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Basic Network Concepts

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Contents
Part I Basic Network Terminology
Part II Introduction to OSI & TCP/IP Model
Part III Physical layer
Part IV Data link layer
Part V Network layer
Part VI Transport layer
Part VII Application layer

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Part I
Basic Network
Terminology

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Basic Network Terminology

What is the Term Network?

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Basic Network Terminology

What is the Term Network?


A computer network or simply a network , is a collection of
computers and other hardware components interconnected by
communication channels that allow sharing of resources and
information.

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Basic Network Terminology

What is the Term LAN and WAN?

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Basic Network Terminology

What is the Term LAN and WAN?

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network that


interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home,
school, computer laboratory, or office building using network
media.

A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad


area.

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Part II
Introduction to OSI
& TCP/IP Model

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OSI Model
OSI Model (Open System Interconnect)
By ISO in 1984

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OSI Model
OSI Model (Open System Interconnect)
By ISO in 1984

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TCP/IP Model

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TCP/IP Model

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TCP/IP Model

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Part III
Physical layer

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Network Topologies
Multi Access Networks
STAR

A hub is a device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together


and making them act as a single network segment.

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Network Topologies
Multi Access Networks
STAR

How Hubs work ?

1. Amplifies the signal.


2. Transfer the signal on its all ports.

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Network Cables
Twisted pair

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Network Cables
Twisted pair
UTP (Unshielded twisted pair)

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Network Cables
Twisted pair
STP (Shielded twisted pair)

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Network Cables
Twisted pair

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Network Cables
Twisted pair

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Network Cables
Twisted pair

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Network Cables
Twisted pair

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Network Cables
Twisted pair

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation
A is going to transmit data to D.

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation

D is going to transmit data to A


in return.

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation

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Hub Operation

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Part IV
Data link Layer

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Data link Layer Protocols
Data-link Layer Sub layers

Logical Link Control (LLC)


Media Access Control (MAC)

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Network Devices
NIC (Network Interface Card)

What is the term Half Duplex & Full Duplex?

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Network Devices
NIC (Network Interface Card)

What is the term Half Duplex & Full Duplex?

A half-duplex (HDX) system provides communication in both


directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously).

A full-duplex (FDX), or sometimes double-duplex system, allows


communication in both directions, and, unlike half-duplex, allows
this to happen simultaneously.

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Network Devices
NIC (Network Interface Card)
MAC address

A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique


identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications
on the physical network segment.

MAC addresses are managed by the Institute of Electrical and


Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

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Network Devices
NIC (Network Interface Card)
MAC address

The standard format for printing MAC addresses is 48-bits.

human-friendly form is six groups of two hexadecimal digits,


separated by hyphens (-) or colons (:).

Examples
01-23-45-67-89-ab
01:23:45:67:89:ab

This 48-bit address space contains potentially 248 or


281,474,976,710,656 possible MAC addresses.

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Network Devices
NIC (Network Interface Card)
MAC address

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Network Devices

What is the term Unicast , Multicast & Broadcast?

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Network Devices

What is the term Unicast , Multicast & Broadcast?

Broadcast means transmitting the same data to all possible


destinations.

Multicast sends data only to interested destinations by using


special address assignments.

Unicast messaging is used for all network processes in which


a private or unique resource is requested.

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Network Devices

What is the term Broadcast Domain & Collision Domain?

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Data link Layer Protocols
Most common types of Ethernet

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Data link Layer Protocols
Logical Link Control (LLC)

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ARP ( Address Resolution Protocol)

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ARP ( Address Resolution Protocol)

What is the term "Arp Communication"?


What is the term "Arp caching"?

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ARP ( Address Resolution Protocol)

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Part V
Network Layer

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Network Layer Protocols
IP

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Public IP Address Assignment

ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Network


Numbers) owns the processes by which public IPv4 (and
IPv6) addresses are allocated and assigned.

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Public IP Address Assignment

ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Network


Numbers) owns the processes by which public IPv4 (and
IPv6) addresses are allocated and assigned.

A related organization, IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers


Authority) ; carries out many of ICANN policies.

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Public IP Address Assignment

ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Network


Numbers) owns the processes by which public IPv4 (and
IPv6) addresses are allocated and assigned.

A related organization, IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers


Authority) ; carries out many of ICANN policies.

ICANN & IANA define which IPv4 addresses can be


allocated to different geographic regions.

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Public IP Address Assignment

Step 1
ICANN and IANA group public IPv4 addresses by major
geographic region.

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Public IP Address Assignment

Step 1
ICANN and IANA group public IPv4 addresses by major
geographic region.

Step 2
IANA allocates those address ranges to Regional
Internet Registries (RIR).

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Regional Internet Registries (RIR)

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Regional Internet Registries (RIR)

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Regional Internet Registries (RIR)

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Regional Internet Registries (RIR)

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Regional Internet Registries (RIR)

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Public IP Address Assignment

Step 3
Each RIR further subdivides the address space by
allocating public address ranges to National Internet
Registries (NIR) or Local Internet Registries (LIR). (ISPs
are typically LIRs.)

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Public IP Address Assignment

Step 3
Each RIR further subdivides the address space by
allocating public address ranges to National Internet
Registries (NIR) or Local Internet Registries (LIR). (ISPs
are typically LIRs.)

Step 4
Each type of Internet Registry (IR) can assign a further
subdivided range of addresses to the end user
organization to use.

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

A is going to send data to H.

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

Routing Table

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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Router operation

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IP Addressing & Subnetting

Please refer to Network+ IP Addressing &


Subnetting PPT.

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Part VI
Transport Layer

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Transport Layer Protocols

What dose this Layer do ?


Segmentation
Flow Control
Error Handling
Segment Sequencing
Service addressing
Multiplexing

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Transport Layer Protocols

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


Connection-oriented
Reliable

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)


Connection-less
Unreliable

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Transport Layer Protocols
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

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Transport Layer Protocols
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Three-way Handshake

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP
Flow control

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Transport Layer Protocols
TCP
Flow control

How does terminating a connection occur ?

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Transport Layer Protocols
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Famous UDP applications


DNS (Domain Name System)
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
Video and Voice Streaming

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Transport Layer Protocols
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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Transport Layer Protocols
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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Part VII
Application Layer

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Application Layer Protocols

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Application Layer Protocols

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Application Layer Protocols
DNS (Domain Name Service)

What is the term "FQDN ( Full Qualified Domain Name)" ?

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Application Layer Protocols
DNS (Domain Name Service)

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Application Layer Protocols
DNS (Domain Name Service)

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Application Layer Protocols
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

How does DHCP Work?

DHCP Discovery
DHCP Offer
DHCP Request
DHCP ACK

What is the term "APIPA (Automatic Private IP addressing)"?


169.254.X.Y

What is the term "DHCP Lease"?

DHCP Request
DHCP ACK/NAK

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Failure is the key to success;
each mistake teaches us something.
Morihei Ueshiba

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