouknowwhatyouhaveto do beforestartingyour answer.

o

Showclearlythe workingin all calculationsand giveanswersto onlya justifiablenumberof significantfigures.

INFORMATIONFORCANDIDATES

o

Youareadvisedtospendabout20minutesonSectionA and55minutesonSectionB.

.

Thenumberof marksisgiveninbrackets [ ] attheendofeachquestionorpartquestion.

. TherearefourmarksforthequalityofwrittencommunicationinSectionB. . ThevaluesofstandardphysicalconstantsaregivenintheData,

Formulaeand RelationshipsBooklet.Any additionaldata requiredaregivenintheappropriatequestion.

FOREXAMINER'SUSE

Mark

Section

Max.

A 20

B 50

TOTAL

70

Thisquestionpaperconsistsof 14printedpagesand2 blankpages.

sP (NF/AR)569337/5

@ocR 2005 [H/100/3709]

RegisteredCharityNumber:1066969

[Turn over

2

Answerallthequestions.

SectionA

Fig.1.1showsa force-extensiongraphforanelasticspring.

force/N

Statewhatis representedby

(a) thegradientoftheline

(b) the shadedarea.

Fig.1.1

extension/m

t1l

It isobservedthatthepressureof a gasincreaseswithrisein temperaturewhenthevolume isconstant.

Choosewhichof thethreestatementsbelowbestexplainsthisobservation.

A Theparticlescollidewitheachothermorefrequentlyandat a greaterspeed.

B The particlescollidewith the wallsof the containermorefrequentlyand at greater speed.

C Theparticlescollidewitheachotherrandomlywitha greaterspreadof energies.

2863,/01Jan05

3

Sometelevisionsetsuseheatedmetalfilamentsto produceelectronswhicharefiredat the

screen.Thetemperatureofthefilamentisabout1200K.

(a) showthattheaverageenergyof a particle at 1200K isabout2 x 10-20J.

) k=1.4 * 19-23.16-1

ItrequiresanenergyEof 9 x 10-20Jto removeanelectronfroma particularfilament.

(b)

Calculatetheratio

E averageenergyofa particleat 1200K

(c)

ratio=

CalculatetheBoltzmannfactorf forthisprocess.

Boltzmannfactorf =

121

A bicycletyrecontainsa volumeof 8.0x 104m3of gas.Thepressureofthegasinthetyre is4.5x 10sPa.Thegasisata temperatureof293K.

Assumeidealgasbehaviourthroughoutthisquestion.

(a)

Showthatthetyrecontainsabout0.15molofgas.

F = 8.31J mol-lK-l

(b)

At theendof a race,thepressureof thegasinthetyrehasrisento 4.6x 105Pa.

Estimatethetemperatureof thegasin thetyreat theendof therace.

temperature=

2863/01Jan05

K t2l

[Turn over

4

For

Exaninels

Use

Fig.5.1showsthe pathof a comettravellingclockwisearoundthe Sun'

(a)

(b)

Fig.5.1

pathof comet

Drawanarrowonthediagramto showthedirectionof thevelocityofthecomet. LabelthisV.

Drawan arrowon thediagramto showthe directionof theforceactingon the comet. LabelthisF.

t2l

Freshgardenpeascan be testedlor damageby observinghowtheybounceoff a hard surface.

(a)

(b)

An undamagedpeaof massm hitsthesurfacewithverticalvelocityv andbouncesoff withequalandoppositevelocitY.

Explainwhythemagnitudeof

momentumchangeforthispeais2mv.

t1l

When an undamaged pea bouncesoff the surface,it experiencesa change of

momentumof0.0051kgms-1.

Showthatthereboundvelocityofthispeaisabout5ms-l.

massofpea= 5.0x 10-4kg.

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t1l

5

(c) Fig.6.1showshowtheforceactingon a damagedpeaandon an undamagedpea varieswithtimeduringthebounce.

force

Fig.6.1

damagedpea

time

Fu

Examinefs

Use

Statethefeatureofthegraphin Fig.6.1whichshowsthatthechangeinmomentumof thedamagedpeaislessthanthatoftheundamaged pea.

t1l

7 Theimagein Fig.7.1comesfromtheCOBEsatellite.lt showsthedifferencesinthemean. wavelengthof microwavebackgroundradiationin differentpartsof thesky.Thedifferences areverysmall.

Fig.7.1

(a)

When the radiationwas first emitted300000 yearsafter the Big Bangduringthe so-calledera of recombination,it wasin thevisibleregionof thespectrum.Explain whythevisible.radiationemittedduringtheeraof recombinationisnowobservedinthe mrcrowaveregron.

I2l

(b)

StateandexplainwhattheCOBEdatatellscientistsaboutthetemperaturevariationof

theearlyUniverse.

2863/01Jan05

tzl

[Section A Total:20]

[Turn over

6

SectionB

Inthissection,fourmarksareavailableforthequalityofwrittencommunication.

This questionis about keepingthe water in an outdoorswimmingpool at constant temperature.

A holidayparkhasanopen-airswimmingpoolofthecirculardesignshowninFig.8.1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.8.1

radiusR=13m

not to scale

Showthatthemassof waterin thepoolisabout8.5x 105kg. averagedepthofwater= 1.6m densityof water= 1000kgm{

l2l

Thewaterinthepoolisheatedto 30 "C. In February,thetemperatureofthewatertaken

fromthesupplyis9'C.

Calculatethe "C energyneededto raisethetemperatureof all thewaterin the poolfrom

9

to30'C assumingtherearenoenergylosses. specificthermalcapacityof water = 42OOJkg-1 '6-t

energyrequired=

J [2]

Ona particulardayin February,a heaterrunningat 90kWis neededto keepthewater temperatureconstantat 30'C. Theheateristurnedoffforsafetychecks.

Showthattheinitialrateoffalloftemperatureofthewaterinthepoolisabout0.1 "C per hourwhentheheateristurnedoff.

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7

(d)

Therateoffalloftemperature,A,9lLt,ofthewaterinthepoolcanbedescribedusingthe

followingequation

 

L0

= -k(0* - 9.)

 

Af

 

l

where0* islhe temperatureof thewaterand0"isthetemperatureof thesurroundings. Differentpoolswillhavedifferentvaluesof theconstantk

Useyouranswerto (c)to calculatethevalueof k inthiscase.

Assume0w = 30"Cand0s = 11 "C whentheheaterwasturnedoff.

 

valueof k =

hourl 1e1

(e)

A studentmakesa simplemathematicalmodelof the situation.The model is representedintheflowdiagramin Fig.8.2.

Calculaterateof change

usingff=-qo*-0"1

Multiply #

 

Usethis

ot24hrs

answerasnew

valuefor0*

Fig.8.2

For

Examinels

Use

Themodelassumesthattherateof coolingisconstantforeach24 hourperiod.

Explainwhy this modelwill overestimatethe rateof "C. coolingof the poolevenif the surroundingsremainata constanttemperatureof 11

t1l

(f) Suggesttwo changesin the conditionsof the surroundingsthat wouldincrease coolingrateof thewaterinthepool.

the

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tzl

[Total: 11]

[Turn over

Thisquestionisaboutcapacitordischarge.

s

10ko

Fig.9.1

The circuitis set up as shownin

Oiscnargesthroughihe resistor.Thevlriationof dischargecurrentl

Fig.9.1.

SwitchS is thenope,ne.d.and the capacitor

withtimef is shownin

Fig.9.2.

I ImA

0.6

Fig.9.2

20

t/s

(a)

(i)

Explainwhytheareaunderthecurverepresentstheinitialchargeonthecapacitor.

(ii)

Showthattheinitialchargeonthecapacitorisabout3mC.

(iii)

Calculatethevalueofthecapacitanceusedintheexperiment.

9

For

Examinet's

Use

(b) Calculatethe energystoredon thecapacitorwhentheswitchis closed.

energystored =

(c) Theexperimentis repeated.The10kOresistoris removedandreplacedwitha resistor.Nootherchangesaremadetothecircuit.

Fig.9.3

R=20kO

J

[2]

20ko

UsetheaxesonFig.9.4tosketchthegraphofcurrentagainsttimeforthenewcircuit.

I/mA

0.6

Fig.9.4

2863/01Jan05

40

t3l

tls

lTotal: 111

[Turn over

10

10 Thisquestionisabouttheorbitandreturnto Earthofa spacecraftsuchasthespaceshuttle.

For

Examinels

Use

A spaceshuttleisorbitingata heightof4.0x 105m abovethesurfaceoftheEarth.

(a)

Calculatetheradiusoftheorbitof thespaceshuttle.

 
 

radiusof Earth,F = 6.4x 106m

radiusoforbit =

[1]

(b)

(i)

Showthat the gravitationalpotentialenergyof the spaceshuttlein this orbitis about-Ox 1012J.

 

massofspaceshuttle = 9.5x 104t<g massof Earth,M = 6.0x 1024kg G=6.7x 10-11Nm2kg-2

 

I2l

 

(ii)

Calculatethekineticenergyof thespaceshuttlein thisorbit.

 

speedofshuttleinorbit=7.7 x 103ms-l

kineticenergy =

"

[2]

 

(iii)

Calculatethetotalenergyol thespaceshuttleinthisorbit.

 

totalenergy =

J

[1]

2863/0'tJan05

J

m

1

1

(c) Explainwhythekineticenergyof thespaceshuttleincreaseswhenit dropsto a lower heightabovetheEarth'ssurface.

l2l

(d) Whenthespaceshuttlere-enterstheatmosphere,thevehicleisangledsothatparticles

of the atmospherecollidewitha

heatshieldon the lowersideof the shuttle.See

Fig.10.1.

(i)

Fig.10.1

Byconsideringcollisionsbetweenthemoleculesof theatmosphereandtheheat shieldoftheshuttle,explain

.

howtheatmosphereslowstheshuttledown

whythetemperatureoftheheatshieldincreases.

(ii)

l3l

The heat shieldat the undersideof the spaceshuttleglowswhite hot during

descentthroughtheatmosphere.Thissuggeststhatthephotonqradiatingfromthe surfaceoftheheatshieldhaveenergiesoftheorderof

1x 10-1sJ.

For

Exaninels

Use

Estimatethetemp-eratureof thesurfaceof theheatshieldduringdescent.

k=1.4 Y 19-2336-1

temperature =

2863Y01Jan05

.K [2]

[Total: 13]

[Turn over

1

1

1 2

\

This questionisaboutsomeofthdphysicsofthehumanear.

eardrum

Fig.11.1

For

Examinefs

Use

A givensoundwavestrikingtheeardrumsetsitoscillatinginsimpleharmonicmotion.

Theeardrumoscillatesata frequencyof2500Hzwithanamplitudeof 1.0x 10-7m.

(a)

(i)

Calculatetheperiodoftheoscillation.

(ii)

period=

s [1]

On the axesof

eardrumvarieswithtimeforoneoscillation.Assumethatthedisplacementis atl= 0.

Fig.11.2,drawa

graphto showhowthe displacementof the

zero

displacement/pm

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

f/ms

Fig.11.2

l3l

286UO1Jan05

1 3

For

Examinefs

Use

(iii) Calculatethemaximumaccelerationoftheeardrum.

(b)

(c)

acceleration =

ms-2 1e1

At a frequencyof 3000 Hz, the ear can detectpressure changesas smallas 4.0x 1o-5Nm-2.

giveon an eardrumof

Calculatethechangeof forcesucha pressurechangewould

area2Omm2.

hangeofforce =

N

I2I

Thehumanearismostsensitivetofrequenciesaround3000Hz.Thisisbecauseairin

theauditorycanalresonatesat thisfrequency.

(i)

Explainwhatis meantby resonance.

t1l

(ii)

Describehowresonanceallowstheearto respondto quietersoundsat around

3000Hzthanatotherfrequencies.

I2l

[Total: 11]

Qualityof WrittenCommunication [4]

ENDOFQUESTIONPAPER

2863/01 Jan05

[Section B Total:50]

1 6

CoW right Acknowledgeme nts:

Fig.7.1

From http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov.We acknowledgethe use of the LegacyArchivetor MicrowaveBackgroundData Analysis 1UtUAbel. Support lor LAMBDAis provided by the NASAOtficeof Space Science.

OCR has made every eflort to trace the copyrightholdersol items used in this Question paper,but if we have inadvertentlyoverlookedany, we apologise.

2863V01Jan05