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SANSKRIT MANUAL;

CONTAINING,

PART I.

THE ACCIDENCE OF GRAMMAK,


CHIEFLY IN ROMAN OR ENGLISH TYPE ;

PART II.
A COMPLETE SERIES OP
PROGRESSIVE EXERCISES.

BY

MONIER WILLIAMS, M. A.,


OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, OXFORD,
BODEN PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT, ETC. ETC.

LONDON:
W. H. ALLEN AND CO., 13, WATERLOO PLACE.
1862.
OXFORD:
PRINTED BY JAMBS WRIGHT, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY.
PEE FACE.

The rapidly increasing sale of my Sanskrit


Grammar, published at the Oxford Press,
and its adoption at the three Universities
of Oxford, Cambridge * and Dublin, have in
duced me to prepare the present Manual, both
as an indispensable companion to the Gram
mar, and to supply a necessary link, which
has hitherto been wanting in the chain of
Sanskrit teaching.
The absence of a series of progressive exer
cises in this language has placed both teach
ers and learners in a position of great disad
vantage. In Latin and Greek real progress

* I am gratified to find that Prof. Jarrett, in the printed


notices of his Sanskrit Lectures at Cambridge, also recom
mends the companion-volume 'the Story of Nala,' lately
edited by me, and published at the Oxford University
Press.
a 2
iv PREFACE.

could not be secured without constant prac


tice in composition, and the multitude of exer
cise books that have been compiled attest the
high value assigned to this branch Qf instruc
tion; while in Sanskrit, a language which
more than any other requires supplementary
aids, nothing of this kind has hitherto been
available. It is true that Dr. Ballantyne
published a useful little book at Benares*
which contained easy sentences for transla
tion into Sanskrit, but this does not furnish,
like the present Manual, a complete series of
exercises, illustrating the rules of grammar
and syntax from first to last, rising gradually
from the simplest phrases to more difficult
constructions, and ending with specimens of
various styles of composition interspersed
with hints and suggestions for translation.
Moreover, Dr. Ballantyne's book is an intro
duction to the study of native grammars,

* Dr. Ballantyne is now engaged in reprinting this book,


and is adding a series of prose selections from the Hito-
padesa.
PREFACE. v

such as that of Panini and the Laghu-kau-


mudi, which, as I have elsewhere shewn,
were intended for teachers rather than for
learners, .to assist their memories by brief
memorial verses at a period and in a state
of society when printing was unknown, when
even writing was little practised, and the
ear, to the total exclusion of the eye, was the
sole channel for grammatical instruction.
The plan of the following pages speaks for
itself, or at least requires no lengthy ex
planation. Part I. is a compendium of the
merest rudiments of grammar, and contains
tables of all the commonest nouns and verbs
in the Roman character, the convenience of
which, not only to beginners but to advanced
students, need scarcely be pointed out. Nor
need the learner be warned that this sum
mary of first principles is not intended to
supersede, but rather to go hand in hand
with the larger Grammar, and that the em
ployment of Roman type, far from discou
raging, is designed to consist with and even
PREFACE.

conduce to an accurate knowledge of the


Sanskrit character, as well as to secure a
correct system of transliteration. With re
gard to Part II. it should he stated, that in
selecting sentences and short passages for
translation, my chief aim has been to set
before the learner a collection of the com
monest expressions, phrases, and styles of
writing on a great variety of subjects, rather
than to amuse him by neatly turned periods
or pointed stories.
I should also notify that the rules of gram
mar referred to are those in the 2d edition of
my Sanskrit Grammar, and that the numbers
of the rules will hold good for all future edi
tions. These numbers have been followed
by Prof. Johnson, who has now inserted re
ferences to my Sanskrit Grammar in his new
edition of the Hitopadesa.

M. W.
Oxford, Jan. 1, 1862.
CONTENTS.

PART I.ACCIDENCE OF GRAMMAR


Letters, page 1.
Pronunciation, p. 2.
Rules of Sandhi, p. 5.
Declension of nouns, p. 9. 1
Adjectives, p. 21.
Numerals, p. 23.
Pronouns, p. 27.
Pronominals, p. 31.
Verbs, p. 31.
Terminations, p. 33.
Rules for forming the four conjugational tenses in the
ten conjugations, p. 36.
Second preterite, p. 39.
First and second future, p. 41.
Third preterite. p. 41.
Benedictive, conditional, infinitive, p. 43.
Passives, causals, desideratives, frequentatives, p. 44.
Participles, p. 45.
The auxiliary verb as, p. 48.
First conjugation, p. 49.
Second conjugation. p. 52.
Third conjugation, p. 53.
Fourth conjugation, p. 54.
Fifth conjugation, p. 56.
viii CONTENTS.
Sixth conjugation, p. 58.
Seventh conjugation, p. 60.
Eighth conjugation, p. 62.
Ninth conjugation, p. 65.
Tenth conjugation, p. 67.
Example of a passive verb, p. 7 1 .
Example of a causal -verb, p. 7 2.
Compound nouns, p. 73.
Prepositions, p. 80.
Indeclinables, p. 81. < .
PART II.PROGRESSIVE EXERCISES
In the formation of crudes from roots, p. 83.
In declension, p. 87.
In the comparison of adjectives, p. 105.
In conjugation, p. 107.
In participles, p. 113.
In compounds, p. 116.
In syntax, p. 119.
In prose composition, p. 135.
In verse composition, p. 167.
In Sandhi and translation from Sanskrit into English,
p. 172.
SANSKEIT MANUAL.

PART I.
ACCIDENCE OF GKAMMAE.

LETTERS.
1. There are fourteen vowels, thirty-three simple
consonants, a nasal symbol, and a symbol for a final
aspirate, arranged as follows:

Vowels.
a, ^rT T d, ^ f i, i, T a u, ^ ^ Uj, e ri, ^ t n,
^.cvlri, o| ^ M, * ^ * ai, ^[~\ o, au.
Nasal symbol, called Anuswdra^ * w or to. Symbol
for the final aspirate, called Visarga, : \ Vt\n> -

Consonants.
Gutturals, * k kh *9 vgh ~ n-
Palatalsj ^ chh *J Wjh yf n
Cerebrals, Zt z th 3d Z dh US n
Dentals, M V th ^ d vt dh rT n
Labials, TJ p ph lb * bh Hm
Semivowels, iy Xr *Sl nv
Sibilants, tT sh W*
Aspirate,
B
A few common compound or conjunct consonants
are here given.
kt, 'SB or kr, l$ kw, ^ ksh, u gr, fj n k, ng,
5 jn, nch, ^ hj, nd, nn, Wi * tU tn,
w tm, 7f ty, or 3 tr, & tw, 5 ddh, g rfiA, sr rfy,
^ rfr, J rfw, jr nt, ^ mrf, ^ wra, ^1 ny, ft pt, uT py,
Tt pr, 5T pi, n br, i 6%, bhr, *w m5A, wT www,
Hj my, cR rm, Ip, m vy, "a vr, 6cA, 6r,
sw, ~2 sht, ? s^A, j sAp, sAy, st, w s/A, w m,
sy, # sr, ^ w, Arty, Ato, ^1 kshy, 31 <fe?Ay,
31 dbhy. if tot.
2. Note the peculiarity of the vowel a.This
short vowel is never written unless it begin a word,
because it is supposed to be inherent in every con
sonant. Thus, ak is written ^r, but ka is written
cir ; so that in such words as 4H* kanaka, tttt nagara,
&c., no vowel has to be written. The mark s under
the k of ^sra?, called Virama, indicates a consonantal
stop, that is, the absence of any vowel, inherent or
otherwise, after the consonant.
3. Method of writing the other vowels : ^cir ik,
%jsg ik, fan ki, cift ki, ^f^ft ishtini, tsf uk, -grar uk,
ku, 'qr ku, J> ru, ^ ru, rik, se kri, rik,
ss kri, klri, ek, ^ ke, iNr aik, % kai, ^rtcj? ok,
cj^ ko, ^cRj auk, '9FT kau.
^ 4. Note two ways of writing the letter T r when
conjunct :
a. When it comes first in the compound, thus ^>rk;
b. When it comes last, thus kr.
5. Pronunciation. Vowels ; ^1 a as in vocal, cedar,
3
zebra, America; ^rj a as in last; \ i as in pin; ^ i
as in marine; as in push; as in rwc/e; ^ n
as in merrily; "^ri as in chagrin; e as in prey;
'sft o as in so ; ^ ai as in aisle ; aw as ou in ow^.
6. Pronunciation. Consonants: ^ ka,^ cha,^fja,
*j ^?a, ^ 6a, as in English.
n always like ^ in gun, give, never as g in ^iw.
iT a, ^ da, more dental than in English ; the
former like the sound of t in stick, the latter like
that of th in this, the.
V( kh like kh in ink-horn; and so with the other
aspirates.
Z (a, 7 tha, z da, ^ (lha, like our English t, ih,
d, dh, in try, ant-hill, drip, mud-hut.
S n a, *r na, w na, ^ wa, >r ma, like the nasal
in sing, inch, under, rinse, imp, respectively.
tf ya, x ra, la, ^ va, as in English.
ka like our sh, or like s in swre (followed by r it
is sounded more like *r s, but the pronunciation of s
varies in different provinces and different words) ; tfsha
rather softer than our sh ; *r sa like our s in sin, &c.
7. All the letters may be classified according to
two principles of division. The first divides them
into five classes. The second into two, thus

Gutturals
Palatals ^ \{ We llai STn Us
Cerebrals Zt Z{h ZdtSdh H!n tr Ish
Dentals 'Vilri'^lH Tit Hth ^dVdh -psi Us
Labials ^fto ^tau *b*bh Mm
?'>.. '
3%
4

HARD OR SURD LETTERS. SOFT OR SONANT LETTERS.

*9* *p*t Z"n-


^ch* Wchkf ^ i \ i ^ e U ai SI/* *R#t 5T
Zt* Zfhf Ssh *f r Zd* Zdhf JUn tr
Ttt* urn Us o Iri <^ ZW* Zd* Vdhf Tk
Hp* T*PW Hb* *bhf In

NoteIt is most important to observe in the 2d


table which hard letters have kindred soft. The
kindred hard and soft are the two in the same line
marked *, and the two marked f-
8. Turn the following into English letters :
^rfc5, ^rrf^, ^TTt|, ^rm*r, zfz, f^?:, f^r,
5zvt, TTjftr^, ^rctv, -5^, ^jfir, V^i, "W^Z., w,
^m:, hz, %w, '5Fc5, $tz, fistf, zvx, zm.,
zt&, am, inw, fr^rr, rrnr, w^k, ^it, ^w, vto, Tj,
^rnr, f^R4 f^iw, wr, i^w, H^r, *nrr^, gn,
^fg^i, fairer, 3fnr, ^te^pr, ^fe^r, TTc?,
^rer, ^fe, snj, ^r, ^iwj, ^ura,
^ttT, <-m<5.
9. Turn the following into Sanskrit letters :
Aka, aja. asa, dsa, dpa, ila, isha, ida, ira, ukha,
ucha, uha, rina, rija, edha, okha, kana, kita, kumdra,
kshama, kshipa, kshudha. kshai, klripa, khana, khida,
gdha, guja, gridha, gri, ghrina, ghusha, ehakdsa,
chaksha, chita, chhida, chho, jivd, jhasha, tikd, thahj
dinam, dhauka, nida, tdpah, taddgab, dayd, da?nakah,
s
dasarathah., durdldpafy, deva, dhupikd, dhritah, natah,
nila, nema, pariddnam, purushas, paurafy, paurusheyi,
puro(Idkah, bahuh, bdlakas, bhogalj., bhojanam, mukham,
mrigah, medas, medini, yakrit, yogah, renu, rechaka,
rai, raivata, rujd, rupam, rurudishu, loha, vdmah, vai-
ram, kak, saurah, shat, sddhuh, hemakutah, heman.

SANDHI OH. RULES FOR EUPHONIC CONJUNCTION OP


LETTERS.
10. Study attentively the following table :

Simple vowels, a or a i or i u or u ri or r% trior Iri


Guna substitute, e o ar al

Vriddhi substitute, d ai au dr dl

Simple vowels, i or i u or u ri or ri Iri or Iri


Corresponding semivowel, y v r I

Guna, e o
I . I
Guna resolved, a +i a+u
I I
With semivowel substitute, ay av

Vriddhi, ai au
I I
Vriddhi resolved, d+i d+u
I J
With semivowel substitute, dy dv
6

11. Combination of vowels.


Final a or d
+ a = d | + d = d | +i = e | + i = e | +u = o
| +u = o | + ri = ar | + ri = ar | + e = ai |
+ ai = ai | + o = au | + aw = aw.
Final i or i *~^*- ^
+ i = i | + i = i | +a=ya | + d=yd | +w
=yu \ +u=yu \ + ri y ri | + ri = y ri I + e
= ye | + ai=y ai j + o=y o | + au y au.
Final or w i^A<~ V-
+ u = u | +m = m | 4-a = wa | -fa = wa | + i
= wi | +i = 0z | + ri = w n | +ri=.vri | -4-e =
v e J +ai = wai| -)-o = vo | + aw = i; ait.
Final ri or ri
+ ri = ri | + riri \ + a = r a | +d = r d |
+ i = ri | + i = ri | +K = ri | +w = rw | +e
= re | +ai = rai | + o = r o | + aw = r am.
Final e f*-^* jr
+ e = a e | or + e (in the same word) = aye | + a
= e ' | or + a (in the same word) = aya | + a = aa
or ayd | + i = a i or ayi | +i=ai or ayx | + w
= au or ayu \ + u au or ayu | + ri = a ri or ayri
| + ri = a ri or ayri | + ai a ai or ayai | + o =
ao or ayo \ + au a au or ayau.
Final ai d$
+ ai = dy ai | + a = dy a | + d = dyd | +i =
ayi | +i=d.yi | + w = ay w | + w = a?/ w | + ri
= dyri | +ri=dyri | +e = dye | -^o dyo |
+ au = dy au.
7
Final o >>-^*
+ o = av o | + a = o ' [ or + a (in the same word)
ava | +a = awa | +i = avi | + = au z | +w =
ww | +u = avu | +ri = avri | + ri = am | +e
= e | + ai = aw ai | + at< = aw aw.

Final aw K*-^ ^r****


-\- au = dvau | + a = dva | + a = aw a | + i =
aw i | -\-i = dvi | -\-u = dvu \ +u dvu\ +ri =
dv ri | +r* = <*wH I + e = dve | -\-ai = dvai |
+ o = aw o.

1 a. Combination of consonants.
Final k or g IT X
+ a = g a | +o*=^a | + * &c. = gi fkc. | +
= I + g = gg | + ch = kch | +j = gj | + * =
| +d = gd | +ra = ra-re | +p = kp | +b=gb
| +i = M;m | +y=gy | +r = gr | +l = gl \
+ v=gv [ + 3 = i | + s = A:s | + h = ggh.

Final t or d
+ a = da | + a * = f a | + i * &c. = a* i &c. | + #
= | +g dg | +ch=chch | +j=jj \ +t
tt | +d = dd | +m = raw | +p = tp | +6 =
do | + m = rj?re | -\-y = dy | +r. = a*r | +1=11
| + w = dw | + 3=cAcM | + s = s | +h = ddh.

* When rf, i, or other vowels are case-terminations, the


hard consonants & and f remain unchanged before them. This
applies in declining all nouns ending in consonants.
8
Final n
+ a = nna* | + d = nnd* \ + k = n k | + g = ng
I 'tShzz.VisJf' I +y=wtj I + 1 ==nst | + d nd
| +w = wra | +p = np | +b nb | +m nm \
+ y = ny | +r = wr | + {=J'_L| +v = re | +s
= w s or w cAA | +s = ns | + A = ra A.
Final as vAm**^
+ a = o' | + a = a a | -f * &c. = a i &c. | -f A: =
aA | + g = og | + cA = ascA | +j = oj \ +t
= ast | + d od | +ra = ow | +p = | +b
=.ob | +m om | + y = oy | -f r = o r | +Z =
o/| +w = ov| + = aAs | + s = a# | +h = oh.
Final as iV* <x
+ a = a a I +o = a J + i &c. = a i &c. | +
= dhjc I + ^ = a# I + cA = as" cA | +y = a; | + f
= dsj I +d=arf I +w = a')! I +p=.d]j.p I +6
= a 6 I +m = dm \ + y = dy \ +r = dr \ +1 =
dl I +v = dv I +s^_a^i I +s = a#s [ + A = aA.

Final s preceded by any other vowel but a or a


+ a ra | +d = rd | + i &c. =ri &c. | +A =
#J: I +ff = rg \ +ch s ch | +j=rj ( +tf = s
I +d = rd I + w = rre | + ^ = /yj | + 6^=rA""]"
+ m = r m | +y = ry \ +r = | r I + Z = r | + w
= rv I + s = As' I + s = #s I + A = rA.
* n is only doubled if preceded by a short vowel.
f A final n before.; is properly written in the palatal form n. *-T
X The final r is dropped (because r can never be doubled),
but the preceding vowel, if short, is lengthened.
9
Final r preceded by any vowel
+ a = ra | +d = rd | +i &c. = ri &c. | + k =
frk \ +ff = rg | + ch=Jch \ +j=rj | + t = st
I + d r d | + ra = r | + 2> =Jtj? | + b = r b |
+ i = r / | +y = ry | + r = * r | +l = rl | + t>
= r | + s =jM | + s = #s | +A = rA.
DECLENSION OP NOUNS.
13. The following terminations are said to be
applicable to the crude bases of all nouns :
Terminations with memorial letters.
SING. DUAL. PLUBAL.
Nom. *| su ^ au Wxjas
Acc. w am ^tr aut $T*i sas
Inst. TT td ri bhydm fra 6Ais
Dat. T ra-e vMf bhydm wn^ Myas
Abl. Tftr ra-asi ri bhydm wre o%as
Gen. w as "gfftr os ?rt dm
Loc. ni ^fta os *nj sw
The same terminations without memorial letters.
SING. DUAL. PLURAL.
Nom. us ^ au ^TTT as
Acc. am au as
Inst. w a rf bhydm ftm bhis
Dat. s e bhydm nt 6%as
Abl. ^r?T a* bhydm bhyas
Gen. as ^rtar os ^rf am
Loc. ; i -r. o fi su
* See note J, last page.
10
Observe The vocative is not given in the above
general scheme, as it is held to be only another
aspect of the nominative, and always coincides with
the nom. in the dual and plural. In the singular
it is often identical with the base, and has no
termination.
14. The declension of jt nau, {., ' a ship,' illustrates
the regular application of the above terminations.

SINGULAR. DUAL. PLUKAL.


Nom. voc. naus ndvau ndvas
nau + s nau + au nau + as

Acc. ndvam ndvau ndvas


nau + am nau + au nau + as

Inst. ndvd naubhydm naubhis


nau + a nau + bhydm nau + bhis

Dat. nave naubhydm naubhyas


nau + e nau + bhydm nau + bhyas

Abl. ndvas naubhydm naubhyas


nau + as nau + bhydm nau + bhyas

Gen. ndvas ndvos ndvdm


nau + as nau + os nau + dm

Loc. ndvi ndvos naushu


nau +i nau + os nau + su
11
15. Certain modifications of the above termina
tions are required in some nouns, as follows :
SINGULAR. DUAL. PLURAL.
N. s (m. f.), m* (n.) an(m.f.),f(n.) as (m. f.), i (n.)
Ac. am (m.f.), wi*(m.f. n.) a(m.f.),/(n.) as.s(m.{.),n*(m.),i(a.)
I. d (m. f. n.), ina* (m. n.) bhydm(m.f.n.) 6As(m.f.n.),ais*(m.n.)
D. e (m. f. n.), ya* (m. n.) bhydm(m.f.a.) bhyas(m.f. n.)
Ab.as(m.f.n.), s(m.f.), (m.n.) bhydm(m.f.n.) bhyas(m.f.n.)
G. o(m.f.ti.),s(m.f.),syo*(m.n.) os(m.f.n.) am(m.f.n.)
L. i (m.f.n.), am* (f.) os(m.f.n.) su (m.f.n.)
Those substitutions marked * are mostly restricted
to nouns ending in a, and are especially noticeable.
Nouns may be divided into eight classes, accord
ing to the finals of their crude bases.

First class of nouns declined.


16. Masculine bases in a, declined like f^r^ kiva,
m., ' the god Siva,' or as an adjective, ' prosperous.'
N. kivas kivau kivds
Ac. kivam kivau Sivdn
I. kivena kivdbhydm kivais
D. kivdya kivdbhydm sivebhyas
Ab. kivdt sivdbhydm kivebhyas
G. kivasya kivayos kivdndm
L. kive kivayos kiveshu
V. kiva sivau . kivds
17. Neuter bases in a, declined like kiva, n.
N. Ac. kivam sive kivdni
The vocative is kiva, kive, kivdni; all the other cases
are like the masculine.
12
1 8. Feminine bases in d, declined like fijKT kiva, {.,
' the wife of S'iva,' or as an adjective, ' prosperous.'
N. sivd sive kivds
Ac. sivdm kive kivds
I. kivayd kivdbhydm kivdbhis
D. kivdyai kivdbhydm kivdbhyas
Ab. sivdyds sivdbhydm kivdbhyas
G. sivdyds sivayos kivdndm
L. sivdydm kivayos kivdsu
V. kive sive sivds
19. Feminine bases in i, declined like Tf^nadi, f
' a river.'
N. nadi nadyau nadyas
Ac. nadim nadyau nadis
I. nadyd nadibhydm nadibhis
D. nadyai nadibhydm nadibhyas
Ab. nadyds nadibhydm nadibhyas
G . nadyds nadyos nadindm
L. nadydm nadyos nadishu
V. nadi nadyau nadyas
Second class of nouns declined.
20. Masculine bases in i, declined like agni,
m., ' fire.'
N. agnis agni agnayas
Ac. agnim agni agnin
I. agnind agnibhydm agnibhis
D. agnaye agnibhydm agnibhyas
Ab. agnes agnibhydm agnibhyas
G. agues agnyos agnindm
L. agnau agnyos agnishu
V. ague agni agnayas
13
2 1 . Feminine bases in i, declined like flfir mati, f.,
'the mind.'
N. matis mati matayas
Ac. matim mati matis
I. matyd matibhydm matibhis
D. mataye* matibhydm matibhyas
Ab. mates * matibhydm matibhyas
G. mates * matyos matindm
L. matau * matyos matishu
V. mate mati matayas
22. Neuter bases in t> declined like grficwaVi,n.,'water?
N. Ac. vdri vdrini vdrini
I. . vdrind vdribhydm vdribhis
D. vdrine vdribhydm vdribhyas
Ab. vdrinas vdribhydm vdribhyas
G. vdrinas vdrinos vdrindm
L. vdrini vdrinos vdrishu
V. z>ari or rare vdrini vdrini

Third class of nouns declined.


23. Masculine bases in u, declined like rrjj bhdnu.
In., ' the sun.'
N. bhdnus bhdnu bhdnavas
Ac. bhdnum bhdnun
I. bhdnund bhdnubhydm bhdnubhis
D. bhdnave bhdnubhydm bhdnubhyas
Ab. bhdnos bhdnubhydm
G. bhdnos bhdnwos bhdnundm
L. bhdnau bhdnwos bhdnushu
V. bhdno bhdnu bhdnavas
* The D. may also be matyai; the Ab. and G.matyds; the L.matydm .
14
24. Feminine bases in u, declined like
f., ' a milch cow.'
N. dhenus dhenu dhenavas
Ac. dhenum dhenu dhenus
I. dhenwd dhenubhydm dhenubhis
D. dhenave* dhenubhydm dhenubhyas
Ab. dhenos* dhenubhydm dhenubhyas
G. dhenos* dhenwos dhenundm
L. dhenau* dhenwos dhenushu
V. dheno dhenu dhenavas
25. Neuter bases in u, declined like mix madhu, n.,
' honey.'
N. Ac. madhu madhuni madhuni
I. madhund madhubhydm madhubhis
D. madhune madhubhydm madhubhyas
Ab. madhunas madhubhydm madhubhyas
G. niadhunas madhunos madhundm
L. madhunos madhushu
V. madhu or madho madhuni madhuni

Fourth class of nouns declined.


26. Masculine bases in ri, declined like i*TT[ ddtri,
m., ' a giver,' and ftfitpitri, m., ' a father.' The former
is the model of nouns of agency; the latter, of nouns
of relationship.
In nouns of agency like ddtri the final ri is vrid-
dhied, and in nouns of relationship like pitri (except
ing naptri, 'a grandson') gunated, in N. sing. du. pl.,
* The D. may also be dhemoai; the Ab. and G. dhenwds; the
L. dhenwdm.
15
Ac. sing. du. ; but the r of dr and ar is dropped in
N. sing., and to compensate in the last case a is
lengthened. In both nouns of agency and relation
ship the final ri is gunated in L.V. sing., and very
anomalously changed to u in Ab. G. sing. In Ac. G.
pl. it is lengthened, and assumes n in G. pl.
N. data ddtdrau ddtdras
Ac. ddtdram ddtdrau ddtrin
I. ddtrd ddtribhydm ddtribhis
D. ddtre ddtribhydm ddtribhyas
Ab. ddtus ddtribhydm ddtribhyas
G. ddtus ddtros ddtrindm
L. ddtari ddtros ddtrishu
V. ddtar ddtdrau ddtdras
27. N. pitd pitarau pitaras
Ac. pitaram pitarau pitrin
I. pitrd pitribhydm pitribhis
D. pitre pitribhydm pitribhyas
Ab. pitus pitribhydm pitribhyas
G. pitus pitros pitrindm
L. pitari pitros pitrishu
V. ^itar pitarau pitaras
28. Note The feminine base of nouns of agency
is formed by adding i to the final ri : thus, ddtri + i,
ddtri, {., ' a giver and kartri + i, kartri, {., ' a doer.'
Their declension follows nadi. The neuter follows
vdri at 22 : thus, ddtri, ddtrini, ddtrini.
Fifth class of nouns declined.
29. Masculine and feminine bases in t, declined
like ?ftiT harit, m. f., ' green.'
16
N.V. harit haritau haritas
Ac. haritam haritau haritas
I. haritd haridbhydm haridbhis
D. harite haridbhydm haridbhyag
Ab. haritas haridbhydm haridbhyas
G. haritas haritos haritam
L. hariti haritos haritsu
30. Note Neuter bases in t are declined like
irfic^ harit, n., ' green.'
N. Ac.V. harit hariti harinti
I. haritd haridbhydm, &c.
31. Masculine and feminine bases in d, like
v*tN^ dharma-vid, m. , ' knowing one's duty,' a
compound composed of the substantive dharma,
' duty,' and the root vid, ' knowing.'
N.V. *vit -vidau -vidas
Ac. -vidam -vidau -vidas
I. -vidd -vidbhydm -vidbhis
D. -vide -vidbhydm -vidbhyas
Ab. -vidas -vidbhydm -vidbhyas
G. -vidas -vidos -vidam
L. -vidi ^vidos -vitsu
32. Note Neuter bases in d are declined like
Vjfjfarf. dharma-vid, n., ' knowing one's duty.'
N. Ac.V. dharma-vit dharma-vidi dharma-vindi
80 also, ^t*j^ kumud, n., ' a lotus :'
N. Ac. V. kumut kumudi kumundi
I. kumudd, &c.
17
33- Possessive adjectives formed with the affixes
^TT vat and jrT mat, like *l-Nri dhanavat, ' rich,' and
vNTT dMmat, ' wise,' are declined like harit for the
masculine ; but in the Nom. Voc. sing. du. pl., Ac.
sing. du., n is inserted before the final of the base,
and the preceding a is lengthened in N. sing.
N. dhanavdn dhanavantau dhanavantas
Ac. dhanavantam dhanavantau dhanavatas
The remaining cases follow harit ; thus, I. dhanavatd,
&c. ; but the vocative singular is dhanavan.
In the same manner are declined active past parti
ciples of the form kritavat; thus, N. kritavdn, krita-
vantau, kritavantas, &c. Similarly, dMmat, 'wise:'
N. dhimdn, dhimantau, dhimantas; Ac. dhimantam,
dhimantau, dhimatas, &c.
The feminine bases of adjectives like dhanavat
and dMmat, and participles like kritavat, are formed
by adding i to the masculine base ; thus, dhanavati,
dhimati, kritavati : declined after nadi; thus, Nom.
dhanavati, dhanavatyau, dhanavatyas, &c.
The neuter is declined like the neuter of harit;
thus, N. Ac. dhanavat, dhanavati, dhanavanti.

Sixth class of nouns declined.


34. Masculine and feminine bases in an, declined
like iHlrfM dtman, m. f., ' soul,' ' self.'
N. dtmd dtmdnau dtmdnas
Ac. dtmdnam dtmdnau dtmanas
I. dtmand dtmabhydm dtmabhis
D. dtmane dtmabhydm dtmabhyas
18

Ab. dtmanas dtmabhydm dtrnabhyas


G. dtmanas dtmanos dtmandm
L. dtmani dtmanos dtmasu
V. dtman dtmdnau dtmanas
NoteIf an be preceded "by m or v (w), at tbe end
of a conjunct consonant (as in dtman, yajwan), the a
of an is retained before all the terminations: but if an
be preceded by any other consonant, whether conjunct
or not, than m or v (as in rdjan), or even by m or v
if not conjunct (as in pwan), the a of an is dropped
in the Ac. plur. and before all the other wowe-termi-
nations, and the remaining n is compounded with
the preceding ponsonant.
35. Masculine and feminine bases in an, declined
like tTT^ rdjan, m., ' a king.'
N. rdjd rajanau rajanas
Ac. rdjdnam rdjdnau rdjnas
I. rdjnd rdjabhydm rdjabhis
D. rdjne rdjabhydm rdjabhyas
Ab. rdjnas rdjabhydm rdjabhyas
G. rdjnas rdjnos rdjndm
L. rdjhi or rdjani rdjnos rdjasu
V. /-q/aw rdjdnau rdjdnas
36. Neuter bases in an are declined like cpih^ kar-
man, 'an action/ and 7(TW{ ndman, ' a name.' The re
tention or rejection of a in an before the inst. c. sing.
and remaining vowel-terminations, as well as option
ally before the nom. acc. du., is determined by the
same rule as in masculines; and the only difference
19

between masculine and neuter nouns is in the nom.


and acc. cases, sing., du., and pl.: thus,
N.Ac. karma (cF*l), karmani, karmani; I. karmand,
&c. ; D. karmane, &c., like dtman.
N. Ac. noma ('fro), ndmni or ndmani, ndmdni;
I. ndmnd, &c.; D. ndmne, &c., like rdjan.
37. Masculine bases in ire, declined like \(fat^dha-
nin, m., ' rich.'
N. dhani dhaninau dhaninas
Ac. dhaninam dhaninau dhaninas
I. dhanind dhanibhydm dhanibhis
D. dhanine dhanibhydm dhanibhyas
Ab. dhaninas dhanibhydm dhanibhyas
G. dhaninas dhaninos dhaninam
L. dhanini dhaninos dhanishu
V. dhanin dhaninau dhaninas
38. Note The feminine bass of such adjectives
and nouns of agency is formed by adding i to the
masc. base; as, from vftr^, *l(Hfl f. ; from cfirf^T,
cirrficsft f. ; declined like nadi (see p. 1 2) : thus, N. rfAa-
nini, dhaninyau, dhaninyas, &c.
The neuter conforms to the declension of vdri (see
p. 13) : thus, N. Ac. dhani, dhanini, dhanini.

Seventh class of nouns declined.


39. Masculine and feminine bases in as, declined
like "^fWT chandramas, m., * the moon.'
N. chandramas chandramasau chandramasas
Ac. chandramasam chandramasau chandramasas
c %
20
I. chandramasd chandramobhydm chandramobhis
D. chandramase chandramobhydm chandramobhyas
Ab. chandramasas chandramobhydm chandramobhyas
G. chandramasas chandramasos chandramasdm
L. chandramasi chandramasos chandramahsu*
V. chandramas chandramasau chandramasas
40. Neuter bases in as,\ikeqtwrmanas,n.,' the mind/
N. Ac. V. manas manasi mandnsi
I. manasd, &c., like the masc. and fem.
Note Neuter bases in is and us are declined
analogously : thus, havis, ' ghee N. Ac. V. havis,
havishi, havinshi. Comparatives in iyas make iydn
in N. sing., and insert n before s in N du. and pl.,
Ac. sing. du. : thus, baliyas, ' stronger N. baliydn,
baliydnsau, baliydnsas ; Ac. baliydnsam, &c.

Eighth class of nouns declined.


41. This class consists principally of roots used
as nouns, either alone or at the end of compounds,
or preceded by prepositions and adverbial prefixes.
Roots ending in t and d, employed in this manner,
are of common occurrence ; but their declension falls
under the fifth class. Roots ending in other conso
nants are not very frequently found, and the only
difficulty in their declension arises from their com
bination with the consonantal terminations.
42. Whatever change, however, takes place in the
nom. sing. is preserved before all the consonantal
terminations; remembering only, that before such
Or chandramassu.
SI

terminations the rules of Sandhi come into ope


ration.
43. Before the vowel-terminations the final con
sonant of the root, whatever it may be, is always
preserved. If in one or two nouns there may be
any peculiarity in the formation of the acc. pl., the
same peculiarity runs through the remaining vowel-
cases. The terminations themselves undergo no
change, but the * of the nom. sing. is of course re
jected (by 43. a. larger Gr.). There is but one form of
declension for both masc. and fem.; the neuter follows
the analogy of other nouns ending in consonants.
44. Thus, "zr^vdeh, f., ' speech,' is thus declined
N.V. vdk vdchau vdchas
Ac. vdcham vdchau vdchas
I. vdchd vdffbhydm vdgbhis
D. vdche vdffbhydm vdgbhyas
Ab. vdchas vdffbhydm vdgbhyas
G. ' vdchas vdchos vdchdm
L. vdchi vdchos vdksu or vdkshu
And Vftf\pratyanch,' western,' as it makes pratichas
in the Acc. pl., will make pratichd in Inst. sing.
ADJECTIVES.
45. The declension of substantives includes that
of adjectives; and the three examples of substantives,
given under each class, serve as the model for the
three genders of adjectives falling under the same
class. Simple adjectives, coming immediately from
roots, are not very common. They belong chiefly
to the first, second, and third classes of nouns.
22

46. Adjectives formed from substantives are very


numerous. They belong chiefly to the first, fifth,
and sixth classes of nouns.
47. Examples of simple adjectives.
1ST CLASS.
BASE. NOM. MASC. NOM. JEM. NOM. NEUT.
priya ' dear' priyas priyd priyam
sundara "beautiful' sundaras sundard* sundaram
2d class.
suchi 'pure' hichis kuchis suchi
3d class.
pdndu 'pale' pdndus pdndus pdndu
sddhu 'good' sddhus sddhusf sddhu
mridu 'tender' mridus mridwi mridu
bhiru ' timid' bhirus bhirus J bhiru
48. Examples of adjectivesformedfrom substantives.
1ST CLASS.
BASE. \ r~NOM. MASC. NOM. FEM. NOM. NEUT.
mdnusha ' human' mdnushas mdnusM mdnusham
dhdrmika 'religious' dhdrmikas dhdrmiki dhdrmikam
5th class.
balavat ' strong' balavdn balavati balavat
srimat 'prosperous' krimdn krimati krimat
6th class.
sukhin ' happy' sukM sukhini sukhi
49. The degrees of comparison are formed in two
* Or svmdari. t Or sddhw(. J Or bMr&s.
23

ways ; 1st, by adding to the base TCt. lo.ro. (riom. -ta*


ras, -tard, -taram) for the comparative ; and im tama
(nom. -tamas, -tamd, -tamam) for the superlative :
thus, punya, ' holy/ punyatara, ' more holy,' punya*
tama, ' most holy,' declined like nouns of the first
class. So also, dhanavat, 'wealthy/ dhanavattara,
* more wealthy,' dhanavattama, ' most wealthy.' A
final n is rejected; as, dhanin, 'rich,' dhanitard,
' more rich,' dhanitama, ' most rich.'
50. 2dly, by adding rrcrN iyas (nom. -iydn, -iyasi,
-iyas, see declension at 40) for the comparative ; and
^ff ishtha (nom. -ishthas, -ishtha, -ishtham, declined
at 16) for the superlative.
51. NoteIn general, before iyas and ishtha, the
base disburdens itself of a final vowel, or of the more
weighty affixes in, vin, vat, mat : thus, balin, ' strong,'
baliyas, ' more strong,' balishtha, ' strongest.' And
besides the rejection of the final, the base often
undergoes considerable change ; as, alpa, ' little,'
kaniyas, kanishtha.
NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
Cardinals.
52. The cardinals are, ^ft eka 1 ; fg dm 2 ;
f&tri^; ^f^chatur 4; i^R panchan 5; V^shash6;
TTfPT saptan J ; ashtan 8 ; navan 9 ;
^ft^dakan 10; U+lcJSR ekddakan 11; 3T^P^ dwdda-
kan 12; fcj^$r^ trayodakan 13; "J^^P^ chatur-
dakani^; xps^p^panchadakam^; rftryp^shodakan
16; saptadakan 17 ; ^reT^FT ashtddakan 18 ;
94
H *(<J 51 ^ navadamn or r4^rfiT unavinsati 19; fulfir
vinsati 20; 4fcti fc<^| fri 21 ; Trftf^Tfil 22 ; jpftfirgfa 23;
^f%fiT24; M^P^lPri 25; ^r^rfri 26; hP4$|Pi127;
^KlR^lfri 28 ; H^P^SjiPri or *HPd$lHN 29 ; f^HT 30 ;
5^3^31; ji 1(^32; ^^33; ^3^34;
^r^li(35; ^3^36; ^Tlf^lil 37; ^81^5^38;
^f&sfnr or w^rrft^nt; 39 ; -jhiPUi^ 40 ; v^fr^i-
ft5nr41; PsMrilPUl^ or gMrtlPt^iT 42 ; fd-MlPii^
or a*H5Miri.$|^43; 1J,5)H<l(X^44; trg^TTfWTT 45 ;
tK-MrllfiLS|^ 46 ; H-4riir<;iiT 47 ; TOWWTff^ or
^Ts^Tir^nT 48 ; H^ngrfT^ or -grrni^nr 49 ; v^n-
31^50; ^rq^nr 51 ; P^Mmi^ri; or gm^i^ 52;
fwro^ or ^:wr^ 53 ; ^u^irf; 54 ; tj^r^T-
W[ 55 ; 56 ; -H w M ^ 1 31 ri 57 ; WTrgWH or
WTWrarfT 58 ; .HM^i^ or *7mPg 59 ; iffv 60 ;
Ttwzfv 61 ; firfg or gjMfg 62 ; fwtfs or g^Pa 63 ;
^:tTfi? 64; TT^rf? 65; irctifir 66; *nnri? 67; mft
or vMgmfe 68; ^*mfg or ^HMHfri 69; Tiwfw 70;
<<*t<nPii 71 ; %wfir or grenrfa 72 ; finrofir or wr.-
wcflr 73; ^Ttnifw 74; Tra^Hfir 75; urawfir 76;
rorenrfir 77 ; ^rewrfir or wrcnrfir 78 ; sr^nrfa or
qproiftffr 79; 'w^ftfir 80; gcfti^ftrk 81; snjftfir 82;
W5ftfir83; ^rt^flPrt 84; MMimlfri 85; ^ftfil86;
qWT^flPiT 87 ; ^B^flTtf 88 ; H^flPiT or aH4Pri 89 ;
-HHfn 90; mnqOrg1; P^H^PiT or gimPri 92; fa^nrffr
or^ft^fiT93; ^5^794; nwiPri 95; ^^96;
25

WPftfK 97 ; <rar*fti or wTH^rfir 98 ; Hm^fiT or


*H9lri 99; ^TiT n. or H*W n. 100; n. or
JJc(,^y n. 1000.
53. ^cS ea, ' one' {singular only), follows the de
clension of pronominals (see 77).
54. dwi, 'two* (dual only), is declined thus:
N. Ac. V. m. irt dwau, f. n. if dwe; I. D. Ab. m. f. n.
dwdbhydm ; G. L. dwayos.
55. ftpf tri, ' three' (plural only), is declined thus :
N. V. masc. trayas; Ac. trin; I. tribhis; D. Ab.
tribhyas; G. traydndm; L. trishu. The feminine
forms its cases from a base tfsri: thus, N. Ac.V. fern.
tisras; l.tisribhis; D. Ab. tisribhyas ; G. tisrindm;
L. tisrishu. The N.Ac. neut. is frfnt; the rest as
the masculine.
56. chatur, ' four ' (plural only), is thus de
clined : N. V. masc. chatwdras ; Ac. chaturas ;
I. chatur bhis; D. Ab. chaturbhyas ; G. chaturndm ;
L. chaturshu. N. Ac. V. fem. chatasras ; I. cAa-
tasribhis ; D. Ab. chatasribhyas ; G. chatasrindm ;
L. chatasrishu. N. Ac. V. neut. chatwdri ; the rest
as the masculine.
57. 'ra'J^.partcAara, ' five' (plural only), is declined
thus: N. Ac.V. pancha ; I. panchabhis ; D. Ab.
panchabhyas ; G. panchdndm ; L. panchasu. Simi
larly are declined, saptan, 'seven,' navan, 'nine,'
damn, ' ten,' ekddakan, ' eleven,' dwddasan, ' twelve,'
and all other numerals ending in an, excepting
ashtan, 'eight.'
26
58. shash, ' six,' and WS\ ashtan, ' eight,' are
the same for masc., fem., and neut., and are thus
declined: N. Ac. V. shat; l.shadbhis; D. Ab. shad-
bhyas ; G. wt shanndm ; L. shatsu. N. Ac. V. ashta
or ashtau; I. ashtabhis or ashtabhis; D. Ab. ashfa-
bhyas or ashtdbhyas ,' G. ashtdndm ; L. ashtam or
ashtam.
59. All the remaining cardinals, from unavinsati,
'nineteen,' to kata, 'a hundred,' and sahasra, 'a
thousand,' are declined in the singular only, and
are the same whether joined with masculine, femi
nine, or neuter nouns. Those ending in fir ti are
declined like the singular of the feminine noun
*rfir mati at 21; and those in Tt^t are declined like
the singular of jjfij^ harit at 29.

Ordinals.
60. The ordinals are, prathama, ' first ;' dwitiya,
' second ;' tritiya, ' third ;' declined like pronominals
at 77, or like siva at 16.
61. Chaturtha, 'fourth panchama, 'fifth;' shashtha*
' sixth ;' saptama, ' seventh ;' ashtama, ' eighth ;' na-
vama, ' ninth ;' daisama, ' tenth ;' declined like kiva
for the masc. and neut., and like nadi for the
feminine.
62. The ordinals from 'eleventh' to 'twentieth'
are formed from the cardinals by rejecting the final
n : thus, from ekddasan, ' eleven,' ekddaka, ' eleventh'
(Nom. m. f. n. ekdda&as, ekddaki, ekdda&am) . ' Twen
tieth,' ' thirtieth,' ' fortieth,' and ' fiftieth,' are formed
27
either by adding the superlative affix tama to the
cardinal, or by rejecting the final of the cardinal;
as, from vinkati, 'twenty,' virriatitama or vinsa,
' twentieth.'
63. The other ordinals, from ' sixtieth' to ' nine
tieth,' are formed by adding tama, or by changing ti
to ta : thus, from shashti, ( sixty,' shashtitama or
shashta, ' sixtieth.'
64. Numerical symbols.

123456789 10

PEBSONAL PKONOUNS.
65. *Ti^ mat or ^rTt asmat, ' lJ
N. aham, V dvdm, ' we two' vayam/ we'
Ac. mdm or md, ' me ' dvdm or nau, ' us two ' asmdn or nas, ' us '
I. mayd dvdbhydm asmdbhis
D. mahyam or me dvdbhydm or nau asmabhyam or nas
Ab. ma or mattas dvdbhydm asmat or asmattas
G. mama or me dvayos or nau asmdkam or nas
L< mayi dvayos asmdsu

66. fifl< or jm^ yushmat, ' thou.3


N. twam, 'thou' yuvdm, 'you two' y&yam, 'you' or 'ye'
Ac. twdm or twd yuvdm or cam - yushmdn or as
I. twayd yuvdbhydm yushmdbhis
D. tubhyam or <e yuvdbhydm or cam yushmabhyam or Das
Ab. twat ot twattas yuvdbhydm yushmat or yushmattas
G. /aca or fe yuvayos or ram yushmdkam or as
L. ftcayi yuvayos yushmdsu
28
6y. TTT^ tat or TT^ tad, ' he,' ' that.'
MASCULINE.
N. sas, ' he' tau, ' they two' te, 'they'
Ac. tam tan
I. tena tdbhydm tais
D. tasmai tdbhydm tebhyas
Ab. tasmdt tdbhydm tebhyas
G. tasya tayos teshdm
L. tasmin tayos teshu
FEMININE.
N. sa, ' she' te tds
Ac. fam te tds
I. tayd tdbhydm tdbhis
D. tasyai tdbhydm tdbhyas
Ab. /asyas tdbhydm tdbhyas
G. tasyds tayos tdsdm
L. tasydm tayos tdsu
NEUTER.
N.Ac. tat, te, tdni; the rest like the masculine.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
68. These are formed from the personal pronouns:
thus, madiya,' mine,' asmadiya,' our ' twadiya,' thine,'
tadiya, ' his,' mdmaka or mdmakina, ' mine.' They are
declined like kiva' at p. 11; see also 74 at p. 30.
DEMONSTRATIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
69. The third personal pronoun mr tat, 'he,'
declined above, is constantly used for 'that' or
' this ;' and by prefixing ^ e to it, another common
pronoun is formed, more proximately demonstrative:
29

thus, innr etat or etad, ' this/ Observe The


first t of etat may optionally be changed to n in Ac.
sing. du. pl., I. sing., G. L. du., in all three genders.
70. There is another common demonstrative pro
noun, of which ^ idam, 'this,' the N. neuter, is
considered to be the base.
MASCULINE.
N. ayam, 'this' imau, ' these two' ime, 'these'
Ac. imam imau imdn
I. anena dbhydm ebhis
D. asmai dbhydm ebhyas
Ab. asmdt dbhydm ebhyas
G. asya anayos eshdm
L. asmin anayos eshu
FEMININE.
N. iyam ime imds
Ac. imam ime imds
I. anayd dbhydm dbhis
D. asyai dbhydm dbhyas
Ab. asyds dbhydm dbhyas
G. asyds anayos dsdm
L. asydm anayos dsu
NEDTEB. .
N.Ac. idam . ime imdni

RELATIVE PRONOUN.
71. The relative is formed by substituting *i y
for the initial letter of the pronoun tat, at 67 : thus,
N. yas, yau, ye; Ac. yam, &c.
30
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN.
72. The interrogative differs from the relative by
substituting k instead of y for the initial letter of
the pronoun tat, at 67 : thus, Masc. N. cr?t kas,
^ikau, ke, 'who?' 'which?' 'what?' Ac. ch kam,
'whom?' &c. Fem. N. chT kd, ifi ke, cFTTT kds, &c.
The N. Ac. Neut. are fifc kim, iji ke, cnfT kdni, (not
kat, ke, kdni.)
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
73. The indeclinable affixes chit, api, and chana,
affixed (in accordance with the rules of Sandhi) to
the several cases of the interrogative pronouns, give
them an indefinite signification; as, ciiOg^ kakchit
or cirtsftr or *^T, ' somebody,' ' some one,' ' any one,'
' a certain one :' 3h(V<i^ kenachit, ' by some one.'

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.
74. ^ swa is used reflexively, in reference to all
three persons, and may stand for ' my own,' ' thy
own,' ' his own,' ' our own,' &c. It often occupies
the first place in a compound : thus, swagriham
gachchhati ' he goes to his own house.' The gen.
case of ^HrH^ dtman at 34, or often the crude base,
is used with the same signification ; as, dtmano gri-
ham or dtmagriham gachchhati.

HONORIFIC OR RESPECTFUL PRONOUN.


75. bhavat, ' your honour,' requiring the 3d
person of the verb, is declined like dhanavat at
33 : thus, N. Masc. >TTP^ bhavdn, vftm bhavantau,
81

tnrenr bhavantas ; N. Fem. H^rft bhavati, >l^ri^ bha-


vatyau, xcliWn bhavatyas, &c. ; Voc. rafw bhavati.

PRONOMINALS.
76. There are certain common adjectives, such as
anya, ' other,' katama, 'which of many?' which par
take of the nature of pronouns, and follow the
declension of tat at 67.
77. There are other pronominals, which make am
instead of at in the N. Ac. neuter. The model of
these is *rf sarva, ' all :' thus, Masc. N. w sarvas,
sarvau, sarve. Neut, N, Ac, Tt? sarvam,
*raf sarve, H^lftiT sarvdni.

VERBS.
78. There are ten tenses. Seven of them are of
common occurence; viz. 1. the present, 1. the poten
tial, 3. the imperative, 4. the first preterite, 5. the
second preterite. 6. the first future, 7. the second
future. Three are of rare occurence ; viz. 8. the
third preterite, 9. the henedictive, 10. the condi
tional. There is also an infinitive mood, and several
participles.
79. Every tense has three numbers,singular,
dual, and plural.
To each tense belong two sets of terminations;
one for the active or transitive voice, the other for
the reflexive voice. The former of these voices
is called by Indian grammarians Parasmai-pada
('word for another'), because the action is sup
posed to pass parasmai, ' to another the latter is
called Atmane'pada ('word for oneself), because
the action is supposed to revert dtmane, ' to one
self.'
80. Passive verbs are invariably conjugated in
the Atmane-pada. Indeed, in all the tenses, except
the first four, the passive is generally undistinguish-
able from the Xtmane-pada of the primitive verb.
But in the present, potential, imperative, and first
preterite, the Sanskrit passive, although still employ
ing the Xtmane-pada terminations, has a special
structure of its own, common to all verbs, and dis
tinct from the conjugational form in all but the
fourth conjugation.
81. As in nouns every case has its own termina
tion, so in verbs each of the three persons, in the three
numbers of every tense, has a termination (one for
the Parasmai-pada, and one for the A'tmane-pada)
which is peculiarly its own. Moreover, as in nouns,
so in verbs, some of the terminations may be com
bined with memorial letters, which serve to aid the
memory, by indicating that where they occur pecu
liar changes are required in the root. Thus the
three terminations which belong to the 1st, 2d, and
3d persons of the present tense, Parasmai-pada,
respectively, are mi, si, ti; and these are combined
with the letter P (thus, miV, siP, HP), to indicate
that the roots of certain verbs must be modified
in a particular way, before these terminations are
affixed.
82. Terminations.
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada
Present tense. -
PBRS. SING. DUAL. PLURAL. SING. DUAL. PLURAL.
miP vas mas i^vahe make
jet
fithe*
z. siP thas tha se dhwe
\ dthe f
inti *
jite* f nte *
3- tiP tas anti% te
\ ate f [ ate f
ati \
Potential.
In i,4, 6, 10.
1. iyam iva ima
2. is itam ita In all the conjugations.
3. it itam iyus 1 . iya wahi imahi
In 2. 3 7. 5 8, 9- l.ithds iydthdm idhwam
1. yam ydva ydma $Ata iydtdm Iran
yas ydtam ydta
ydt ydtdm yus
Imperative.
I. dniP
# dvaP dmaP aiP dvahaiP dmahaiP
\ithdm* f
hif tam ta .we? \ .,- . A ahwam
ldthamf [
Idhi ||
f ntu *
J itam * J ntdm *
3. tuP tam tdm
[ aMm f 1 atdm t
atu (j
*Ini, 4,6,10. f In 2,3,7,5,8,9. J In 2,7,5,8,9. 1113. || In 2,3.7.
84
In 9, ana is substituted for the hi of the 2d sing. Imperative
after roots ending in consonants.
J\ . .. ' -' .{''*--
First preterite (requiring the augment a).
m
va ma vahi mahi
ami i{
\itham*\
sip tam ta thas \ .1 . A dhwam
[dtham j [
\itdm* jnta*
t tdm <an% ta
[dtdmf \ata-f

* In 1,4,6,10. fin 2,3,7,5,8,9. tin 2,7,5,8,9. In 3.

Second preterite.
1.NaP *iva *ima e *ivahe *imahe
z.ithaV'or thaV athus a *ishe athe *idhwe or*idhwe
3-NaP atus us e ate ire
* Only eight roots, viz. sru, stu, dru, snu, kri, bhri, sri, vri,
reject the initial i from the terminations marked with * 5- and of
these eight all but snu and vri reject it also in the 2d sing. Par.
The termination idhwe in the 2d plural, Xtmane-pada, is espe
cially applicable to roots ending in vowels, but is admissible
for all others.
First future.
1. tdsmi tdswas tdsmas tdhe tdswahe tdsmahe
2. tdsi tdsthas tdstha tdse tdsdthe tddhwe
3. td tdrau taras td tdrau tdras
Many roots prefix i to the terminations of the above tense
throughout: thus, 1. itdsmi, 2. itdsi, &c.
35

Second future.
1. syami syavas sydmas sye sydvahe sydmahe
2. syasi syathas syatha syase syethe syadhwe
3. syati syatas syanti syate syete syante
Many roots prefix i to the terminations of the above tense
throughout: thus, 1. ishydmi, 2. ishyasi, &c.

Thirdpreterite (requiring the augment a) .


Form I. Terminations of the memorial scheme.
1 . sam swa sma \ si swahi smahi
2. sis stamovtam staovta sthds* satham dhwamf
$.sit stdmovtdm sus staovta sdtdm sata
The same terminations with i prefixed, except in 2d and
3d sing., where initial s is rejected.
1 . isham ishwa ishma ishi ishwahi ishmahi
2. is ish{am ishta ishthds ishdthdm idhwam%
3. U ishfdm ishus ishta ishdtdm ishata
Form II.Terminations resembling those of 1st preterite.
1. am ava or va ama or ma eori dvahi dmahi
2. as or s atamortam ataovta athds ethdm\ adhwam
3. at or t atamortam an or us ata etdm\\ antaoxata

Benedictive.
1. yasam yasioa yasma siya swahi simahi
2. yds ydstam ydsta sishthds siydsthdm sidhivam*i\
$.ydt ydstdm ydsus sishta siydstdm stran

* Or this. t Or dhwam. % Or idhwam. Or dthdm.


|| Or dtdm. % Or sirlhwam.
D 2
36
Many roots prefix t to the Atmane, but not to the Parasmai,
of the Benedictive : thus, i. ishiya, 2. ishishthds, &c.

Conditional (requiring the augment a).


1. syam sydva sydma sye sydvahi sydmahi
2. syas syatam syata syathds syethdm syadhwam
3. syat syatdm syan syata syetdm syanta
Many roots prefix t to the terminations of the above tense
throughout : thus, 1. ishyam, 2. ishyas, &c.

83. The above terminations are supposed to be


applicable to all verbs, whether primitive or deriva
tive : and as in nouns, so in verbs, the theory of
Indian grammarians is, that before these terminations
can be affixed to roots, an inflective base must be
formed out of the root. Ten different rules, there
fore, are propounded for forming verbal bases out of
roots in the first four tenses; while all verbs are
arranged under ten classes, according as they follow
one or other of these rules. In the other tenses
there is only one general rule for forming the base.
84. These ten classes of verbs are called the ten
conjugations; and the four tenses, which alone are
affected by the conjugational rules (viz. the present,
potential, imperative, and first preterite), are called
the conjugational tenses.
85. The following is a brief summary of the ten
rules for forming the base of the four conjugational
tenses in the ten classes of verbs, according to the
Indian arrangement of the conjugations.
1st class (1st conjugation). Gunate the vowel of
37
the root (unless it be w a or be long or precede a dou
ble consonant) before every termination of the four
tenses, and affix the vowel alengthened to d
before initial m or v to the root thus gunated.
2d class (2d conjugation). Gunate the radical
vowel (unless it be a or be long or precede a dou
ble consonant) before those terminations only which
are marked with P in the scheme (see pp. 33, 34).
Before all the other terminations the original vowel
of the root must be retained.
3d class (3d conjugation). Reduplicate the initial
consonant and vowel of the root (d being reduplicated
for dh, b for bh,j for h), and gunate the radical but
not the reduplicated vowel before the P terminations
only, as in the 2d conjugation.
4th class (4th conjugation). Affix n yalength
ened to in yd before initial m or vto the root, the
vowel of which is generally left unchanged.
5th class (5th conjugation). Affix j nu to the
root, and gunate this nu into no before the P termina
tions only.
6th class (6th conjugation). Affix a length
ened to ^tT d before initial m or vto the root, which
in other respects generally remains unchanged.
7th class (7th conjugation). Insert ?T na between
the vowel and final consonant of the root before the
P terminations, and n before the other termina
tions. Observe the peculiarity of this conjugation
that the conjugational na or n is inserted into the
middle of the root, and not affixed.
8th class (8th conjugation). Affix 7 w to the
98
root, and gunate this u into o before the P termina
tions only. Observe As all the roots, except one,
in this class, end in n, the 8th conjugation will
appear to be exactly similar to the 5th.
9th class (9th conjugation). Affix TT nd to the
root before the P terminations ; rft ni before all the
others, except those beginning with vowels, where
only ^ n is affixed.
10th class (10th conjugation). Gunate the radical
vowel throughout all the persons of all the tenses,
and affix VSTH aya lengthened to ^RT ayd before
initial m or vto the root thus gunated.
86. It will appear, from a cursory examination
of the above rules, that the object of all of them,
except the 2d, 3d, and 7th, is to insert a vowel,
either alone or preceded by y or n, between the
modified root and the terminations ; and that the
1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th, agree in requiring that the
vowel, which is immediately to precede the termina
tions, shall be a. It will appear, moreover, that the
2d, 3d, and 7th, alone agree in not interposing a
vowel between the final of the root and the termina
tions; and that the 5th, 8th, and 9th, agree in inter
posing either u, d, or i, after the letter n.
PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE FIRST NINE CLASSES IN THE
SIX NON-CONJUGATIONAL TENSES.
The general rules for the formation of the base
in the 2d preterite, 1st and 2d futures, 3d preterite,
benedictive, and conditional, apply to all verbs of
the first nine classes indiscriminately. The 10th
class alone carries its conjugational characteristic
into most of the non-conjugational tenses ; and for
this reason the consideration of its last five tenses
falls most conveniently under causal verbs.

Second preterite.
87. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs
of the first nine classes.
In the first place, if a root begin with a consonant,
reduplicate the initial consonant with its vowel (a
being reduplicated for a, d, ri, ri ; i for i, i, e ; u
for u, u, 0; d for dh ; p for ph ; b for bh ; ch for k,
kh, ksh ; j for g, gh, h ; t for sth ; j for hr) :
thus, from budh, 1st c., 'to know/ comes the base
bubudh ; from nrit, 4th c., ' to dance,' nanrit ; from
ydch, 1st c., 'to ask,' yaydch; from kri, 8th c, 'to
do,' chakri; from tri, 1st c., 'to cross,' tatri ; from
sidh, sishidh by r. 70 larger Grammar; from sev,
sishev ; from pu, pupu.
And if it begin with a vowel, double the initial
vowel : thus, from as, ' to be,' as.
In the second place, if the root end in a conso
nant, gunate the vowel of the radical syllable, except
as debarred at p. 37, 1. 1, in the 1st, 2d, and 3d sin
gular, Parasmai-pada (as bubodh for bubudh) ; but
leave the vowel unchanged before all the other ter
minations, Parasmai and Xtmane-pada.
And if the root end in a vowel, vriddhi the vowel
of the radical syllable in the 1st and 3d singular,
Parasmai (as chakdr for chakri), and gunate it in
the 2d singular (as chakar for chakri) ; but before all
40
the other teminations, Parasmai and Atmane-pada,
it must revert to its original form, and then suffer
the usual change required by the rules of Sandhi.
88. Thus, from budh, 1st c., comes the base of
the singular Parasm. bubodh; but the base of the
rest of the tense is bubudh.
Again, from kri, 8th c., 'to do,' comes the base
of the 1st and 3d singular Parasm. chakdr, the base
of the 2d sing. chakar ; but the base of the rest of
the tense is chakri.
89. Roots which begin with a vowel, long by
nature or position (except dp, 5th c., ' to obtain ;'
dnchh, 1st c., 'to stretch;' and except roots having
an initial a before two consonants), and all roots of
more than one syllable (excepting urnu, 2d c, 'to
cover'), form their 2d preterites by adding dm to
the base, and affixing the 2d preterite of some one
of the auxiliary verbs, as, 'to be;' bhu, 'to be;'
kri, 'to do.' (Observedm with chakdra becomes
dnchakdra.) Thus, from ik, 2d c., ' to rule,' comes
1st and 3d sing. 2d pret. isdmdsa or ikdmbabhuva or
isdnchakdra ; from chakds, 2d c., 'to shine,' comes
chakdsdhchakdra. When the Atmane-pada inflection
has to be employed, kri only is used : thus, id, 2d c.
Atm., 'to praise,' makes 1st and 3d sing. 2d pret.
iddnchakre.
Observe Roots of the 10th class form their 2d
pret. in this way, the syllable dm being added to the
base: thus, from chur, 10th c., 'to steal,' 2d pret.
sing. 1. 3. choraydmdsa.
Also in the same way is formed the 2d preterite
41

of all derivative verbs, such as causals, desideratives,


and frequentatives.

First and second future.


90. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs
of the first nine classes. Gunate the vowel of the
root (except as debarred at p. 37, 1. 1, and except in
certain uncommon roots of the 6th class) throughout
all the persons of both first and second future.
Note, that in all roots ending in consonants,
except those included in the list at 400 of the
larger Grammar, and in a few ending in vowels,
the vowel \i must be inserted between the root so
gunated, and the terminations.
9 1 . Thus, from ji, 1 st c, ' to conquer,' comes the
base je. So also, from budh, 1st c., ' to know/ comes
the base bodhi.
Third preterite.
92. Rule for the formation of the base for those
verbs of the first nine classes which reject ^ i. In
the Parasmai, if a root end in either a vowel or a
consonant, vriddhi the radical vowel before all the
terminations. In the i^tmane, if a root end in ^ i,
^ i, n u, or ^ u, gunate the radical vowel ; and if in
^ ri or any consonant, leave the vowel unchanged
before all the terminations. ObserveThe augment
a must always be prefixed, as in the 1st preterite.
93. Thus, from ni, 1st c., 'to lead/ come the two
bases anai for Parasmai and ane for ^tmane ; and
from kri, 8th c., ' to make/ come the two bases akdr
for Parasmai and akri for Atmane.
So from yuj, 7th c., ' to join,' come the two bases
ayauj for Parasmai and aynj for A'tinane.
94. Those verbs which assume ^ i reject the ini
tial sibilant from the terminations of the 2d and 3d
sing., and the i then blends with the initial i of those
terminations. In the other terminations the i causes
the change of * to sh by r. 70 larger Grammar.
The following is the rule for the formation of the
base for those verbs of the first nine classes which
assume \ i before the terminations, as above.
If a root end in the vowels S[ i, ^ i, T u, "3i u,
^ r*, "% Th vriddhi those vowels in the Parasmai
before all the terminations, and gunate them in the
^tmane.
If a root end in a single consonant, gunate the
radical vowel in both Parasmai and ^tmane (except
as debarred at p. 37, 1. 1).
95. Thus, from pu, 9th c., 'to purify,' come the
two bases apau for Parasmai and apo for Xtmane.
And budh, 1st c., ' to know,' makes its base abodh
in both Parasmai and A'tmane.
96. There is a form of the 3d preterite resembling
the 1st preterite. In general the terminations are
attached directly to the i*oot: thus, gam, 1st c., 'to
go,' makes agamam, &c.; bhid, 7th c., 'to break,'
abhidam ; nak, 4th c, ' to perish,' anakam.
97. In causal verbs and verbs of the 10th class
the base assumes a peculiar reduplication (analogous
to the Greek pluperfect) : thus, from budh, 1st c., ' to
know,' comes the causal 3d pret. abubudham, &c.
Benedictive or precative.
98. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs of
the first nine classes. In the Parasmai, as a general
rule, leave the root unchanged before the termina
tions, and never insert i ; but in the Atmane prefix
i to the terminations in those roots ending in con
sonants or vowels which take the inserted i in the
futures, and before this i gunate the radical vowel.
It is also gunated in the Xtmane in some roots ending
in vowels which reject i : but if a root end in a con
sonant, and reject i, the radical vowel is left un
changed in the i&mane, as well as Parasmai.
Thus, from bhu, 1st c, ' to be,' come the base of
the Parasmai bhu, and the base of the j&mane bhavi.

Conditional.
99. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs
of the first nine classes.. Prefix the augment a,
gunate the radical vowel, except as debarred at p. 37,
1. 1, and insert i before the terminations if the futures
insert i. When i is rejected, the rules of Sandhi
must be observed.
Infinitive.
100. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs
of the ten classes. The base of the infinitive is
identical with the base of the first future, and where
one inserts ^ i, the other does also: thus, budh, 1st c.,
' to know/ makes bodhitum; kship, 6th c., ' to throw,'
makes ksheptum. Hence, by substituting um for
the final d of the 3d pers. sing. of the 1st future,
44

the infinitive is at once obtained: thus, saktd, kaktum;


tyaktd, tyaktum.

DERIVATIVE VERBS.
1 o1. Sanskrit roots are in number about two
thousand ; and the theory of grammarians is, that
each of them may serve as the rough block out
of which the inflective bases of five kinds of verbs
may be fashioned: 1. of a primitive, transitive or
intransitive ; 2. of a passive ; 3. of a causal, having
often a causal and often merely a transitive signifi
cation ; 4. of a desiderative, giving a sense of wishing
to the root ; and 5. of a frequentative (or intensive),
implying repetition, or heightening the idea contained
in the root.
The first, or primitive verb, is formed from the
root, according to the ten different rules (or conju
gations) already given for the formation of the base
in the first four tenses. The second, or passive, is
formed according to the rule for the change of the
root, required by the 4th conjugation ; viz. the
addition of ya in the first four tenses. The third,
or causal, is formed according to the rule for the
change of the root, required by the 10th conju
gation ; viz. the addition of aya to the root in all
the tenses except the 3d preterite. The fourth,
or desiderative, is formed by the addition of sa or
isha, the root also undergoing reduplication. The
fifth, or frequentative, is formed like the passive,
according to the rule required by the 4th conjuga
tion, and is, in fact, a reduplicated passive verb. It
45

may also be formed analogously to the rule for the


3d conjugation. Thus, take the root Tin? subh, con
veying the idea of ' shining'from this are elicited,
1st, the primitive verbal base, kobha, 'to shine;'
2dly, the passive, kubhya, ' to be bright ;' 3dly, the
causal, sobhaya, 'to cause to shine' or 'illuminate;'
4thly, the desiderative, kusobhisha, 'to desire to
shine ;' 5thly, the frequentative or intensive, $ohi-
bhya or kokobh, ' to shine very brightly.'

PRESENT PARTICIPLES ; PARASMAI-PADA.


102. These are the only participles that have any
affinity with the conjugational structure of the verb.
The base in the Parasmai is formed by substituting
t for nti, and ^r^ at for anti and ati, the termina
tions of the 3d plural present ; so that the peculiari
ties of conjugation necessarily appear in the partici
ple : thus, from tj^fifr pachanti, ' they cook ' (3d pl.
pres. ofpach, 1st c.), comes q^7rspachat, 'cooking.'

PRESENT PARTICIPLES ; ATMANE-PADA.


103. The base is formed by substituting unR mdna
for nte, the termination of the 3d plur. pres. of verbs
of the 1st, 4th, and 6th conjugations, and passives ;
and by substituting ^rPT ana for ate, the termination
of the 3d plur. pres. of verbs of the other conjuga
tions: thus, from Thrift pachante (1st conj.) comes
TT^*rrT pachamdna, ' cooking.'
But from bruvate (bru, 2d conj.), w^m bru-
vdna.
Verbs of the 10th conjugation and causals may
46
substitute either mdna or ana, but more frequently
the latter.
Passives and other derivative verbs always substi
tute mdna.
PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES.
104. In general the base is formed by adding w ta
directly to the root ; as, from fgjt^ kship, ' to throw,'
fgjjr kshipta, 'thrown.'
But if the root end in ^ ri, by adding r na ; as,
from ^ kri, ' to scatter,' Mrna, ' scattered.' Some
roots in d, ^ i, and ;3i u, some in ij ai preceded by
two consonants, with some of those in ^ d, J. r,
one in iT g, and one in ^ ch, rejecting inserted i from
the participle, also take na instead of ta.
105. Those roots ending in consonants which
take the inserted i in the last five tenses, generally
take this vowel also in the past passive participle,
but not invariably. Whenever i is assumed, ta is
affixed, and not na ; as, from tjT^ pat, ' to fall,'
TjfSTiT patita, ' fallen.'
Roots ending in consonants which reject the in
serted i in the last five tenses, generally reject it in
the past passive participle. They must be combined
with ta, agreeably to the rules of Sandhi. Whatever
form, therefore, the final consonant assumes before
the termination td of the 1st future, the same form
will generally, though not invariably, be preserved
before the ta of the past participle ; so that, in many
cases, this participle may be derived from the 3d
sing. of the 1st future by shortening the final o,
*7
and, if necessary, restoring the radical vowel to its
original state.
PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLES DERIVED FROM PAST PASSIVE
PARTICIPLES.
106. The base of these participles is easily formed
by adding vat to that of the past passive partici
ple : thus, from ^ft krita, ' done/ ^iri^rT kritavat,
'having done' or 'one who has done.'
PAST INDECLINABLE PARTICIPLES.
107. These may be classed under two heads.
When the root stands alone and uncompounded,
the indeclinable participle is formed with twd.
This affix is closely allied to the ft ta of the past
passive participle at 104, insomuch that the rules
for the annexation of ft ta to the root apply equally
to the indeclinable affix T^T twd. The formation,
therefore, of one participle generally involves that
of the other: thus, from fgfff kshipta, 'thrown,'
fsjrn kshiptwd, ' having thrown.'
108. When a root is compounded with a prepo
sition or any indeclinable prefix (excepting a,
'not'), the indeclinable participle cannot be formed
with twd. The affix n ya is then used, and the
rules which regulate its annexation to the root are
some of them analogous to those which prevail in
other cases in which ya is affixed.
But if a root end in a short vowel, instead of
any lengthening of this vowelj ft^ t is interposed;
as, from ^rrf%T dsri, 'to take refuge' (root kri),
"srrftjTPT dsritya, ' having taken refuge.'
48
FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLES.
109. These are formed, 1st, by substituting
tavya for HT td, the termination of the 3d pers. sing.
of the 1st future: thus, from TSfTTT ksheptd, 'he will
throw,' 'ijrrei ksheptavya, ' to be thrown.'
2dly, by adding ^nifa aniya directly to the root,
without any other change than the Guna of the
radical vowel : thus, from fa chi, ' to gather/ ^Jpfta
chayaniya, 'to be gathered.'
3dly, by adding T( ya ; and before this affix, as
before all others beginning with y, certain changes
of final vowels become necessary : thus
If a root end in d, or in ?e, 7 ai, ^ft 0, change
able to ^rr d, this vowel becomes ij e.
If in ^ i, \ i, 7 u, or gi u, these vowels are gunated ;
as, from fsr chi, ^fal cheya.
If in ri or ^ro, these vowels are vriddhied ; as,
from kri, chr kdrya.
1 10. Conjugation of the auxiliary verb 'sra as, ' to be.'
Pabasma1-pada.
Present, 'I am.' First preterite,' I was.'
PERS. SING. DUAL. PLURAL. SING. DUAL. PLURAL.
1st, asmi swas smas dsam dswa dsma
2d, asi sthas stha dsis dstam dsta
3d, asti stas santi dsit dstdm dsan
Potential, ' I,may be,' &c. Imperative,' Let me be.'
syam syava syama asdni asdva asdma
syds sydtam sydta edhi . stam sta
sydt sydtdm syus astu stdm santu
IT
49
Second preterite, ' I was,' &c.
Parasma1. Atmane.
dsa dsiva dsima dse dsivahe dsimahe
dsitha dsathus dsa dsishe dsdthe dsidhwe or -dhwe
dsa dsatus dsns dse dsdte dsire
FIRST CONJUGATION.
1n. -Root *(^bhii. Infin. nfelj bhaviturn, 'to be'
or ' become.'
Parasma1-pada. Present am' or 'I become.'
PERS. SING. DUAL. PLURAL.
1st, bhavdmi bhavdvas bhavdmas
ad, bhavasi bhavathas bhavatha
3d, bhavati bhavatas bhavanti
Potential, ' I may be.'
bhaveyam bhaveva bhavema
bhaves bhavetam bhaveta
bhavet bhavetam bhaveyus
Imperative, ' Let me be.'
bhavdni bhavdva bhavdma
bhava bhavatam bhavata
bhavatu bhavatam bhavantu
First preterite, ' I was.'
abhavam abhavdva abhavdma
abhavas abhavatam abhavata
abhavat abhavatam abhavan
Second preterite, ' I was.'
babhuva babhuviva babhuvima
babhuvitha bdbhuvathus babhuva
babhuva babhuvatus babhuvus
E
50
First future, ' I will be.'
bhavitdsmi bhavitdswas bhavitdsmas
bhavitdsi bhavitdsthas bhavitdstha
bhavitd bhavitdrau bhavitdras
Second future, ' I shall be.'
bhavishydmi bhavishydvas bhavishydmas
bhavishyasi bhavishyathas bhavishyatha
bhavishyati bhavishyatas bhavishyanti
Third preterite, ' I was' or ' had been,' &c.
abhuvam abhuva abhuma
abhus abhutam abhuta
abhut abhutdm abhuvan
Benedictive, ' May I be.'
bhuydsam bhuydswa bhuydsma
bhuyds bhuydstam bhuydsta
bhuydt bhuydstdm bhuydsus
Conditional, (If) ' I should be.'
abhavishyam abhavishydva abhavishydma
abhavishyas abhavishyatam abhavishyata
abhavishyat abhavishyatdm abhavishyan

112. Atmane-pada. Present tense, ' I am,' &c.


bhave bhavdvahe bhavdmahe
bhavase bhavethe bhavadhwe
bhavate bhavete bhavante
Potential, ' I may be,' &c.
bhaveya bhavevahi bhavemahi
bhavethds bhaveydthdm bhavedhwam
bhaveta bhaveydtdm bhaveran
61

Imperative, ' Let me be.'


bhavai bhavdvahai bhavdmahai
bhavaswa bhavethdm bhavadhwam
bhavatdm bhavetdm bhavantdm
First preterite, ' I was.'
abhave abhavdvahi abhavdmahi
abhavathds abhavethdm abhavadhwam
abhavata abhavetdm abhavanta
Second preterite, ' I was,' &c.
babhuve babhuvivahe babhuvimahe
babhuvishe babhuvdthe babhuvidhwe or -dhwe
babhuve babhuvdte babhuvire
First future, ' I will be,' &c.
bhavitdhe bhavitdswahe bhavitdsmahe
bhavitdse bhavitdsdthe bhavitddhwe
bhavitd bhavitdrau bhavitdras
Second future, ' I shall be,' &c.
bhavishye bhavishydvahe bhavishydmahe
bhavishyase bhavishyethe bhavishyadhwe
bhavishyate bhaviskyete bhavishyante
Third preterite, CI was' or ' had been,' &c.
abhavishi abhavishwahi abhavishmahi
abhavishthds abhavishdthdm abhavidhwam or -dhwam
abhavishta abhavishdtdm abhavishata
Benedictive, ' I wish I may be.'
bhavisMya bhavishivahi bhavishimahi
bhavisMshthds bhavishiydsthdm bhavishidhwam or -dhwam
bhavishishta bhavishiydstdm bhavisMran
E 2
52
Conditional, (If) ' I should be,' &c.
abhavishye abhavishydvahi abhavishydmahi
abhavishyathds abhavishyethdm abhavishyadhwam
abhavishyata abhavishyetdm abhavishyanta
Passive, Pres. bhuye, bhuyase, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing.
abhdvi. Causal, Pres. bhdvaydmi. bhdvayasi, &c. ;
3d Pret. abibhavam, &c. Desiderative, Pres. bubhu-
shdmi, bubhushasi, &c. Desiderative form of Causal,
bibhdvayishdmi, &c. Frequentative, Pres. bobhuye,
bobhomi or bobhavimi. Participles, Pres. bhavat ;
Past pass. bhuta ; Past indecl. bhutwd, -bhuya ; Fut,
pass. bhavitavya, bhavamya, bhdvya or bhavya.

SECOND CONJUGATION.
' 113. Root ^ i. Infin. *n| etum, 'to go.'
For i with adhi, d, &c, see larger Gr. 311.
Present, '1 go.' Imperative, ' Let me go.*
emi was imas aydni aydva aydma
eshi ithas itha ihi itam ita
eti itas yanti etu itdm yantu

Potential, ' I may go.' Firstpreterite,' I was going.'


iydm iydva iydma ayam awa aima
iyds iydtam iydta ais aitam aita
iydt iydtdm iyus ait aitdm dyan
2d Pret. iydya, iyayitha or iyetha, iydya ; iyiva,
iyathus, iyatus ; iyima, iya, iyus. 1st Fut. etdsmi, &c.
2d Fut. eshydmi, &c. 3d Pret. agdm, agds, agdt ;
agdva, agdtam, agdtdm; agdma, agdta, agw. Bened,
53

iydsam, &e. (the initial i may be shortened when


a prep. i3 prefixed; as, niriydsam, ' may I go forth?').
Cond. aishyam, &c. Passive, Pres. iye; 1st Fut.
etdhe or dyitdhe ; 2d Fut. eshye or dyishye ; 3d Pret.
3d sing. agdyi or agdsata or dyishata. Causal, gama-
ydmi (substituted from gam) or dyaydmi or dpaydmi ;
3d Pret. ajigamam or dyiyam or dpipam {with adAi
prefixed, adhyajigapam). Des. jigamishdmi (substi
tuted from ^rarn) or ishishdmi, she. Participles, Pres.
ya< (Nom. case m. yara) ; Past pass. ita; Past indecl.
itwd, -itya; Fut. pass. etavya, ayaniya, itya or eya.
THIRD CONJUGATION.
1 14. Root |[ hu. Infin. ^ij hotum, ' to sacrifice.'
Parasma1-pada. Present tense,' I sacrifice.'
juhomi juhuvas or juhwas juhumas or juhmas
juhoshi juhuthas juhutha
juhoti juhutas juhwati
Potential, ' I may sacrifice.'
juhuydm juhuydva juhuydma
juhuyds juhuydtam juhuydta
juhuydt juhuydtdm juhuyus
Imperative, ' Let me sacrifice.'
juhavdni juhavdva juhavdma
juhudhi juhutam juhuta
juhotu juhutdm juhwatu
First preterite, ' I was sacrificing.'
ajuhavam ajuhuva ajuhuma
ajuhos ajuhutam ajuhuta
ajuhot ajuhutdm ajuhavus
54

2d Pret. juhdva, juhavitha or juhotha, juhdva;


juhuviva, juhuvathus, juhuvatus; juhuvima, juhuva,
juhuvus. Or juhavdnchakdra, &c. 1st Fut. hotdsmi,
&c. 2d Fut. hoshydmi, &c. 3d Pret. ahausham,
ahausMs, ahaushtt; ahaushwa, ahaushtam, ahaushtam;
ahaushma, ahaushta, ahaushus. Bened. huydsam, &c.
Cond. ahoshyam, &c. Passive, Pres. huye ; 3d Pret.
3d sing. ahdvi. Causal, Pres. hdvaydmi; 3d Pret.
ajuhavam. Des. juhushdmi. Freq. johuye, johomi
or johavimi. Participles, Pres. juhwat (Nona. case m.
juhwat); Past pass. huta; Past indecl. hutwd, -hutya ;
Fut. pass. hotavya, havaniya, havya or hdvya.

FOURTH CONJUGATION.
115. Root *j^ muh. Infin. >frf%Tj mohitum, 'to be
troubled/ 'to be bewildered/ 'to faint.'
Parasma1-pada. Present tense,' I am troubled.'
muhydmi muhydvas muhydmas
muhyasi muhyathas muhyatha
muhyati muhyatas muhyanti

Potential, ' I may be troubled.'


muhyeyam muhyeva muhyema
muhyes muhyetam muhyeta
muhyet muhyetdm muhyeyus

Imperative, ' Let me be troubled.'


muhydni muhydva muhydma
muhya muhyatam muhyata
muhyatu muhyatdm muhyantu
55

First preterite, ' I was troubled.'


amuhyam amuhydva amuhydma
amuhyas amuhyatam amuhyata
amuhyat amuhyatam amuhyan
Second preterite, ' I became troubled.'
mumoha mumuhiva mumuhima
mumohitha* mumuhathus mumuha
mumoha mumuhatus mumuhus
First future, ' I will be troubled.'
mohitdsmi mohitdswas mohitdsmas
mohitdsi mohitdsthas mohitdstha
mohitd mohitdrau mohitdras
Second future, ' I shall be troubled.'
mohishydmi mohishydvas mohishydmas
mohishyasi mohishyathas mohishyatha
mohishyati mohishyatas mohishyanti
Third preterite, ' I became troubled.'
amuham amuhdva amuhdma
amuhas amuhatam amuhata
amuhat amuhatam amuhan
Benedictive, ' May I be troubled.'
muhydsam muhydswa muhydsma
muhyds muhydstam muhydsta
muhydt muhydstdm muhydsus
Conditional, ' I should be troubled.'
amohishyam amohishydva amohishydma
amohishyas amohishyatam amohishyata
amohishyat amohishyatdm amohishyan
* Or mumodha or mumogdha.
56

Passive, Pres. muhye ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. amohi.


Causal, Pres. mohaydmi ; 3d Pret. amumuham. Des.
mumohishdmi or mumuhishdmi or mumukshdmi. Freq.
momuhye, momohmi ; 3d sing. momodhi or momogdhi.
Participles, Pres. muhyat; Past pass. mudha or mug-
dha; Past indecl. mohitwd or muhitwd or mugdhwd
or mudhwd, -muhya ; Fut. pass. mohitavya or mo^r-
dhapya, mohaniya, mohya.
FIFTH CONJUGATION.
116. Root ^ Infin. <rfqr varitum or ^faj wa-
ritum, 'to cover,' 'to enclose' (in 9th c. 'to choose').
Note, that the conjugational nu becomes tit mi
after ^ iri by r. 58. (larger Gr.)
Pabasmai-pada. Present tense, ' I cover,' &c.
vrinomi vrinuvas or vrinwas vrinumas or vrinmas
vrinoshi vrinuthas vrinutha
vrinoti vrinutas vrinwanti
Potential, ' I may cover,' &c.
vrinuydm vrinuydva vrinuydma
vrinuyds vrinuydtam vrinuydta
vrinuydt vrinuydtdm vrinuyus
Imperative, ' Let me cover,' &c.
vrinavdni vrinavdva vrinavdma
vrinu vrinutam vrinuta
vrinotu vrinutdm vrinwantu
First preterite, ' I was covering,' &c.
avrinavam avrinuva or avrinwa avrinuma or avrinma
aminos avrinutam avrinuta
avrinot avrinutam avrinwan
57

2d Pret. vavdra, vavaritha, vavdra; vavriva or


vavariva, vavrathus, vavratus; vavrima or vavarima,
vavra, vavrus or vavarus. 1st Fut. varitdsmi or vari-
tdsmi. 2d Fut. varishydmi or varishydmi. 3d Pret.
avdrisham, avdris, avdrit ; avdrishwa, avdrishtam,
avdrishtam; avdrishma, avdrishta, avdrishus. Bened.
vriydsam or vurydsam, &c. Cond. avarishyam or
avarishyam, &c.
Atmane-pada. Present tense, ' I cover,' &c.
vnnwe vrinuvahe or vrinwahe vrinumahe *
vrinushe vrinwdthe vrinudhwe
minute vrinwdte vrinwate
Potential, ' I may cover/ &c.
vrinwiya vrinwivahi vrinwimahi
vrinwithds vrinwiydthdm vrinwidhwam
vrinwita vrinwiydtdm vrinwiran
Imperative, ' Let me cover/ &c.
vrinavai vrinavdvahai vrinavdmahai
vrinushwa vrinwdthdm vrinudhwam
vrinutdm vrinwdtdm vrinwatdm
First preterite.
avrinwi avrinuvahi or avrinwahi avrinumahif
avrinuthds avrinwdthdm avrinudhwam
avrinuta avrinwdtdm avrinwata
2d Pret. vavre or vavare, vavfishe, vavre or vavare ;
vavrivahe, vavrdtke, vavrdte ; vavrimahe, vavridhwe,
vavrire. 1st Fut. varitdhe or varitdhe, &c. 2d Fut.
varishye or varishye, &c. 3d Pret. avarishi, avari-
* Or vrinmahe. t Or avrinmahi.
58
shthds, avarishta ; avarishwahi, avarishdthdm, avari-
shdtdm ; avarishmahi, avaridhwam or -ridhwam, ava-
rishata. Or avarishi, avarishthds, &c. Or avrishi,
avrithds, avrita; avrishwahi, avrishdthdm, avrishd-
tdm; avrishmahi, avridhwam, avrishata. Or avur-
shi, avurshthds, avurshta ; avurshwahi, avurshdthdm,
avurshdtdm; avurshmahi, avurdhipam, avurshata.
Bened. varishiya or vrishiya or vurshiya. Cond.
avarishye or avarishye. Passive, vriye ; 3d Pret. 3d
sing. avdri. Causal, Pres. varaydmi or -ye, or vdra-
ydmi or -ye; 3d Pret. avivaram. Des. vivarishdmi or
-she, vivarishdmi or -she, vuvurshdmi or -she. Freq. ve-
vriye or vovurye, varvarmi. Participles, Pres. vrinwat ;
Ktm. vrinwdna; Past pass. vrita; Past indecl. vritwd,
-vritya ; Fut. pass. varitavya or varitavya, varaniya,
vdrya.
SIXTH CONJUGATION.
117. Root ics^srij. Infin. srashtum, 'to create'
or ' let go.'
Parasma1-pada only. Present tense, ' I create.'
srijdmi srijdvas srijdmas
srijasi srijathas srijatha
srijati srijatas srijanti
Potential, ' I may create.'
srijeyam srijeva srijema
srijes srijetam srijeta
srijet srijetdm srijeyus
Imperative, ' Let me create.'
srijdni srijdva srijdma
srija srijatam srijata
srijatu srijatdm srijantu
59

First preterite, ' I was creating.'


asrijam asrijdva asrijdma
asrijas asrijatam asrijata
asrijat asrijatdm asrijan
Second preterite, ' I created.'
sasarja sasrijiva sasrijima
sasarjitha or sasrashtha sasrijathus sasrija
sasarja sasrijatus sasrijus
First future, ' I will create.'
srashtdsmi srashtdswas srashtdsmas
srashtdsi srashtdsthas srashtdstha
srashtd srashtdrau srashtdras
Second future, ' I shall create.'
srakshydmi srakshydvas srakshydmas
srakshyasi srakshyathas srakshyatha
srakshyati srakshyatas srakshyanti
Third preterite, ' I created.'
asrdksham asrdkshwa asrdkshma
asrdksMs asrdshtam asrdshta
asrdksMt asrdshtam asrdkshus
Benedictive, ' May I create.'
srijydsam srijydswa srijydsma
srijyds < srijydstam srijydsta
srijydt srijydstdm srijydsus
Conditional, ' I should create.'
asrakshyam asrakshydva asrakshydma
asrakshyas asrakshyatam asrakshyata
asrakshyat asrakshyatdm asrakshyan
60

Passive, Pres. srijye ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. asarji.


Causal, Pres. sarjaydmi ; 3d Pret. asasarjam or asi-
srijam. Des. sisrikshdmi, -kshe. Freq. sarisrijye or
sarisrijmi (3d sing. samsrishti).. Participles, Pres.
srijat ; Past pass. srishta ; Past indecl. srishtwd,
-srijya ; Fut. pass. srashtavya, sarjaniya, srijya.

SEVENTH CONJUGATION.
118. Root fs^ chhid. Infin. chhettum, ' to cut.'
Parasma1-pada. Present tense, ' I cut.'
chhinadmi chhindwas chhindmas
chhinatsi chhinthas * chhintha *
chhinatti chhintas * chhindanti
Potential, ' I may cut.'
chhindydm chhindydva chhindydma
chhindyds chhindydtam chhindydta
chhindydt chhindydtdm chhindyus
Imperative, ' Let me cut.'
chhinaddni chhinaddva chhinaddma
chhinddhi or chhindhi * chhintam * chhinta *
chhinattu chhintdm * chhindantu
First preterite, ' I was cutting.'
achhinadam achhindwa achhindma
achhinat) achhintam * achhinta *
achhinat achhintam * achhindan

* The final d, when conjunct with n, may be dropped before


th, t, dh ; but chhintthas, chhinttas, chhinttam, &c, would be
equally correct, and the same in the Atmane.
61

2d Pret. chichheda *, chichheditha, chichheda ;


ehichhidiva, ' chichhidathus, chichhidatus ; chichhidi~
ma, chichhida, chichhidus. 1st Fut. chhettdsmi, &c.
ad Fut. chhetsydmi, &c. 3d Pret. achhidam, achhi-
das, achhidat; achhiddva, achhidatam, achhidatdm ;
achhiddma, achhidata, achhidan. Or achhaitsam,
achhaitsis, achhaitsit ; achhaitswa, ackkaittam,
achhaittdm ; achhaitsma, achhaitta, achhaitsus.
Bened. chhidydsam, &c. Cond. achhetsyam, &c.
Xtmane-pada. Present tense, ' I cut.'
chhinde chhindwahe chhindmahe
chhintse chhinddthe chhindhwe
chhinte chhinddte chhindate
Potential, ' I may cut.'
chhindiya chhindivahi chhindimahi
chhindithds chhindiydthdm chhindidhwam
chhindita chhindiydtdm chhindiran
Imperative, ' Let me cut.'
chhinadai chhinaddvahai chhinaddmahai
chhintswa chhinddthdm chhindhwam
chhintdm chhinddtdm chhindatdm
First preterite.
achhindi achhindwahi achhindmahi
achhinthds achhinddthdm achhindhwam
achhinta achhinddtdm achhindata
2d Pret. chichhide *, chichhidishe, chichhide ;
chichhidivahe, chichhiddthe, chichhiddte ; chi-
* Also written chickchheda &c, chiehchhide Sic, by 48. b.
(larger Gr.)
62

chhidimahe, chichhididhwe, chichhidire. 1st Fut.


chhettdhe, &c. 2d Fut. chhetsye, &c. 3d Pret.
achhitsi, achhitthds, achhitta; achhitswahi, achhi-
tsdthdm, achhitsdtdm; achhitsmahi, achhiddhwam,
achhitsata. Bened. chhitsiya, &c. Cond. achhe-
tsye. Passive, Pres. chhidye, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d
sing. achhedi. Causal, Pres. chhedaydmi; 3d Pret.
achichhidam. Des. chichhitsdmi, -tse. Freq. che-
chhidye, chechhedmi. Participles, Pres. chhindai;
Ktm. chhinddna ; Past pass. chhinna ; Past indecl.
chhittwd, -chhidya ; Fut. pass. chhettavya, chheda-
niya, chhedya.
EIGHTH CONJUGATION.
119. Root kri. Infin. karttum or kartum,
'to do,' 'to make.'
Parasma1-pada. Present tense, ' I do.'
karomi kurvas * kurmas *
karoshi kuruthas kurutha
karoti kurutas kurvanti *
Potential, ' I may do,' &c.
kurydm * kuryava kurydma
kuryds kurydtam kurydta
kurydt kurydtam kuryus
Imperative, ' Let me do,' &c.
karavdni karavdva karavdma
kuru kurutam kuruta
karotu kurutam kurvantu *

v, m, and y may be doubled after r; tbus, kurvvas, &c.


63

First preterite, ' I was doing,' &c.


akaravam akurva akurma
akaros akurutam akuruta
akarot akurutam akurvan
Second preterite, ' I did,' &c.
chakdra chakriva chakrima
chakartha chakrathus chakra
chakdra chakratus chakrus
First future, ' I will do,' &c.
kartdsmi kartdswas kartdsmas
kartdsi kartdsthas kartdstha
kartd kartdrau kartdras
Second future, ' I shall do,' &c.
karishydmi karishydvas karishydmas
karishyasi karishyathas karishyatha
karishyati karishyatas karishyanti
Third preterite, ' 1 did,' &c.
akdrsham akdrshwa akdrshma
akdrshis akdrshtam akdrshta
akdrshit akdrshtam akdrshus
Benedictine, ' May I do,' &c.
kriydsam kriydswa kriydsma
kriyds kriydstam kriydsta
kriydt kriydstdm kriydsus
Conditional, ' I should do/ &c.
akarishyam akarishydva akarishydma
akarishyas akarishyatam akarishyata
akarishyat akarishyatam akarishyan
64
12o. iLTMANE-PADa. Present tense, ' I do,' &c.
kurve kurvahe kurmahe
kurushe kurvdthe kurudhwe
kurute kurvdte kurvate
Potential, ' I may do,' &C.
kurviya kurvwahi kurvimahi
kurvithds kurviydthdm kurvidhwam
kurvita kurviydtdm kurviran
Imperative, ' Let me do,' &c.
karavai karavdvahai karavdmahai
kurushwa kurvdthdm kurudhwam
kurutdm kurvdtdm kurvatdm
First preterite, ' I was doing,' &c.
akurvi akurvahi akurmahi
akuruthds akurvdthdm akurudhwam
akuruta akurvdtdm akurvata
Second preterite, ' I did,' &c.
chakre chakrivahe chakrimahe
chakrishe chakrdthe chakridhwe or -dhwe
chakre chakrdte chakrire
First future, ' I will do,' &c.
kartdhe kartdswahe kartdsmahe
kartdse kartdsdthe kartddhwe
kartd kartdrau kartdras
Second future, ' I shall do,' &c.
karishye karishydvahe karishydmahe
karishyase karishyethe karishyadhwe
karishyate karishyete kurishyante
65

Third preterite, ' I did,' &c.


akrishi akrishwahi akrishmahi
akrithds akrishdthdm akridhwam or -dhwam
akrita akrishdtdm akrishata

Benedictive, ' May I do/ &c.


krishiya krishwahi krishimahi
krisMshthds krishiydsthdm IcrisMdhwam
krishtshta krisMydstdm krishiran

Conditional, ' I should do/ &c.


akarishye akarishydvahi akarishydmahi
akarishyathds akarishyethdm akarishyadhwam
akarishyata akarishyetdm akarishyanta
Passive, Pres. kriye ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. akdri.
Causal, Pres. kdraydmi ; 3d Pret. achikaram. Des.
chikirshdmi, -she. Freq. chekriye, charkarmi or cha-
rikarmi or charikarmi or charkarimi or charikarimi
or charikarimi. Participles, Pres. kurvat ; Ktm.
kurvdna ; Past pass. krita ; Past indecl. kritwd,
-kritya ; Fut. pass. kartavya, karaniya, kdrya.

NINTH CONJUGATION.
121. Root tJ yu. Infin. Tfaij yavitum, 'to join/
' to mix.'
Parasma1-pada. Present tense, ' I join.'
yundmi yunivas yunimas
yundsi yunithas yunitha
yundti yunitas yunanti
F
66

Potential, ' I may join.'


yuniyam yuniydva yuniydma
yuniyds yuniydtam yuniydta
yuniydt yuniydtdm yuniyus
Imperative, 'Let me join.'
yunani yundva yundma
yunihi yunitam
yundtu yunitdm
First preterite, * I was joining.'
ayunam ayuniva ayunima
ayunds ayunitam ayunita
at ayunitdm ayunan
2d Pret. yuydva, yuyavitha or yuyotha, yuydva ;
yuyuviva, yuyuvathus, yuyuvatus; yuyuvima, yuyuva,
yuyuvus. 1st Fut. yavitdsmi or yotdsmi, &c. 2d
Fut. yavishydmi, &c. 3d Pret. aydvishani, -vis,
*vit ; aydvishwa, -vishtam, -vishtdm; aydvishma,
-vishta, -vishus. Bened. yvydsam, &c. Cond.
ayavishyam, &c.

Xtmane-pada. Present tense, ' I join.'


yune yunivahe yunimahe
yunishe yundthe yunidhwe
yunite yundte yunate
Potential, * I may join.'
yuniya
yunithds yunidhwam
yunita
67

Imperative, ' Let me join.'


yunai yundvahai yundmahai
yunishwa yundthdm yunidhwam
yunitdm yundtdm yunatdm
First preterite, * I joined.'
ayuni ayumvahi ayunimahi
ayumthds ayundthdm ayunidhwam
ayunita ayundtdm ayunata
2d Pret. yuyuve, yuyuvishe, yuyuve ; yuyuvivahe,
yuyuvdthe, yuyuvdte ; yuyuvimahe, yuyuvidhwe or
^hwe, yuyuvire. 1st Fut. yavitdhe, &c. 2d Fut.
yavishye, &c. 3d Pret. ayavishi, -vishthds, -vishta ;
ayavishwahi, ayavishdthdm, -shdtdm; ayavishmahi,
rvidhwam, -vishata. Bened. yavishiya, &c. Cond.
ayavishye, &c. Passive, Pres. yuye ; 1st Fut.
yavitdhe; 3d Pret. 3d sing. aydvi. Causal, Pres.
ydvaydmi; 3d Pret. ayiyavam. Des. yuyushdmi
or yiyavishdmi. Freq. yoyuye, yoyomi or yoyavimi.
Participles, Pres. yunat ; Kim. yundna ; Past pass.
yuta ; Past indecl. yutwd, -yutya ; Fut. pass. yavi-
tavya, yavaniya, ydvya or yavya.

TENTH CONJUGATION.
122. Root ^r. chur. Infin. 'tfKCil j chorayitum,
( to steal.'
Parasma1-pada. Present tense,'! steal.'
choraydmi choraydvas choraydmas
chorayasi chorayathas chorayatha
chorayati chorayatas chorayanti
f 2
68

Potential, ' I may steal/ &c.


chorayeyam chorayeva chorayema
chorayes chorayetam chorayeta
chorayet chorayetam chorayeyus
Imperative, ' Let me steal/ &c.
choraydni choraydva choraydma
choraya chorayatam chorayata
chorayatu chorayatdm chorayantw
First preterite, ' I was stealing,' &c.
achorayam achoraydva achoraydma
achorayas achorayatam achorayata
achorayat ackorayatam achorayan
Second preterite, ' I stole.'
choraydmdsa choraydmdsiva choraydmdsima
choraydmdsitha choraydmdsathus choraydmdsa
choraydmdsa choraydmdsatus choraydmdsus
First future, ' I will steal,' &c.
chorayitdsmi chorayitdswas chorayitdsmas
chorayitdsi chorayitdsthas chorayitdstha
chorayitd chorayitdrau chorayitdras
Second future, ' I shall steal,' &c.
chorayishydmi chorayishydvas chorayishydmas
chorayishyasi chorayishyathas chorayishyatha
chorayishyati chorayishyatas chorayishyanti
Third preterite, ' 1 stole,' &c.
achuchuram achuchurdva achuchurdma
achuchuras achuchuratam achuchurata
achuchurat achuchuratam achuchuran
69

Benedictive, ' May I steal/ &c.


cherydsam chorydswa chorydsma
choryds chorydstam chorydsta
chorydt . chorydstdm chorydsus
Conditional, ' I should steal.' '
achorayishyam achorayishydva achorayishydma
achorayishyas achorayishyatam achorayishyata
achorayishyat achorayishyatdm achorayishyan

123. Atmane-pada. Present tense, ' I steal.'


choraye choraydvahe choraydmahe
chorayase chorayethe chorayadhwe
chorayate chorayete chorayante
Potential, ' I may steal,' &c.
chorayeya chorayevahi chorayemahi
chorayethds chorayeydthdm chorayedhwam
chorayeta chorayeydtdm chorayeran
Imperative, ' Let me steal,' &c.
chorayai choraydvahai choraydmahai
chorayaswa chorayethdm chorayadhwam
chorayatdm chorayetdm chorayantdm
First preterite, ' I was stealing,' &c.
achoraye achoraydvahi achoraydmahi
achorayathds achorayethdm achorayadhwam
achorayata achorayetdm achorayanta
Second preterite, ' I stole.'
choraydnchakre choraydnchakrivahe choraydnchakrimahe
ehoraydnchakrishe choraydnchakrdthe choraydnchakridhwe
choraydnchakre choraydnchakrdte choraydnchakrire
70

First future, ' I shall steal.'


chorayitdhe chorayitdswahe chorayitdsmahe
chorayitdse chorayitdsdthe chorayitddhwe
chorayitd chorayitdrau chorayitdras

Second future, ' I will steal.'


chorayishye chorayishydvahe chorayishydmahe
chorayishyase chorayishyethe chorayishyadhwe
chorayishyate chorayishyete chorayishyante

Third preterite, ' I stole/ &c.


achuchure achuchurdvahi achuchurdmahi
achuchurathds achuchurethdm achuchuradhwam
achuchurata achuchuretdm achuchuranta

Benedictive, ' May I steal.' .


chorayisMya chorayisMvahi chorayisMmahi
ehorayishishthds chorayishiydsthdm chorayishidhwam
chorayisMshta chorayishiydstdtn chorayishiran

Conditional, ' I should steal.'


achorayishye achorayishydvahi achorayishydmahi
achorayishyathds achorayishyethdm achorayishyadhwam
achorayishyata achorayishyetdm achorayishyanta
Passive, Pres. chorye ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. achori.
Causal, same as the Primitive verh. Des. chuchora-
yishdmi. Participles, Pres. chorayat ; Kim. chora-
ydna ; Past pass. churita or chorita ; Past indecl.
chorayitwd; Fut. pass. chorayitavya, choraniya,
chorya.
71
Pass1ve verbs.
124. Root da. Infin. ddtum, ' to be given.'
Present, ' I am given.'
diye diydvahe diydmahe
diyase diyethe diyadhwe
diyate diyete diyante
Potential, ' I may be given.'
diyeya diyevahi diyemahi
diyethds diyeydthdm diyedhwam
diyeta diyeydtdm diyeran
Imperative, ' Let me be given.'
diyai diydvahai diydmahai
diyaswa diyethdm diyadhwam
diyatdm diyetdm diyantdm
First preterite, ' I was given.'
adiye adiydvahi adiydmahi
adiyathds adiyethdm adiyadhwam
adiyata adiyetdm adiyanta
Second preterite, '\ have been given.'
dade dadivahe dadimahe
dadishe daddthe dadidhwe or -dhwe
dade daddte dadire
First future, ' I shall be given.'
J ddtdhe or ddtdswahe ddtdsmahe, &c.
\ddyitdhe ddyitdswahe ddyitdsmahe, &c.
Second future, ' I shall be given.'
J ddsye or ddsydvahe ddsydmahe, &c.
[ddyishye ddyishydvahe ddyishydmahe, &c.
Third preterite, ' I was given.'
{adishi or adishwahi adishmahi
addyishi addyishwahi addyishmahi
J adithds or adishdthdm adidhwam
\addyishthds addyishdthdm addyidhwam
- . \adishdtdm adishata
adayi,'
J it was given/ '{[adayishatdm adayishata . . .

Bened. ddsiya or ddyisMya, &c. Cond. addsye


or addyishye.
CAUSAL VEEBS.
1 25. Root "^r rfnS. Infin. ^ftrg darkayitum, ' to
cause to see,' 'to shew.'
Parasma1-pada. Present, ' I cause to see.'
darkaydmi darkaydvas darsaydmas
darkayasi darkayathas darkayatha
darkayati darkayatas darkayanti
Potential, ' I may cause to see.'
' darkayeyam darkayeva darkayema
darkayes darkayetam darkayeta
darkayet darkayetdm darkayeyus
Imperative, ' Let me cause to see.'
darkaydni darkaydva darkaydma
darkaya darkayatam darkayata
darkayatu darkayatam darkayantu
First preterite, ' I was causing to see.'
adarkayam adarkaydva adarkaydma
adarkayas adarkayatam adarkayata
adarsayat adarkayatdm adarkayan
i
73
Second preterite, CI caused to see.'
darkaydmdsa * darkaydmdsiva darkaydmdsima
darkaydmdsitha darkaydmdsathus darkaydmdsa
darkaydmdsa darkaydmdsatus darkaydmdsus
First future, 'I shall or will cause to see.'
darkayitdsmi darkayitdswas darkayitdsmas
darkayitdsi darkayitdsthas darkayitdstha
darkayitd darkayitdrau darkayitdras
Second future, ' I shall or will cause to see.'
darkayishydmi darkayishyuvas darkayishydmas
darkayishyasi darkayishyathas darkayishyatha
darkayishyati darkayishyatas darkayishyanti
3d Pret. adidrisam or adadarkam, &c. Bened.
darkydsam, &c. Cond. adarkayishyam. A'tm. Pres.
darkaye, darkayase, darkayate, &c. Pot. darkayeya.
Imp. darkayai, darkayaswa, &c. 1st Pret. adarkaye.
2d Pret. darkaydnchakre. 1st Fut. darkayitdhe.
2d Fut. darkayishye. 3d Pret. adidrise, adidrisathds,
&c. Bened. darkayishiya. Cond. adarkayishye.

COMPOUND NOUNS.
126. These will be divided into, 1st, Dependent
compounds or compounds dependent in case (cor
responding to Tat-purusha) ; 2d, Aggregative (Dwan-
dwa) ; 3d, Descriptive (Karma-dhdraya) ; 4th, Col
lective (Dwigu) ; 5th, Indeclinable or Adverbial
(Avyayi-bhdva) ; 6th, Relative (Bahu-vrihi).
* Or darsaydhchakdra.
74

DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS (TAT-PURTJSHA) .


Accusatively Dependent.
127. These comprehend all those compounds in
which the relation of the first word (being in the
crude base) to the last is equivalent to that of an
accusative case. They are generally composed of a
noun in the first member, and a participle or noun
of agency in the last ; as, swarga-prdptas, -ptd, -ptam,
' one who has obtained heaven* (equivalent to swar-
gam prdptas) .
Instrumentally Dependent,
128. Or those in which the relation of the first
word (being in the crude base) to the last is equiva
lent to that of an instrumental case. These are very
common, and are, for the most part, composed of a
substantive in the first member, and a passive parti
ciple in the last; as, lobha-mohitas, -td, -tam, 'be
guiled by avarice' (for lobhena mohitas).

Datively Dependent,
129. Or those in which the relation of the first
word to the last is equivalent to that of a dative ;
as, paridhdna-valkalam, ' bark for clothing' (for pari-
dhdndya valkalam).

Ablatively Dependent,
130. Or those in which the relation of the first
word to the last is equivalent to that of an abla
tive ; as, pitri-prdptas, -ptd, -ptam, ' received from a
father' (for pitus prdptas).
75

Genitively Dependent,
131. Or those in which the relation of the first
word to the last is equivalent to that of a genitive.
These are the most common of all dependent com
pounds, and may generally be expressed by a similar
compound in English. They are usually composed
of two substantives ; as, samudra-tiram, ' sea-shore'
(for samudrasya tiram, ' shore of the sea').
Locatively Dependent,
132. Or those in which the relation of the first
word to the last is equivalent to that of a locative
case ; as, pan-ka-magnas, -gnd, -gnam, ' sunk in the
mud' (for pan-ke magnas).
AGGREGATIVE COMPOUNDS (DWANDWA).
133. When two or more persons or things are
enumerated together, it is usual in Sanskrit, instead
of connecting them by a copulative, to aggregate
them into one compound word. The difference be
tween this class and the last turns upon the depend
ence in case of the words compounded on each other ;
insomuch that the existence or absence of such de
pendence, as deducible from the context, is, in some
cases, the only guide by which the student is ena
bled to refer the compound to the one head or to
the other : thus, Guru-sishya-sevakds may either be
a Dependent compound, and mean ' the servants of
the pupils of the Guru,' or an Aggregative (in
which there is no dependence of case), 'the Guru,
and the pupil, and the servant.'
There are three kinds of Aggregative compounds :
76
1st, inflected in the plural; 2d, inflected in the dual;
3d, inflected in the singular. In the former two
cases the final letter of the base of the word termi
nating the compound determines the declension, and
its gender the particular form of declension ; in the
third case it seems to be a law that this kind of
compound cannot be formed unless the last word
ends in ^ a, or in a vowel changeable to *sr a, or in
a consonant to which ^sr a may be subjoined ; and
the gender is invariably neuter, whatever may be
the gender of the final word.
Inflected in the Plural.
134. When more than two animate or inanimate
objects are enumerated, the last is inflected in the plu
ral; as, Indrdnila-Yamdrkds*, ' Indra, Anila, Yama,
and Arlca' (for Indras, Anilas, Yamas, Arkakchd).
A plural signification may often be inherent in some
or all of the words constituting the compound ; thus,
Brdhmana-Kshatriya-Vatiya-S'udrds, ' Brahmans,
Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras.'
So also when only two animate or inanimate ob
jects are enumerated, in which a. plural signification
is inherent, the last is inflected in the plural ; as,
deva-manushyds, 'gods and men.'
Inflected in the Dual.
135. When only two animate or inanimate objects
* When a long mark is used over a vowel instead of the
accent, it is intended to indicate the junction of two words by
the blending of a final and initial vowel.
77
are enumerated, in each of which a singular signifi
cation is inherent, the last is- inflected in the dual ;
as, Rdma-Lakshmanau, ' Rama and Lakshmana' (for
Rdmas, Lakshmanakcha) '. drambhdvasdne, ' beginning
and end' (for drambhas, avasdriam cha) 5 anurdgapa-
rdgau, ' affection and enmity' (for anurdgas, apard-
gascha).
Inflected in the Singular Neuter.
136. When two or more inanimate objects are
enumerated, whether singular or plural in their sig
nification, the last may either be inflected as above
(134, 135), or in the singular number, neut. gender ;
as, pushpa-mula-phalam, ' flowers, roots, and fruits'
(for pushpdni, muldni, phaldni cha} ; aho-rdtram, ' a
day and night' (for ahas, rdtrischa).

DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS (kARMA-DHARAYA) .


137. In describing, qualifying, or defining a sub
stantive by means of an adjective or participle, it is
common in Sanskrit to compound the two words
together, placing the adjective or participle in the
first member of the compound in its crude base ;
as, sddhu-janas, 'a good man' (for sddhur janas) ;
chira-mitram, 'an old friend' (for chiram mitram);
priya-bhdryd, 'a dear wife' (for priyd bhdryd).

COLLECTIVE COMPOUNDS (DWIGU) .


138. A numeral is often compounded with a sub
stantive to form a collective noun of the neuter gen
der ; thus, chatur-yugam, ' the four ages ;' chatur-
disam, ' the four quarters ;' tri-dinam, ' three days.'
78
1ndecl1nable oh adverb1al compounds (avyayl-
bhava) .
139. In this class of compounds the first member
must be either a preposition (such as anu, prati, &c.)
or an adverbial prefix (such as yathd, ' as a or an,
' not saha, 'with'). The last member is a substan
tive which always takes the form of an accusative
case neuter, whatever may be the termination of its
crude base ; thus, yathd-kraddham, ' according to
faith/ 'proportioned to faith' (from yathd and brad-*
dhd).
The majority of these compounds are formed with
the adverbial preposition saha, contracted into sa ;
thus, sakopam, 'with anger' (from sa and kopa) ;
sddaram, 'with respect' (from sa and ddara).

RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VRlHl) .


140. The greater number of compounds in the
preceding four divisions are terminated by substan
tives, the sense of each being in that case absolute
and complete in itself. All such compounds may
be used relatively, that is, as epithets of other words,
the final substantive becoming susceptible of three
genders, like an adjective.

Relative form of Dependent Compounds.


141. Many Dependent compounds (especially
those that are instrumentally dependent) are already
in their own nature relative, and cannot be used
except in connexion with some other word in the
sentence. But, on the other hand, many others,
79
and especially those which are genitively dependent,
constituting by far the largest number of this class
of compounds, are in their nature absolute, and yield
a sense complete in itself. These may be made re
lative by declining the final substantive after the
manner of an adjective ; thus, chandrdkritis, -tis, -ti,
' moon-shaped,' from the absolute compound chan
drdkritis, ' the shape of the moon.'
Many of them, however, are not found, except as
relatives ; and if used absolutely would yield a dif
ferent sense ; thus, Karna-mukham means ' the face
of Kama,' but when used relatively to rdjdnas, ' the
kings led on by Karna.'
Relative form of Aggregative Compounds.
142. Aggregative compounds are sometimes used
relatively; as, marana-vyddhi-sokas, -kd, -kam, ' lia
ble to death, sickness, and sorrow :' especially in the
case of adjectives or participles ; as, krishna-kuklas,
-kid, -klam, 'black and white.'
Relative form of Descriptive Compounds.
143. A greater number of compound words may
be referred to this head than to any other. Every
style of writing abounds with them; thus, alpa-kaktis,
' -ktis, -kti, ' whose strength is small ;' jitendriyas, -yd,
-yam, ' whose passions are subdued.'
Relative form of Collective Compounds.
144. Collective or Dwigu compounds may be used
relatively ; as, dwi-parnas, -rni, -rnam, ' two-leaved ;'
tri-lochanas, -m, -nam, ' tri-ocular.'
80
Relative form of Adverbial or Avyayi-bhdva
Compounds.
145. The adverbial compounds most frequently
employed relatively as adjectives are those formed
with the adverbial preposition saha, 'with,' con
tracted into sa; thus, sa-krodhas, -dhd, -dham, 'an
gry' (lit. ' with-anger,' ' having anger') ; sa-phalae,
-Id, -lam, ' fruitful.'

COMPLEX COMPOUND NOUNg.


146. Instances of absolute complex compounds,
whose sense is complete and unconnected, are not
rare ; as, kdlantaravritti-hibha&ubhdni, ' good and evil
(occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time,'
the whole being a dependent, involving a dependent
and an aggregative ; senapati-baladhyakshau, ' the
general of the army and the overseer of the forces/
the whole being an aggregative, involving two de
pendents : but the greater number of complex com
pounds are used as adjectives, or relatively, as epi
thets of some other w ord in the sentence ; thus,
galita-nakha-nayanas, -ni, -nam, 'whose claws and
eyes were decayed/ the whole being the relative
form of descriptive, involving an aggregative ; kshut-
kshdma-karithas, ' having a throat wasted with hun
ger,' the whole being the relative form of descriptive,
involving a dependent.

COMBINATION OP PREPOSITIONS WITH BOOTS.


147. The following list exhibits the prepositions
chiefly used in combination with roots :
81

a. ^rfir ati, ' across,' ' beyond.'


b. ^rfv adhi, ' above,' ' upon/ ' over.'
c. ^r| am, ' after,' ' along.'
d. 'ST'ir^ antar, ' within' (Latin infer).
e. ^nr apa, 'off,' 'away' (otto).
/. ^rfa api, ' on,' ' over,' ' up,' only used with *rf
and T?.
g. ^rfa abhi, 'to,' 'towards,' 'before' (eirl, ob).
h. ava, ' down,' ' off.'
i. ^tT d, ' to,' ' towards,' ' up' (Latin ad).
j. Ti^ ut, ' up,' ' upwards' (opposed to fa).
A. pa, ' to,' ' towards' (ixo), ' near,' joined like
'3TT and ^rfa to roots of motion.
/. fa ni, ' in,' ' on,' ' down,' ' downwards,' ' under'
(opposed to tTr).
m far nir> ' out.'
n. vxspard, ' back,' 'backwards' (trapa), combined
with fa and in the sense of ' defeat.'
o. lift; pari, 'around' (irepl, per).
p. K pra, ' before,' 'forward' (vp6, pto, prce).
q. Tffftprati, 'against,' 'towards,' 'back again.'
r. fa vi, ' apart,' implying ' separation,' ' distinc
tion,' 'distribution,' 'dispersion' (Latin dis, se, ve).
s. Tl\sam, 'with/ 'together with' (arvv, con).

A FEW COMMON INDECLINABLE WORDS.


148. Again, ^iT^. Also, % ^sfa. Although, iRjfa-
Always, *rf^T, ^T. And, ^. Any where, cgafciL
As, 'JrrT. As far, as much, nm^. At one time, UcR^T.
g
82

Because, f\r. But, f^g, jj, Tfff. Daily, uunr. Else


where, Enough, 1*1?. Even so, JT^H.
Ever, cfc^iP^ri. Every where, *nfa. Far, |t. For,
because, f^r. Hence, ^nw. Here, How ?
5h^? ^fitpp? If, -jt% If not, %!T. Ill, H^.
Indeed, In one place, together,
In one way, JjcfiVT. In two ways, f|rVT. Like, as, so,
J^; Iff affixed. More, ^rfttcFTTt, J5^f- Moreover,
Most, >|ftr&, ^fv-sfirR. Mostly, TTT^r. Nay, ^.
Near to, ^nfft. Never, T wrg. Not, r. Now, ^PJrlT,
^pff, W^fiT. Often, 44^ahTT, ipn $?f^. Once, *fWiT,
JjcS^li. Once upon a time, ^cR^T. Or, ^t. Other
wise, ^rarzrr. Perhaps, wfiPTm, p=ttF<j| cB^tP^il. Quite,
tlimt, -arMti- Rather, tri;. Seldom, cir^Tf^. Since,
because that, WffiT, Sfa. Since, from the time that,
tRflfv. So far, so much, imn^ . So, thus, tthi, ^fff,
f^r. Somehow, *wfij. Sometimes, ch^if-clii. Soon,
Sfiir. Still, Then, at that time, ir^T; (inceptive)
W. Then, in that case, irff. Thence, after that, WTO.
There, w^. Therefore, WWTiT, <n|\ Thus, ^sp^. Thus,
for example, imf^. To-day, ^TET. Too, '^fri^R. Twice,
fg^ri- Unexpectedly, ^TcFOTi^. Up, Very,
^rfir or ?r prefixed, siiflq, Wf. What? f^? When?
cF^T? Whence? ^n? Where? ^? Wherever,
gr^fsnr. Whether, fgn^. Whilst, tRtt. Why ?
f<*Hy^? ftlfT? Yea, Yet, TT^rtfa.
PART II.
PROGRESSIVE EXERCISES.

Exercise I. (Grammar, 80. 1.) *


Form masculine nouns ending in a, after Vriddhi
of medial a and Guna of a vowel capable of gunation,
from the following roots. (NoteA final palatal
must be changed to its corresponding guttural.)
Angry (to be) , ^ni , s?W . Be, become, ^(also with Vrid
dhi). Bear, *pr. Break, H^. Buy, jSt. Burn, W^,
Collect, Conquer, ff. Desire, cRH. Dis
solve, eft. Foolish (to be), Join, 'jrsj. Lead,
ft. Make, ^ (also with Vriddhi). Perish, fTSl.
Praise, Steal, Suck, ^re. Take, uw.
Throw, ft^.
Exercise 2. (Gr. 80. XXIL)
Form feminine nouns ending in d (without change
of the radical vowel) from the following roots:
Afflicted (to be), Blame, fip^. Conceal, iT?.
Extend, irsr. Honour, ij^. Pain, tfte, ^sr. Play,
-aft?. Sick (to be), w^- Thirst, ipi.
Exercise 3. (Gr. 80. XXII.)
Form feminine substantives ending in a, and adjec
tives in u, from the desiderative bases of the following
* The references are to the rules in the larger Grammar.
G 2
84

roots :Burn, ^<r. Conquer, ftr. Cut, y^. Deceive,


g^. Do, y. Eat, tr*r. Give, ^T. Go, ip^. Kill,
Know, gT. Know (cause to), ?CT in cans. Live, ift%. '
Play, Say, Shake, V or >j. Shine, ?nr.
Take, ?r^. Worship, sacrifice, ttsj.

Exercise 4. (Gr. 80. XXIII. IX.)


Form feminine abstract substantives in tu, or
neuter in twa, from the following. (Note A final
n must be rejected.) About to be, Hftirar. Atten
tive, VPrf^W Bitter, fins. Censurable, *Hfl<i.
Deep, ii*flc. Deformed, Pms.u. Distant, Docile,
^ti. God, Happy, trar. King, trsnr. Lion,
fti^. Much, Rich, vfir^, VTTiT. Strong,
W?5WTT. Young, gsnj.

Exercise 5. (Gr. 80. V.)


Form neuter nouns in ana, after Guna of the
radical vowel (if capable of gunation), from the fol
lowing roots Break, t^. Burn, m. Choose,
cover, ^. Destroy, T5^ in caus. Do, y. Eat,
Give, ^T. Go, *n. Know, |TT. Lead, ft. Mutter,
3p^. Satisfied (to be), Smell, TtT. Spread, 5T.
Stand, WT. Take, ?r^. Tell, ^qT in caus. Thirst,
Tjft. Throw, foj^.
Exercise 6. (Gr. 80. VII.)
Form neuter nouns in tra or itra, generally de
noting some instrument or organ, after Guna of the
85

radical vowel (if capable of gunation), from the fol


lowing roots:Bear, Cut, for Dig, ^T.
Drink, trr. Fall, tr^. Go, ^. Goad, Hear, ^.
Hurt, ^TH. Join, ^. Lead, ft. Lop, <. Praise, *ft.
Sound, ^ in caus. Teach, ^nrr. Throw, 'SW.

Exercise 7. (Gr. 80. X.)


Form neuter abstract substantives in ya, after
Vriddhi of the first syllable, from the following :
Deep, iwk. Dirty, HIpH. Fat, Wc5. Hard, cfcr<H.
Harsh, tr^. Infinite, HM. Lazy, WcTV. Proper,
yfWiT. Sharp, ifta?!!. Slow, in^. Sweet,
Unequal, faro.

Exercise 8. (Gr. 80. XII.)


Form adjectives in a, after Vriddhi of the first syl
lable, from the following :Brilliance, ifaTCT. Crest,
^T. Deity, i^irr. Flax, 7HT. Friend, fa^1. Hot sea
son, ?fta. Island, ^frj. Kuvera (a god), Man,
tj^TC, HTp. Neck, ?ftar. Root, jjc3. Saffron,
Sand, f4ril. Sheep, Silk, <J<jirf. Stick, ^js.
Stone, Time (division of), Water, g^cir.
Year, TO. Youth, cprrt.

Exercise 9. (Gr. 80. XIII. XIV.)


Form adjectives in ika and eya, after Vriddhi of
the first syllable, from the following: Army, ihTT.
Deposit, Ttrfafv. Drum, l^jj. Family, ^y. Fraud,
86
i^TftR. God, Goodness (quality of), -p^t.
Hearth, frffR. Illusion, *rRT. Peacock, Sense
(object of), f^m. Three classes, CghA. Two nights,
Two years, fg^h Upanishad, JUfHM^.

Exercise 10. (Gr. 81.V.)


Form feminine abstract substantives in ti from
the following roots : Afflict, fgft{. Celebrate,
Embrace, VTTO. Give, ^r. Go, it*, Hurt, ^Tir.
Join, tjsj. Know, ^nr. Measure, m. Obtain, ^rpj.
Please, fj^. Purify, ^. Relate, ^rT. Satisfy,
Scatter, ^j. Serve, vt^. Tame, Weary (to be), ^i*.

Exercise u. (Gr. 580-582. 80. II. IV. V. 83.


85. V.)
Form nouns of agency of the 1st, 2d, and 3d
classes, from the following: Buy, Do, ^.
Grow, Kill, Lead, ift. Rub, H^. Sleep, Sjft.
Take, ?r^.
Exercise 12. (Gr. 84. 87.)
Turn the following roots into nouns of agency:
Conquer, fT. Cover, Create, Do, ^.
Drink, tjt. Eat, Go, -gT. Play, f^. Praise,
See, T5{. Seize, 5. Share, V3^. Touch, ?^sr.

Exercise 13. (Gr. 84. 1. II. 85. VI.)


Form adjectives of possession in vat, mat, and in,
from the following :Crest, f^T. Curd, ^fv. Ele
87
phant, Fame, cflft. Female friend,
Goose, jf*ft. Kinsman, ^v. Leather, Lute,
^hffT. Rope, 135. Slave, ^re. Son, Stone,
*?HT, TRTO. Tiger, strnj. Tree,

Exercise 14. (Gr. 85. II.)


Form neuter and a few masculine nouns in man,
after Guna of a radical vowel (if capable of gunation),
from the following roots :Borneo be), if^. Cover,
\ Cut, ?, or 31. Eat,%3T (m.). Go, ^T.
Grow, ^ rejected). Hold, vT. Injure,
Support, w. Weave, ^ (m.).

Exercise 15. (Gr. 86. I.)


Form neuter nouns in as, after Guna of a vowel
capable of it, from the following roots :Clothe,
(Vriddhi). Drink, tft. Go, ^. Hear, ^. Shine,
flT^. Speak, Think, f^. -

Exercise 16. (Gr. 103; Manual, p. 11.)


Nouns to be declined like f^R m. 'the god Siva.'
[Observe It will be evident that occasional nouns in the
following lists can rarely, if ever, be declined in the plural.]
Abandonment, Tum, 9kA. Abode, PH c1 1 . Ab
sence, far^. Absence of passion, f<Hi'l- Actor,
Advice, Affection, . Aid,
Alleviation, dM$|H. Amusement, fspT^. Anger, gftrr,
'g&V. Ape, ^H*. Arbour, Jnj?rr, fl$* Arrow.
88
^TOT. Astrologer, insrcF. Atheist, Hlfw*. Barber,
^ifMir. Barley, VR. Battle, WjfW- Beati
tude, >ft?j. Bedstead, Bee, WR, *r%. Bird,
IPX. Blacksmith, t^^cirrc. Blockhead, to,
Boar, *rcr?, 3T^rr;. Boatman, Hifa<*. Body, WJ.
Boy, WTHW. Brahman, anrar. Breeze, g>(har.
Bull, Camel, Car, carriage, XTt. Caravan,
WT. Cart, 3rcKT. Carter, ^WTTTf. Cat, JTT#rt,
PriTSy. Cavern, Cell, to. Change, frot.
Chariot, tW- Cheek, awtcJN Chick, tyTTO- Chief,
^Tt, im<*, ^?T, ^rfVrq, ^5. Child, tirt<*, ^k<*.
Citizen, lrtt. Cloud, iNr, TTT, <|sMt, Wl'jri, T?5Vt,
TOl^V. Club, <f*TS. Cock, Cocoa-nut, n-
ft.4ic4. Collection, 5(Hf, ^M. Combustion, ^r?.
Command, fll^r. Companion, fl^Ht, TT^. Com
panionship, trf^TT.. Compendium, Con
fidence, ftpffWj TTiTit. Contrivance, <jMm. Cook,
gtptTt, "V^S- Cookery, Vjsg. Cord, tiT^T, mt. Coun
try, ^T. Courser, ^7T, jjt^. Courtesy, fsnpT.
Covetousness, t?px. Crane, ^cir. Crow, 'sfiTcir. Day,
f^T. Deer, ijtt, gfoff. Deliverance, *faf. Deli
verer, tSflT. Destruction, Tr$i. Devotee, H?B. Dis
ciple, flj|*f. Discourse, wn3PT. Disease, ^to. Dis
putation, Pmi^. Dissolution, Urt>i. Distinction,
uTO^ Dog, Yf*- Doubt, tf^pj, Drop, ^r,
c5^. Drum, TO?, H^H. Dunce, *pif. Dwarf,
TTT*R. Dwelling, ^m, flirfU- Ear, ^n. Ear
89
ring, mAtl. Effort, Tffi. Elephant, TUT,
HTfTg5, Elephant-driver, ^ftiPj. Emissary, ^K.
End, ^PiT. Enjoyment, Srtir. Example, Blri. Ex
penditure, apt. Fault, OTTOV, ^fat. Favour, ithT^.
Fear, gro. Festival, THR. Fetter, f?PTS. Fever,
^TC. Fire, MH4i. Fish, hw, Fisherman,
Flavour, *sr. Food, ^rr?TT. Fool, *ni, ijj. Foot,
in^. Frog, HcS, *ra|sfi. Frost, innr, ift^Tt. Froth,
T|FT. Gain, Garden, WTCTR. Gardener, *rrfwsii.
Glimpse, view, frrsjfar. Glutton, ^r?rr.. Gnat, HTfl*.
Goat, f[TiT, ^rsr. Goblin, UBjH, ^rilrf. God,
Granary, ysp7. Grandson, in^T. Grasshopper, ^TW,
Grief, ^ffai. Habitation, fVr^re. Hair of the
head, ijr^r, f^rct^f. Half, ^rif. Hand, ^r. Heat,
tflf, WT<j, T*T. Heaven, ^it. Herdsman, iHm<44-
Hermit, Hermitage, fTTfPT- Hero, 5T^, =flr.
Hole, ir#. Hollow (of a tree), ciTlJC. Horse, ^TO,
TJT7T. House, ^rr?5tj. Hunter, nv. Incense,
^tT. Infatuation, *IT5. Inferiority, ^nra^f. Infliction,
inftn. Influence, ^r. Inquiry, ipff. Insect, cifo.
Instructor, fyaj*, ^rurrq^i, ^TRT. Iron,
75^. Jackall, sprm. Jar, ^pr, U3. Joy, ^if.
King, trrfShr, >TttTc5. Labour, <TT*rrf, 'srnrra.
Lake, IFcST^R. Lamp, ^hf. Lesson, sturPj, w.
Life, sffa, uro. Lion, ftnr, ^^5. Lord, ^*gr.
Love, SKm. Man, Tt, ip?^, *rg^I, HTpt. Mango,
Marriage, PTOTf. Means, TUTT. Merchant,
90
-snftpT, HiTech, grjhTtg, H?!IH. Messenger, TfT.
Method, gra. Minister, UTTTW, *Tf^. Mirror, ^Het,
Hl^p. Mistake, ym. Moment, T^T. Month, m?.
Moon, ^75. Mortal, *fiif. Moth, ^raw. Mountain,
TTtiT, ^r*r?y. Mouse, irfcrsfi. Mud, trf, cifffT. Mu
sician (celestial), ir?M#. Mustard, *nhj. Mute, *Tcg.
Nail, to. Neck, ir?F, Necklace, ^TT. Nest,
fte. Noose, trqr. Ocean, wj, TO, ^nik. Offer
ing, di|^K. Orphan, ^PTR. Outlay, arq. Owl,
^c?rar. Ox, Palace, Tn^TT^. Palanquin-
bearer, itr^T?. Parrot, 3r5R, ciftt. Part, mn, ^1.
Path, *n^T. Pause, fcRlH. Peacock, mjt. Pea
sant, ajfcH, rnnJ^. Peculiarity, fa^fa. Person, WT.
Physician, r^f*rtl*, %3T. Pigeon, ^flfhr. Pledge,
fiT^R. Ploughman, c|it*. Porter, STHT*. Post
(sacrificial), ^tj. Predicate (in logic), 1441$. Price,
Pride, nf. Prince, ^tHT, tT5T^. Prison,
<4**Hlc41. Prowess, IVshH. Punishment,
Pupil, f^rai, -gfr^. Quality, Jps. Question, TTW.
Rain, ^ff. Ray, fain, ^r., HTO. Reading, lecture,
trra. Reasoning, K#. Reed, Tire. Reservoir, T3T-
3Pl, rid ln. Respect, ^rr^t. Retaliation, fflfHcrt. Reti
nue, trft^TT. Revolution, M0<t?h Rheumatism, Tnr-
^n. Rod (punishment), ^jj. Ruin, P=i H 1 ^1 - Sacri
fice, vr. Scull, c(,i|Trf, cbt}^. Sea, flTj. Separation,
f^ffa. Serpent, snake, *rif, >jTtT, Servant,
^ra, K^T, T?T. Share, ^|,HTn,TSrn;. Sheep, m,
91

Shoulder, ^R5*J. Sickness, trn. Sky, ^rrar$N


Slaughter, Slave, ^Ttr. Son, Trtj. Sound,
noise, ^r^, ^T, *fta. Sound, tone, Spider,
AJUHW, H#7. Spy, ^TlT. Staff, Stone, irerc,
MlMlJil. Story, ^WT^T. Street, mn, TTO. String, TOff.
Sun, Trdl, ^ra, fifrr^iT, nrarc, ^rrf^w. Superiority,
T3i*f. Swine, Tail, tps. Taste, T*I. Teacher,
omiMcj!, gT^^fps. Tear, ^toj. Territory, dominions,
fV^it. Terror, gro. Thief, ^r;. Thorn, *i\idk.
Thunderbolt, ^3T. Tiger, smr, ^TTgl9. Time, ar?*,
Writ. Tooth, Tortoise, ^w, cj31. Trans
gression, ^PrCPl. Traveller, trrnr, uf\t4i. Tree,
1>T, tr^j. Triumph, WJ, fsTJPj. Troop, im,
Union, *hr*t. Victory, aT^T. Village, ?TW. Virtue,
merit, VH. Votary, >T?h. Washerman, ^Tcb. Water-
jar, VZ, ^W. Wave, irCW. Way, *rm, TT- Wealth,
W#. Weariness, ^w. Well, ^tr. Wind, w, 'srftTc5,
trqR. Wing, trW- Wise, Wolf, ^5. Word,
^r;. Wrath, jfitv. Writer, ^PS. Year, ^rl, ttfV
^rc. Youth, young man, *hk, iT^tst.

Exercise 17. (Gr. 108; Manual, p. 12.)


Nouns to be declined like f$RT /. 'the wife of
S^iva.'Account, computation, TnaTT. Ache, ^n,
^rsn. Action, act, fain. Agreement, irfirgT. Alms,
food given in alms, fifSTt. Army, inTT. Assembly,
TT. Beauty, ^ftm. Bed, $rorr. Bee, irgHftpfiT.
99
Blame, far^i. Boat, ^cST. Bow-string, 3?n. Branch,
flt^n. Brick, 3[f?3RT. Carthouse, ^nS7^nc9T. Cavern,
cave, iprr. Coachhouse, C*r$ncTT. Coin, jtjT.
Column, ^jpjrr. Command, VT9T Compassion, ^nn,
^irl. Condition, ^7, ^TOT. Couch, ^pzrt Course,
^iT. Crest, t^rwT, ^T. Daughter, 'RTTTl, ^TfT.
Decay, Deceit, ^JTT. Decrepitude, RT.
Deity, divinity, ^HT. Desire, ^sstT, m*W, <ai*i|l,
J5T. Discourse, cfi*n. Doubt, misgiving, T^r^fT.
Earth, trrj, *njUT, *nprer. Edge, VTTT. Equality,
rjt^iTl. Evening, *rraMT. Examination, Ex
ertion, Faith, ^reT. Flag, Hrii<w. Flame,
Fly, nfKJcM. Ganges, irjFT. Garland, *TTF5T. Girl,
^T3T, 4l(c4<M, ^raiT. Gravel, ^TTO. Hall, 5lM1.
Haste, iTO. Headache, f^d^TT. Height, Win.
Honour, ^tfrETT, trerr, 4l-5TT. Hope, wrgTT. Hospital,
W&nnfrraT. Host, inn. Hunger, WVT. Hunting,
^iTTT. Illusion, *THjT. Injury, frrrrr. Instruction,
tgjsjT. Lamentation, JjtV^TT. Learning, know
ledge, fkfn. Lecture-room, W31T75T. Light, wtj.
Living, livelihood, ftftchT. Lute, ^htTT. Maiden,
^rsrr, TT?5T. Mare, ^TTT. Modesty, rf-nil- Moon
light, ^frj*i. Name, Narration, narrative,
3B*rl. Neck, jfNT. Necklace, ^TF5T. Neighing, ^"m.
News, srHH. Night, tq^rr. Nose, ^THT. Number,
*WP. Pam, 1ft*T, ^TT, *TTT. Patience, T!pTT. Post,
^TT. Praise, U^IHl. Prayer, irrlbTT. Preservation,
93

T^T. Progeny, inn- Promise, Jrfifjrr. Provincial


ism, ^^MT^T. Rock, f^rP5T. Room, ^JT3T. Sand,
4l<4chl. Science, f^tT. Scorn, VCTTT. Self-will.
CfiPtTilT. Service, ifaT. Shadow, SPIT. Shame,
5SWT, ^T5T. Shop, tuprsftftniiT- Sleep, fVrjT. Sloth,
iT^JT. Song, chaunt, nT*rr. Sport, 'aSteT. Star, TnTT.
State, M*|T, Hjn. Story, ciWT. Streak, ifen, \^n.
Subjects, Ifirr. Sugar, ^r^T. Suspicion, ^rfft.
Sweetness, wrgiH. Swing, ^t?5T. Test, trt^rr.
Thirst, fftn, finmrr. Thought, fspiTT. Time, tide,
^c5T. Tongue, ftfi^T. Twilight, *rHT. Verb, fa^T.
Vine, 'jr^t, ijfgfan. Whip, cF^rr. Wife, m^T.
Woman, *#HT, *Hrfi. Worship, TJ5TT, toWT.
Wreath, HTfTT.

Exercise 18. (Gr. 104; Manual, p. 11.)


Nouns to be declined like f^r# n. ' prosperous.'
Ability, Ablution, ^TT< Abode, ftwiR.
Adjective, f^Nrai. Advantage, tb?5. Adventure,
*ftjT. Ambassage, ^Tkt. Answer, .gr?rt. Armoury,
^JTTTC. Army, ffrs. Arrival, fTPPPT. Ascent,
iHlO^U. Assistance, tTTfTO Back, rgs. Bait,
ftrf^nr. Bane, f%R. Battle, 33. Bed, ^PR. Bit,
fWw. Blood, tH, tftf&r, ^fvx. Body, ^ntt,
^, ^W, irrW, 3W^T. Bolt, ^75. Book, yw<*, ^iT^pT.
Brain, HftfTRir. Butt, $rr^T. Call, WEfHT. Cause,
cSK*ir. Circle, disk, mjirf. City, PR, Close
94

(end), t!H+)M. Cloth, clothing, witR. Combat,


Comparison, similitude, *^fanT. Constellation,
Contradiction, discrepancy, thyspiT. Conva
lescence, SHltV^. Cooking-utensil, mcN4t'tf. Copper,
Corn, trrat. Courage, *Hj, ^H|. Crossing, TOff.
Cup, lira'. Dancing, ^nr. Danger, dread, vtv. Day,
f^T. Death, *n^r, fq>TT. Despair, rfcl^r. Destiny,
Dialogue, 5*ihTO*R. Diet, regimen, v&Q-
Dining-room, vrtrPPTf, >ltll^!lTT. Dinner, frsR.
Dirt, to. Dish, rnt,'*rr^. Drinking, ttr. Drink-
ing-vessel, T<4MM. Dung, irffa. Dwelling, fVr^pT
Eatable, Eclipse, Egg, ^nj3. Exca
vation, ^TiT. Eye, ttir, <^t^r. Face, q, g^T,
3?T?R. Falsehood, ^W, fmmrcuH. Family, ^75.
Famine, J[f>l^. Fear, int. Field, Tsfa. Filth, TO,
Jrra^T. Firewood, ^sitT. Firmness, Fish
hook, gf^r. Flesh, *rfa, ^rrfirc. Flock, ^1. Flower,
iptj, ^wt. Food, ?rw, . Foot, 'TOST. Footstep, tj<*.
Forest, ^ttiPj. Fraud, mz. Friend, fa^. Friend
ship, m^W, >hg, Wr^Tt. Frost, f^TT. Fruit, TO.
Fun, sirhjctr, ^iTTO. Garden, g^TR. Garment, ^fft.
Gem, Tj$-(. Gender, fo^f. Gift, SfR. Gloom, firfer.
Glove, 4tjffrf3. Goad, <ft^. Gold, Grass,
ipS. Greatness, R^ff. Greatness of learning, "tj-fa-
vrafT. Greatness of soul, HTfTW- Grove,
Happiness, it^T. Head, HW*f. Health, ^Tc5, WHWV.
Heart, Herd, ^j. Hint, ^%iT. Hole, ftrj,
95
f^X, f^73, Tyv. Home, 'pr. Horn, 3Tgp. House,
1f, iT?, >I^tT. Hundred, 3t7f. Immobility,
Incentive, ipjtPT. Inconvenience, cr?. Inference,
"fl-JUM. Jewel, Kitchen, H^HTT. Knowledge,
5TT. Leaf, n^, thS, ^75. Letter (of the alphabet),
^rert, w. Life, fl<H, WlPqn. Limb, irr^, ^ri5.
Lordship, ^Hj4, inr^. Lotus, trj, TtTpJ,
Manliness, tft^. Meal, >rlPT. Meat, ufrr, w^.
Medicine, ^bre. Member, tTT33 ^t^. Middle, nm.
Milk, ^fa, gnt. Mind, f*r%. Money, tR. Motive,
mNR. Mouth, JTO, ^i, ^rrfpT. Necklace, XQI*gt.
Need, IpftiPT, ^H3V<*??. Oblation, |TTT, "R^j-
Observance, keeping, ^HtKH. Oil, Omen,
ftTfaw. Organ of sense, ^frjf. Ornament, ^rTHW,
vm. Pain, Jr. Pair, Tpr?5. Place, m Plank,
<ltfMie<5"5lr. Plate, HT5PT. Plough, ^75, rflffrt- Poison,
Prevention, Price, *t^ij. Prose, n?T.
Rank, tt^. Reading, ttt^T, ^JTwpnT. Refuge, ^rrjir.
Rejoinder, Ui^H. Reply, Revoir, ^H^$iT.
Reward, gratuity, TTTfcftftcS. Robbery, Root.
Rule, Salt, SHUT Salvation, M(\dmi.
Sauce, jyH. Saying, Scholarship, muiiW.
Scripture, ^TT^f. Search, HPTO. Seat, ^rrcnr. Secret,
tf^tr. Separation, iprai. Shape, ^1. Shore, ifft,
*T5J, rT7. Sickle, ^T3. Sin, trm, Trnrsh. Skill, ^r$i^j.
Sky, ium. Slavery, ^tj, <jitw. Song, irpr. Sor
row, Speech, ^^T. Sphere, *H!3<7. Stead
96
fastness, Stick, crt?. Stool, tft?. String,
Summit, ^r?J. Summons, "HTd^TT. Surface, rTF5.
Swimming, Syllable, :5TBJT. Tale, SHi^M.
Temple, nff^T. Terror, m**m. Thing, "jaj. Thou
sand, W%&. Thread, Throne, ftrfTCPT. Tomb,
9H$lH. Tool, zr^. Top, summit, ^rjf. Treasury, clrt-
yPTK. Truth, iTW, TO. Umbrella, Unclean-
ness, $Rw. Verse, xps. Vessel, m^TH, Vtfft. Wages,
^7PT. War, ^Ttr, tjst. Washing, uSfTc^T. Watch
(instrument for indicating the hour), ^ftrawtaPRT-
Water, rpy? *tfp5?5, ^5ir. Weakness, ^"sT^r. Wealth,
VH, faw, ^q, '5^51. Weapon, ^3, sargv. Wheel,
VCR. Whey, im- Wine, *rer, nf^r;. Wood, Wff ;
(forest, grove), ^R. Word, ^to, V^. Worshipping,
^3PT. Writing, $9t1'. Youth, youthfulness, jJtcM.

Exercise 19. (Gr. 106; Manual, p. 12.)


Nouns to be declined like TT^t ft 'a river.'<
Actress, ?T^. Bottle, cinft, chM<+M). Braid, ^Tjft.
Captive, ^$. Chaste woman (suttee), *Tift. City,
^pnj, ipj. Daughter, g^t. Earth, ground, ufiyvfl,
*r^, nft^ft, '3ft, Vflft. Female friend, confidante,
OTjft. Florist, mfw^ft. Forest, ^ft, ^nSPTPft.
Friendship, i^h Glen, ^tf. Goose, ^*ft. Hag,
ftr$rNt. Hare (female), $T$ptf. Ink, mft. Lady,
Lotus-fibre, JHaipfl. Lotus-pool, *tftpft. Mes
senger (female), gift. Mother, H>fl, 4 fa eft. Night,
97
T^Pft. Nurse, vTsfh Pen, ^pft. Pool, ^nfl.
Queen, T^t, Roe, Sister, uPmI. Slave
(female), rfraft. Tigress, ^mft. Water-lily (the plant),
vTfri'fl, TjftrJft. Wave, ^Nt. Wife, Tj^t. Woman,
m3> *rrH^t. Young woman, tpift, TT^ft.

Exercise 20. (Gr. no; Manual, p. 12.)


Nouns to be declined like af>T m. ' fire.'Ape,
csfij. Bard, Beginning, ^rrf^. Charioteer,
JBTCftr. Elbow, wifrf. Enemy, ^rft. Fire, ^fj.
Footsoldier, i^rflT. General, ihnnfVT. Guest, vsfriPy.
Hand, trrfiir. King, ^ifff, J^fiT. Kinsman, ^rfiT.
Limit, ^faftr. Lord, safuMfri. Lunar day, firftr.
Monk, JrfT. Mountain, fhft, ^rf^[. Noise, tsrftr.
Oblation, offering, Ocean, Tc5fv. Quiver,
^ttftr. Ray (also rein), Rule, ftrfVr. Ruler,
iHfviMRr. Sage, Hfa. Saint, ^ffa. Sea, T^fv, ^nfrfv,
^TftfV. Sheep, ^n%. Sickness, nfv. Sun, tf%.
Sword, aftr. Tail, qicS'fa. Term, -a^fv. Treasure,
ftrfv. Worm, yftr.

Exercise 21. (Gr. 112; Manual, p. 13.)


Nouns to be declined like HfiT y. ' the mind.'u
Allowance, maintenance, c[f%. Attainment, infw.
Beauty, cMfnT. Chastisement, $rn%. Conflict,
afirfir. Consent, Wprfir. Constancy, wfir. Correc
tion, ^1%. Custom, ^fir. Deformity, fVarfir. Devo-
H
98
tion, Hf^i. Earth, ground, viftf. Emancipation,
final beatitude, *jfii. Enjoyment, tfir. Error, rf^T.
Exhaustion, MlfH. Fall, ^rfir. Fame, cftff, ^rrfir.
Fashion, Ttfir. Fatigue, ^nftT. Fist, nf?. Fitness,
gf^i. Form, >jfff, ^mjfff. Futurity, wprfir, Hap
piness, fr|fri. Intellect, Law, ^rfir. Line,
tHir. Loss, ^frfa. Lustre, light, ^fir. Maintenance,
Jjfir. Morality, Tftfw. Motion, irfir. Nature,
Hcffri. Night, rrfW' Oar, ?|Trfi!T. Occupation, ^f%.
Opinion, *rfir. Order, ^fe. Pain, ^rrfw, wf. Per-
son, ^rfa. Pleasure, Tftfir. Point (of a sword &c.) ,
^ftfj. Policy, *ftfir. Power, ^rfo. Prosperity,
f(%T. Quietism, 5tTf%. Race, caste, rrfiT. Rain,
gff. Relish, ^f%. Repetition, gT^f^5. Repose,
ftrsnfar. Satisfaction, Tjfe, ?r^ff. Soil, >|fiT. Style,
title, juiifri. Superhuman power, f^jftr. Temptation,
^rrarffe. Timidity, ftfir. Usage, tffiT. Vision, -^fe.
Wages, >jfir. Wickedness, fVr^rfir. Withdrawal,
cessation, JiRfri.
Exercise 22. (Gr. 114; Manual, p. 13.)
Nouns to be declined like ^Tftw. 'water.'Agent,
s^n. Curd, ^fv (see Gr. 122). Giver, ^TJ[ n. \n-
telligent, nvrfa n. Lonely, ggrfa re. Pure, srfa ra.
Rich, vftT w. Thigh, *rfire (see Gr. 122).
Exercise 23. (Gr. 111; Manual, p. 13.)
Nouns to be declined like vrrg m. 'the sun.'
99
Anger, Animal, T^J. Arm, ^nj. Atom, ^m.
Bamboo, Beast, v^n. Beggar, fira. Breath,
m Bridge, ^w. Cat, Cause, ^j. Desert,
Drop, fa-g. Dust, tt}^. Enemy, ftij,
Flour, ^rfi. Infant, f^TST. JackalL 'ftHi^.
Jaw, ^|. Kinsman, ^*f. Lord, ipj. Metal,
mineral, vrg. Mole, freckle, fqs. Preceptor, n^.
Sacrifice, tan. Season, ^jTj. Shell, c|r^. Sin,
Site of a house, crTCT. Siva, ^TJ. Sluggard, r<H$l<.
Spirituous liquor, ^ftv. Stake, Sugar-cane, ^fg.
Thread, Tpj. Traveller, trqj, ir*g. Tree, iT^. Tremor,
^tt^. Vomiting, Wind, ^Tg.

Exercise 24. (Gr. 113; Manual, p. 14.)


Nouns to be declined like MJ f. ' a milch cow.'
Bill, beak, Good, wrvf. Pale, Trpa|/. Rope,
^35J. Thin, TT^f. Thirsty, ftprrg /. Woman whose
children die, fir^.

Exercise 25. (Gr. 115; Manual, p. 14.)


Nouns to be declined like *nj n. ' honey.'Beard,
3*T^. Collar-bone, Flattering speech,
Knee, TTJ. Lac, Palate, TTHJ. Tear, ^rw.
Thing (plot of a drama), ^m. Wealth, riches, ^j.
Whey, wh. Wood, ^P.
Exercise 26. (Gr. 126.)
Nouns to be declined like ^ft /. 'prosperity.'
100
Fear, ft /. Shame, jft /. Understanding, ift f.
Woman, ^gft (but N. sing. Ac. ^ff or

Exercise 27. (Gr. 127; Manual, p. 15.)


Nouns to be declined like ^TTJ m. 'a giver.'
Buyer, jgit. Carpenter, j^. Carrier, ^te. Cha
rioteer, Conqueror, Creator, T|, VfiJ.
Eater, *rtij, 'Wl^ij. Fighter, ifo. Forsaker,
W^. Gainer, c?3f. Grandson, ^rw (Gr. 128. a).
Leader, %Tj. Legislator, 5llfij. Liberator,
Master, husband, >r^. Monitor, ^rfifPff. Pardoner,
Protector, ifhl, xf^. Questioner, TT. Sacri-
ficer, rn, ^tff. Seller, fa^. Sister, ^| (Gr. 129. a).
Slayer, irs^. Speaker, ?rs, ^rf^.

Exercise 28. (Gr. 128; Manual, p. 15.)


Nouns to be declined like firj i. 'a father.' -
Brother, T. Daughter, (Gr. 129). Man, ^
(Gr. 128. b). Mother, JTTiT (Gr. 129). Son-in-law,
sn*rrj.

Exercise 29. (Gr. 95, 136 ; Manual, p. 16.)


Nouns to be declined like ^ftrT m. or f. ' green.'-
Conqueror of heroes, tfcftnr. Doer of work, anther.
Gatherer of flowers, jBrfVrjr. Lightning, fa^TT f.,
Trfr^/. Observant of duty, *F*hjiT. Praiser of the
gods, ^^jpT. River, *ftjr/. Roe-deer (also a
101

creeper), /. Thought, fair f. Wind, H^TT m.


Woman, ^fliT /.

Exercise 30. (Gr. 138; Manual, p. 16.)


Nouns to be declined like h*hP<^ m. f. ' knowing
one's duty.'Assembly, WHt f. Autumn, /-
Calamity, foref. Flesh-eater, cannibal, ffsn^ - orf.
Friend, m. Hump, peak of a mountain, /.
Inhabitant of heaven, a celestial, H1+t^ m. orf. Joy,
/. Misfortune, fkv% f. Perfection, mi^ /.

Exercise 31. (Gr. 137, 139; Manual, p. 16.)


Nouns to be declined like ^(Xi^ n. 'green' and
n. ' a lotus.'Entrail, ijOri^ n. Heart, 5^ n.
World, srrn^ n.

Exercise 32. (Gr. 140; Manual, p. 17.)


Nouns to be declined like *Mli^ m.f. n. 'rich.'
Abounding in food, ^ra^iT. Active, ^tTHiT. Affec
tionate, ^fr^jr. Armed, V^^, $TJ3^. As
much, as many, JITOTT. Branchy, S|UNMiT. Busy,
*|uHriN. Compassionate, ^n^ir, <*<JNvr. Excellent,
meritorious, TOO^T. Famous, ^tMff. Finite, ^rer^.
Flowery, ^T^IT. Fond, ^f^TT. Fortunate, c5H*l"Hri.
Fruitful, Mk4c)ri. Happy, 3^T31{. Having children,
3J*)riN. Learned, ftrcrPT^. Miserable,
Shapely, 'JH+K'li^. Snowy, f%H^iT. So much, so
102
many, iTT^iT. Wealthy, fsnrTiT. Wise, STT^nr.
Wived, having a wife, niuiMiT.

Exercise 33. (Gr. 140; Manual, p. 17.)


Nouns to be declined like >ftair m.f. n. 'wise.'
Bird, iHjiWiK Famous, cRrflhnr. Fortunate, ^ftniT.
Intelligent, ^f^fnr. Large-jawed (the monkey chief),
^pnr. Long-lived, -aTigtHTT. Mindful, *rfimw. Omni
potent, wf^rfwnT. Possessed of cattle, ifrrij. Pros
perous, ^jf^m^. Sun or moon (possessed of beams),

Exercise 34. (Gr. 147 ; Manual, p. 17.)


Nouns to be declined like WTST1 m. ' soul.'Fire,
9{H^. Hot season, <JH"|. Looker, "^ST^. Road,
^tsr^. Sacrificer, H^i^ Sin, Min^. Stone, ^r$H{.
Exercise 35. (Gr. 149; Manual, p. 18.)
Nouns to be declined like tTT^ m. ' & king.'
Blackness, cRtFtot^. Border, *fl*M. Carpenter, msF^.
Fat, ifN^. Head, Heaviness, Jift*^. Light
ness, cjf^PT. Love, wn^. Spleen, ftr?^ or ?ft^5T.
Exercise 36. (Gr. 152; Manual, p. 18.)
Nouns to be declined like n. ' act,' ' fact.'
Armour, c|fi^. Birth, rsr^. Bow, Corner
of the mouth, ^3^. Happiness, ^jwfc^. House,
^fRT^. Joint (division), tj#tT. Leather, ^wHj. Pre
text, Wages, *r*H^
103

Exercise 37. (Gr. 152; Manual, p. 18.)


Nouns to be declined like ^TTH^ n. ' a name.'
Conciliation, *rrH^. Gold, ipr^. Hair, ^Im^. House,
palace, Vlt^. Love, ifaiT. Sky, ^ita^. String,

Exercisers. (Gr. 159; Manual, p. 19.)


Nouns to be declined like vfcp^ ra.f. n. ' rich.5
Abandoner, urrfh^. Active, ssrft^. Angry, ^tfiTH.
Archer, qfar^. Bird, ijfo^, qwftpfr Charioteer,
tfa^. Devotee, iPTfe^, jftfil^. Elephant, ff%P^,
<*Pmx, ^fVrP^ Eloquent, ^rfap^. Embodied spirit,
soul, ^f^. Foe,%ft^. Fragrant, OTrfaTJ^. Garrulous,
feTgHlTm. Generous, ^R^tfis^. Goer, i||(^, ^ifn^.
Hermit, anchoret, wr?rf*n^, srerrftnj. Illustrious,
^9j(W(. Inhabitant, ftreTfifR. Kinsman, connexion,
gHTfiq^. Liar, fimTOTf^. Lion (maned), *5if<^.
Living creature, HTftn^. Master, husband, y |P*M.
Minister, *rforT. Miry, ^f^;^. Moon, ^r%^. Owner,
^TfaT. Peacock (crested), tytat^. Protector, de
fender, guardian, tfo^T. Sick, OHl^. Silent, nlfVp^.
Sinner, infa^. Speaker, ^Tf^. Splendid, Tfarfep^
Staff-bearer, Stander, WTftt^. Student,
f^aiPS^, m^Nifa^. Suppliant, '3lf$RN. Taker, grifrfr
Talented, il fiu^. Transgressor, ^nrrjftn^. Tusked,
^ft^. Villager, jrifa^. Well, cJ9|(pH. Witness,
104

Exercise 39. (Gr. 163; Manual, p. 19.)


Nquns to be declined like ^Tjrrcr m. 'the moon.'
Ape, qHUq. Nymph, fWHC^ /. Sun, fsprmr m.
Well-spoken (speaking well), ^Wt^ m. or f.

Exercise 40. (Gr. 164 ; Manual, p, 20.)


Nouns to be declined like *PTTT n. ' the mind.'
Age, T<n^. Assembly, *T^r. Breast, bosom, ^*T,
Darkness, Turcr. Fame, tr$ps^. Glory. Tsrer,
T#*T. Head, fsrtw. Lake, pool, pond, *T*r. Milk,
water, Trjrtr. Mind, thought, ^TTCT. Penance, innr.
Sin, *tT*T, Sky, tpnT. Speech, ^ra. Speed,
Stream, current, cfhntT. Veda, Vesture,
TORT. Water, Wt, l^n*.

Exercise 41. (Gr. 167; Manual, p. 20. Note.)


Comparatives to be declined like "^farer m.f.n.
'stronger.'Better, more excellent, Elder,
jiprff. Heavier, ipfhwr. More distant, ^41*1^. More
intelligent, *nrhrsr. More sinful, Tjnfh^. Nearer,
^<{lq. Younger, Jrtfhnr, ^fifi*t.
[Participles of 2d preterite, like imiPcMU, wf^rr,
ffjr^F, must be declined like f^ft^^r and trfr>pi^.
See Gr. 168.]

Exercise 42. (Gr. 165 ; Manual, p. 20. Note.)


Nouns to be declined like ^fat^ n. ' ghee.'Body,
105
^ipr. Clarified butter, fQ. Eye, Light,

Exercise 43. (Gr. 176; Manual, p. 31.)


Nouns to be declined like ^T^f. 'voice,' ' speech,'
and Tfs^m.f. n. 'an eater' (and nouns ending in any
consonant except i^t, ^ d, ^ra, ^s).Bark, skin,
1^ /. Garland, /. Happy, vcttT{. Hunger,
^v/. Ladle, ^\f- Merchant, ^fitr^. Partaker,
sharer, HT{. Physician, fW^. Sovereign, VVl^.

Exercise 44. (Gr. 120, i2i, i22f 142, 155, 162,


169, 178.)
Irregular nouns to be declined. Bone, ^rfw n.
Dog, T$r^ m. Eye, ^tfej n. Friend, ^rfa m. Great,
m. Husband, lord, Trfir m. Male, tj?c m. Road,
lftr^?M. Water, ^\f.

Exercise 45. (Gr. 191 ; Manual, p. 22.)


Add the affixes denoting comparison to the fol
lowing adjectives. Able, Accurate, wg.
Acute, ifra. Adjacent, wftij. Aged, ^g. Ancient,
^TOT. Astonished, ftrftRTT. Attentive, ^raffiT. Bad,
*T^, ^TWf. Beautiful, *p^t. Beloved, fipr. Bitter,
firai. Black, -Bsm- Blessed, vaj. Blind, ?rsw. Blue,
^ft9. Bold, ^k. Broad, tj^, imi^. Bulky, ^y.
Chief, Cold, ^flro. Deaf, ^ffirc;. Deep,
*Pfa. Deformed, Demonstrative, fa^frlcir.
106

Diligent, Tuftftf^, M)Vlfn^. Dirty, *rffS^T, *&srg,


^njfT^fTT. Distant, gt. Distinct, shr. Dreadful,
Dry, jTEcir. Dumb, Jjcff. Eligible, ir$rer.
Eloquent, ^T^1|. Empty, sraj. Equal, Evil,
Excellent, v&m. Famous, ciiWf*r^. Fat, ^j*.
Fierce, T^ng. Fine, to?t. Firm, -<rg. Fit, g^i,
tftnj. Generous, ^R. Good, TTTV, *rj. Grateful,
<*ri$l. Great, H?T^. Green, ^ft:^. Gross, *R.
Happy, ir?, v*T. Hard, csfiR. Harsh, tr^. Heavy,
iJ^. Helpless, ^ra^TO. High, <nr. Holy, ufaa'.
Honourable, *rRT, Huge, ^7S. Illusive,
Tnifni. Improper, iHHpMri. Infinite, ^n=RT. Insipid,
^rmt. Kind, W^fiffW, wpj, ^lSflrf- Lame,
Large, fa 31 1 W. Lazy, ^rF5*r. Lean, affair, "^f. Like,
*T|3r. Little, ^rgi, Long, Loud, n^WJ,
$|c^*K, ^rfN^. Low, ?fN. Many, '*m<*.
Mean, Much, -srj, *rpy. Near, ^fitcfc, Hftrfipr.
New, ^rN, Noble, B^hT< Noxious, f^.
Old, Patient, uf^wt. Pellucid, f<4H<4, fH*irf.
Perplexed, qiVc*. Pious, MfsWri. Pleasing, ^fa^.
Polished, tf^iT. Proper, dfWri, TrtrHf, tpiTW. Pure,
Pti^rt. Red, T^i. Rich, vftfj, VH"*tri. Righteous,
1 P*H <* . Ripe, Trgj. Short, fr^. Slow, H^. Small,
"Bfj, ^rai. Soft, Southern, ^ftpi. Strong,
^c5^. Stupid, Suitable, WfK. Sweet,
^Tlf . Swift, 5^hf. Tawny, fir^, fajfrf. Thick,
bulky, Tremulous, <Tt?J. Uneven, fcJMH.
107

Unsteady, -nTTS, ^TTO. Variegated, faw, (VP* iff.


Violent, White, srp, wftnr. Wise, fa$r, tfhn^.
Yellow, tftrr, tftri^jj. Young, .

Exercise 46. (Gr. 261; Manual, pp. 37,49.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the first class.-Accost, Atm. (with it).
Ask, beg, TTr^. Bathe, irr? ^m. (with fT*). Bear,
endure, Atm. Be, become, H. Be, exist, ^Atm.
Bite, ^5^. Blab, prattle, T5^. Blow (a horn), tuT.
Call, gr. Conquer, fir. Creep, crawl, Cross
over, swim, T. Cry, ^3^. Decay, foj. Descend,
T or ^ (with ^ra). Devour, ?r?T. Dig, Dis
tress, annoy, ^TV Atm. Distribute, give away, 7T (with
fa). Draw, y^. Drink, in, ^. Dwell, ^r. Eat,
HT5T. Endure, Tj^^m. Fit (to be), deserve, ^r|. For
sake, urs^. Give, ^T. Go, ii^, Grieve,
3r^. Hasten, ^ Atm. Increase, ^ Atm. Laugh,
Lead, ft. Meditate, t^. Mount, (with
<HT or ^rfv). Play, fgt^. Please (be pleasing),
^ Atm. Proclaim, Protect, rjfl. Read, TO.
Remember, 9?. Repeat, ^ (with ^rr). Roam,
VZ. Run, VT^. See, T^. Seize, 5. Serve, ir^.
Shine, SPI. Sing, ?t. Sink, give way, despond,
Slip, Wc^. Smell, in. Smile, fijr. Speak, vfrq.
Sport, T^. Stand, wr. Step, W{. Strive, *nr.
108

Support, v. Travel,^?. Understand,^. Weave, ^.


Yawn,

Exercise 47. (Gr. 307 ; Manual, pp. 37, 52.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the second class. Bathe, ^T. Deny, |r.
Eat, Go, hi. Hate, fs\ Know, fa^. Lick,
fts^. Lie down, 3ft. Make a noise, crow, Mea-
. sure, m. Milk, j^ff. Praise, ^. Protect, govern,
rule, tjT. Rub, *p^. Shine, HT. Sleep, ^t^, ftr^T.
* Smite, slay, kill, Speak, *r, T^. Wake, TPT.
Weep,

Exercise 48. (Gr. 330 ; Manual, pp. 37, 53.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the third class. Bear, >j. Cleanse, fH^.
Discriminate, fti^. Fear, >fK Give, ^T. Measure, *n.
x Pervade, fiffr Place, have, VT. Quit, leave,

Exercise 49. (Gr. 272 ; Manual, pp. 37, 54.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the fourth class. Angry (to be), ^v, ^r^.
Born (to be), T^. Create, let go, ^3^. Cut, "sft.
Dance, Decay, j. Destroy, ift. Dry, sr^.
Emaciate, gr'5^ Err, wander, w^. Exist, be found,
f^. Fight, 3V. Fly, H. Forgive, Tspr. Go, xr^.
t Perceive, Perfect (to be), ftrw. Perish, ^sr.
Play, gamble, f^. Pleased (to be), ipr. Pure (to be),
109
igv. Sew, ftrw. Sharpen, ^ft. Shoot, throw, fo^rr.
Think, imagine, ig; Tranquil (to he), ^iw.

Exercise 50. (Gr. 349; Manual, pp. 37, 56.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the fifth class.Able (to be), ^rcF. Bind, ftr.
Collect, cull, gather, f% Cover, ^T. Deceive, <wr.
Delight, tj. Injure, ^ or . Obtain, find, ^TV{.
Proud (to be), W. Shake, "g. Throw, fir.

Exercise 51. (Gr. 278; Manual, pp. 37, 58.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the sixth class.Ask, irgj. Besmear, f^Fj.
Create, wsj. Cut, Die, *j. Enter, fesj. Find,
f^. Loose, open, Plunge, dive, *raj. Send, -
Sit down, fiyt (with T*t). Smear, fc5^_.
Sprinkle, irrigate, ftr^. Throw, foj^. Touch, ?cr5[.
Wish, 33. Write, ftpw.

Exercise 52. (Gr. 342; Manual, pp, 37, 60.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the seventh class.Anoint, ^i^. Break,
fa^, H^. Cut, f%^. Distinguish, f$re^. Eat, enjoy,
ws^. Injure, ffTr. Join, ttsT. Kindle, Moisten,
Pound,

Exercise 53. (Gr. 353 ; Manual, pp. 37, 62.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
110

verbs of the eighth class. Ask, Do, make, ^.


Eat grass, ^nr. Give, obtain, ?r^. Go, ^pir. Imagine,
H^. Kill, ^t*, ftpr. Shine, ^nr. Stretch, ir^.

Exercise 54. (Gr. 356; Manual, pp. 37, 65.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the ninth class.Bind, close (a book), ^v.
Bruise, crush, Buy, Eat, *rsi. Grow old, ^.
Know, sJT. Overspread, ^. Purify, ^. Steal,
pilfer, String, Tpxf. Take, Jjf. Thirst, ^

Exercise 55. (Gr. 283 ; Manual, pp. 37, 67.)


Give the four conjugational tenses of the following
verbs of the tenth class.Ask, ^r*^; (or with n), irr^.
Castigate, punish, Celebrate, cjTir. Compute,
enumerate, ttct. Console, appease, 8Tn^. Consult,
*T^. Count, 7mt. Fill, it. Hear, cin^. Hunt,
seek, *pr. Lift, (with Long for,
Look, cjt^r. Mingle, Pain, Paint, de
scribe, Press, coerce, tt^. Sharpen, whet,
fH^. Speak, tell, relate, eir^. Strike, beat, thrash,
iT?. Swallow, ?r*r. Teach, Think, f^.
Weigh, ft?. Worship, tj^.

Exercise 56. (Gr. 364; Manual, p. 39.)


Give the second preterite of the following verbs.
Ascend, ^ (with ^rr or 'STtv). Begin, *?^ (with ^rr).
Bow down, ^ (with Tt). Burn, CT. Call out to,
Ill

challenge, % (with ^rr). Conquer, for. Gook, jn. .


Create, ws^. Creep, crawl, Cross over,
Drink, m. Dwell, 'srfT. Fall, tjTT. Forsake, Tirs^.
Go, iT^, ^Tj ^T, T^, \. Hear, Laugh, ^r. Let -
go, H^. Lie down, ^fh Pleasing and agree
able (to be), ?j^r. Pronounce, say, Roam, OT.
Sacrifice, tts^ Say, See, T3{, citar, TJT^. Seize,
5 ?Tf- Serve, for. Shew, in cans. Sleep, ^tj.
Speak, Sport, 75*r (with fo). Stand, wT.
Tell, gr^. Throw, foftj. Understand, Wan
der, >J*T. Write, fw^.

Exercise 57. (Gr. 386; Manual, p. 41.)


Give the first future of the following verbs.
Awake, Burn, Carry, g^. Cherish, H.
Cook, ir^. Do, ^. Endure, *r^. Forgive, ^}J^.
Forsake, TT^. Go, n^. Lick, fos^. Milk, g^.
Protect, ^sr. Read, *j7.

Exercise 58. (Gr. 386; Manual, p. 41.)


Give the second future of the following verbs.
Acquire, ^rpj, c5>^. Ask, TT^, tTT^. Burn,
Carry, g^. Cook, tr^. Die, *j. Do, ^. Dwell,
q*r. Eat, h^. Enjoy, >pr. Enter, fos{. Fall,
Fight, Forsake, w^. Go, tT^, trr, ^, ^T,
q^. Make, cjf. Milk, j^. Move, M<^. Remember,
Sacrifice, xpij. Seize, 5. Serve, ify for.
112
Slay, fr^. Speak, m\. Strive,
Succeed, ftrw. Suffer, *T|. Write, fc5^.

Exercise 59. (Gr. 415; Manual, p. 41.)


Give the third preterite of the following verbs.-
Ask, TT^. Bathe, ^T. Be, r. Conceal, iT^1.
Count, iT^. Go, iT*^, HT. Guide, yft. Hear,
Point out, f%3T. Read, ti^. Resign, relinquish, urS^.
Say, Understand, ^V. Worship, ^rt.

Exercise 60. (Gr. 462; Manual, p. 71.)


Give the passive form of the following verbs.--
Conquer, ftT. Do, Drink, in. Give, |jT.
Hear, w. Hold, have, VT. Measure, *n. Quit, >tT.
Remember, ^T. Sing, ^. Stand, ^T. Tear, ^. .

Exercise 61. ' (Gr. 479.)


Give the causal form of the following verbs.-
Be, become, w. Be, exist, ^. Bend, TT^. Blaze,
Born (to be), PT. Command, srrjn (?T with ^5tT).
Conquer, ftT. Fall, nw. Give, ^T. Go, iT^, VI,
V^, ^T, ^, ^. Grow, Hear, 'W. Know, f^T,
r. Learn, %T5T. Protect, trr. Satisfied (to be),
'H^. See, Sing, ft Slay, Stand, ^rT.
Wake, fPJ.
Exercise 62. (Gr. 498.)
Give the desiderative form of the following verbs.
'Burn, 3?r. Conquer, fir. Cut, ^1^* Die, i|.
113

Do, Drink, tjT. Eat, >j^. Fall, xn{. Fight, gw.


Gain, <?H. Give, ^T. Go, tt\, Hear,
Kill, Know, $n, Know (cause to), sTPJ.
Lead, Obtain, ^rrq. Quit, $tT. Say, See,
1^1. Seize, Slay, smite, TT5T, Think,

Exercise 63. (Gr. 507.)


Give the frequentative or intensive form of the
following verbs.Blaze, 33^. Conquer, ffT. Sacri
fice, tts{. Shine, ^h{. Weep,

Exercise 64. (6^524526; Manual, p. 45.)


Give the present participles, Parasmai and Xtmane,
of the following verbs.Able (to be), $raff. Break,
6^, >r^. Celebrate, wi[. Collect, fa. Conquer,
ftr. Cook, ir^. Count, Die, ij. Do, ^r.
Drink, irr. Enter, f^. Fear, t. Fight,
Give, ^T. Gleam, Go, n^, ^. Have, hold, vT.
Hear, is. Know, ^rr. Make, m (with ftrt). Narrate,
Obstruct, ^V. Obtain, ^mj. Pain, tfts. Play,
ftf^. Propitiate, ^TltTV (thv with ^rr). Protect, trr.
Purchase, jSt. Purify, ^. Quit, ^T. Respect, ^rr
(-^ with ^rr). Rub, ip^. See, Shout, make a
noise, ^f. Sing, ^. Sink, tiz. Slay, Smell,
ITT. Smile, fijr. Speak, ^. Split, cleave, f^.
Stand, WJ- Support, cherish, |. Worship,
Write, fc5^-

r
1
114

Exercise 65. (Gr. 531; Manual, p. 46*)


Give the past passive participle of the following
verbs. Abandon, g^, ^t. Be, become, >j.
Begin, t>t (with ^rr). Bind, Hf. Build, m (with
ftrr). Burn, 3^. Carry, tr^. Conquer, fir. Cook,
tj^. Count, tpgt. Create, 7T>^. Curse, ^P^.
Cut, f$. Dance, JT^. Deceive, (with ij).
Depart, (with ^ni), ^ (with ^rq or fa). Descend,
7 (with vr). Drink, m. Eat, *P5(. Fall, tr^,
xsj. Free, Gain, Give, ^T. Go, iT^, ^*
Grieve, 3p(. Grow, ^r?. Hear, Lick, fe^.
Meditate, Milk, |f. Mind, think, if!T. Move,
^Tc^. Obstruct, ^j^. Obtain, sjtp^. Pain, xftr,
Perish, Pleased (to be), TTO, t*^. Plunge, dive,
sink, Quit, m^, ^T. Read, ^ (with ^rfv),
(with ^rfv). Relate, ^r. Remember, t?t. Re
strain, Sacrifice, Say, r^, T^. See, -^5TN.
Seize, ^, ?f|r. Sink, give way, *t^, V3(. Smear,
fi*^. Solicit, iTT^. Sport (be addicted to), t*.
Strike, Teach, t^3TN (with ^tj). Write, fe^.

Exercise 66. (Gr. 553; Manual, p. 47.)


Give the past active participle of the following
verbs. Abandon, Th^. Appoint, tjs^ (with t>).
Create, xj^. Go, n*. Hear, xj. Read, tit. See,
^3T. Speak, c|r^.
115

Exercise 67. (Gr. 556; Manual, p. 47.)


Give the past indeclinable participle in of the
following verbs.Acquire, tjvt. Ask, ir^ff. Be, T.
Bow, bend, Cook, ir^. Discourse, cR1^. Drink,
trr. Dwell, ^rr. Eat, enjoy, >nj. Fall, tjit. Fight,
tre. Give, cfT. Go, 7ff{. Grow, Hear, ^.
Hold, VT. Join, meet, unite, t*Tc^. Lick, tw^.
Meditate, i^. Obstruct, ^v. Praise, Prate,
tiirej. Quit, *rr, HW. Remember, ^R. Say,
See, ^Tjr. Sing, it. Stand, wr. Take, Think,
*T^, fR^. Weep, JJ5< Write, fc5^.

Exercise 68. (Gr. 559 ; Manual, p. 47.)


Give the past indeclinable participle in tt of the
following verbs. Bow down, (with u). Call,
challenge, 3^ (with 'srt). Conquer, ftT (with fa).
Descend, it (with ^rg). Go out, iT^ (with ftrt).
Honour, - (with ^rr). Praise, *ET (with n). Remem
ber, (with ^pj). Throw, foyr^ (with n).

Exercise 69. (Gr. 569 ; Manual, p. 48.)


Give the future passive participle in W^j of the
following verbs. Accomplish, achieve, ^nv. Ask,
(with it). Conquer, ftr. Cook, tj^. Do^ ^.
Dwell, Eat, <3T|, n^. Endure, Fight,
Gain, c3>^. Give, ^T. Go, n*T, ^, Hear, ^.
Know, fa^. Preserve, Protect, nw. Read, try.
1 2
116
Remember, ^R. Sacrifice, xfl^. Satisfy, ^j. Un*
derstand,

Exercise 70. (Gr. 570 ; Manual, p. 48.)


Give the future passive participle in flvfljj of the
following verbs.Cross over, T. Defend, TTB^. Do, cg.
Drink, tjT. Endure, Hear, ^. Lie down, ^ft.
Praise, (with ij). Read, ra. Satisfy,

Exercise 71. (Gr. 571 . Manual, p. 48.)


Give the future passive participle in T( of the fo]U
lowing verbs. Abandon, ^rr. Bear, support, >j.
Chew, *r^. Conquer, ftT. Drink, tiT. Eat, *p{,
TJ5(. Fill, tj. Give, ^r. Hear, ^. Know, under
stand, gv. Liberate, *r^. Lick, fo^. Please, Tft.
Quit, Say, Seize, <*\ Sing, ?>. SupT
port, maintain, H. Take, Write, tfPtr.

Exercise 7 a. (Gr. 739 ; Manual, p. 74.)


Turn the following into Tat-purusha or dependent
compounds.(Accusatively dependent) God-praising.
Going to the wood. Wishing to do (one's) duty. Going
(lapsing) to the king. (Instrumentally dependent)
Cut with a sickle. Pained by hunger. Smeared
with mud. Kicked (struck) with the feet. (Datively
dependent) Timber for a (sacrificial) post. A goat
for a sacrifice. Cup for drinking. (Ablatively
dependent) Fear of (from) the rod. Heaven-de
scended. Fallen from rank. Strayed from the herd.
117

(Genitively dependent) A brick-house, i. e. a house of


brick. A pair of shoes. Infliction of punishment.
Desire of gain. City-gate. Carriage-cushions.
Chief of the gods. Noise of wheels. Path of the
sun. Disk of the moon. Court of law. Lord of
night. The gift of exemption from fear. The occu
pation of killing game. A deer-skin. Means of
deliverance. Close of day. Evening-tide. Sword
of wisdom. (Locatively dependent) Sunk in the mire.
Engaged in (addicted to) drinking. Dwelling in a
village.
Exercise 73. (Gr. 743. c, 744. a.)
Turn the following into Tat-purusha compounds
where the sign of the case is retained. Lord of
speech. Regent of the waters (epithet of the god
Varuna). Sleeping on a lotus (Vishnu). Growing
in the mud. Dwelling in the village.

Exercise 74. (Gr. 746 ; Manual, p. 75.)


Turn the following into Dwandwa or aggregative
compounds. Master and servant. Teacher and
pupil. Body and mind. Mother and father.
Father and son. Gods, heavenly minstrels, men,
serpents, and goblins. Day and night. Meat, drink,
and clothing. Birth, decrepitude, separation, and
death.

Exercise 75. (Gr. 755 ; Manual, p. 77.)


Turn the following into Karma-dharaya or descrip
tive compounds. A black serpent. A noxious ani
118

mal. A blue water-lily. Ripe fruits. Many trees.


A full cup. Full moon.

Exercise 76. (Gr. 760; Manual, p. 78.)


Turn the following into Avyayi-bhava or inde
clinable compounds. With respect. With pride.
With haste. With affection. With comfort. Along
the Ganges. Daily. Every month. Towards the
fire. As the case (is), i. e. truly. According to
(one's) ability. According to (what) was said. Just
as it occurred.

Exercise 77. (Gr. 761 ; Manual, p. 78.)


Turn the following into Bahu-vrihi or relative
compounds. Club-in-hand. Evil-minded. Bare
footed. Tusk-armed. Tawny-eyed. Black-coloured.
(A child) whose mother is dead. Attended by a
small retinue. Sea-girt (bounded by the sea). Re
lieved from fear (whose fears are gone). Defunct
(whose breath is gone). Broken-hearted. Purified
from sin. Unread in the Scriptures. Having the
hair cut. Seeing by emissaries (having spies for eyes) .
Having a wife. (One) whose enemies are conquered.
Respectful (having respect). Bereft of all (his) pro
perty. Possessed of money. Strung, corded (having
a cord). Cross-tempered.

Exercise 78. (Gr. 770; Manual, p. 80.)


Turn the following into complex compounds.
Dazzled by the glare of the sun. Whose sins have
been consumed by the fire of (divine) knowledge.
119

To be achieved by a great outlay of money. Un


steady as a drop of water lying on a leaf of the lily.
Exercise 79. The article. (Gr. 795.)
The following exercises are to be translated into
Sanskrit.A certain man. The boy's book. In a
certain field. The lion's paw. By a certain lion.
The peasant's cottage. In the king's palace.
Exercise 80.Concord of verb with nominative case.
(Gr. 796.)
The cock crows. The boy plays. He does so.
Let the oil and the wood be bought. They go
rapidly. All will die. Ye strike. We will go soon.
Where are you running? Will you go in ? We sleep.
He is loved. The king governs. How do you do?
Those two men laugh. Get up. Birds fly. Every
living creature will die. Rivers flow towards the
sea. Why does he laugh?
Exercise 81.-Concord of adjective and substantive.
(Gr. 798.)
A good child. A great dog. A bad pen. Black
ink. Nice cloth. A little boy. A great fool. Blue
sky. Wise citizens. Other books. In those ex
cellent books. A large cocoa-nut. Broken cups.
A kind mother. The best girl. The diligent pupil.
Exercise 82.Concord of relative and antecedent.
(Gr. 799.)
I praise the boy who is industrious. The friend
whom I love is ill. Kama did that which had been
120

done by Arjuna (tnr TJn^ &c.). The bird


which sang so sweetly is gone. He will obtain the
reward which belongs to the noble-minded (inr tluTH
y^K^Trai &c.). The horse which runs fast is bought
by the merchant. The man who loves justice will
be respected. He who has been a witness of any
fact can give an account of it. An old hen once
saw a cock which she knew was her own chicken.
That which is true of the one is probably true of the
other irsftfPT ftrftsnf TPT wihRh^ iRiTai?). The
trees which we planted in our garden bear fruit in
the autumn. God created the little worm whieh
crawls on the ground. The boy who reads well
shall receive a prize. Those who seek wisdom will
certainly find her. It is the same picture you saw
before. The man who (it: WPT) believes that the
Scriptures are true (vrfhr^rnTT RPTTO wlchOOr) is not
disturbed in his mind.

Exercise 83.Nouns of time, place, and distance.


(Gr. 820-823.)
In twelve years. For twenty months. For a whole
night. For the whole year. On the second day.
On the fourth night. At midnight. Before six
months are over (917). After six months (917).
Two months ago. In the city. At my father's
house. He travelled for twenty leagues ("SKt^t).
That king reigned for fifty years (ace).
121

Exercise 84. Genitive case. (Gr. 815.)


Man's reward. Bark of the tree. The child's
rice. Boy's book. The horse's legs. The man's
hands {du.). The master's feet (du.). Ox's horn.
Death's shafts. Flocks of sheep. My brother's
stick. His father's house. Wisdom's ways are
ways of pleasantness. Good evening (TJ^ta) to you

Exercise 85.Comparative and superlative degrees.


(Gr. 829-834.)
What is more valuable than gold (abl. case) ?
My son is more diligent than yours. Brahmans are
more powerful than Kshatriyas. His book is larger
than mine. We two read better than you. It is
easier said than done (saying is easier than doing).
London (oMIi^T'R) is a larger city than Delhi (fs%)-
They are less happy than before (ij^R^u). He
can write better than my son. Thou art wiser than
I am. She is not so accomplished as he is (ttsh
nJjrar^ rTOT ?rr T TCir^jft). My horse is as good as
yours. Neither precept nor discipline are so forcible
as example (example is stronger than discipline and
precept, f$rBjta^3rTrr). Rather death than (and not,
'Tf ipT^) such an action. Of quadrupeds, the elephant
is the largest and the mouse the smallest. It is
better that your friend tell you your faults privately
(jjcfiTnTrPff) than that your enemy talk of them pub
licly (W4i3M or JTcsr^).
122

Exercise 86.'Numerals. (Gr. 206, 835.)


Fifty men. Two thousand years. Two hundred
years. A thousand soldiers crossed the bridge.
Three large rivers flow through our country. Two
dogs were killed in the wood. I want four horses.
The height of the room is twenty feet (f^rfirTOtR-
ftfaw). He fell pierced with twenty (f^TWr) arrows.
He shot ('ftrTOTH) thirty arrows into the target.
Seventy-one multiplied by (intr) thirty make two
thousand one hundred and thirty.

Exercise 87.Locative absolute. (Gr. 840.)


The auspicious moment having arrived. When
he was killed. Whilst they were asleep. When
Rama was absent. When the king's army was gone.
On its being so done. As time went on. When
he had finished. The sun having set (^m iTff).
When the moon had risen. Whilst the travellers
slept. Whilst that fearful slaughter was going on
("^pres. p. A'tm.). The bank having been under
mined (^r^nr) by the stream. When the time for
talking had passed (^nftw). The festival being
ended. The business being accomplished. My
husband being injured by him (^m^ ^fn). The
assembly ('STrsT) being tired. His brother having
arrived. When misfortune impends. Even though
death be certain. When a thousand years had
elapsed
123

Exercise 88. Copulative* verbs. (Gr. 841, 839.)


My name is Durga. I am he. Rice is wholesome.
Sweetness is a quality of sugar. The women in
that country very soon become old. He was
esteemed wise, Knowledge is the best ornament.
The scholar's improvement is the master's object
(^M^ryfidfami*). Here is the ink *rtft). Here
are the pens. Here is the book. Are you unwell
(<BRTO) ? What is more sweet than honey ? Life is
uncertain. Anger is a short madness. The love
of money is the root of all evil. Calcutta (oh(Vl<*lriT)
is a city of palaces. The streets are very dirty.
Those two men are called sages. Is this picture a
good likeness 51) ? The carriage is ready (*rar).

Exercise 89. Accusative after the verb.


(Gr. 842-846.)
Give me that book. Go home. O boy, listen
to your master. Eat the mango-fruit. This scholar
reads his lesson well. I do not want any thing.
Take the wooden-box. I address thee. I want other
books. I saw him and her. You have taught
(qifeiMl^ ^rfis) her and them. Your father told him
and me. God created all things. Bring me some
milk. I shall return to my father's house. Did
you not see my son playing with (^) his brothers?
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. He reads his

* Called 'copulative' because they couple a subject with a


substantive or adjective as predicate.
124
book correctly from beginning to end and under
stands it-' Why do you beat me? How many
rupees (w^T) have you ? Let others praise thee, and
not thy own mouth. Cats eat mice. A dog eats bones
(Gr. 155, 122). Rivers go to the ocean. He can
not make them believe the truth. Despise not any
condition, lest it become thy own (since it may be
come the condition of thyself). I excuse (t^) him
and her, but not (^ it) you. My father sent me to
your excellent school (double accus. 846). Virtue
leads a man to happiness. The mother leads her
child home. He will teach you those sciences. I
asked him for some rice. I caused him to eat some
mango-fruit. Tell the king (dat.) that we are
arrived (toT^ WHT'lrirH ). He did not know that
the prince had come for his daughter (gftr^if hhiIiT).
Be not overcome by anger (go not to the power of
anger). They went on board the ship. Step into
the carriage (wr^T). Grieve not for me. Remem
ber you are a mortal (your mortality). The little
birds warble sweetly in the delightful shade of the
trees (resorting to the delightful shade &c<).

Exercise 90. Instrumental after the verb.


(Gr. 848, 805, 865.)
The master struck the scholar with a stick. How
can you write with that bad pen? Dead trees are de
serted by birds. Man was created by God in his own
image. A soft answer turneth away wrath (by a soft
answer &c.). We are mortal and know nothing (by
125

us mortals &c.). He makes a noise (a noise is made


by him). He carries his son on his shoulder (instr.).
I did but jest (by me &c.). Have you said your
lesson? (has the lesson been said by you?) She
plays with (*nr) the cat. He subsists by deceit. Un
fortunate kings are slighted by ministers. I admire
him (by me &c.). Every tree is known by its fruit.
I am satisfied with her, but not with him. With
whom do you live ? Ignorance has caused ( =5rmfc(iT)
the mistake (by ignorance &c.). It is better not to
fight even with an enemy. Return me that book at
your convenience (uwnt). I have forgotten the
cushion (iHUjRiu), Let us enter the town on foot
(ttIBT). In him (by him) we live and move. Why
have you not washed your face (why by you &c.) ?
This book was translated (*JljTlfc(ri) into Sanskrit
(w^iPTTCT instr. case) by my pupil. He joined his
friends in safety (^jiNj). I caused the children to
eat the rice (848. a). He crossed the river on a
plank. To whom (Wff) is he like? He bought a
horse for a thousand rupees. The girl who sews
neatly shall be rewarded (by whatever girl it is well
sewed, by her a reward is to be received, fut. pass. p.).
We must not be deceived by thee. The tree bends
under the weight of its fruit (ifcc'jlsi'H). He boasts
of his skill in taming horses. Harness the oxen to
the cart. He fell on his knees (TTgrr tr^). I will
not part with (^t) that even for heaps (^TfifTfW:) of
silver. I cannot do what you wish for many rea
sons (^jrfW: f7jfH:).
126

Exercise 91.Dative after the verb. (Gr. 853, 811.)


To whom shall I give this ? Give me some meat
(to me let some meat be given) . That speech pleases
(is pleasing to) the king. Do not tell it to any one.
Virtuous conduct leads to prosperity (811). I pro
mise you twenty pieces of money. Entrust the
child to me. To whom much is given, of them shall
much be required (^r^N with u). What means are
there for our subsistence (sflMH dat. sing.) ? Set
not your mind on sin. The use of riches is to
promote the happiness of others. My father was
angry with him. That tree is fit for destruction.
He incited me to enter the house by stealth. Make
known the victory to the people.
Exercise 92.Ablative after the verb. (Gr. 854.)
That book came from London (<?*JJ^T>TC). They
came from the village. The jewel fell from the
queen's neck. A huge rock rolled from the top of
the mountain. The merchants departed from that
country. The water flows from the river into the
lake. He ceases speaking. Save me from bia
cruelty. The cat fears the dog, the dog fears the
tiger. A good man has no fear of death. I had
finished before (^f with abl. 917) he came. A good
name is superior to riches. He alights from the
carriage. Dismount from that horse. He left off
eating. Deliver us from evil.
Exercise 93.Genitive after the verb. (Gr. 857.)
How much money have you ? (of you how much
127

money is there ?) Listen to your master (hear the


speech of your master). He hears not my words.
Whose son are you ? Relate your adventures to me.
The avaricious man is not satisfied with increasing
riches, just as fire is not satisfied with wood. The
righteous do not fear death (859. a). The sound
of the chariot seemed as of that of the king. Say,
'what shall be done to this villain (^n=tr ^Tiw). The
merchant was angry with his son (^cTWiuft). I
will give that kingdom to my faithful minister.
Think (w) of us. Forgive me. Act as becomes
you (tjT^ i& **<?tV &c.)< The son imitates (^J^) the
father.

Exercise 94.Locative after the verb. (Gr. 860863.)


As he that sows in spring will have a crop in au
tumn, so he that learns in youth will reap advantage
and honour in manhood. In those books are excel
lent pictures. Put the ink in the bottle. Dust (1171ft)
lies on the ground. The king entrusted the affairs
of the kingdom to his own son. Consign the child
to its mother. Place no confidence in wicked men
(confidence is not to be placed &c). He is engaged
in an important business. Apply your mind to the
accomplishment of good undertakings. Strive to
obtain glory. I was appointed to guard the city.
Young men are addicted to many vices. Make an
effort to search for your companion (u^lMUlfiil)).
Harness the two horses to the carriage. Faith (of
faith) is instrumental in causing the wished
128
for result (^EUpjIrU^t). He who does not perform
good works (in whatever man good works are not
found) has no true faith (of him &c).

Exercise 95.'Infinitive mood. (Gr. 867.)


This child is learning (^rcr with ^rftr) to walk. She
began to sing. He is hastening home (to go home).
Those boys are not able to spell (combine letters).
One man cannot lift that stone. Durga orders you
to be silent. God placed the sun in the sky to rule
(measure) the day, and he appointed the moon to
shine (ftlTOil^RT^r 917. a) by night. I wish to read.
A king ought to act justly (870). Be pleased to
bestow on me your friendship. Every man must
give an account of his actions. That cannot be
done (869). This cord is too thick to be cut with
a knife. Those pieces of wood are fit to be burnt.
How can you contend with fa) with such a
powerful enemy ? He is going to beat his son (g^nr
or desid. of ir? with infin.). He was unable tp re-r
strain (vrcffg) his love.

Exercise 96. Present tense. (Gr. 873.) .


I marvel at him who repairs the house that passeth
away, but dilapidates the enduring habitation. A
crow dwells in that tree. No one knows. He is
separated from his friends (848. a). He promises
money to his son (853). A good son avoids (tRc^)
paining his parents. He touches his ears (du.). How
shall I eat this delicate flesh ? What shall we do ?
129

Exercise 97. Potential. (Gr. 879.)


They should read. Each scholar should learn his
lesson. If he should acquire riches, they will cor
rupt his mind. If a master strike his servant and he
be slain thereby, must the master be put to death ?
A wicked mother might even desert her child. A
starving man might feed even upon rats. A monarch
should be the protector of his subjects. By care
fully applying pressure (t^TT: mU*1(} one may ex
tract oil from various seeds. Let the sick man avoid
meat (881). Do not tell him (881) any thing pain
ful (-flfmi). If the husbandman should never sow,
where would be the harvest?

Exercise 98.Imperative. (Gr. 882.)


Do not cry (^). Stay (otT) a moment. Do not
be angry. Let him be appointed to the generalship
(fHrprw). Eat your rice. Let us go away to
another place. Read your book. Grieve not for
the dead (ace). Lie down (646) on the grass.
Mount your horse. Gather the blossoms from that
tree. Speedily deliver me. Let this place be aban-r
doned. Come here my child, embrace me. Stay
there till I come. Call (^rrsjr 595) his mother. Pro-?
ceed leisurely, for even a mountain may be crossed
by degrees.

Exercise 99.First preterite. (Gr. 884.)


The stars were shining. I saw them. His father
told us. The traveller reflected. The husband said
K
130

to his wife. He was about to die The


general addressed the soldiers.

Exercise 100.Second preterite. (Gr. 885.)


He ascended the tree. They spoke kindly to
me. She sported with the other nymphs in the
water. The king addressed a speech to the minister.
The sage assembled all his disciples and said to them.
The fire consumed (3^) the forest. He began to
relate the story. They lodged (^) for a whole
night (acc.) in the forest. He offered a horse-
sacrifice (^naifci instr. c.) to the gods (acc). The
army was struck with terror (became terrified). He
gave money to the poor.

Exercise 101.Third preterite. (Gr. 888, 889.)


He grieved for the departed child. There lived
a learned Brahman in that village. The merchant's
wife went to another town. The master caused his
pupils to read books of law. The roar of the lion
was heard (t| $d pret. pass.) by the affrighted tra
vellers in the wood. Be not afraid (889) of the dog.
Go not to the house of your enemy. Bathe (^T)
not in an impure stream. Relinquish not hope. The
hunter died (went to the state offive, i. e. elements).

Exercise 102.First or secondfuture. (Gr.886,887.)


You will place the necklace in the hollow of the
tree. In the autumn the leaves will fall. I will
speak to the leader of the caravan (*tHNtf cr.).
131
The caravan will cross the desert. My father will
not return (T xpR rt ip^). You will see it
-with your own eyes. They shall eat the fruit of
their own actions.

Exercise 103.Passive verbs. (Gr. 865.)


Let a doctor be summoned. Why do you carry
a dog on your shoulder (why is a dog carried Sec,
849. a) ? Let him be asked where he lives. It is
not known who he is. Let the horses be harnessed.
The sun was obscured by clouds. The army is
conquered. Let them remain (let it be remained by
them) together in the house. Let us go away (let it
be gone) to another town. [ObserveCausal verbs
come under Exercise 89.]

Exercise 104.Present participle. (Gr. 894.)


An elephant kills by touching merely fap^ in pres.
part. nom. c). Speaking harsh words, he departed.
As he went along (going) he sang a song in a loud
voice. Placing the goat on the ground, he looked
upwards. A weeping (pres. part.f.) woman was seen
by him and asked, " Why do you continue weeping
(877)?" The lion keeps eating the animals that dwell
in the forest. The traveller saw a large burning
(pres. part. pass.) forest. Searching for her husband
and being tormented night and day with anguish of
heart, she arrived at a large city. Dwelling there
she made inquiries, but saw him not. The citizens
heard her uttering lamentations, and pitied her for
lorn condition. Trembling and tottering (Wv{) she
K 2
132

entered the king's palace. Running hither and


thither he came upon ('sraaT?) a grove of trees.
The youth being attracted (c|r^ with ^rr) by desire of
gain, left his family and departed to another country.
They saw a large caravan crossing (TT with Tit) a river.

Exercise 105. Past passive participle. (Gr. 895.)


The holy sage was deceived by them ; therefore
they were cursed by him. She was abandoned by
her companions. They set out for the hermitage
(896). The hermits entered the forest (896). The
fruit fell from the tree (896).

Exercise 106.Active past participle. (Gr. 897.)


He made an effort to collect money. He obtained
the fruit of his desires. I abandoned my house in
the wood. The lion conquered the other beasts.
She placed (^) the bundle of wood on her son's
back. They consigned their children to me.

Exercise 107. Indeclinable past participle.


(Gr. 898.)
Having purchased a goat, having placed (^r) it on
his shoulder, he was walking slowly on the road.
Having heard these words, having placed the goat
on the ground, having examined it, having satisfied
himself that it was not a dog, having again placed it
on his shoulder, he proceeded homewards. Having
so said, he opened the door and went out. Spread
out your mantle to dry (having spread out your
mantle dry it). They met together (having met &c.)
133

and held a consultation. A man can only become


a skilful physician by constant practice (900) . Enough
of talking nonsense (901. a). The farmer having
seen the jackal in the garden threw a stick at him
(by the farmer &c. a stick was thrown). What is
the good of selling that field ? (having sold that field
what is gained?) There can be no application of
a remedy (ufipwt) without being acquainted with
(^UnwT) the disease.
Exercise 108.Future passive participle. (Gr. 902.)
What is to be done? If a guest come to the
house, a seat is to be offered him. The child's feet
(du.) should be washed with cold water. I must
go. Food must be eaten. The serpent will be seen
(907). Children are to be supported. A diligent
scholar deserves praise (902. a). That ought not to
be done. These evils can easily be remedied. The
river can be crossed in a boat (instr. c). Such a
deed should not be thought of (mwi cs#si). Trust
not to riches (confidence is not to be placed &c.).
Search the Scriptures (the Scriptures are to be &c.).
Let him pray to the Lord (the Lord is to be &c.).

Exercise 109.Conjunctions, prepositions, adverbs.


(Gr. 912-926.)
He sat down and began to eat (912). They then
agreed to go, but when they reached the end of the
garden they could not open the gate, for it was locked
(914). If the boy had obeyed his master, this could
not have happened (915). He entered the water as
134
far as his waist (916. a). We must wait till the re
turn of the messenger (916. a). I cannot take that
without paying the price of it (917. a). From that
time forward he began to grow rich. Before death.
Before the departure of the army. After sunset
(917. a). We must contrive that all the women
leave the town (920). Do you know me (921)?
Ascertain whether he is in the house. I have some
thing to tell with reference to that merchant, O king
(924, 926). I have no other resource but you (^k
with abl.). Woe to the traitor! What is the use
of empty threats (ispj) ?

Exercise no.The use of the particle iti. (Gr. 927.)


It is written in the Scriptures, that " Evil com
munications corrupt good manners." They cried
out, "The house is on fire/' He said his master
had treated him very well. "He owes me twenty
gold pieces/' said the merchant. The king begged
him to paint another picture. I thought of building
a house (/ will build &c., such was my intention).
They call him the guardian of the town. He resolved
to make an effort to release himself. My idea is to
buy a horse with this money (I will buy &c., such is
my idea). A son is not always to be treated as if
he were a mere child (929). On the probability
that (^fir TWNHJIl) the cow may give milk, I will
take her with me. The report is that a tiger has
killed a man. When he saw me (having seen me)
he accused me of murdering the child (by him the
child &c.). For fear lest I should tell it to any one
135

(HT cF^tnfa &c.), I was bound and cast into prison


(cRKT'lK)- The natives of India (wiont) do not
eat flesh ; " It is a crime to slay animals," say they.
The clouds are joyfully beheld by the farmer, as he
thinks to himself that the fruit of his husbandry
(^rfmfcei) depends on the rain (^tTT^). He was
told by the sage that it could not be done (^T*tfNfir).
The sage was called Vakishtha.

Exercise 1n.
[In the following exercises, nouns ending in a, unless marked
., are masc, and in d and i are fern. Cr. is for crude base, and
indicates that the student is to ascertain the proper case &c. for
himself. When cr. is not added, the word is in the form in
which it is meant to stand in the sentence. Rt is for root, hut
is omitted before iri.]
When the elephant falls into a pit (ir# cr.), even
the frog gives him a kick (nr^lVirf cr.).
The child in the lap (^TfFt cr. or cr.) pines
away (rt f^j), while that on the ground thrives.
A king is the strength of the weak : crying is the
strength of children : silence is the strength of the
ignorant : mercy is the strength of the righteous.

Exercise 112.
Varuna's name is repeated (HiHWRJii cs, THRn^D
tg) daily in the worship of the Brahmans ; but he
has neither image (*jf f. cr.) nor temple (w*rr^ cr.)
in India. He is worshipped, however, as one of the
guardian deities of the earth (rilciiHic* cr.) ; and in
times of drought (^Hl-jfir f. cr.) to obtain rain.
136

Exercise 113.
Death is the doom (fipnT cr-) of every one who
is born (aTlHW) ; fall (mnr) is the end of exaltation
(dsTfri f. cr.); union terminates in separation (feir-
tffm^TFH cr.) ; growth tends but to decay ('Bpi cr.).
Knowing all this, wise men are susceptible of neither
grief nor joy.
Exercise 114.
One night a blind man with a pitcher in his hand
(cjw^w:), having taken a lamp, went into the mar
ket-place (j(ui<flftl*l cr., -<4i*r n. cr.). Some one said
to him, " Thou blockhead ( t Hit), of what use (ftRTrq)
is this lamp (^frj cr., ^fM*l) to you?" He replied,
"My friend, this light is not for my use (*mpiWr*r),
but for yours, that in this dark night you may not
break (may not be broken, &m *rrjft ^ vpnr) my
pitcher."
Exercise 115.
One day (?<*<{l) a Gardener (dilMMl<4..) was water
ing (rt ftr^ c. 6) vegetables in his garden (jtiw n.
cr.) . A certain person observing him, asked, " How
is it (fipf^fa^, 3rtT %iPTT, f*6H%) that no one waters
wild (^TTJF<3 cr., ^aj cr.) vegetables ("^rrsfi cr.), and
yet they are flourishing (rt ^ c- J, r? T^ c- i) ?"
The Gardener rephed, " Those receive support from
their own mother, but these from their step-mother
(ftmj/. cr.)."
137
Exercise 116.
A Jester (fajTW cr., %%[fk* cr.) one day went
into the presence (wftif, UciilSl) of his Prince ; and
seeing him thoughtful and anxious, inquired the
reason. He said, " I am meditating on (rt vfr with
^rftr) the instability (^?f?rorr cr., n. cr.) of
worldly greatness." Upon which the Jester replied,
" Be not grieved (Gr. 889) on that account ; for had
the world been endued with stability, the sovereignty
would never have descended to you (irf^ Tfefft fcrfMSl-

Exercise 117.
An Ass (by an Ass) finding the skin of a Lion,
put it on (W^Amia ^lOl^ srr*gns &c.), and going
into the woods and fields, filled all the flocks and
herds with consternation (rt or st^rt in caus.).
At last, meeting his owner (tsnfav^ cr.) he wished to
frighten him also ; but the good man, hearing him
bray (*KHl<( ^5?crT), and seeing his long ears stick out
(sticking out, ^ff:^tr cr.), presently knew him, and beat
him with a cudgel till he made him sensible (rt $TT
in caus., having beaten him with a cudgel made him
S sensible) that, notwithstanding he was dressed in a
\ Lion's skin, he was really nothing more than an
Ass (ifi*>TOTW ^fir).
He who puts on a show of learning, of religion,
or of any virtue to which he has no claim (ftmn
faiiin+iiar*WM or frrnn wnwtff Mfi!iritrrf*faiTf^ t^T),
will always be found to be "an Ass in a Lion's skin."
138

Exercise 118.
Yudhishthira said, "Daughter of Yajnasena (insiiMt
cr.), the eloquent, graceful (PMM<J cr.), and feeling
(tftT* cr.) words which thou hast spoken, I have
heard; but thou utterest impiety (Hlf+H+J n. cr.).
In the discharge cr.) of my duty, Princess,
I seek for no reward; but give, because gifts ought
to be given (^TiRtftrfil) ; and sacrifice, because sacri
fice ought to be offered (jr^fafir). Whether recom-
pence attend the act or not (^rer T ^T)' the
obligations that are incumbent upon man in his
social relations (y^vM*!jr ij^ ^nn ^TfT ^NNi) I endea
vour, as far as I am able, to fulfil. I follow virtue,
fair Krishna, not for any advantage to be thence
derived, but in conformity to the written law ('ill'lH^
SHH^di), and to the example of the good (*nri ^w)-"
Exercise ng.
A certain Philosopher (f%g^Gr. 168. a) was asked
by a friend, what was the extent of his knowledge
(ftKWI^f vrcr?ft sn^TH ^fir), and whether he was ac
quainted with all the Sciences. He answered, " The
first year that I commenced the study of philosophy
(ftaiP9I H^HcH?) I knew all things ; the second
year I knew something ; but the third year, nothing.
Every year (Gr. 730. d) I discover more ignorance
in myself (hHisJMH TW^t^T^ ^iww) ; and each
day as it passes (f^ir f<J<$) shews me more of the
weakness and shortness of my own understanding
139

Exercise 120.
Once upon a time a king saw a learned man, and
said to him, " Tell me, what is God (tyt. cr., iRHm_
cr.) ?" The Philosopher begged (rt with h) for
one day to think about his answer. This request
was granted. The next day the King asked him the
same question (vfit cr.) ; but the Philosopher begged
for two days more ; and every time (tnjT V^) he was
asked, he wished the time doubled (Pg^ur cr.). The
King was surprised, and demanded his reason. " Be
cause," said he, "the more (^rftpffirt) I think about
God, the less do I understand Him."
Exercise 121.
A Tiger and a Sheep came to the same river to
drink : the Tiger stood above, the Sheep a long way
below. The Tiger, prompted by hunger (Tffrvfifsrf
cr.), sought a cause of quarrel (^spnjWfn n. cr.).
"Why," says he, "do you spoil (rt 5^ c. 10) the
water to me who am drinking it?" The Sheep,
afraid, replies, " How can I, O Tiger ! do what you
complain of? The water runs from you to me."
Overcome (fH^rlOrtri cr.) by the force of truth, he
says, " Six months ago (xnrr TTOT Tin: or TTPT TTrimtHT-
*rnr) you spoke ill of me (firc^ or rt Tjra^with w)."
The Sheep answers, " I was not born then." " Then
it was certainly your father who calumniated (rt ^
with Tjft) me," says the Tiger; and seizing the
Sheep, punished him by an unjust death.
This Fable is written for (with reference to, Tf^i)
140
those who oppress (rt tfte c. 10) the innocent on
false pretexts ( faajt).

Exercise 122.
Penances (iPUT n. cr.) the most austere, practised
by heroic men (||<>M<{K cr.) for many years fattR
S!Hg{,r), sacrifices and rites of great efficacy (infiHltf
cr.) have left only the legends of their celebration
(<*i|M$N cr.).
Prithu traversed (rt ^ with Tt) all the regions of
the world ; and his resistless (iHHfri^ri cr., 'Stan^iT cr.)
valour triumphed over (rt fsf with trci) every foe*
He was blown away by the breath of Destiny (cfiTpJ-
=Tlri H VH1iSrfl5jiT), and consumed like the root of the
Seemul ($ireTFft^S n.) which has been cast into the
fire.
Kartavirya overthrew all his enemies, and con
quered the whole world. He is now the hero of a
tale ('snplT ?r ^k: wmrajFg ^rfirvf^) ; and his deeds
are the theme of disputation (fa<*cM^iT m. cr.).
Recollecting these things (^fir WHl), a man should
learn wisdom, and forbear to call either children, or
wife, or house, or lands, or wealth, his own (to call
one's own, Wciilq^ ^fir ^).

Exercise 123.
Once upon a time a Philosopher thus exhorted
(rt f^fT with "zxt, rt with it) his sons : " My dear
children, acquire knowledge, for on worldly posses
sions no reliance (fciyiu cr.) can be placed. Rank
141

(^rfaCTinrr cr., ffi^hfin cr.) will not help you, out of


your own country. On a journey (^resR m. cr.),
money is in danger of being lost : for, either a thief
may carry it off all at once, or the possessor may
consume (pft^) it by degrees. But knowledge is
an unfailing (^rsjxt cr.) spring of wealth. If a man
of education ceases to be opulent, yet he need not
be sorrowful; for knowledge of itself is riches. A
man of learning, wherever he goes, is treated with
respect ; whilst an ignorant man gets only a scanty
fare, and encounters distress. After enjoying, it is
distressing to be compelled to obey (MO^Sldl g:^tl) ;
and he who has been used to caresses (TrfcfwrfrTflFiT
cr.), can ill bear rough usage from the world (nn>m
n. cr.)."
Exercise 124.
A King saw in a dream (^7T cr.), that all his teeth
had fallen out (rt TC^). He inquired the interpreta
tion (^rI cr.) of an Astrologer (siftfire cr., jqtfirfacir
cr.) ; who said, that all the King's children would
die before his face (<srf>TH^, nfinj^, WTEf). The King
was wroth; and having ordered the Astrologer into
confinement (^j^T<9^ ^gT or ^rrjnri ^ri^T), sent for
another, and demanded the interpretation of the
dream. He said, that the King would outlive (rt
ff^ with ^rfif, or ^rft<+ct,irt all his relations.
The King approved (rt *t;^ with *PT) of his answer,
and made him a present.
142

Exercise 125.
Good or bad actions are not judged (rt rft with
fqr) in this life (^?<3^r) ; but there is another to
come (in the life to come, Mipjl*), where this will
inevitably (^R^j) be the case : and this is conform
able (*sj^j cr.) to the sacred writings which are
entitled Veda, Purana, and Smriti, and which are
promulgated (imf^m cr.) by the prophets. Good
or bad actions are, however, known by the perform
ance of holy sacrifices ; which tend to subdue even
our enemies, and to cause the clouds to burst in
blessings upon us (^J^fVcseTro^TT cr.).

Exercise 126.
Said a Clown1 to a Brahman, " Sir, tell me, I pray,
For crushing2 a spider3 what fine* must I pay?"
" Why, friend," he replied,' " 'tis a grievous offence 5,
And demands an atonement6 of serious expense."
" Indeed !then, alas ! with deep sorrow I'm fill'd.
Your son, Sir, a poor little spider has kill'd."
"Out7, fool!" cries the Brahman in anger,"away!
For killing a spider there's nothing to pay."

Exercise 127-
Arjuna having sighed deeply (faftTr^ren), related
to Vyasa all the circumstances (tl^N^ or iTOT^) of

1 >JMc4 m. 2 T5I in cans. or ^W. 8 <5llT ro. cr.


* m. cr. 8 H^mirf* n. cr. 8 HTirftjW n. er.
7 ftr^, ^rqf%.
143
his discomfiture (wn*nrcpTO cr.), and continued:
" Hari, who was our strength, our heroism, our
prosperity (^ft cr.), our brightness (wTW n. cr.), has
left us (Tiftmur) and departed. Deprived of him,
our friend, illustrious and ever kindly-speaking (ftpi-
^Tf^| cr.), we have become as feeble as if made of
straw (^srtt cr.) . Not I alone, but Earth has grown
old, miserable, and lustreless (niTiiT*^ cr.), in the
absence of the Holder of the discus cr.). The
bow Gandiva, that was famed throughout the three
worlds, has been foiled (fWTTyfr cr. or TifiT?TT cr.),
since he departed, by the sticks (^t^ cr. or tfitj cr.)
of the peasants (jfta cr. or yMtfi cr.). That I am shorn
of my lustre (H ftrr^ftann), I do not marvel (does not
surprise me) . It is wonderful that I live (irs^ sfarfir
^ff). Surely, Grandsire (frnrm? s. cr.), I alone
am so shameless as to survive the stain (chej^ cr. or
^fa cr.) of indignity (^MHM n. cr.) inflicted by the
vile."
Exercise 128.
A Thief (^T:) one night entered into the dwelling
of a certain Saint (*rfT cr., fv^v^ cr., FTV cr.). Not
being able to find any thing, he was about to take
his departure ; when the pious man, raising his head,
called out to him, " Hark ye, friend ! 'Tis useless
searching (^t*jto n. cr.) here for the riches of this
world ; but come with me, and you shall secure (rt
with Ttl) the good things of the next." Surprised
at this unexpected (^R^fe^iT cr.) call, the Thief re
144

plied that he would ; and approaching the good man,


he made confession (*<fl*K cr. or ^Hjjl*K cr.) of his
faults. Early in the morning, the Saint conducted
(rt vft with ^rr) him to the temple, and presented (rt
'^51 in caus.) him to his Disciples, saying, " This man
was a thief, who came to take me ; but I have taken
him." The Thief afterwards became a distinguished
Saint.
Exercise 129.
Two Jackals having entered a field, killed a num
ber of young birds which belonged to a farmer, and
began to devour them with great satisfaction. One
of the Jackals, who was old and avaricious, said to
the other, " It is better not to eat all this food at
once : let us therefore lay by a store against a time
of distress (^nn^r)." So saying, and having ac
cordingly made a store, he went away, and returning
the next day, was killed by the owner of the field.
The other, who was young and careless, thought
within himself, " How happy am I in possessing so
much good flesh ! it is better, therefore, to go on
eating as long as I am able (xiTTOl^f)." Upon that
he filled himself out with food to such a degree, that
he had scarcely (|:^T) strength to reach his hole
before he died (UT^gTflrn^)-
Thus every period of life has its peculiar (?? cr.,
W<*1n cr.) vice : the young suffer by their thirst for
pleasure ; and the old by their excessive avarice.
145

Exercise 130.
Once upon a time, the Lion, who is the king of
the beasts of the forest, having become weak and
helpless from old age, and being unable to move
about in search of food, was much distressed by
hunger. He therefore employed the following strata
gem ('?jc5 n. cr.). He lay down at the mouth of a
large cave, as if he were sick ; and when any of the
animals came to visit (i^NTt^) him he used to en
tice (rt with w) them within the cave, and there
devour them. One day the Fox came, and having
approached and made obeisance, said, " Hail, O
king of the beasts ! how is the health of your ma
jesty V The Lion answered, " O, my dear friend, I
am very feeble, and all my teeth have fallen out, and
my appetite (^>p5fT cr.) is quite gone : please to enter
my poor dwelling, that I may listen to your conver
sation (^rr55ni cr. or cr.)." The Fox said, " In
the first place, answer me one question. 1 see here
the foot-marks (iT^fag n. cr.) of a great many ani
mals that have entered your dwelling : how is it that
there is no trace of any one that has returned?"

Exercise 131.
The sons of Kartavirya, to revenge his death
(^VTrfiTcfiltrit), attacked (rt "5 with 'jtj) the hermitage
of Jamadagni, when Rama was away (f<Hr TlJf) ; and
slew the pious and unresisting (^pjuref) sage, who
called repeatedly, but in vain, upon his valiant son
tPT ^Cmfw fajhUlti). They then departed;
L
146

and when Rama returned, bearing fuel (HfarMTfttn)"


from the thickets, he found his father lifeless ; and
thus bewailed (rt with fa) his unmerited (-aM^
cr.) fate " Father, in resentment of my actions
(HHlM*J*rg?ftrn^) have you been murdered by wretches
as foolish as they are base (^TJT: ^ifrffi'Sj) ! by the
sons of Kartavirya are you struck down (rt ^ with
fa), as a deer in the forest by the huntsman's shafts!
How great is the crime they have committed, in
slaying an old man like you, wholly occupied (c)5hm)
with pious cares, and engaging not with strife (w-
aPTR or ^HUSirpr) ! " Thus lamenting, bitterly and
repeatedly (c^lpjuj) , Rama performed his father's last
obsequies (Tfagrrinftr), and lighted his funeral pile
(faffa /.). He then made a vow (^nrsj -gr, ufiTsri ^)
that he would extirpate (rt Kt with ^TT^ or rt fajl*
with ^TT) the whole Kshatriya race.

Exercise 132.
If a person be possessed of a hundred coins (^T
cr.), he desires to gain a thousand; and when this
desire is gratified. he wishes to have a lack (otj cr.) ;
which, if obtained, he is eager to obtain the power
of a King : when he is endowed with much power,
he attempts to be a Lord of other Sovereigns : when
this is attained, he aspires to be equal with Indra :
should he attain even this height of dignity, he would
wish to be on an equal footing with Brahma, and
afterwards even to attain the rank (v^ cr.) of Vishnu.
Such, then, being the case (inn *fjr) with mankind,
147
who is there that is exempt from these desires upon
desires ('3.7lOrRc<5l*^rl cr.) ?
Exercise 133.
Formerly, when Brahma was desirous of creating
the world (fffwifr: gen.c.),the several castes, Brahmans,
Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and S^udras, were in succession
produced (tiJ^drii:) from his mouth, breast, thighs,
and feet. The beings, thus created, were at first
endowed with righteousness : they were pure ; their
hearts were free from guile ('SrarTTCTWR) '- they abode
wherever they pleased (i|Wis4MlfiHr|:), and were filled
with perfect wisdom. After a while Kala infused
(^nrnrcnr) into their minds sin, the seed of iniquity,
(^iV^Nr cr.), the impediment of the soul's liberation,
and the cause of all misery here and hereafter. In
consequence of this, sacrifices were offered daily, the
performance of which expiates ($(H*jfri) the offences
of those by whom they are observed. But some,
from whose hearts the dross of sin was not
removed, assented not to sacrifices, but reviled the
gods and Vedas. For these, the places assigned
after death are the terrific regions of darkness (^P*t-
ri'lfati), of fear, and of great terror; the fearful hell
of sharp swords (sftmpH) and scourges (cfiTPJ^w).
The sun, the moon, the planets shall repeatedly be
and cease to be (iTi^T Tf^T frf^i)) : but those who
adore the deity shall never know decay.
Exercise 134.
Attentively (jJcliTJJH^T ijjsn) listen to the duties
148

which I shall describe (HttT ^RTOT^) as those se


verally (wrgw) of the Brahman, the Kshatriya, the
Vaisya, and the Sudra.
The Brahman should make feSTTir) gifts, should
worship the gods with sacrifices, should be assiduous
in repeating the Vedas (wimnirirMo), should perform
oblations, and should preserve the sacred flame
(wfrsprftJH? ^^Ti^). He must ever seek to promote
the good of others, and do evil unto none (T "aesf-
f^TT) ; for the best riches of a Brahman are, uni
versal benevolence.
The man of the warrior tribe should cheerfully
(^tffi^f) give presents to Brahmans, perform various
sacrifices, and study (^nfhffir) the scriptures. His
especial sources of maintenance (sftflmn cr.) are, arms,
and the protection of the earth. By the discharge
of this duty, a king attains his objects (<*ric*w:), and
realises a share of the merit of all sacrificial rites.
By punishing the bad (gUTfji 3IltH!ri) and cherish
ing the good (f^rrRT TjftTTTH^TrT), the monarch who
maintains the discipline of the four castes (^flWT-
Icir cr.), secures whatever region he desires.
Brahma, the great parent of creation (e4l*pijill*^:),
gave to the Vaisya the occupations of commerce and
agriculture C^rfil), and the feeding of flocks and herds
(TnsrMrw), for his means of livelihood.
Attendance upon the three regenerate castes is
the province of thte Sudra ; and by that he is to
subsist, or by the profits of trade (.jfivfclrfi.q^T: vffc),
or the earnings of mechanical labour ('csU;>j:).
H9

Exercise 1 35.
The householder is then to remain (PriBri) at even^
tide in his court-yard ('prTjfifr), as long as it takes
to milk a cow (ift^HTW ^STr5), or longer (jt^) if he
pleases, to await the arrival (y^llW) of a guest.
Should such a one arrive, he is to be received with
a hospitable welcome (^iJlrilfyHi) ; a seat is to be
offered to him (JUtHmjMT) ; his feet are to be
washed, and food is to be given him with liberality ;
and he is to be kindly spoken to ; and when he de
parts, to be accompanied on his way (J! -iri vy 1 ^ -Ml H H)
by his host with friendly wishes.
A householder should ever pay attention to a guest
who is not an inhabitant of the same village (^cfiflT-
*rcHf*H), but who comes from another place, and
whose name and lineage are unknown (VCTiT^cCTT-
*TR). He who feeds himself, and neglects the poor
and friendless stranger in want of hospitality, goes
to a region of horror (^r*ft ^rfir). Let a householder,
who has a knowledge of Brahma, reverence a guest,
without inquiring (^TTT) his studies, his school
(^tjJtr), his practices, or his race.

Exercise 136.
Hear an account (fHcfl*t) of the nature Cs^i}) of
the Kali age, respecting which you have inquired,
and which is now close at hand (^rnm cr.).
The observance of caste, order, and institutes
('-HNK cr.) will not prevail in the Kali age ; nor will
that of the ceremonial enjoined by the Rik, Sama
150
and Yajur Vedas. Fasting (^H^Ttr cr.), austerity,
liberality, practised according to the pleasure of
those by whom they are observed, will constitute
righteousness. He who gives away (ift tpt '^ifrt)
much money will be the master of men ; and family
descent (^rftrrR:) will no longer be a title of su
premacy (^TTfai5%ip). Men will fix their desires
upon riches, even though dishonestly acquired (^rsn-
VX^VSt cr.).
The women will be fickle, short of stature ($r^-
^T:), gluttonous ; they will have many children
(^JT)TT:), and little means ; and will pay no atten
tion (^rfTr^TT cr.) to the commands of their husbands
or parents. Wives will desert their husbands, when
they lose their property; and they only who are
wealthy will be considered by women as their lords.
Princes, instead of protecting (^fBpTTTj), will
plunder ('^#K:) their subjects ; and under the pre
text of levying customs (91<s*Hl^h), will rob mer
chants of their property.
In truth, there never will be abundance in the
Kali age, and men will never enjoy pleasure and
happiness.
Exercise 137.
Ribhu. Tell me, illustrious Brahman, what food
there is in your house ^ift 1% W7^ ^miTTi) .
Niddgha. There are cakes of meal, rice, and bar
ley : partake, venerable Sir, of whichever best pleases
you (v^ rNff).
Ribhu. None of these do I like. Give me rice
151
boiled with sugar (f*m^)? and milk with curds
(qnm).
Niddgha. Ho, Dame ! be quick, and prepare
(nwrtnr) whatever is most delicate in the house, to
feed our guest.
The wife of Nidagha, in obedience to her hus
band's commands (T^ ^^Tmr^Ti^), prepared savoury
food, and set it before the Brahman ; and Nidagha,
having stood before him until he had eaten of the
meal (wn^jr), thus addressed him :
Niddgha. Have you eaten sufficiently, great Brah
man ? and has your mind received contentment
(a1^lW ? Where is your present residence
(fif-Hitft ^T^) ? whither do you purpose going? and
whence, holy Sir, have you now come ?
Ribhu. Why should you inquire if my hunger
has been appeased (csrgTTT^ FffT sri tjfr,ip5f) ? A
hungry man must needs be satisfied when he has
finished his meal. For your three other questions,
hear this reply : The soul of man (gHl^) goes every
where and penetrates (sirpft) every where. I neither
am going nor coming, nor is my dwelling in any
one place (Jich<5irH=tnH:).

Exercise 138.
King Bharata went to the great river for the pur
pose of ablution (?rfW^Nirr). Whilst occupied in
bathing there came to the same place a young deer
fefttft), which, standing in the water, began to drink
of the stream. On a sudden was heard the loud
152

and fearful (W|jt:) roaring (n^:) of a lion ; on which


the fawn, being excessively alarmed, jumped [rt 3|
with ^w) out of the water upon the bank. The
King seeing the animal motionless with fear, caught
hold of it by the horns, and returned with it to his
hermitage. There he fed it and tended it (tftw ^r)
every day, and it throve and grew up under
his care. Whilst the deer was an inmate of the
hermitage, the mind of the King was ever anxious
about the animal, and he was unable to think of
any thing else. He had relinquished his kingdom,
his children, and his friends (f^JpstTSnnTTreT^:),
and now indulged in selfish affection for a fawn.
In course of time (chraT) the King died, watched
(^h%fr:) by the deer, with tears in its eyes, like a
son mourning for his father; and he himself, as he
expired (irrarPT W^ rt), cast his eyes upon the ani
mal, and thought of nothing else (Hi^ fi?ff%^ fanf-
OT). In consequence of the predominance of this
feeling (rfr*Wcj< ilTT^5TTiT) at death he was born again
as a deer, with the faculty of recollecting his former
life (^ifri^M cr.).
Exercise 139.
Muchukunda fell down (TtfilPTW) before Hari, the
lord of all, and prayed, saying, "Do thou, who
art the alleviator of all distress, shew favour (Trtft?)
towards me, and deliver me from' evil (^t wrapr).
Thou art the benefactor of mankind, the refuge C^rc*!!)
of every living being. Thy words fara) are of deeper
tone than the muttering (*TTC[Ti^) of the thunder
153

cloud. Earth sinks beneath the pressure of thy feet


(*RPn^ftfs?TT). Thou art without beginning and
without end, undecaying, imperishable. From thee
proceed mortals and immortals, all that has been or
will be, all that is moveable or immoveable (^<,h().
Thou art the creator of the world, and beside thee
. (fsran fVTT) there is not any thing. O lord of all,
worthy of all homage, I come to thee, desiring the
fullness of felicity (f^Hhw), emancipation from all
existence (hsttcTTt)."

Exercise 140.
The sage replied : " You recall to my recollection
(wrfcftsii) that which was of old narrated by my
father's father, Vas'ishtha. I had heard (wt *RT)
that my father had been devoured (>?fiepT:) by a
Rakshasa employed (h^m) by Viswamitra. Violent
anger seized me ('WPJir), and I commenced a sacri
fice for the destruction [dat. case) of the Rakshasas.
Hundreds of them were reduced to ashes (wgihsnT
cr.) by the rite ; when, as they were about to be
entirely destroyed (*i{towiiri| TN), my grandfather
Vas'ishtha thus spake to me : ' Enough (^r?5 cfi^r),
my child : let thy wrath be appeased : the Rakshasas
are not culpable (TTTOHW) : thy father's death was
the work of destiny (faf^ri cr.). Anger is the pas
sion (Tclj) of fools : it becometh not a wise man.
By whom, it may be asked, is any one (ctr: ijnr) killed?
Every man reaps the consequence of his own acts
(^uT>p|). Anger, my son, is the destruction (^TT^T
154

grt:) of all that man obtains by arduous exertions,


of fame, and of devout austerities ; and prevents
(srnniJF:) the attainment of heaven or of emancipa-^
tion. The chief sages always shun wrath : be not
thou, my child, subject to its influence (rTiT3T cr.).
Let no more of these unoffending spirits of darkness
be consumed (^n=5 f^Trsftr ^h). Mercy (w^) is '
the might of the righteous/ "

Exercise 141.
When Hiranyakasipu heard that the incantations
{*P3 cr.) of his priests had been defeated (faiitflcjiri
cr.), he sent for his son, and demanded of him
the secret (cfiTCUT) of his extraordinary might (TTHNHl).
" Prahlada," he said, " thou art possessed of marvel
lous powers : whence are they derived ? are they
the result of magic rites i rr^frnr cr.) ? or
have they accompanied thee from birth (*r?T cr.) ? "
Prahlada, thus interrogated, bowed down to his
father's feet, and replied : " Whatever power I pos
sess, father, is neither the result of magic rites, nor
is it inseparable from my nature (^tuffai cr.) : it is
no more than that which is possessed (twt^ tr^ BT-
*TPT:) by all, in whose hearts Vishnu (^rajm) abides.
He who meditates (ffRHlfiff) not of wrong to others,
but considers them as himself, is free from the effects
of sin, inasmuch as the cause does not exist (%fcWT-
^Ti^) : but he who inflicts pain upon others (iRiflsf
cjrttffr), in act, thought (h^TOT), or speech, sows the
seed of future birth, and the fruit that awaits him
155
after birth is pain. I wish no evil to any, and do
and speak no offence ; for I behold Kes'ava in all
beings (B^Tirw) , as in my own soul.''
When he had thus spoken, the Daitya monarch,
his face darkened with fury ("stoT^3TftjT*rc3:), com
manded his attendants to cast his son down (^iv:
farnnri) from the summit of the palace where he was
sitting (imtT^rercfWir: agreeing with l^frj:), that
his body might be dashed in pieces (fir^ cr.) against
the rocks. Accordingly, the Daityas hurled the boy
down, and he fell cherishing Hari in his heart ; and
Earth, the nurse of all creatures (T'iaiyfi), received
fevn:) hinrgently on her lap, thus entirely devoted
to Kesava the Protector of the world.

Exercise 142.
Whilst Kesava and Rama were sporting in that
region (fVjnjfftr ^ra^Rjff:), the rainy season
(iH'cU) ended (srririn), and was succeeded by autumn,
when the lotus is in full bloom (fa<*$rwrOTT). The
peacocks, no longer animated by passion ('Mftwii-
*T^T:), were silent in the woods, like saints who
have come to know (qftsrrc) the unreality of the
world. Evaporated (inr cr.) by the rays of the sun,
the lakes were dried up like the hearts of
men when withered by the contact of selfishness.
Brightly in the starry sky shone the moon with un
diminished orb (WBTCnPfS:), like the saintly being
who has reached the last stage of bodily existence
in the company of the pious. The ocean was still
156

and calm (^n^jf^cPJ), and exhibited no undulations


(^fstfigTT cr.), like the sage who has acquired un
disturbed tranquillity of spirit (fH<Hc4lrHl)< Every
where the waters were as clear as the minds of the
wise, who behold Vishnu in all things (frriT ^fr^
feuitl). The clouds of the atmosphere, the muddi-
ness of the earth, the discoloration of the
waters were all removed by autumn, as abstraction
(UdU^K ^t) detaches the senses (sT^iOm) from the
objects of sense.
Exercise 143.
Vast forests are consumed by fire ; mighty trees
are uprooted (drMldaJ-ii) by fierce winds ; villages,
with their inhabitants (^lfar:), disappear (facS'Ufar)
by the force of streams ; the earth, with its grass
and other products 1(3:), is scorched by the
sun's heat; the sun, illuminating by its golden
(w^rl cr.) splendour (idf^l cr.) heaven and earth,
marches onward, like a ruler, in the boundless sky;
at the appointed season the clouds water the earth
with their showers; the earth, watered and culti
vated (cp? cr.)) produces various crops (nn '51^4).
From perceiving such energies as these (^iJJltytyfVh)
existing in fire, the wind and other objects, men
declared them to be sentient (^iTTTT), and wor
shipped them as gods (tjcHi^).

Exercise 144.
Vasishtha on hearing of the destruction feiTPT
'stt^t) of his sons by Viswamitra, supported (VK^TT-
157
his affliction, as the great mountain sustains
the earth. Afterwards meditating his own destruc
tion (-Sl*r^r|i3rR *rfff *r=Tl), the divine sage hurled
himself (^nurR *pffa) from the summit of Meru, but
fell on the rocks as if on a heap of cotton (iTcTO-
JMiPiq). Escaping alive from his fall (ti^T T *(W\X
Mini), he entered a glowing fire in the forest ; but
the fire, though fiercely blazing, not only failed to
burn him, but seemed perfectly cool. He next
threw himself into the sea writh a heavy stone at
tached to his neck (^fr cjr^ fyoii), but was cast up
by the waves on the dry land (to *ren). He then
went home to his hermitage ; but seeing it empty
and desolate, he was again overcome by grief, and
binding himself with bonds, threw himself into the
river Vipas'a, then swollen by the rains ((^<ti<*
^T^TThj5f), and sweeping (^iiiT) in its course many
trees torn from its brink ; but the river severing his
bonds, deposited him unbound (fw^T) on its bank.
Hence the sage called the stream Vipdsd (fatUSlfrf
VTPT ^HS). He afterwards threw himself into the
Satadru (Sutlej), which, on seeing the Brahman
brilliant as fire, rushed away in a hundred directions
(^nniT ftrjin) ; whence its name.

Exercise 145.
There was once a Prajapati called Anga. His
son was Vena, who was addicted to cupidity, throw
ing his duties behind his back (^rn#p^ ^inr.
owing to the taint derived from his maternal grand
158

father (mrim^mrf). When Vena became king, he


established (WPTTPTPR) an unrighteous rule of life
(H5|<|), and transgressed the Vedas. In his reign
(wfOT^ THW) men lived without repeating the Vedas
and without sacred invocations (ftr:^ru?T^ cfMT<*l CTC) ,
and the gods drank no Soma-juice at sacrifices. The
monarch declared that he was himself the object
and the offerer of sacrifice ^^Q^S *T!?T and
that sacrifices and oblations should be presented to
him (*rfa) alone. Then all the Rishis. headed by
Marichi, addressed him, saying, " Practise not (m
unrighteousness, O Vena ; this is not the eter
nal rule of duty." The infatuated king mockingly
(n^H) replied, " Who but myself (wtsan) is the or-
dainer of duty? to whom ought I to listen (g^q *niT
'sffa*!}) ? who on earth is like me (ithT fTRl) in sacred
knowledge, in valour, in devotion, in truth? Ye
who are deluded (>rWt I^T:) and senseless know
not that I am (j ftj^ the source of all duties.
Doubt not that (snffT T <+5 **tT), if I willed (^a^T),
I could burn up the earth, or inundate it (STPPtaf)
with water, or shut up heaven and earth." When
Vena could not be restrained, the Rishis became
incensed, and seizing him, smote his left thigh (m^hn
'35%). From his thigh loc. c.) so struck was pro
duced a man very short and black, who became the
progenitor of the Nishadas and the Dhivaras.

Exercise 146.
The gods discomfited by the Daityas (^Hif-Tf^irr:),
159
fled to Vishnu for refuge (^TOT), and addressed him,
saying, " Spirit of all (*HfTWH), have compassion on
us and defend us by thy mighty power." Hari, the
creator of the universe, being thus prayed to (?N*tt-
HT?r:), smiled and spake : " Do you act as I enjoin.
Let all the gods, associated with the Asuras, cast all
sorts of medicinal herbs (^chrifarfh) into the sea of
milk (^fara^) ; and then taking the mountain Man-
dara for a churning-stick (*P*TPT), the serpent Va-
suki for a rope ( churn (rt H'T ; let it be churned,
usajrii) the ocean together for nectar.'' Being thus
instructed by the god of gods, the divinities entered
into alliance with the demons (wHTRH ^it: "{Ml),
and commenced to chum (*rftnr) the ocean for the
Amrita. Hari, himself in the form of a tortoise
(grj^rifl-), served as a pivot ('sftrffTW) for the moun
tain as it whirled round (shk: gen. c).

Exercise 147.
From the ocean of milk, thus churned (jTsmiT^ iTOT
^jHiafr) by the gods and Danavas, first uprose the
cow Surabhi, the fountain of curds, worshipped by
the divinities. Then appeared the goddess Varuni,
her eyes rolling with intoxication (H^T^Bhn^V'jRT).
Next from the whirlpool (^rr^# cr.) of the deep,
sprang the celestial Parijata tree, the delight of the
nymphs of heaven, perfuming (^rcni^) the world with
its blossoms. The troops of Apsarasas were next
produced of surprising loveliness. The cool-rayed
moon next rose, and was seized by Mahadeva. Then
160

poison was engendered from the milky sea (^rfaifara-


JjFriJii'), of which the snake-gods (TPTT;) took posses
sion. Dhanwantari, robed in white (^TrrgTVT:) and
bearing (fVsr^) in his hand the cup of Amrita, next
came forth, beholding which the sons of Diti and of
Danu Qri<<(jMcli:) were filled with delight. Then
seated on a full-blown lotus (facfi[f$r3frHc5ftqwT), and
holding a water-lily in her hand, the goddess Sri,
radiant with beauty, rose from the waves. The
great sages enraptured, hymned her with the
song dedicated to her praise (%fl^)ift).

Exercise 148.
In ancient times there was a great contest (<fic7^:)
between the Brahmans and Kshatriyas, to establish
each their own superiority (^^mVT^fftrg^ ) . Viswa-
mitra and other celebrated Kshatriyas wished to
have the power of teaching the Vedas (^TrR% WT?
^reFTRW ^rfvr^rc $S ; and clear traces of the enmity
which existed between Vis'wamitra and Vasishtha,
in regard to the office of domestic priest, are found
in the Rig-veda uTnr). Both of these
persons performed the office of priest to a certain
king called Sudds, as appears from the hymns written
by them respectively (^fir WiS^t: &c). In
these they themselves eulogize (faiMri) their own
potency in propitiating the gods. In like manner it
is inferred (^itpffaff) from the history of Paras'u-rama,
who was the son of a Brahman and is said to have
exterminated the Kshatriyas, that the ancient Brah
161
mans, not being satisfied with the right over the
Vedas (^TfWwTCPipT:), endeavoured to acquire
kingly power.
Exercise 149.
There was a great Kshatriya named Gddhi, re
nowned in the world, whose son was Viswamitra.
Gadhi was a great devotee (iftrft), and he set his
heart on abandoning his own body (^iranir *PT3I "STrii)
after installing (^rfirfant) his son as king. His sub
jects entreated him not to go away, but to deliver
them from their fears (^srfRT^ nrnT). He re
plied that his (>w) son should protect the whole
world. Having . accordingly installed Viswamitra,
the king went to heaven, and was succeeded ('SW^f
TMl) by his son. When Viswamitra became king, he
heard that there was great cause of apprehension
(^psrra u^TH^i) from the Rakshasas ; and issued forth
with his army consisting of all four members (MHCjp-
4<4iflri:). Having marched a long way (^C? ^?TR)
he arrived at the hermitage of Vasishtha. There
his soldiers constructed many dwellings, and the
sage beheld the whole forest broken up (Hj4|HM) by
them. Enraged at this, he commanded his cow to
create (^19) terrible men, called Savdras. Then
were created men of terrible aspect, who scattered
(rt "5 with fa) in all directions the army of Vis'wa-
mitra. Upon this, the son of Gadhi, determined on
devoting himself to penance (inrftr H'ft ^v), and on
the banks of the Saraswati he macerated his body
H
162

with fastings (4<Hlt): ck*MltMU), living on water, air,


and leaves, sleeping on the sacrificial ground, &c.
Several times the gods threw impediments in his
way (drift!!! but his attention was never di
verted (*<f}jt. immfri) from his observances. Having
by these strenuous efforts attained Brahmanhood
('gTCHM), the object of his desire ("^TiTsBT*!:), he wan
dered over the earth like a god.

Exercise 150.
Gopiramana was a man of extraordinary strength.
One day when he had gone to the river to bathe, a
number of strong fellows (^T. 3Ttr.) exerted them
selves (rnrnTrRTg:) to bring to the landing-place
(Tip? W5Tlj) a large stone : but the great weight of
the rock rendered all their endeavours fruitless. Just
at this time an elephant-driver (f(M<*:) was leading
an elephant to water him (mvfl4 ^rrftrij) at the spot ;
so the fellows asked him to let his elephant help
bring the stone to the landing-place (wfr ^fcfTO
^f^TT &c.), and offered to give him something as a
present H^ff j^lR* ^wrc). Upon this, the
man set (litamwa) his elephant to move the stone,
but although the elephant repeatedly tried to lift
(Tj^) the rock with his trunk (i)Poi4U) ye* its
excessive size prevented him from doing so (from
its excessive size he was not able to do so). Gopi
ramana, having observed all this, called the men to
him and said to them, "My lads (^pj 3TCT:), how-
does it happen that you make such a piece of work
163

(iTirrer^ WPJTO:) about lifting this rock ? See, I will


carry it alone (^rfaSTl HTT^ftlff) ." With these words
seizing and lifting up the stone with both his arms
he set it down with ease (estpj^n) in the place
pointed out.
Exercise 151.
In ancient times there lived in Vanga a prince who
ruled his subjects as if they had been his children
(U^fi^)- One day a vulture alighted (mflii) upon
his palace : whereupon the king, having taken it for
a sign of future calamity (HT^rfVrg *p^rsj:), convoked
a great assembly of Pandits and addressed them thus :
" Hear, ye Pandits ! a vulture has alighted on my
house, and leads me to apprehend a misfortune
(nfHB^ What rite can avert it (iTOj $Tffan
ijrfw)?" The Pandits answered all together, "Sire
(Tt ^cr), this vulture must be killed, and an oblation
made of its flesh (irsmPT ffT. Pan Hi)." " But how
shall I catch (rt v) the vulture ?" replied the king.
Upon this all were silent. At last one Brahman,
who was seated in the assembly, and who a few days
before (th(Vk*N) had come from Kanyakubja, said,
" I had gone (*PJT Tirf) to Kanyakubja on account of
a procession to a holy place (ifNMldlHHjpT) , and at
that time a vulture descended on the king's palace,
just as on your majesty's. Then the king of that
country convoking the Brahmans, captured the vul
ture by means of charms (HdJ!l), and offered a sa
crifice of its flesh. Of this I was eye-witness (*pn
JrWJ^W), and I advise your majesty to do the same."
M 2
164

Exercise 152.
The castes of Brahmans and others 'grgnDTf^-
g^fr:) which now dwell in India (mtff) sprung (r%^)
of old from a certain race of men called Aryas, who
were descended from the same stock as the Persians
(-MTHTST^ HK*fUl ureRTiT &c.). Their community of
origin (jJciiHW'rf) is understood from the study of
history and from the similarity of their languages.
Moreover, just as (*T5T^) the worship of fire has
always prevailed (rt with u) in India, so too it
was formerly practised in Persia. From the want
(^wraTirJ of trustworthy histories, the time of the
arrival of the Aryas cannot be exactly determined.
It is thought, however, that a period of years short
of four thousand has elapsed from that time to the
present day (rickWT^ ^repjxRT). But these Aryas,
who spoke the Sanskrit language, were not the
earliest inhabitants of India. Men of another race
(H|M, rtfati^Om:); called Dasyus Sc., dwelt before
in the land, and being gradually conquered by the
Aryas, took refuge in the mountains and other places
(iff irr^T ^5TT^ OTTOT^). A remnant of these tribes,
named Bheels &c. (fl^i frt^ fawrf^TRTT), is found to
this day in the Vindhya mountains and elsewhere.

Exercise 153.
Whoever examines the Vedic (%f^fi cr.) language
and the modern Sanskrit (^HliHH^dWim cr.) will,
without doubt, find a great difference between them.
The difference in inflections &c. (f<=W^a|r<(T), which
165

is perceived, arose gradually from an alteration in


the language. At the time when the Vedic hymns
were composed (fV^f^TT cr.), the language of the
Aryas was rustic cr.) ; but by constant use
(ffflcii^j'i.jir TtfuilHj) it was at length thoroughly
polished by Panini and others. Afterwards a verna
cular dialect (TjT<j< iflH* cr.) growing up by degrees,
the common people gave up speaking Sanskrit (njr:
**iTi) ; and the Sanskrit language being only spoken
by learned men, and preserved in books, underwent
no (tT irre) further change.

Exercise 154.
When the Aryas who settled in India (>TTCt^f)
gradually ripened in knowledge (ftren^jwf^ TTRT),
they began to engage in abstruse discussions (fHJJd-
^1^). How did the world (spri^ cfi*j) originate ? Is
it eternal (f%>^ fRTfi?) or had it a beginning (*rrf^) ?
Has it any maker? Out of what (^THff) did he create
the universe? Had he a form or is he formless?
Had he any qualities or none (jjiijcfi^ Ti( ftr^tt:) ?
In regard to such questions, men became desirous
of knowing the truth ($Kw(<ii^ffs(iui &c.). Hence
the glory (*li%*u) of the gods, who are venerated in
the Vedic hymns, gradually declined. In the Upa-
nishads the supreme Spirit (thtrTw^ cr.) alone is
celebrated. Afterwards different philosophers (HMl
?pn:) promulgated various systems of belief (TT^n
HrilPH). Framed thus, the Vedanta, Nyaya, Sankhya,
and other systems of philosophy (<}$MifV() arose.
166

Brahma is the instrumental cause of the world,


and also its material cause ( (H l< M l cM Uli ^r).
Brahma alone is eternal, such is the doctrine of
Vyasa (^fir ^Tl^T Tsr). Indiscrete (n<Hih cr.) eter
nal Nature (iicirfw cr.) developing itself from itself
(^H *3Trc) was the producer of the world, this the
sage Kapila declared. It is imagined by him, that
there is no God Wtfa 'Hi fori) ; but Patanjali
asserts the existence of a God, the creator of the
universe. God created the world with subtile eternal
existing atoms (tit^ ^PTTf^fW: wfe HTflTOrfto:), this
and other opinions Gautama asserted. All these phi
losophers are known in India under the appellation
of Munis (^flfrf3i%T), and they declare that final
emancipation is to be attained by their respective
systems (i?faT ^hT HTiftff). But it is said by some,
that no author of a Darsana is completely authorita
tive (mrrfopir:) except Jaimini and Vyasa (^faftT-

Exercise 155.
God made all things of nothing, by his mere
word, in the space of six days ("refin; f^%:). But
how (^TJ ciw) is it possible that God "made all
things of nothing (wiT:)?" We reply ["We reply"
is not to be expressed'] : " How should it not be pos
sible?" In illustration (7Tnf?), we ask you, in turn
nfriwa^:), " How does fire bum fuel?" If you
answer, " from the nature of things (^niqif^fir ^TT),"
then we rejoin that [these four words not to be
expressed] it is the same in the case before us
167
(Tj^sfTj ijctf). And if you say that the world could
not have arisen from nothing, because what exists
must have been without beginning, on the rule (jfit
fmiHTff) that "nothing comes out of nothing,"
then we reply; "Not so (HiHifl spTgrTfkrnwr jfn
^) ; for there is no proof (Hmwi^ii^) that there is
any such rule, and an unsupported allegation de
serves to be met by an unsupported negative."

Exercise 156.
Now prudent Bhishma deem'd the time arriv'd,
When the brave scions 1 of each royal house,
Of Kuru and of Pandu, should improve
Their growing years in exercise of arms2.
With sage deliberation, long he scann'd3
A suitable preceptor4 for their youth,
Who to meet skill in war and arms should join
Intelligence and learning, lofty aims,
Religious earnestness, and love of truth.
And such in Drona, Bharadwaja's son,
Wise, brave, and pious, did Gangeya5 find,
Rever'd as his high fame and rank demanded6.
Well-pleased, assented Drona to the charge7;
And, by his cares, the gallant sons of Pandu
And Kuru's princely heirs were quickly train'd8
In arms and warlike practice, as became
Their martial origin and regal birth.

1 ^t3cr.,Tritcr.,inmcr. 2 <4%ff$TS5J l cr., fail l cr. Rt


^Twith'SPT. 4 cr. 6 A name of Bhishma. "w^W:
^ftnr:. 7 gr. wr^ *fr^ gfinrcrn; t>mHT. 8 f^rfsrTT cr.
168
Exercise 157.
In their earliest years,
Except the sacred Vedas, they were taught
All sciences, and chief the use of arms.
Such is their aptness, they have far excelled
The oldest scholars, whose less active minds
Toil after them in vain. The mind alike
Vigorous or weak, is capable of culture,
But still bears fruit according to its nature.
'Tis not the teacher's art that rears the scholar :
The sparkling gem gives back the glorious radiance
It drinks from other light ; but the dull earth
Absorbs the blaze, and yields no gleam again.

Exercise 158.
Son of the venerable Parent (:srrti^), hear !
"Tis Sita speaks. Say, Art not thou assured
That to each being his allotted time
And portion, as his merit, are assign'd,
And that a wife her husband's portion shares ?
Therefore with thee this forest-lot I claim.
A woman's bliss is found, not in the smile
Of father, mother, friend, nor in herself:
Her husband is her only portion here,
Her heaven hereafter.

Exercise 159.
From Bhagirathi's pleasant borders went
The five brave Brothers, and towards the north
Their wandering steps directed : on the road,
They passed assembled throngs, travelling alike
169

A northward journey. From a pious troop


Of Brahmans, Yudhishthira asked the cause
Of this advancing host, and whither bound.
They answered : " In Panchala's spacious realm
The powerful monarch Drupada observes
A solemn feast. Attending Princes wait,
With throbbing hearts, his beauteous daughter's
choice,
The royal Draupadi, whose charms surpass
All praise, as far as her mild excellence
And mind transcend the beauties of her person."

Exercise 160.
A man and a lion once had a dispute^
Which was reckoned the greatest the man or the
brute.
The lion discoursed on his side at some length,
And greatly enlarged on his courage and strength.
Said the man, " Don't be prating: look yonder, I pray,
At that sculpture of marble; now what will you say?
The lion is vanquished; but as for the man,
He is striding upon him ; deny, if you can."
"But pray," said the lion, "who sculptured that
stone?"
" One of us," said the man, " I must candidly own."
" But when we are sculptors," the other replied,
" You will then on the man see the lion as ride."
The man might have answered, if he had been wise,
" But a beast cannot sculpture a stone if he tries ;
That sufficiently shews where the difference lies."
170

Exercise 161.
Once a bear had a thorn in his foot (as they term it),
Which it seems was extracted from thence by ahermit;
So the beast felt so grateful, and pleased with the
dervise,
That he offerM to enter quite into his service.

So the hermit consented, at length, to the plan.


"Now then," thought the bear, " I must do what I can
To make myself useful ; and glad I shall be
If a service in turn shall be rendered by me."

Not long after this, as the hermit was sleeping,


And the bear was the watch with great vigilance
keeping,
On the nose of the former alighted a fly ;
" O now," thought the bear, " my best skill I must
try."

So he lifted his paw, and completed the process,


But crush'd with the fly his poor patron's proboscis.
Up started the hermit" Base villain," said he,
" Is this the reward for my goodness to thee ?"

The bear felt confounded, as any one would,


But explained the transaction as well as he could.
Said the hermit, " Should flies settle on me again,
Be so kind, if you please, as to let them remain.
For I'd rather have fifty of them on my nose,
Than one of your friendly, but terrible blows."
171

Exercise 162.
There is nothing in the earth so small that it may
not produce great things.
A landmark tree was once a seed ; and the dust in
the balance maketh a difference ;
And the cairn is heaped high by each one flinging a
pebble :
The dangerous bar in the harbour's mouth is only
grains of sand;
And the shoal that hath wrecked a navy is the work
of a colony of worms :
Yea, and a despicable gnat may madden the mighty
elephant ;
And the living rock is worn by the diligent flow of
the brook.
Vast is the mighty ocean, but drops have made it
vast.
Despise not thou a small thing, either for evil or for
good;
For it is but the littleness of man that seeth no
greatness in a trifle.
Exercise 163.
Alone I walked the ocean-strand,
A pearly shell was in my hand,
I stooped and wrote upon the sand
My name, the year, the day :
As onward from the spot I passed,
One lingering look I fondly cast ;
A wave came rolling high and fast,
And washed my lines away.
172

And so, methought, 'twill shortly be


With every mark on earth from me !
A wave of dark oblivion's sea
Will sweep across the place
Where I have trod the sandy shore
Of time, and been to be no more :
Of memy daythe name I bore,
To leave no track nor trace.

Exercise 164.
Lives of great men still remind us
We can make ourselves sublime,
And, departing, leave behind us
Footprints on the sands of time
Footprints that, perhaps, another
Sailing o'er life's solemn main,
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother
Seeing, shall take heart again.
Let us, then, be up and doing,
With a heart for any fate,
Still achieving, still pursuing,
Learn to labour and to wait.

Exercise 165.
[NoteIn the following exercises the rules of Sandhi, which
affect the final and initial letters of complete words, are not
observed. The student is to transliterate the passages into the
Sanskrit character, correcting the Sandhi as he proceeds. He
is then to translate the Sanskrit into English.]
Agnis uvdcha \ Na apas praveshtum sakshydmi
173

kshayas me atra bhavishyati I S'aranam twdm pra-


pannas asmi swasti te astu mahddyute ll Adbhyas
agnis Brahmatas kshatram akmanas loham utthitam 1
Teshdm sarvatragam tejas swam yonishu sdmyati 11
Vrihaspatis uvdcha \ Twam agne sarvadevdndm
mukham twam asi havyavdt \ Twam antar sarva-
bhutdndm gudhas charasi sdkshivat n Twdm dhus
ekam kavayas twdm dhus trividham punar 1 Twayd
tyaktam jagat cha idam sadyas nasyet hutdkana 11
Kritwd tubhyam nomas viprds swakarmavijitdm
gatim 1 Gachchhanti saha patnibhis sutais api cha
kdkwatvm H Twayi dpas nihitds sarvds twayi sarvam
idam jagat 1 Na te asti aviditam kinchit trishu
lokeshu pdvaka \\ Swayonim bhajate sarvas visasioa
apas avisan-kitas I Aham twdm vardhayishydmi brdh-
mais mantrais sandtanais ll

Exercise 166.
Asti Trigartas ndma janapadas. Tatra dsan gri-
hapatayas trayas sphitasdradhands sodaryds Dhana-
kadhdnyakadhanyakdkhyds. Teshu jwatsu na vavar-
sha varshdni dwddasa Dasasatdkshas. KsMnasdram
kasyam oshadhyas bandhyds na phalavantas vanas-
patayas; kttvds meghds; kshinasrotasas sravantyas ;
pan kakeshdni pdlvaldni; nirnishyanddni utsamanda-
lani ; viralibhutam kandamulaphalam ; avahinds
kathds ; galitds kalydnotsavakriyds ; bahulibhutdni
taskarakuldni anyonyam abhakshayan prajds ; parya-
luthan itastatas valdkdpdndurdni narakirahkapdldni ;
paryahindanta mshkds kdkamandalyas ; Mnyibhutdni
nagaragrdmakharvataputabhedanddini. Te ete griha
174

patayas sarvadhdnyanichayam upayujya ajdvikatam


gavalaganam gavdm yutham ddsiddsajanam apatydni
jyeshthamadhyamabhdrye cha kramena bhakshayitwd
kanishthabhdryd Dhumini kwas bhakshaniyd iti sama-
kalpayan. Atha kaniydn Dhanyakas priydm swam
attum akshamas tayd saha tasydm eva nisi apdsarat.

Exercise 167.
Deva mayd api paribhramatd vindhydtavydm ko
api kumdras kshudhd trishd cha klisyan aklesdrhas
kwachit kupdbhyake ashtavarshadeMyo drishtas. Sa
cha trdsagadgadam avadat ; Mahdbhdga klishtasya
me kriyatdm dryasdhdyyakam. Asya hi me prdnd-
pahdrinim pipdsdm pratikartum udakam udanchan
iha kupe ko api vriddhas mama ekasaranabhutas pa-
titas. Tam alam asmi na aham uddhartum iti.
Atha aham abhyetya vratatyd kayd api baddham
uttdrya tam cha bdlam vansandlimukhoddhritdbhis
adbhis phalais cha panchashais karakshepochchhri-
tasya likuchavrikshasya sikhardt pdshdnapdtitais
pratydnitaprdnavrittim dpadya tarutalanishannas tam
jarantam abruvam : Tata kas eshas bdlas kas vd bha-
vdn katham cha iyam dpad dpannd iti. Sas ahru-
gadgadam agadat sruyatdm mahdbhdga.

Exercise 168.
Rdjan dudhukshasi yadi kshitidhenum endm
Tenia adya vatsam iva lokam imam pushdna 1
Tasmin cha samyak anUam pariposhyamdij.e
Ndndphalais phalati kalpalatd iva bhumis 11
175

Exercise 169.
Asti Saurdshtreshu Valabhi ndma nagari ; tasydm
Grihagupta-ndmnas Guhyakendratulyavibhavasya nd-
vikapat.es duhitd Ratnavati ndma. Tdm kila Bala-
bhadras ndma sdrthavdhaputras paryanaishit. Ta-
ydpi navavadhwd rahasi rabhasavighnitasukhasjhatiti
dwesham alpetaram babandha, na tdm punar drash-
tum ishtavdn. Tdm cha durbhagdm tadd prabhriti
eva na iyam Ratnavati Nimbavati cha iyam iti swa-
j'anas pari)'anas cha paribabhuva. Gate cha kasmin-
kchit kdldntare sd anutapyamdnd kd me gatis iti
vimrisanti kdmapi vriddhaparivrdjikdm matristhdni-
ydm devaseshakusumais upasthitdm apasyat. Tasyds
puras rahasi sakarunam ruroda. Tayd api afoumu*
khyd bahuprakdram anuniya ruditakdranam prishtd.
Trapamdndpi kdryagauravdt kathanchit abravit.
Amba kim bravimi daurbhdgyam ndma jivanmara-
nam angandndm vUeshatas cha kulavadhundm.
Tasya aham asmi uddharanabhutd. Mdtripramu-
khas api jndtivargas mdm avajnayd eva pasyati.
Tena sudrishtdm mdm kuru, na chet tyajeyam adya
nihprayojandn prdnan.

Exercise 170.
Yas kdmamanyu prajahdti rdjd pdtre pratishthd-
payate dhanam cha 1 Viseshavid krutavdn kshipra-
kdri tam sarvalokas kurute pramdnam 11 Jdndti vikod
sayitum manushydn vijndtadosheshu dadhdti dandam 1
Jdndti mdtrdm cha tathd kshamdm cha tam tddrisam
kris jushate samagrd 11 Sudurbalam ndvajdndti kan
176

chit yuktas ripum senate buddhipurvam 1 Na vigra-


ham rochayate balasthais kale cha yas vikramate
sa dhiras 11 Prdpya dpadam na vyathate kaddcMt
udyogam anwichchhati cha apramattas I Duhkam
cha kale sahate mahdtmd dhurandharas tasya jitds
sapatnds w Na vairam uddipayati prasdntam na dar-
pam drohati na astam eti 1 Na durgatas asmi iti
karoti akdryam tam dryakilam param dhus dryds 11

Exercise 171.
Vydghri iva tishthati jard paritarjayanti rogds
cha satravas iva praharanti dehe 1 Ayus parikravati
bhinnaghatdt iva ambhas lokas tathdpi ahitam dcha-
rati iti chitram \\
Exercise 172.
Ndstikdn bhinnamarydddn krurdn pdpamatau sthi-
tdn 1 Tyaja tan jndnam dkritya dhdrmikdn upasevya
cha 11 Kdmalobhagrahdkirndm panchendriyajaldm
nadim 1 Ndvam dhritimayim kritwd janmadurgdni
santara 11
177

Observe With reference to page 19 and Exer


cise 22, the words iTVrfa, *?<*!("-*, and vfir, which are
the neuters of the adjectives HViP^^, ^Brfilf^, and
vfP^ respectively, will, of course, differ slightly from
qrft in the genitive plural, where they will make the
penultimate short instead of long (thus, ihfrfiRT &c.).
The vocative will be the same as the Nom. and Acc.

ERRATA.
Page 37, lines 1 and 6, insert (not final) after long.
Page 84, line 4, for read
Page 85, line 3, for ^ read iTT
Page 104, Exercise 41, for lipnr read arpr$r

N
''^ Vi>4

t , . . .
<r?- c~ <fy erf A 2 c^l. <i-^c^-e--c_*> /tJi-^^Xg

O-*-*-^ b-*-*_e^jt fa-jf&Z- t/^ZdZL. J-*****-