FAULTS
Z = R 2 + 2 L2 , = tan 1 ( L R )
Gap
Gap
Rotor
S N Rotor
X X
Gap
X X
daxis
N Rotor N
Direct
Axis
Quadrature
Axis
qaxis
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
14
The
Synchronous
Generator

Cylindrical
Rotor
Model
aaxis
ia +a
R, Laa StaYonary
Armature
daxis
va
daxis
R, L ff
if rotaYon
R, Lbb
+ v ff
R, Lcc
+ vb
baxis
vc +
ib c ic
caxis
9/11/13
b Symmetrical
Faults
15
The
Synchronous
Generator

Cylindrical
Rotor
Model
aaxis
R, Laa ia +a
daxis
va StaYonary
Armature
Laf
R, L ff
if rotaYon
Lcf
R, Lbb + v ff
Lbf R, Lcc
+ vb
baxis
vc +
ib c ic
caxis
9/11/13
b Symmetrical
Faults
16
The
Synchronous
Generator

Cylindrical
Rotor
Model
aaxis
R, Laa ia +a Laa = Lbb = Lcc = Ls
daxis
va StaYonary
Armature
Laf
Lab = Lba = M s Lac = Lca = M s
R, L ff
if rotaYon
Lcf
R, Lbb + v ff
Lbf R, Lcc
+ vb
baxis
vc +
Lbc = Lcb = M s
ib c ic
caxis
9/11/13
b Symmetrical
Faults
17
The
Synchronous
Generator

Cylindrical
Rotor
Model
aaxis
Laf
Lab = Lba = M s Lac = Lca = M s
R, L ff
if rotaYon
Lcf
R, Lbb + v ff
Lbf R, Lcc
+ vb
baxis
vc +
Lbc = Lcb = M s
ib c ic
caxis
9/11/13
b Symmetrical
Faults
18
The
Synchronous
Generator

Cylindrical
Rotor
Model
Laf = M f cos d
Lbf = M f cos ( d 120 )
Lcf = M f cos ( d 240 )
ia + ib + ic = 0
a = ( Ls + M s ) ia + M f I f cos ( t + o )
b = ( Ls + M s ) ib + M f I f cos ( t 120 + o )
c = ( Ls + M s ) ic + M f I f cos ( t 240 + o )
= 2 I a cos ( t + + 90 ) cos ( t + a )
d
daxis
3
Mf
2
id
Armature
equivalent
winding
rotaYng
with
rotor
f
i R, L ff
baxis
caxis
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
31
Example
A
60Hz
threephase
synchronous
generator
with
negligible
armature
resistance
has
the
following
inductance
parameters:
Laa = Ls = 2.7656mH , Lab = M s = 1.3828mH
L ff = 433.6569mH , M f = 31.6950mH
The
machine
is
rated
at
635
MVA,
0,9
powerfactor
lagging,
3600
rpm,
24
kV.
When
operaYng
under
rated
condiYons,
the
lineto
neutral
terminal
voltage
and
the
line
current
of
phase
a
are
va = 19596cos t V , ia = 21603cos ( t 25.6569 )
Determine
the
magnitude
of
the
synchronous
internal
voltage,
the
eld
current
If,
and
the
ux
linkages
with
the
eld
winding.
Repeat
these
calculaYons
when
a
load
of
635
MVA
is
served
at
rated
voltage
and
unity
power
factor.
What
is
the
eld
current
for
rated
armature
voltage
on
a
open
circuit?
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
32
Example
24,000
va = 2 = 19596V
max
3
VA 635,000
ia = = 2 = 21603A
max
V 3 24
= cos 1 0.9 = 25.8419, lagging
Synchronous
Internal
Voltage:
ea = 2 Ei cos ( t + )
dia 3 dia
= Ra ia + va + ( Ls + M s ) = va + ( 2.7656 + 1.3828)10
=0
dt dt
3 d
= 19596cos t + 21603( 2.7656 + 1.3828)10 cos ( t 25.6569 )
dt
= 19596cos t 21603( 2.7656 + 1.3828)103 sin ( t 25.6569 )
31.6950
f = 433.6569 3269 10 3 3
13214 103
2
= 1417.62 888.43 = 529.19 Weberturns
Ei
19596 103
If = 2 = = 1640 A
M f 120 31.695
X X
Damper Windings or
Amortisseur Windings
Shorting
Bar
Field Windings
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
44
TwoAxis
Machine
Model
Clearly
the
equaDons
for
the
ux
linkages
of
the
salientpole
machine
are
more
complicated
than
their
roundrotor
counterparts.
Fortunately,
the
equaDons
of
the
salientpole
machine
can
be
expressed
in
a
simple
form
by
transforming
the
a
,
b,
and
c
variables
of
the
stator
into
corresponding
sets
of
new
variables,
called
the
directaxis
,
quadratureaxis
,
and
zerosequence
quanDDes
which
are
disDnguished
by
the
subscripts
d,
q
,
and
0:
respecDvely.
The
three
stator
currents
ia,
ib,
and
ic
can
be
transformed
into
three
equivalent
currents,
called
the
directaxis
current
id,
the
quadrature
axis
current
iq
and
the
zerosequence
current
io.
The
transformaDon
is
made
by
a
matrix
P
called
Parks
TransformaYon.
1 0 0 1 1 1
cos 2 d cos 2 ( d + 6 ) cos 2 ( d + 5 6 )
= ( Ls + M s ) 0 1 0 M 1 1 1 Lm cos 2 ( d + 6 ) cos 2 ( d 2 3) cos 2 ( d 2 )
0 0 1 1 1 1 cos 2 ( d + 5 6 ) cos 2 ( d 2 ) cos 2 ( d + 2 3)
L L L M cos 2
d
d f
d
aa ab ac
= P L L L P + P M cos 2 ( 2 3) i
1
q
ab bb
bc
q f
d f
L L ac
Lbc
cc
M cos 2 ( 4 3)
0
0 f
d
cos cos ( 120) cos ( 240)
d d d
3 1 1 1
2 2 2
to
get
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
52
Parks
TransformaYon
3
to
get
d d L 0 0 i
d Mf
q = 0 Lq 0 iq + 2 i
0 f
0 0 0 L0 i0
0
where:
3
Directaxis
inductance:
Ld = Ls + M s + Lm
2
3
Quadratureaxis
inductance:
q L = Ls
+ M s
Lm
2
Zerosequence
inductance:
L0 = Ls 2 M s
all
constants!
3
f = L ff I f + M f id
2
daxis
iq
3
Mf
2 R, Lq
id R, Ld
if R, L ff
RotaYon
+ v ff
baxis
All
coils
rotate
together.
caxis
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
56
TwoAxis
Machine
Model
The
constant
inductance
coecients
make
for
quite
simple
to
use.
Physically,
these
simpler
uxlinkage
equaDons
show
that
Ld
is
the
selfinductance
of
an
equivalent
daxis
armature
winding
which
rotates
at
the
same
speed
as
the
eld
and
which
carries
current
id
to
produce
the
same
mmf
on
the
daxis
as
do
the
actual
stator
currents
ia,
ib,
and
ic.
Similarly
for
Lq
and
iq
and
the
qaxis.
The
cDDous
daxis
winding
and
the
eld
winding
represenDng
the
physical
eld
can
be
considered
to
act
like
two
coupled
coils
which
are
staDonary
with
respect
to
each
other
as
they
rotate
together
sharing
the
mutual
inductance
between
them.
iq = ib
3 1 1 1
i0 ic
2 2 2
MulYply
through:
2
id = cos d ia + cos ( d 120 ) ib + cos ( d 240 ) ic
3
2
iq = sin d ia + sin ( d 120 ) ib + sin ( d 240 ) ic
3
2 1
i0
=
( i
a + ib
+ ic
) =
0
balanced
threephase
3 2
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
60
Example
To
get
a
feeling
for
Parks
TransformaYon
2sin x cos y = sin ( x + y ) + sin ( x y )
Simplifying
Ia
ia cos d = 2 I a sin ( d a ) cos d = sin ( 2 d a ) sin a
2
ib cos ( d 120 ) = 2 I a cos ( d 120 ) sin ( d 120 d )
Ia
= sin ( 2 d 240 a ) sin a
2
ic cos ( d 240 ) = 2 I a cos ( d 240 ) sin ( d 240 d )
Ia
= sin ( 2 d 480 a ) sin a
2
v i
d d
d d
vq = R iq P P 1 q
dt
v0 i0 0
id
d d
d d
= R iq PP 1 q P P 1 q
dt dt
i0
0 0
id
d d
d T d
= R iq q P P q This
is
the
work.
dt dt
i0
0 0
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
65
Voltage
EquaYons
It
all
simplies
to:
d
d
v i dt
d
d d q
vq = R iq q
+ d
dt
v0 i0 d 0
0
dt
d
where
= d
dt
id
Rf R +
3
v ff L ff M Ld daxis
vd
Field
winding
2 f
armature
equivalent
winding
q +
d f
v ff = R f i f + iq
dt R +
Lq qaxis
vq
armature
equivalent
winding
+ d diq
vq = Riq Lq d
dt
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
68
Circuit
Model
We
see
that
the
fcoil
is
mutually
coupled
to
the
dcoil
on
the
daxis.
The
cDDous
qcoil
is
shown
magneDcally
uncoupled
from
the
other
two
windings
since
the
daxis
and
the
qaxis
are
spaDally
in
quadrature
with
one
another.
However,
there
is
interacDon
between
the
two
axes
by
means
of
the
voltage
sources
which
are
rotaDonal
emfs
or
speed
voltages
internal
to
the
machine
due
to
the
rotaDon
of
the
rotor.
Note
that
the
speed
voltage
in
the
daxis
depends
on
q,
and
similarly,
the
speed
voltage
in
the
qaxis
depends
on
d.
These
sources
represent
ongoing
electromechanical
energy
conversion.
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
69
Example
No
numbers,
but
again
to
appreciate
the
model
A
direct
current
If
is
supplied
to
the
eld
winding
of
an
unloaded
salientpole
synchronous
generator
rotaDng
with
constant
angular
velocity
.
Determine
the
opencircuit
armature
voltages
and
their
dq0
components.
i i
d
a 0
Since
open
circuited:
i = P i = 0
q b
i0 ic 0
SubsDtuDng
these
into:
d d 3 3
v d
= Rid
q
, f
= L i
ff f
+ M i
f d
, d
= L d d
i + M f if
dt 2 2
d d
vq = Riq q + d , q = Lq iq , v ff = R f i f + f
dt dt
gives
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
70
Example
No
numbers,
but
again
to
appreciate
the
model
gives
d d
3 v = q = 0
d = M f if d
dt
2
d q 3
q = 0 vq = + d = M f if
dt 2
0 = 0 d 0
v0 = Ri0 =0
dt
Thus:
v v v v
d
a
a
d
vq = P vb vb = P vq T
v0 vc vc v0
+
Rf R + vd
3
v ff L ff M Ld daxis
vd
Field
winding
2 f
S +
vd
q + iq
The
switches
S
should
be
interpreted
in
a
symbolic
+
sense;
namely,
when
the
R + vq
switches
are
both
open,
the
sources

Vd
and

Vq
are
in
Lq qaxis
vq
the
circuit,
and
when
the
S +
Rf R t=0 +
v ff = 0 L ff 3
M Ld daxis
vd
Field
winding
2 f
q + = 0 iq
R t=0 +
Lq qaxis
vq
+ d = 0
gives:
d = Ld id
2 L ff
The
ux
linkage
per
unit
current
denes
the
daxis
transient
inductance:
d 3 Mf
2
Ld = = Ld
i
d
2 L ff
iQ 3 iq
M
2 Q
R
+ +
RQ
vQ = 0 Qdamper
winding
LQ Lq qaxis
vq
+ d
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
85
TRANSIENT
AND
SUBTRANSIENT
EFFECTS
Further
ConsideraYons
Under
shortcircuit
condiDons,
however,
we
can
determine
from
the
iniDal
daxis
ux
linkage
changes
resulDng
from
sudden
shorDng
of
the
synchronous
machine
with
damperwinding
eects.
The
procedure
is
the
same
as
already
discussed.
The
eld
and
Ddamper
circuits
represenDng
closed
physical
windings
are
mutually
coupled
to
each
other
and
to
the
dcoil
represenDng
the
armature
along
the
direct
axis.
There
cannot
be
sudden
change
in
the
ux
linkages
of
the
closed
windings,
and
so
we
can
write
the
uxlinkage
changes
along
the
daxis
by
modifying
our
earlier
results
as
follows:
and
subsDtuDng:
3 M f LD + M D L ff 2 M f M r M D
2 2
d
= Ld = Ld
id 2 L ff LD M r 2
This
is
the
directaxis
subtransient
inductance.
A
similar
inductance
can
be
dened
for
the
qaxis.
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
88
TRANSIENT
AND
SUBTRANSIENT
EFFECTS
Further
ConsideraYons
The
directaxis
subtransient
reactance
is
Xd
=
Ld
Xd
is
considerably
smaller
than
Xd,
hence
Xd
<
Xd
<
Xd
We
have
shown
that
the
synchronous
machine
has
dierent
reactances
when
it
is
subjected
to
shortcircuit
faults
at
its
terminals.
Immediately
upon
occurrence
of
the
short
circuit,
the
armature
of
the
machine
behaves
with
an
eecDve
reactance
Xd,
which
combines
with
an
eecDve
resistance
determined
by
the
damping
circuits
to
dene
a
directaxis,
shortcircuit
subtransient
Dme
constant
Td,
typically
in
the
range
of
0.03
seconds.
t=0 Time
Short
occurs
at
t
=
0.
2 Ei cos t
Xd
Ei Ei Ei
E
i1 = E i2
= = 0.957 p.u. V
=
69
kV
Base
69 G2
Y
25,000
kVA
75,000
kVA
13.8
kV
13.8
/69Y
kV
75,000
= 0.25
For
Generator
1:
X d1 = 0.365 p.u.
50,000
2
V VABase
Note:
How
did
I
get
this?
Z p.u. = Z rated rated .
base
V VArated
E
i1 = E i2
= = 0.957 p.u. V
=
69
kV
Base
69 G2
Y
25,000
kVA
75,000
kVA
13.8
kV
13.8
/69Y
kV
75,000
For
Generator
2:
X d2 = 0.25 = 0.750 p.u.
25,000
Transformer:
X t = 0.1 p.u.
E
i1 = E i2
= = 0.957 p.u. V
=
69
kV
Base
69 G2
Y
25,000
kVA
75,000
kVA
13.8
kV
13.8
/69Y
kV
75,000
For
Generator
2:
X d2 = 0.25 = 0.750 p.u.
25,000
Transformer:
X t = 0.1 p.u.
= j0.375
jX d1
G1
Ei jX t = j0.1
P
(fault)
1
Ei
G2 2
jX d2 = j0.75 S
X d2
X d1 0.375 0.75
= X d1
jX d2 = = = 0.25 p.u.
+ X d2 0.375 + 0.75
X d1
Ei 0.957
I = = = j2.735 p.u.
j ( X d + X t ) j ( 0.25 + 0.1)
Ei Vt
0.957 0.2735
I1= 1
= = j1.823 p.u.
jX d1 j0.375
Ei Vt 0.957 0.2735
I 2 = 2
= = j0.912 p.u.
jX d2 j0.75
(
E ' g = Vt + jX 'dg I L = V f + Z ext + jX 'dg I L )
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
113
Power
Systems
ThreePhase
Short
Circuits
Thus,
the
value
of
the
load
current
IL
determines
the
values
of
the
voltages
Eg
and
Eg,
which
are
both
equal
to
the
noload
voltage
Eg
only
when
IL
is
zero
so
that
Eg
is
then
equal
to
Vt.
It
is
important
to
note
that
the
parDcular
value
of
Eg
in
series
with
Xg
represents
the
generator
immediately
before
and
immediately
aLer
the
fault
occurs
only
if
the
prefault
current
in
the
generator
has
the
corresponding
value
of
IL.
On
the
other
hand,
Eg
in
series
with
the
synchronous
reactance
Xdg
is
the
equivalent
circuit
of
the
machine
under
steadystate
condiDons
for
any
value
of
the
load
current.
The
magnitude
of
Eg
is
determined
by
the
eld
current
of
the
machine,
and
so
for
a
dierent
value
of
IL
in
the
prefault
circuit
lEgI
would
remain
the
same
but
a
new
value
of
Eg
would
be
required.
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
114
Power
Systems
ThreePhase
Short
Circuits
Synchronous
motors
have
reactances
of
the
same
type
as
generators.
When
a
motor
is
shortcircuited,
it
no
longer
receives
electric
energy
from
the
power
line,
but
its
eld
remains
energized
and
the
inerDa
of
its
rotor
and
connected
load
keeps
it
rotaDng
for
a
short
period
of
Dme.
+ +
jX ''dg jX ''dm
+ Vt Vf +
E '' g E ''m
Neutral
+ +
I '' f jX ''dm
jX ''dg
+ Vt Vf +
E '' g E ''m
Neutral
( )
Eg = V f + jX dg I L = V f + Z ext + jX dg I L
Em = V f jX dg I L
Now
from
the
faulted
circuit:
I g =
Eg
=
(
V f + Z ext + jX dg )
I L
=
Vf
+ IL
Z ext + jX dg Z ext + jX dg Z ext + jX dg
Em V f jX ''dg I L Vf
I m = = = IL
jX dg
jX dg
jX dg
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
121
Power
Systems
ThreePhase
Short
Circuits
Adding:
I '' f = I g + I m
Vf Vf
= + IL + IL
Z ext + jX dg jX dm
Vf Vf
= +
Z ext + jX dg jX dm
Note
that
the
fault
current
does
not
include
the
prefault
current,
i.e.,
the
load
current
an
important
observaDon.
Again,
Vf
is
the
prefault
voltage
at
the
fault
point.
9/11/13
Symmetrical
Faults
122
Power
Systems
ThreePhase
Short
Circuits
To
determine
the
subtransient
current
using
Thevenins
Theorem,
noDng
that
only
the
prefault
voltage
at
the
fault
point
need
be
known,
we
can
apply
VTh
=
Vf
at
the
fault
point
and
to
an
otherwise
dead
subtransient
network
as
follows:
Z ext
I gf P
I mf
+
I f
jX dm
jX dg
+ Vt Vf +
Eg = 0 + Em = 0
jX dg Z ext P
I mf
+
jX dm
Vf
I '' f
(
ZTh = Z ext + jX dg )
 jX ''dm
=
jX dm (
Z ext + jX dg
)
(Z ext
+ jX dg )
+ jX dm
I f =
Vf
= Vf
Z ext + j X dm (
+ X dg
)
ZTh (
Z ext + jX dg
jX dm )
I g = I gf + I L
I m = I mf
I L