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SYMMETRICAL

FAULTS

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 1


What is a fault?

A faults is any failure which interferes with the normal ow of
current.

Most faults on transmission lines of 115 kV and higher are caused
by lightning, which results in the ashover of insulators causing a
low impedance path to ground.

Line-to-line faults not involving ground are less common.

Experience shows that 70 to 80% of transmission line failures are
single line-to-ground faults.

Permanent faults are caused by lines being on the ground,
insulator strings breaking, ice loads, and equipment failure.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 2
What is a fault?

Roughly 5% of all faults involve all three phases and these are
called symmetrical three-phase faults or just symmetrical faults.

Line-to-line faults that do not involve ground and double line-to-
ground faults are called unsymmetrical faults since they cause an
imbalance between the phases.

The currents which ow in a power system immediately aWer the
occurrence of a fault dier from those owing a few cycles later
just before the circuit breakers are called upon to open the line
on both sides of the fault.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 3


What is a fault?

Two factors which determine the proper selecYon of circuit
breakers are the current owing immediately aWer the fault
occurs and the current which the breaker must interrupt.

In fault analysis values of these currents are calculated for
dierent types of faults at dierent locaYons in the system.

The informaYon obtained form these calculaYons are used to
determine the relay seZng that control the circuit breakers.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 4


Transients in Series RL Circuits

The selecYon of a circuit breaker depends on:
normal operaYng current
the current it has to interrupt
the maximum current it may have to momentarily carry

How does an over-current occur?



To approach the problem of calculaYng the iniYal current when a
system is short-circuited, consider what happens when an ac
voltage is applied to an RL circuit.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 5


MoYvaYon Transients in Series RL Circuits

t=0 L R


i (t )
Vmax sin ( t + )



DierenYal equaYon: Vmax sin ( t + ) = Ri + L di
dt

SoluYon: i (t ) = Vmax sin ( t + ) e Rt L sin ( )
Z

Z = R 2 + 2 L2 , = tan 1 ( L R )

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 6


MoYvaYon Transients in Series RL Circuits
Vmax
i (t ) = sin ( t + ) e Rt L sin ( )
Z
ac-component dc-component
constant exponenYally
amplitude decaying
= 0







=
2


What about when a real synchronous generator is shorted?
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 7
Review of Synchronous Generators.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 8


The Synchronous Generator

The synchronous generator is driven by a turbine to convert
mechanical energy into electrical energy.

The windings of the synchronous machine consDtute a group of
inducDvely coupled electric circuits, some of which rotate relaDve to
others so that the mutual inductances are variable.

The models developed for the the various windings are applicable to
both steady-state and transient analysis. Only linear magneDc
circuits are considered.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 9


The Synchronous Generator

The two principal parts of a synchronous machine are
ferromagneDc structures. The staDonary part (a hollow cylinder),
called the armature (see next slide), has longitudinal slots in which
there are coils of the armature windings. These carry the current to
an electrical load.

The rotor is the part of the machine which is mounted on the shaL
and rotates ins ide the hollow stator. The winding on the rotor,
called the eld winding, is supplied with dc current. The ux across
the air gap between the armature and rotor generates voltages in
the coils of the armature windings.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 10


The Synchronous Generator Two Types
Armature Armature

Gap

Gap
Rotor
S N Rotor

X X

The cylindrical rotor is called The non-cylindrical rotor is


a non-salient pole machine. called a salient pole machine.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 11
The Synchronous Generator

For the two-pole machine, one cycle of voltage is generated for
each revoluDon of the two-pole rotor. In the four-pole machine, two
cycles are generated in each armature coil per revoluDon.

Since the number of cycles of revoluDon equals the number of pairs
of poles, the frequency of the generated voltage is:
PN P
f = = f m Hertz
2 60 2

where f is the electrical frequency in Hertz, P is the number of poles,
N is the rotor speed in RPM, and fm = N/60 is the mechanical
frequency in rpm.

We see that a two-pole, 60 Hz machine operates at 3600 rpm, while
a four-pole machine operates at 1800 rpm.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 12
The Synchronous Generator Cylindrical Rotor, Non-Salient
Pole Machine

Gap

Armature Rotor d-axis


S N
Direct Axis

X X

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 13


The Synchronous Generator Non-cylindrical Rotor, Salient Pole
Machine
Armature

WELL COME BACK
TO THIS SHORTLY. S
Gap

d-axis
N Rotor N
Direct Axis

Quadrature Axis
q-axis
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 14
The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model
a-axis
ia +a
R, Laa StaYonary Armature
d-axis
va

d-axis
R, L ff

if rotaYon

R, Lbb
+ v ff
R, Lcc

+ vb
b-axis
vc +
ib c ic
c-axis
9/11/13 b Symmetrical Faults 15
The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model
a-axis
R, Laa ia +a
d-axis
va StaYonary Armature

Laf

R, L ff

if rotaYon
Lcf

R, Lbb + v ff
Lbf R, Lcc

+ vb
b-axis
vc +
ib c ic
c-axis
9/11/13 b Symmetrical Faults 16
The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model
a-axis
R, Laa ia +a Laa = Lbb = Lcc = Ls

d-axis
va StaYonary Armature

Laf
Lab = Lba = M s Lac = Lca = M s
R, L ff

if rotaYon
Lcf

R, Lbb + v ff
Lbf R, Lcc

+ vb
b-axis
vc +
Lbc = Lcb = M s
ib c ic
c-axis
9/11/13 b Symmetrical Faults 17
The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model
a-axis

d R, Laa ia +a Laa = Lbb = Lcc = Ls


d-axis
va StaYonary Armature

Laf
Lab = Lba = M s Lac = Lca = M s
R, L ff

if rotaYon
Lcf

R, Lbb + v ff
Lbf R, Lcc

+ vb
b-axis
vc +
Lbc = Lcb = M s
ib c ic
c-axis
9/11/13 b Symmetrical Faults 18
The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model

Laf = M f cos d
Lbf = M f cos ( d 120 )
Lcf = M f cos ( d 240 )

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 19


Armature Flux Linkages

a = Laa ia + Labib + Lac ic + Laf i f = Ls ia M s ( ib + ic ) + Laf i f

b = Lba ia + Lbbib + Lbc ic + Lbf i f = Ls ib M s ( ia + ic ) + Lbf i f

c = Lca ia + Lcbib + Lcc ic + Lcf i f = Ls ic M s ( ia + ib ) + Lcf i f

Armature Flux Linkages

f = Laf ia + Lbf ib + Lcf ic + L ff i f

Balanced Three-Phase System

ia + ib + ic = 0

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 20


Algebra

a = ( Ls + M s ) ia + Laf i f

a = ( Ls + M s ) ib + Lbf i f
a = ( Ls + M s ) ic + Lcf i f

Since the eld current is dc and the eld rotates with constant
angular velocity,
d d
= , d = t + o , i f = I f
dt

a = ( Ls + M s ) ia + M f I f cos ( t + o )
b = ( Ls + M s ) ib + M f I f cos ( t 120 + o )
c = ( Ls + M s ) ic + M f I f cos ( t 240 + o )

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 21


Circuit EquaYons

va = Ra ia d a = Ra ia ( Ls + M s ) dia + M f I f sin ( t + o )
dt dt

generator ea = 2 Ei sin ( t + o )

(
Internal emf: ea = 2 Ei sin t + o ) (or synchronous emf)

Mf If
where: Ei =
2
For convenience (its arbitrary anyway) set o = + 90

We have the circuit model

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 22


The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model
+
R ia a
di
va = Ra ia ( Ls + M s ) a
dt
+ M f I f sin ( t + o )
Ls + M s va
+
ea = 2 Ei cos ( t + )
~
_
_
eb ec
vc
Ls + M s Ls + M s ic + vb
R R
c
+
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults
ib b 23
The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model

Also:

ia = 2 I a cos ( t + a )

ib = 2 I a cos ( t + a 120 )
ic = 2 I a cos ( t + a 240 )


where a is the phase angle of the lag of the current ia with respect
to ea.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 24


The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model


L + M ia = 2 I a cos ( t + a )
s s R

+

ea = 2 Ei cos ( t + ) va = 2 Va cos t




This is a steady-state model that misses features needed for
transient analysis.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 25


The Synchronous Generator - Cylindrical Rotor Model

To facilitate transient analysis (as with a fault) it is necessary to
recast this model into a dierent form.

Recall: f = Laf ia + Lbf ib + Lcf ic + L ff i f

Laf = M f cos d
and:
Lbf = M f cos ( d 120 )
Lcf = M f cos ( d 240 )
SubsYtuYng:

f = M f ia cos d + ib cos ( d 120 ) + ic cos ( d 240 ) + L ff i f


i cos = 2 I cos cos ( t + )
a d a d a

= 2 I a cos ( t + + 90 ) cos ( t + a )

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 26


To facilitate a symmetric fault it helps to recast this model a bit.

ia cos d = 2 I a cos d cos ( t + a )


= 2 I a cos ( t + + 90 ) cos ( t + a )
2cos cos = cos ( ) + cos ( + )
Ia
= cos ( a + 90 ) + cos ( 2 t + 2 a + 90 )
2
Ia
= sin a sin ( 2 t + 2 a )
2

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 27


Similarly for the other two terms:
Ia
ib cos ( d 120 ) = sin a sin ( 2 t + 2 a 120 )
2

Ia
ic cos ( d 240 ) = sin a sin ( 2 t + 2 a 240 )
2
SubsYtuYng:

ia cos d + ib cos ( d 120 ) + ic cos ( d 240 )


sin a + sin ( a 120 ) + sin ( a 240 )
Ia
= + sin ( 2 t + 2 a ) + sin ( 2 t + 2 a 120 ) + sin ( 2 t + 2 a 240 )
2
=0
I I
= a sin a + sin ( a 120 ) + sin ( a 240 ) = 3 a sin a
2 2

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 28


SubsYtuYng:

f = M f ia cos d + ib cos ( d 120) + ic cos ( d 240) + L ff i f
M f Ia 3
= L ff i f 3 sin a = L ff i f + M f id
2 2


where id = 3 I a sin a


2
or id = ia cos d + ib cos ( d 120 ) + ic cos ( d 240 )
3

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 29


ObservaYons:

3
f = L ff i f + M f id , id = 3 I a sin a
2

The ux linkages with the eld winding that are due to a
combinaYon of the the three line currents do not vary with Yme.

They can thus be regarded as coming from a steady dc current id in
a cYYous dc circuit coincident with the d-axis and thus staYonary
with respect to the eld circuit.

The two circuits rotate together in synchronism and have mutual
inductance (3/2)1/2Mf between them.

Circuit model
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 30
Alternate Circuit Model Suitable for Transient Analysis
a-axis

d
d-axis
3
Mf
2
id
Armature equivalent winding
rotaYng with rotor
f
i R, L ff

+ v ff Field winding rotaYng with rotor


b-axis
c-axis
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 31
Example A 60-Hz three-phase synchronous generator with
negligible armature resistance has the following inductance
parameters:
Laa = Ls = 2.7656mH , Lab = M s = 1.3828mH
L ff = 433.6569mH , M f = 31.6950mH

The machine is rated at 635 MVA, 0,9 power-factor lagging, 3600
rpm, 24 kV. When operaYng under rated condiYons, the line-to-
neutral terminal voltage and the line current of phase a are
va = 19596cos t V , ia = 21603cos ( t 25.6569 )

Determine the magnitude of the synchronous internal voltage, the
eld current If, and the ux linkages with the eld winding. Repeat
these calculaYons when a load of 635 MVA is served at rated
voltage and unity power factor. What is the eld current for rated
armature voltage on a open circuit?
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 32
Example
24,000
va = 2 = 19596V

max
3
VA 635,000
ia = = 2 = 21603A
max
V 3 24
= cos 1 0.9 = 25.8419, lagging

Synchronous Internal Voltage:

ea = 2 Ei cos ( t + )
dia 3 dia
= Ra ia + va + ( Ls + M s ) = va + ( 2.7656 + 1.3828)10
=0

dt dt
3 d
= 19596cos t + 21603( 2.7656 + 1.3828)10 cos ( t 25.6569 )
dt
= 19596cos t 21603( 2.7656 + 1.3828)103 sin ( t 25.6569 )

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 33


Example t = 120
sin ( x y ) = sin x cos y cos x sin y
Synchronous Internal Voltage:

2 Ei cos ( t + )
= 19596cos t 21603( 2.7656 + 1.3828)103 sin ( t 25.6569)

= 19596cos t 33875sin ( t 25.6569 )

= 34323cos t 30407sin t
= 45855cos ( t + 41.5384)

2 Ei = 45855, = 41.5384


Mf If Ei
Field Current: E = I = 2 = 3838A
i
2
f
Mf

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 34


Example
M f Ia
Flux linkages with eld windings: f = L ff i f 3 sin a
2
a is the angle of lag measured wrt ea. Since ia lags 25.8419o
behind va, which lags 41.5384o behind ea, then
a = 25.8419o + 41.5384o = 67.3803o

21603
I a sin a = sin67.3803 = 14100.6 A
2
Thus: M f Ia
f = L ff i f 3 sin a
2
3 31.6950
= 433.6569 3838 10 3 14100.6 103
2
= 1664.38 948.06 = 716.31 Weber-turns
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 35
Example RepeaYng for unity power factor:

3 dia
ea = 2 Ei cos ( t + ) = va + ( 2.7656 + 1.3828)10
dt

= 19596cos t 33785sin t = 39057cos ( t + 59.8854 )


Ei 39057
If = 2 = 3838 = 3269 A
M f 45855
The current ia is in-phase with va, and lags ea by 59.8854o

I a sin a = 15276sin59.8854 = 13214 A

31.6950
f = 433.6569 3269 10 3 3
13214 103
2
= 1417.62 888.43 = 529.19 Weber-turns

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 36


Example

We see that when the power factor of the load goes from 0.9
lagging to 1.0 under rated mega-voltamperes loading and voltage
condiDons, the eld current is reduced from 3838 to 3269 A . Also,
the net air-gap ux linking the eld winding of the generator
is reduced along with the demagneDzing inuence of armature
reacDon.

The eld current required to maintain rated terminal voltage in the
machine under open-circuit condiDons (ia = 0) is

Ei
19596 103
If = 2 = = 1640 A
M f 120 31.695

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 37


The Synchronous Generator - Salient Rotor Model

The round-rotor theory already just considered gives good results
for the steady-state performance of the synchronous machine.
However, for transient analysis we need to consider a two-axis
model.

We now introduce the two-axis model by means of the equaDons of
the salient-pole machine in which the air gap varies between poles.

The largest generaDng units are steam-turbine driven with round-
rotor construcDon; fossil-red units have two poles and nuclear
units have four pole s for reasons of economical design and
eciency. Hydroelectric generators usually have more pole-pairs
and are of salient-pole construcDon. These units run at lower
speeds so as to avoid mechanical damage due to centrifugal forces.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 38
The Synchronous Generator - Salient Rotor Model

The three-phase salient-pole machine, like its round-rotor
counterpart, has three symmetrically distributed armature windings
a, b, and c, and a eld winding f on the rotor which produces a
sinusoidal ux distribuDon around the air gap.

In both types of machines the eld sees the same air gap and
magneDzing paths in the stator regardless of the rotor posiDon.
Thus, the eld winding has constant self-inductance L.

Moreover, both machine have the same sinusoidal varying mutual
inductances as before. The dierence is that the self- inductances
Laa , Lbb, and Lcc and the mutual inductances Lab, Lbc, and Lca between
them are no longer constant but also vary as a funcDon of the rotor
angular displacement.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 39
The Synchronous Generator - Salient Rotor Model

Flux Linkages: a = Laa ia + Labib + Lac ic + Laf i f
b = Lba ia + Lbbib + Lbc ic + Lbf i f
c = Lca ia + Lcbib + Lcc ic + Lcf i f

These look the same as seen before (Slide 19), but unlike the case
of the round rotor the Ls are no longer well-approximated by
constants.

X X

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 40


The Synchronous Generator - Salient Rotor Model

For the armature,

Self-inductances: Ls > Lm > 0

Laa = Ls + Lm cos 2 d
Lbb = Ls + Lm cos 2 ( d 2 3)
Lcc = Ls + Lm cos 2 ( d + 2 3)
Mostly based on
Mutual-inductances: M s > Lm > 0 geometrical
consideraYons
Lab = Lba = M s Lm cos 2 ( d + 6 )
Lbc = Lcb = M s Lm cos 2 ( d 2 )
Lca = Lac = M s Lm cos 2 ( d + 5 6 )

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 41


The Synchronous Generator - Salient Rotor Model

For the rotor,
Self-inductances:
L ff
Field winding:
D-Damper winding: LD
Q-Damper winding: LQ

Mutual-inductances:
Field/D-winding: M r
Field/Q-winding: 0
D-winding/Q-winding: 0 Mostly based on
geometrical
consideraYons
Armature/Field: Laf = L fa = M f cos 2 d
Lbf = L fb = M f cos 2 ( d 2 3)
Lcf = L fc = M f cos 2 ( d 4 3)
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 42
The Synchronous Generator - Salient Rotor Model

Armature-damper winding mutual-inductances,

Armature/D-winding: What are these?

LaD = LDa = M D cos 2 d

LbD = LDb = M D cos 2 ( d 2 3)
LcD = LDc = M D cos 2 ( d 4 3)

Armature/Q-winding:
LaQ = LQa = M Q cos 2 d Mostly based on
geometrical
LbQ = LQb = M Q cos 2 ( d 2 3) consideraYons
LcQ = LQc = M Q cos 2 ( d 4 3)

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 43


The Synchronous Generator - Salient Rotor Model

Damper Windings or
Amortisseur Windings

Shorting
Bar

Field Windings
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 44
Two-Axis Machine Model

Clearly the equaDons for the ux linkages of the salient-pole
machine are more complicated than their round-rotor counterparts.

Fortunately, the equaDons of the salient-pole machine can be
expressed in a simple form by transforming the a , b, and c variables
of the stator into corresponding sets of new variables, called the
direct-axis , quadrature-axis , and zero-sequence quanDDes
which are disDnguished by the subscripts d, q , and 0: respecDvely.

The three stator currents ia, ib, and ic can be transformed into three
equivalent currents, called the direct-axis current id, the quadrature-
axis current iq and the zero-sequence current io. The transformaDon
is made by a matrix P called Parks TransformaYon.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 45


Parks TransformaYon

Recall for the round rotor machine we found (Slide 30) id, what we
will now call the direct current as:

2
id = ia cos d + ib cos ( d 120 ) + ic cos ( d 240 )
3
q-axis
Quadrature Axis

S

d-axis N S N N

Direct Axis rotaYon d-axis
X X
S


Note how the q-axis lags the d-axis by 90-degrees.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 46
Parks TransformaYon

Note how the q-axis lags the d-axis by 90-degrees.

2
id = ia cos d + ib cos ( d 120 ) + ic cos ( d 240 )
3
2
iq = ia sin d + ib sin ( d 120 ) + ic sin ( d 240 )
3

cos cos ( 120 ) cos ( 240 )
2 d d d
P= sin sin ( d 120 ) sin ( d 240 )
3 d

? ? ?

Dene P as a unitary matrix: P 1 = PT
The unitary property assures that the power is unaltered by P.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 47
Parks TransformaYon


cos cos ( 120 ) cos ( 240 )
d d d
P=
2 sin
d
sin ( d
120 ) sin ( d
240 )

3 1 1 1

2 2 2


Parks transformaYon gives what is known as the Two-Axis Model
of a salient pole generator.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 48


Parks TransformaYon


id i v v
a
d
a
d
a
iq = P ib vq = P vb q = P b

i0 ic v0 vc 0 c



The P-trans formaDon denes a set of currents, voltages, and ux
linkages for three cDDous coils, one of which is the staDonary 0-
coil. The other two are the d-coil and the q-coil, which rotate in
synchronism with the rotor. The d- and q-coils have constant ux
linkages with the eld and any other windings which may exist on
the rotor. The resulDng d, q, and 0 ux-linkage equaDons are

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 49


Parks TransformaYon

For example, the resulDng d, q, and 0 ux-linkage equaDons are
from the stator ux-linkages as follows:
=L i +L i +L i +L i L

a aa
L Lab Lac i
a
a aa a ab b ac c af f af

b = Lba ia + Lbbib + Lbc ic + Lbf i f b = Lab Lbb Lbc ib + Lbf i
f
c = Lca ia + Lcbib + Lcc ic + Lcf i f
c Lac
Lbc Lcc ic Lcf


d a a d
q = P b b = P q
1


0 c c 0

L Lab Lac Laf


d aa d
P 1 q = Lab Lbb Lbc P 1 q + Lbf i
f
0 Lac Lbc Lcc
0 Lcf

L Lab Lac L
d aa d af
q = P Lab Lbb Lbc P q
1
+ P Lbf i
f
0 Lac Lbc Lcc
0 Lcf

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 50


Parks TransformaYon

SubsYtuYng for the Ls from the previous table:
L Lab Lac
aa

Lab Lbb Lbc

Lac Lbc Lcc
Ls + Lm cos 2 d M s Lm cos 2 ( d + 6 ) M s Lm cos 2 ( d + 5 6 )

= M s Lm cos 2 ( d + 6 ) Ls + Lm cos 2 ( d 2 3) M s Lm cos 2 ( d 2 )


M s Lm cos 2 ( d + 5 6 ) M s Lm cos 2 ( d 2 ) Ls + Lm cos 2 ( d + 2 3)

L Ms Ms
cos 2 d cos 2 ( d + 6 ) cos 2 ( d + 5 6 )
s

= Ms Ls M s Lm cos 2 ( d + 6 ) cos 2 ( d 2 3) cos 2 ( d 2 )

M s M s Ls cos 2 ( d + 5 6 ) cos 2 ( d 2 ) cos 2 ( d + 2 3)

1 0 0 1 1 1
cos 2 d cos 2 ( d + 6 ) cos 2 ( d + 5 6 )

= ( Ls + M s ) 0 1 0 M 1 1 1 Lm cos 2 ( d + 6 ) cos 2 ( d 2 3) cos 2 ( d 2 )

0 0 1 1 1 1 cos 2 ( d + 5 6 ) cos 2 ( d 2 ) cos 2 ( d + 2 3)

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 51


Parks TransformaYon

Now for the tedious part subsYtute all this

L L
cos 2 cos 2 ( + 6) cos 2 ( d + 5 6 )

aa
L
ab

ac 1 0 0 1 1 1 d d

L L L = ( L + M ) 0 1 0 M 1 1 1 L cos 2 ( + 6 ) cos 2 ( 2 3) cos 2 ( d 2 )

ab bb bc s s m d d

L L L
0 0 1

1 1 1
cos 2 ( + 5 6 ) cos 2 ( 2) cos 2 ( d + 2 3)


ac bc cc d d

L L L M cos 2
d
d f
d


aa ab ac

= P L L L P + P M cos 2 ( 2 3) i
1


q

ab bb

bc
q f
d f

L L ac
Lbc
cc
M cos 2 ( 4 3)
0
0 f
d


cos cos ( 120) cos ( 240)
d d d

2 sin sin ( 120 ) sin ( 240 )


P = d d
, P = P
d 1 T

3 1 1 1
2 2 2



to get
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 52
Parks TransformaYon
3

to get d d L 0 0 i
d Mf
q = 0 Lq 0 iq + 2 i
0 f
0 0 0 L0 i0
0

where:
3
Direct-axis inductance: Ld = Ls + M s + Lm
2

3
Quadrature-axis inductance: q L = Ls
+ M s
Lm
2

Zero-sequence inductance: L0 = Ls 2 M s

all constants!

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 53


Parks TransformaYon

The equaYon for the ux linkages of the eld circuit remain
unchanged (Slide 28):

3
f = L ff I f + M f id
2

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 54


Parks TransformaYon

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 55


Two-Axis Machine Model Ignore damper winding for the moment.
a-axis
d q-axis

d-axis iq
3
Mf
2 R, Lq
id R, Ld

if R, L ff
RotaYon

+ v ff

b-axis All coils rotate together.
c-axis
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 56
Two-Axis Machine Model

The constant inductance coecients make for quite simple to use.
Physically, these simpler ux-linkage equaDons show that Ld is the
self-inductance of an equivalent d-axis armature winding which
rotates at the same speed as the eld and which carries current id to
produce the same mmf on the d-axis as do the actual stator
currents ia, ib, and ic.

Similarly for Lq and iq and the q-axis.

The cDDous d-axis winding and the eld winding represenDng the
physical eld can be considered to act like two coupled coils which
are staDonary with respect to each other as they rotate together
sharing the mutual inductance between them.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 57


Two-Axis Machine Model

Furthermore, the eld and the d-axis coil do not couple
magneDcally with cDDous q winding since it lags
the d-axis in space by 90.

The zero-sequence inductance L0 is associated with a staDonary
cDDous armature coil with no coupling to any other coils. Under
balanced condiDons this coil carries no current, and therefore we
omit it from our discussion .

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 58


Example To get a feeling for Parks TransformaYon

Under steay-state operaYng condiYons the armature of the
salient-pole synchronous generator carries symmetrical sinusoidal
three-phase currents:

ia = 2 I a sin ( d a )
ib = 2 I a sin ( d 120 a )

ic = 2 I a sin ( d 240 a )

Find the corresponding d-q-0 currents of the armature.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 59


Example To get a feeling for Parks TransformaYon

cos cos ( 120 ) cos ( 240 )
i d d d
ia
2 sin d sin ( d 120 ) sin ( d 240 )
d

iq = ib
3 1 1 1
i0 ic
2 2 2

MulYply through:

2
id = cos d ia + cos ( d 120 ) ib + cos ( d 240 ) ic
3
2
iq = sin d ia + sin ( d 120 ) ib + sin ( d 240 ) ic
3

2 1
i0 = ( i a + ib + ic ) = 0 balanced three-phase
3 2
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 60
Example To get a feeling for Parks TransformaYon

2sin x cos y = sin ( x + y ) + sin ( x y )
Simplifying

Ia
ia cos d = 2 I a sin ( d a ) cos d = sin ( 2 d a ) sin a
2
ib cos ( d 120 ) = 2 I a cos ( d 120 ) sin ( d 120 d )
Ia
= sin ( 2 d 240 a ) sin a
2
ic cos ( d 240 ) = 2 I a cos ( d 240 ) sin ( d 240 d )
Ia
= sin ( 2 d 480 a ) sin a
2

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 61


Example To get a feeling for Parks TransformaYon

SubsYtuYng


i = 2 I a sin ( 2 ) + sin ( 2 240 ) + sin ( 2 480 ) 3sin
d
3
d a d
a
d a
a
2
= 0
= 3 I a sin a

It should come as no surprise that iq = 3 I a cos a

Note how the expression for id is EXACTLY the same as for the
round-rotor machine (see Slide 30).

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 62


VOLTAGE EQUATIONS

Remarkably simple in d, q, 0 variables.

As before, the line to neutral voltages are:
d a
va = Ria

dt

generator

d
vb = Rib b
dt
d c
vc = Ric
dt
These would be EXTREMELY dicult to deal with if leW in terms of
a, b, c, but simplify TREMENDOUSLY using Parks transformaYon,
but going from a, b, c to d, q, 0 is a bit tedious.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 63
Voltage EquaYons

General procedure lots of algebra:
MulYply both sides by P

va i v i
a d a a a d
a

vb = R ib b P vb = RP ib P b
dt dt
vc ic c vc ic c

vd i
d d d

v = R i P P 1
q q q
dt
v0 i0 0

Note: P = P ( t ) since d = t + o

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 64


Voltage EquaYons

General procedure lots of algebra:

v i
d d
d d

vq = R iq P P 1 q
dt
v0 i0 0
id
d d
d d

= R iq PP 1 q P P 1 q
dt dt
i0
0 0
id
d d
d T d

= R iq q P P q This is the work.
dt dt
i0
0 0
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 65
Voltage EquaYons

It all simplies to:

d
d

v i dt
d
d d q

vq = R iq q
+ d
dt
v0 i0 d 0
0

dt


d
where = d
dt

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 66


Voltage EquaYons Summary:

d d
d-axis vd = Rid q
dt
3
f = L ff i f + M f id
2
3
d = Ld id + M f if
2

d q
q-axis vq = Riq + d
dt

q = Lq iq

and since the eld winding is not subject to the P-transformaYon
d f
v ff = R f i f +
dt
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 67
Circuit Model did
vd = Rid Ld q
if dt

id
Rf R +
3
v ff L ff M Ld d-axis vd
Field winding 2 f
armature equivalent winding

q +
d f
v ff = R f i f + iq
dt R +
Lq q-axis vq
armature equivalent winding

+ d diq
vq = Riq Lq d
dt
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 68
Circuit Model

We see that the f-coil is mutually coupled to the d-coil on the d-axis.

The cDDous q-coil is shown magneDcally uncoupled from the other
two windings since the d-axis and the q-axis are spaDally in
quadrature with one another.

However, there is interacDon between the two axes by means of
the voltage sources which are rotaDonal emfs or speed voltages
internal to the machine due to the rotaDon of the rotor.

Note that the speed voltage in the d-axis depends on q, and
similarly, the speed voltage in the q-axis depends on d.

These sources represent ongoing electromechanical energy
conversion.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 69
Example No numbers, but again to appreciate the model

A direct current If is supplied to the eld winding of an unloaded
salient-pole synchronous generator rotaDng with constant angular
velocity . Determine the open-circuit armature voltages and their
d-q-0 components.
i i
d
a 0
Since open circuited: i = P i = 0

q b

i0 ic 0

SubsDtuDng these into:
d d 3 3
v d
= Rid
q
, f
= L i
ff f
+ M i
f d
, d
= L d d
i + M f if
dt 2 2

d d
vq = Riq q + d , q = Lq iq , v ff = R f i f + f
dt dt
gives
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 70
Example No numbers, but again to appreciate the model

gives d d
3 v = q = 0
d = M f if d
dt
2
d q 3
q = 0 vq = + d = M f if
dt 2
0 = 0 d 0
v0 = Ri0 =0
dt
Thus:
v v v v
d
a
a
d

vq = P vb vb = P vq T

v0 vc vc v0

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 71


Example No numbers, but again to appreciate the model

1
cos d sin d
v 2
va
0

d
2 1
vb = P vq =
T
cos ( d 120 ) sin ( d 120 ) 3M i
3 2 2 f f
vc v0
cos ( 240 ) sin ( 240 ) 1 0
d d
2

sin d
3
= sin ( d 120 ) M f i f
2
sin ( d 240 )


Again this is idenYcal to the round-rotor machine.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 72


Summary

Park's transformaDon replaces the physical staDonary
windings of the armature by:

1. A direct-axis circuit which rotates with the eld circuit and is
mutually coupled to it.
2. A quadrature-axis circuit which is displaced 90 from the d-ax is,
and thus has no mutual inductance with the eld or other d-axis
circuits although it rotates in synchronism with them, and
3. A staDonary stand-alone a-coil with no coupling to any other
circuit, and thus not shown.

This model is most useful in analyzing the performance of the
synchronous machine under short-circuit condiDons, which we now
(nally!) consider.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 73
TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

When a fault occurs in a power network, the current owing is
determined by the internal emfs of the machines in the network, by
their impedances, and by the impedances in the network between
the machines and the fault.

The current owing in a synchronous machine immediately aLer the
occurrence of a fault diers from that owing a few cycles later and
from the sustained, or steady-state, value of the fault current. This
is because of the eect of the fault current in the armature on the
ux generaDng the voltage in the machine.

The current changes relaDvely slowly from its iniDal value t o its
steady-state value owing to the changes in reactance of thc
synchronous machine.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 74
TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

Our interest now is in the inductance eecDve in the armature of
the synchronous machine when a three-phase short circuit suddenly
occurs at its terminals.

Before the fault occurs, suppose that the armature voltages are va,
vb, and vc, and that these give rise to the voltages vd, vq, and v0
according to Parks TransformaDon.

The short circuit of phases a , b, and c imposes the condiDons va = vb
= vc which lead to the condiDons vd = vq = 0.

Thus, to simulate short-circuit condiDons, the terminals of the d-axis
and q-axis circuits of the circuit model must also be shorted.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 75


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS
if id

+
Rf R + vd
3
v ff L ff M Ld d-axis vd
Field winding 2 f
S +
vd

q + iq
The switches S should be
interpreted in a symbolic +
sense; namely, when the R + vq
switches are both open, the
sources - Vd and - Vq are in Lq q-axis vq
the circuit, and when the
S +

switches are closed, the two vq



sources are removed from
the circuit. + d

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 76


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

Since the model is linear we now use superposiDon. Assume that
the rotor speed remains at its pre-fault steady-state value.

With both switches closed we have the steady-state operaDon of
the machine since the added sources vd and vq do nothing.

Suddenly opening the switches adds the series voltage sources vd
and vq producing the required short circuits.

Thus, the sources vd and vq determine the instantaneous
changes from the steady state due to the sudden short-circuit fault.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 77


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

We can calculate the fault-induced changes of all variables by
seqng the external sources v, vd and vq equal to zero and suddenly
applying the voltages vd and vq to the unexcited rotaDng
machine, as shown in the next slide.

The internal speed voltages q and d are iniDally zero because
ux linkages with all coils are zero in the (next) gure before
applying the voltages vd and vq.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 78


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS
if id

Rf R t=0 +
v ff = 0 L ff 3
M Ld d-axis vd
Field winding 2 f

q + = 0 iq

R t=0 +
Lq q-axis
vq

+ d = 0

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 79


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

3
From the d-axis summary: f = L ff i f + M f id
2

3
d = Ld id + M f if
2

3
we compute the change f = L ff i f + M f id
2

3
d = Ld id + M f i f
2
But since the eld winding is a closed, physical winding its ux
linkages (eld current) cannot change instantaneously, so set
1 3
f = 0 i f = M f id
L ff 2

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 80


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

SubsDtuDng: i f = 1 3 M f id
L ff 2

3
into: d = Ld id + M f i f
2
3 Mf
2

gives: d = Ld id
2 L ff


The ux linkage per unit current denes the d-axis transient
inductance:
d 3 Mf
2

Ld = = Ld
i
d
2 L ff

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 81


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS
2
3 f M
The d-axis transient inductance: Ld = Ld
2 L ff
2
3 Mf
Since >0
2 L ff

the direct-axis transient reactance Xd = Ld is always less than the
direct-axis synchronous reactance Xd = Ld.

Thus, following abrupt changes at its terminals, the synchronous
machine reects in its armature a transient reactance which is less
than its steady-state reactance.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 82


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

In dening Xd, we assume that the eld is the only physical rotor
winding. As previously menDoned, most salient-pole machines of
pracDcal importance have damper windings consisDng of shorted
copper bars through the pole faces of the rotor; and even in a
round-rotor machine, under short-circuit condiDons eddy currents
are induced in the solid rotor as if in damper windings.

The eects of the eddy-current damping circuits are represented by
direct-axis and quadrature-axis closed coils, which are treated in
very much the same way as the eld winding except that they have
no applied voltage.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 83


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

To account for the addiDon of damper windings, we need only add
to our model the closed D-circuit and Q-circuit shown on the next
slide, which have self-inductances LD and LQ and mutual inductances
with the other windings as shown.

In the steady state the ux linkages are constant between all circuits
on the same rotor axis. The D- and Q-circuits are then
passive (having neither induced nor applied voltages) and do not
enter into steady-state analysis.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 84


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

if Rf 3
M R id
2 f
+ L ff +
v ff Field winding Ld d-axis vd
MR

q +
+ iD RD 3
M
v D = 0 D-damper winding LD 2 D

iQ 3 iq
M
2 Q
R
+ +
RQ
vQ = 0 Q-damper winding LQ Lq q-axis vq

+ d
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 85
TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

Under short-circuit condiDons, however, we can determine
from the iniDal d-axis ux- linkage changes resulDng from sudden
shorDng of the synchronous machine with damper-winding eects.

The procedure is the same as already discussed.

The eld and D-damper circuits represenDng closed physical
windings are mutually coupled to each other and to the
d-coil represenDng the armature along the direct axis. There cannot
be sudden change in the ux linkages of the closed windings, and so
we can write the ux-linkage changes along the d-axis by modifying
our earlier results as follows:

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 86


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

3
f = L ff i f + M f id + M r iD = 0
2
3 3
d = Ld id + M f i f + M D iD
2 2
3
D
= M D id + M R i f + LD iD = 0
2

Note how these are similar to our previous equaDons but have extra
terms because of the addiDonal self- and mutual inductances
associated with the D-damper circuit.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 87


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

3 3
Solving: M f LD Mr M D
i f = 2 2 id
L ff LD M r 2

3 3
M D L ff Mr M f

iD = 2 2 id
L ff LD M r 2

and subsDtuDng:

3 M f LD + M D L ff 2 M f M r M D
2 2
d
= Ld = Ld
id 2 L ff LD M r 2


This is the direct-axis sub-transient inductance.

A similar inductance can be dened for the q-axis.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 88
TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

The direct-axis sub-transient reactance is Xd = Ld

Xd is considerably smaller than Xd, hence Xd < Xd < Xd

We have shown that the synchronous machine has dierent
reactances when it is subjected to short-circuit faults at its
terminals.

Immediately upon occurrence of the short circuit, the armature of
the machine behaves with an eecDve reactance Xd, which
combines with an eecDve resistance determined by the damping
circuits to dene a direct-axis, short-circuit sub-transient Dme
constant Td, typically in the range of 0.03 seconds.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 89


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

The direct-axis sub-transient reactance is Xd = Ld

The period over which Xd is eecDve is called the sub-transient
period, and this is typically 3 to 4 cycles of system frequency in
duraDon.

When the damper-winding currents decay to negligible levels, the
D- and Q-circuits are no longer needed and the model reverts to
original one obtained.

The machine currents decay more slowly with a direct-axis, short-
circuit transient Dme-constant Td determined by Xd and a machine
resistance which depends on Rf of the eld.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 90


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS Further ConsideraYons

The period of eecDveness of Xd is called the transient period and
Td is of the order of 1 second.

Finally , for sustained steady-state condiDons the d- and q-axis
reactances Xd = Ld and Xq = Lq determine the performance of the
saient-pole machine, just as the synchronous reactance Xd applies to
the round-rotor synchronous machine in the steady state.

The various reactances are supplied by the machine manufacturers.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 91


Example Same Example as from Slide 33.

Now, calculate the per-unit value of Xd. Use the raDngs of 635 MVA
and 24 kV as base quanDDes.

As before: Ld = Ls + M f = 2.7656 + 1.3828 = 4.1484mH

The transient inductance is calculated from:

3 ( )
2 2
3 fM 31.695
Ld = Ld = 4.1484 = 0.6736mH
2 L ff 2 433.6569
The transient reactance is:
X d = Ld = 120 0.6736mH = 0.254

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 92


Example Same Example as from Slide 33.

The impedance base on the machine raDngs is

2
Vbase 242
Z base = = = 0.907
VI base 635

Thus:
0.254
X d = = 0.28 per unit
0.907

Note: X d = Ld = 120 4.1484mH = 1.5639 1.72 per unit


Hence X d X d

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 93


Short-Circuit Currents

As seen in the beginning, when an ac voltage is applied suddenly
across a series R-L circuit the current generally has two
components:

a dc component, which decays according to the Dme
constant L/R of the circuit,

and a steady-state sinusoidally varying component of
constant amplitude.

A similar but more complex phenomenon occurs when a short
circuit appears suddenly across the terminals of a synchronous
machine. We have the model do the short-circuit analysis.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 94


Short-Circuit Currents

The resulDng phase currents in the machine will have dc
components, which cause them to be oset or asymmetrical
when ploued as a funcDon of Dme as we have seen.

We generally neglect the dc-components of the currents.

If we were to examine the current in one of the phases we would
nd that the ac-component varied as:

1 1 1 t T 1 1 t T
i ( t ) = 2 Ei cos t + e + d
e
d

d d
X X X d d
X X
d

We see the inuence of the transient and sub-transient reactances.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 95


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS
i (t )
c et Td et Td
b
2 Ei cos t
a
Xd

t=0 Time
Short occurs at t = 0.

2 Ei cos t
Xd

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 96


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

With the dc levels removed (which wouldnt make through the
transformer anyway), the armature phase current has three
componetns, two of which decay at dierent rates over the sub-
transient and transient periods.

NeglecDng the small armature resistance, the height at point a is
the maximum value of the sustained short-circuit current, with rms
value given by:
1 2 Ei Ei
I = =
2 Xd Xd

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 97


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

If the envelope of the current wave is extended back to zero Dme
and the rst few cycles where the fallo is very rapid were
neglected, the intercept is at height b.

The rms value of this current is known as the transient current:

Ei
I =
X d

Similarly, the rms value of the current whose height is at c is known
as the sub-transient current:
Ei
I =
X d

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 98


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

The sub-transient current is oLen called the iniDal symmetrical rms
current, a more descripDve name because it conveys the idea of
neglecDng the dc component and taking the rms value of the ac
component of the current immediately aLer the occurrence of the
fault .

Ei Ei
The simple equaDons: I = I =
X d X d

indicate a method of determining the fault current in a generator
when its reactances are known.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 99


TRANSIENT AND SUBTRANSIENT EFFECTS

If the generator is unloaded when the fault occurs, the machine is
represented by the no-load voltage to neutral in series with the
proper reactance:
jX d jX d jX d

Ei Ei Ei

Used to calculate currents Used to calculate currents Used to calculate currents


for sub-transient condiDons. for transient condiDons. for steady-state condiDons.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 100


Example Two generators are connected in parallel to the low-
voltage side of a three-phase - Y transformer as shown.

G1

G2
-Y

Generator 1 is rated 50,000 kVA, 13.8 kV. Generator 2 is rated
25,000 kVA, 13.8 kV. Each generator has a sub-transient reactance
of 25% on its own own base. The transformer is rated 75,000 kVA,
13.8 /69Y kV, with a reactance of 10% . Before the fault occurs, the
voltage on the high-voltage side of the transformer is 66 kV. The
transformer is unloaded and there is no circulaDng current between
the generators. Find the sub-transient current in each generator
when a three-phase short circuit occurs on t h e high-voltage side of
the transformer.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 101
Example

Select 69 kV, 75,000 kVA as the base in the high-voltage circuit.
Then, the base voltage on the low-voltage side is 13.8 kV.
50,000 kVA
VA = 75,000 kVA
13.8 kV
V = 13.8 kV
Base
Base
66 G1 VA = 75,000 kVA
Base

E
i1 = E i2
= = 0.957 p.u. V = 69 kV Base

69 G2

-Y
25,000 kVA
75,000 kVA
13.8 kV
13.8 /69Y kV

75,000
= 0.25
For Generator 1: X d1 = 0.365 p.u.

50,000

2
V VABase
Note: How did I get this? Z p.u. = Z rated rated .
base
V VArated

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 102


Example

Select 69 kV, 75,000 kVA as the base in the high-voltage circuit.
Then, the base voltage on the low-voltage side is 13.8 kV.
50,000 kVA
VA = 75,000 kVA
13.8 kV Base
V = 13.8 kV
Base
66 G1 VA = 75,000 kVA
Base

E
i1 = E i2
= = 0.957 p.u. V = 69 kV
Base

69 G2

-Y
25,000 kVA
75,000 kVA
13.8 kV
13.8 /69Y kV


75,000
For Generator 2: X d2 = 0.25 = 0.750 p.u.
25,000
Transformer: X t = 0.1 p.u.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 103


Example

Select 69 kV, 75,000 kVA as the base in the high-voltage circuit.
Then, the base voltage on the low-voltage side is 13.8 kV.
50,000 kVA
VA = 75,000 kVA
13.8 kV Base
V = 13.8 kV
Base
66 G1 VA = 75,000 kVA
Base

E
i1 = E i2
= = 0.957 p.u. V = 69 kV
Base

69 G2

-Y
25,000 kVA
75,000 kVA
13.8 kV
13.8 /69Y kV


75,000
For Generator 2: X d2 = 0.25 = 0.750 p.u.
25,000
Transformer: X t = 0.1 p.u.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 104


Example

Pictured below is the reactance diagram before the fault. A three-
phase fault is simulated by closing the switch.

The internal voltages of the two machines may be considered to be
in parallel since they are idenDcal in magnitude and phase and no
circulaDng current ows between them.

= j0.375
jX d1
G1
Ei jX t = j0.1
P (fault)
1

Ei
G2 2

jX d2 = j0.75 S

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 105


Example

The equivalent sub-transient reactance is:

X d2
X d1 0.375 0.75
X d = X d1
jX d2 = = = 0.25 p.u.
+ X d2 0.375 + 0.75
X d1

With Ei1 = Ei2 = Ei

the current in the short-circuit is:

X d2
X d1 0.375 0.75
= X d1
jX d2 = = = 0.25 p.u.
+ X d2 0.375 + 0.75
X d1
Ei 0.957
I = = = j2.735 p.u.
j ( X d + X t ) j ( 0.25 + 0.1)

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 106


Example

The voltage on the -side of the transformer is:

Vt = I jX t = j2.735 j0.1 = 0.2735 p.u.

In generators 1 and 2:

Ei Vt
0.957 0.2735
I1= 1
= = j1.823 p.u.

jX d1 j0.375
Ei Vt 0.957 0.2735
I 2 = 2
= = j0.912 p.u.
jX d2 j0.75

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 107


Summary

The steady-state performance of the synchronous machine relies on
the concept of synchronous reactance Xd, which is the basis of the
steady-state equivalent circuit of the machine.

Transient analysis o f the synchronous generator requires a two-axis
machine model. W e have seen that the corresponding equaDons
involving physical a-b-c phase variables can be simplied by Parks
transformaDon, which introduces d,q,0 currents, voltages, and ux
linkages. Simplied equivalent circuits which follow from the d-q-0
equaDons of the machine allow deniDon s of the subtransient
reactance Xd and transient reactance Xd.

The transient reactance is also important for system stability
analysis.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 108
Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

AssumpDons made to calculate the sub-transient fault current for a
three-phase short circuit in a power system:

1. Transformers are represented by their leakage reactances.
Winding resistances, shunt admiuances, and Y phase shiLs
are neglected.
2. Transmission lines are represented by their equivalent series
reactances. Series resistances and shunt admiuances are
neglected.
3. Synchronous machines are represented by constant-voltage
sources behind subtransient reactances. Armature resistance,
saliency, and saturaDon are neglected.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 109


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

These assumpDons are made for simplicity, and may not always
apply. For example, in distribuDon systems, the resistances
of primary and secondary distribuDon lines may in some cases
signicantly reduce fault current magnitudes.

Saliency: The word saliency is used as a short expression for the fact
that the rotor of a synchronous machine has dierent electric and
magneDc properDes on two axes 90o apart; the direct axis, or axis of
symmetry of a eld pole, and the quadrature axis, or axis of
symmetry midway between two eld poles. This dierence between
the two axes is present not only in salient-pole machines but also,
to a lesser extent, in round-rotor machines, because of the presence
of the eld winding on the direct axis only.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 110


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

Consider a generator that is loaded when a fault occurs.

Fault
Z ext locaYon P
Pre-Fault Model
+ I L Pre-fault +
current
Synchronous
jX dg
reactance

Terminal Z L VL
+ V t voltage
No-Load
voltage E g


Neutral

If a three-phase fault occurs at P, a short circuit from P to neutral in
the equivalent circuit does not saDsfy the condiDons for calculaDng
sub-transient current.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 111

Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

ALer the fault occurs, here is the correct circuit:

Z ext P

+ IL +
jX ''dg

+ Vt V f ZL
S
E '' g


Neutral

Fault Model

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 112


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

With the switch open:



(
E '' g = Vt + jX ''dg I L = V f + Z ext + jX ''dg I L )

This equaDons denes Eg, the sub-transient internal voltage, is
used to calculate the subtransient current I.

Similarly, to calculate the transient current I, it must be supplied
through the transient reactance Xdg and the transient internal
voltage Eg:

(
E ' g = Vt + jX 'dg I L = V f + Z ext + jX 'dg I L )
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 113
Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

Thus, the value of the load current IL determines the values of the
voltages Eg and Eg, which are both equal to the no-load voltage Eg
only when IL is zero so that Eg is then equal to Vt.

It is important to note that the parDcular value of Eg in series with
Xg represents the generator immediately before and immediately
aLer the fault occurs only if the prefault current in the generator
has the corresponding value of IL. On the other hand, Eg in series
with the synchronous reactance Xdg is the equivalent circuit of the
machine under steady-state condiDons for any value of the load
current. The magnitude of Eg is determined by the eld current of
the machine, and so for a dierent value of IL in the pre-fault circuit
lEgI would remain the same but a new value of Eg would be
required.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 114
Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

Synchronous motors have reactances of the same type as
generators. When a motor is short-circuited, it no longer receives
electric energy from the power line, but its eld remains energized
and the inerDa of its rotor and connected load keeps it rotaDng for a
short period of Dme.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 115


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

The internal voltage of a synchronous motor causes it to contribute
current to the system, for it is then acDng like a generator. By
comparison with the corresponding formulas for a generator the
subtransient internal voltage Em and transient internal voltage Em
for a synchronous motor are given by


Em = Vt jX dm
I L

Em = Vt jX dm
IL

where Vt is now the terminal voltage of the motor.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 116


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

Fault currents in systems containing generators and motors under
load may be solved in one of two ways:

1. by calculaDng the subtransient (or transient) internal voltages of
the machines or

2. by using Thevenin's theorem.

An example will illustrate.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 117


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

Suppose that a synchronous generator is connected to a
synchronous motor by a line of external impedance Zext.

The motor is drawing load current IL from the generator when a
symmetrical three-phase fault occurs at the motor
terminals.

The equivalent circuits and current ows of the system immediately
before and immediately aLer the fault occurs are

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 118


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

Before the Fault:
Z ext IL
P

+ +
jX ''dg jX ''dm

+ Vt Vf +
E '' g E ''m

Neutral

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 119


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

AWer the Fault:

Z ext I '' g P I ''m

+ +
I '' f jX ''dm
jX ''dg
+ Vt Vf +
E '' g E ''m

Neutral

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 120


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

By replacing the synchronous reactances of the machines by their
subtransient reactances, we calculate the subtransient internal
voltages of the machine immediately before the fault occurs using
our earlier results (Slide 113 and 116):

( )

Eg = V f + jX dg I L = V f + Z ext + jX dg I L
Em = V f jX dg I L

Now from the faulted circuit:

I g =
Eg
=
(
V f + Z ext + jX dg )
I L
=
Vf
+ IL
Z ext + jX dg Z ext + jX dg Z ext + jX dg

Em V f jX ''dg I L Vf
I m = = = IL

jX dg
jX dg
jX dg
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 121
Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

Adding:

I '' f = I g + I m

Vf Vf
= + IL + IL
Z ext + jX dg jX dm
Vf Vf
= +
Z ext + jX dg jX dm

Note that the fault current does not include the pre-fault current,
i.e., the load current an important observaDon.

Again, Vf is the pre-fault voltage at the fault point.
9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 122
Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

To determine the subtransient current using Thevenins Theorem,
noDng that only the pre-fault voltage at the fault point need be
known, we can apply VTh = Vf at the fault point and to an otherwise
dead subtransient network as follows:
Z ext
I gf P I mf

+
I f
jX dm

jX dg
+ Vt Vf +
Eg = 0 + Em = 0

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 123


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

Thevenins Equivalent:
I gf


jX dg Z ext P


I mf
+

jX dm
Vf
I '' f

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 124


Power Systems Three-Phase Short Circuits

(
ZTh = Z ext + jX dg )
|| jX ''dm

=
jX dm (
Z ext + jX dg
)
(Z ext
+ jX dg )
+ jX dm

I f =
Vf
= Vf
Z ext + j X dm (
+ X dg
)
ZTh (
Z ext + jX dg
jX dm )

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 125


Example: A synchronous generator and motor are rated
30,000 kVA, 13.2 kV, and both have subtransient reactances
of 20%. The line connecDng them has a reactance of 10% on
the base of the machine raDngs. The motor is drawing
20,000 kW at 0.8 power-factor leading and a terminal
voltage of 12.6 kV when a symmetrical three-phase fault
occurs at the motor terminals.

Find the subtransient currents in the generator, the motor,
and the fault by using the internal voltages of the machine.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 126


Example: SoluDon

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 127


Example: SoluDon

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 128


Example: SoluDon

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 129


Example: SoluDon (via Thevenins Theorem)

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 130


Example:

Remember, the total current is the transient response plus the
steady-state response, hence:

I g = I gf + I L
I m = I mf
I L

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 131


Example:

Usually, load current is omiued in determining the current in each
line upon occurrence of a fault. In the Thevenin method neglect of
load current means that the prefault current in each line is not
added to the component of current owing toward the fault in the
line.

The previous example neglects load current if the subtransient
internal voltages of all machines are assumed equal to the voltage
Vf at the fault before the fault occurs, for such is the case if no
current ows anywhere in the network prior to the fault.

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 132


Example:

Resistances, charging capacitances, and o-nominal tap-changing of
transformers are also usually omiued in fault studies since they are
not likely to inuence the level of fault current signicantly.

CalculaDon of the fault current is thus simplied since the network
model becomes an interconnecDon of inducDve reactances and all
currents throughout the faulted system are in-phase, as the
Thevenin example demonstrated.


9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 133


What About More Complicated Networks?

We rst need to consider some aspects of Network CalculaDons

9/11/13 Symmetrical Faults 134