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Present Perfect Simple

Present perfect simple

Rules:
+ subject + have/ has + past participle

Past participle:
Regular verbs: infinitive + -ed
Infinitive Past participle
to play played jucat
to move moved mutat
to injure injured accidentat
to ask asked ntrebat

Irregular verbs: third form


Ist form (present) IInd form (past) IIIrd form Traducere
(participle)
be was/were been a fi
see saw seen a vedea
do did done a face
buy bought bought a cumpra
go went gone a merge

Persoana I sg. Persoana III sg. Traducere


I have seen you before Ive seen you before eu te-am mai vzut nainte
He has seen you before Hes seen you before el/ ea te-a mai vzut nainte

- subject + have/ has + not + past participle

Prescurtri:
have + not = haven`t
has + not = hasn`t

Persoana I sg. Persoana III sg. Traducere


I have not seen she/ he has not seen eu nu am vzut
I haven`t seen she/ he hasn`t seen el/ ea nu a vzut
I have not played she/ he has not played eu nu am jucat

1
Present Perfect Simple
I haven`t listen she/ he hasn`t played el/ ea nu a jucat

?+ have/ has + subject + past participle

Persoana I sg. Persoana III sg. Traducere


have you seen? has she/ he seen ? Ai vzut? / el/ea a vzut?
have you played ? has she/ he played ? Ai jucat?/ el/ ea a jucat?

?- have/ has + subject + not + past participle


sau
haven`t / hasn`t + subject + not + past participle

Persoana I sg. Persoana III sg. Traducere


have you not seen? has she/ he not seen ? tu nu ai vzut?
haven`t you seen? hasn`t she/ he seen el/ea nu a vzut?
have you played ? has she/ he played ? tu nu ai jucat?
haven`t you played ? hasn`t she/ he played ? el/ ea nu a jucat?

2
Present Perfect Simple

Utilizare:
1. Exprim o aciune care a avut loc n trecutul recent i are rezultate n prezent:
- vorbitorul nu este interesat de timpul exact cnd a avut loc aciunea, ci de rezultatul ei
Im afraid Ive lost my wallet. I cant find it anywhere.
Mi-e tem c mi-am pierdut portofelul. Nu-l pot gsi nicieri.
! dac se menioneaz timpul atunci se folosete trecutul
I lost my wallet yesterday on my way back from work.
Mi-am pierdut portofelul ieri cnd m ntorceam de la serviciu.

2. O aciune din trecut care se poate repeta i n prezent sau chiar i-n viitor:
My brother has written a book of poems and even a novel.
Fratele meu a scris o carte de poezii i un roman.
- se refer la o persoan n via despre care vorbitorul ne spune c a scris fr a meniona
momentul, ci doar rezultatul: c a sris i este posibil s mai scrie
William Shakespear wrote 37 plays.
William Shakespear a scris 37 de piese.
- se refer la o persoan decedat

3. O aciune care tocmai s-a ncheiat i este legat de momentul prezent :


I worried because I havent received any letter from my sister so far.
Sunt ngrijorat fiindc nu am primit pn acum nici o scrisoare de la sora mea.
- just se folosete doar n propoziii afirmative:
The postman has just come.
Tocmai a venit potaul.
- yet se folosete n propoziii negative i interogative:
The postman hasnt come yet.
nc nu a venit potaul.
Hasnt the postman come yet?
N-a venit potaul?
- already se folosete n propoziii afirmative i interogative:
The postman has already come.
Potaul a venit deja.
Has the postman already come? / Has the postman come already?
A venit deja potaul?
- cuvinte cheie: just, already, yet, lately, recently, up to now, till now, so far, the last few hours/
days

4. o activitate care a avut loc n mod frecvent n trecut pn n prezent, cu rezultate n


prezent :
- se folosesc adverbe de timp nehotrt: ever, sometimes, often, seldom, always, usually

3
Present Perfect Simple
Have you ever met George?
L-ai ntlnit vreodat pe George?
Yes, I have. Ive often met him at the University.
Da. L-am ntlnit adesea la Universitate.

5. O aciune desfurat ntr-o perioad de timp bine definit, terminat sau continund
n momentul vorbirii, poate chiar i n viitor:
- since se refer la momentul nceperii aciunii
- since introduce:
o un complement circumstanial de timp
o o propoziie circumstanial de timp
I have known George since last month.
l cunosc pe George de luna trecut.
I have known George since we met at your party.
l cunosc pe George de cnd l-am ntlnit la petrecerea ta.
! predicatul propoziiei circumstaniale de timp introduse de conjuncia since e la trecut, iar
predicatul propoziiei principale este la prezent
- for introduce un complement circumstanial de timp i arat durata perioadei de timp,
terminat sau continund i n prezent
I have known George for a few weeks.
l cunosc pe george de cteva sptmni.
- predicatul unei ntrebri introduse prin how long poate fi la prezentul perfect, trecut sau
trecutul perfect, n funcie de context
For how long have you been here?
De ct timp eti aici?
Ive been here since 5 oclock. / Ive been here for 10 minutes.
Sunt aici de la ora 5. / sunt aici de 10 minute.
For how long did you learn English when you were at school?
Ct timp ai nvat engleza cnd erai la coal?
I learnt it for 8 years.
Am nvat-o timp de 8 ani.
How long had you taken driving lessons before you passed the driving test?
Ct timp ai luat lecii de conducere nainte s dai examenul?
I had taken lessons for a long while before I passed the driving test.
Am luat lecii mult timp nainte s dau examenul de conducere.
- predicatele la prezentul perfect pot exprima activiti care sunt continuate n present i chiar
n viitor:
- To be + un substantiv referitor la o profesie
Mrs. Brown has been a teacher since she graduated from university.
Dna. Brown este profesoar de cnd a absolvit universitatea.
Mrs. Brown has been a teacher for a few years.

4
Present Perfect Simple
Dna. Brown este profesoar de civa ani.
- To be married
My wife and I have been married since
6. Glume sau alte povestiri:
The lord tells his buttler to call him a taxi. The butler, who never contradicts his
master, says: Yes, Sir, you are a taxi.

7. Aciuni cu sens viitor n propoziii circumstaniale de timp sau condiionale de


condiie real:
- propoziiile sunt introduse de conjuncii:
o de timp: after, as long as, till, untill, when, while
o condiionale: if, whether, in case, on condition, provided, supposing, unless
Jake will keep his job as long as he does his duty.
Jake i va pstra slujba atta timp ct i face datoria
Ill come home as soon as school is over.
Voi veni acas de ndat ce se sfresc cursurile
Ill be disappointed unless you do your homework properly.
Voi fi dezamgit dac nu-i faci temele cum trebuie
Give me a phone call in case you change your mind.
D-mi un telefon n caz c te rzgndeti
Ill be waiting for you until you get home if you arrive before 8 p.m.
Te voi atepta pn vii acas, dac ajungi nainte de 8 seara.

8. Activiti programate oficial sau aciuni care fac parte dintr-un program stabilit pt
viitorul apropiat (se menioneaz timpul cnd are loc aciunea):
The train for Liverpool leaves in five minutes
Trenul spre Liverpool pleac n 5 minute.
On July 1, our school organizes a trip to the Olt Valley.
Pe 1 iulie, coala noastr organizeaz o excursie pe Valea Oltului.