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Strengthofmaterials
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Strengthofmaterials,alsocalledmechanicsofmaterials,isasubjectwhichdealswiththebehaviorofsolid
objectssubjecttostressesandstrains.Thecompletetheorybeganwiththeconsiderationofthebehaviorofoneand
twodimensionalmembersofstructures,whosestatesofstresscanbeapproximatedastwodimensional,andwas
thengeneralizedtothreedimensionstodevelopamorecompletetheoryoftheelasticandplasticbehaviorof
materials.AnimportantfoundingpioneerinmechanicsofmaterialswasStephenTimoshenko.

Thestudyofstrengthofmaterialsoftenreferstovariousmethodsofcalculatingthestressesandstrainsin
structuralmembers,suchasbeams,columns,andshafts.Themethodsemployedtopredicttheresponseofa
structureunderloadinganditssusceptibilitytovariousfailuremodestakesintoaccountthepropertiesofthe
materialssuchasitsyieldstrength,ultimatestrength,Young'smodulus,andPoisson'sratioinadditionthe
mechanicalelement'smacroscopicproperties(geometricproperties),suchasitslength,width,thickness,boundary
constraintsandabruptchangesingeometrysuchasholesareconsidered.

Contents
1 Definition
1.1 Typesofloadings
1.2 Stressterms
1.3 Strengthterms
1.4 Strain(deformation)terms
1.5 Stressstrainrelations
2 Designterms
2.1 Failuretheories
3 Seealso
4 References
5 Furtherreading
6 Externallinks

Definition
Inmaterialsscience,thestrengthofamaterialisitsabilitytowithstandanappliedloadwithoutfailureorplastic
deformation.Thefieldofstrengthofmaterialsdealswithforcesanddeformationsthatresultfromtheiractingona
material.Aloadappliedtoamechanicalmemberwillinduceinternalforceswithinthemembercalledstresses
whenthoseforcesareexpressedonaunitbasis.Thestressesactingonthematerialcausedeformationofthe
materialinvariousmanners.Deformationofthematerialiscalledstrainwhenthosedeformationstooareplaced
onaunitbasis.Theappliedloadsmaybeaxial(tensileorcompressive),orrotational(strengthshear).Thestresses
andstrainsthatdevelopwithinamechanicalmembermustbecalculatedinordertoassesstheloadcapacityofthat
member.Thisrequiresacompletedescriptionofthegeometryofthemember,itsconstraints,theloadsappliedto
thememberandthepropertiesofthematerialofwhichthememberiscomposed.Withacompletedescriptionof
theloadingandthegeometryofthemember,thestateofstressandofstateofstrainatanypointwithinthe
membercanbecalculated.Oncethestateofstressandstrainwithinthememberisknown,thestrength(load
carryingcapacity)ofthatmember,itsdeformations(stiffnessqualities),anditsstability(abilitytomaintainits
originalconfiguration)canbecalculated.Thecalculatedstressesmaythenbecomparedtosomemeasureofthe
strengthofthemembersuchasitsmaterialyieldorultimatestrength.Thecalculateddeflectionofthemembermay

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becomparedtoadeflectioncriteriathatisbasedonthemember'suse.Thecalculatedbucklingloadofthemember
maybecomparedtotheappliedload.Thecalculatedstiffnessandmassdistributionofthemembermaybeusedto
calculatethemember'sdynamicresponseandthencomparedtotheacousticenvironmentinwhichitwillbeused.

Materialstrengthreferstothepointontheengineeringstressstraincurve(yieldstress)beyondwhichthematerial
experiencesdeformationsthatwillnotbecompletelyreverseduponremovaloftheloadingandasaresultthe
memberwillhaveapermanentdeflection.Theultimatestrengthreferstothepointontheengineeringstressstrain
curvecorrespondingtothestressthatproducesfracture.

Typesofloadings
TransverseloadingForcesappliedperpendiculartothelongitudinalaxisofamember.Transverseloading
causesthemembertobendanddeflectfromitsoriginalposition,withinternaltensileandcompressive
strainsaccompanyingthechangeincurvatureofthemember.[1]Transverseloadingalsoinducesshearforces
thatcausesheardeformationofthematerialandincreasethetransversedeflectionofthemember.
AxialloadingTheappliedforcesarecollinearwiththelongitudinalaxisofthemember.Theforcescause
themembertoeitherstretchorshorten.[2]
TorsionalloadingTwistingactioncausedbyapairofexternallyappliedequalandoppositelydirected
forcecouplesactingonparallelplanesorbyasingleexternalcoupleappliedtoamemberthathasoneend
fixedagainstrotation.

Stressterms

Uniaxialstressisexpressedby

whereFistheforce[N]actingonanareaA[m2].[3]Theareacanbethe
undeformedareaorthedeformedarea,dependingonwhetherengineering
stressortruestressisofinterest.
Amaterialbeingloadedina)
Compressivestress(orcompression)isthestressstatecausedbyan
appliedloadthatactstoreducethelengthofthematerial compression,b)tension,c)shear.
(compressionmember)alongtheaxisoftheappliedload,itisin
otherwordsastressstatethatcausesasqueezingofthematerial.Asimplecaseofcompressionisthe
uniaxialcompressioninducedbytheactionofopposite,pushingforces.Compressivestrengthformaterials
isgenerallyhigherthantheirtensilestrength.However,structuresloadedincompressionaresubjectto
additionalfailuremodes,suchasbuckling,thataredependentonthemember'sgeometry.
Tensilestressisthestressstatecausedbyanappliedloadthattendstoelongatethematerialalongtheaxisof
theappliedload,inotherwordsthestresscausedbypullingthematerial.Thestrengthofstructuresofequal
crosssectionalarealoadedintensionisindependentofshapeofthecrosssection.Materialsloadedin
tensionaresusceptibletostressconcentrationssuchasmaterialdefectsorabruptchangesingeometry.
However,materialsexhibitingductilebehavior(mostmetalsforexample)cantoleratesomedefectswhile
brittlematerials(suchasceramics)canfailwellbelowtheirultimatematerialstrength.
Shearstressisthestressstatecausedbythecombinedenergyofapairofopposingforcesactingalong
parallellinesofactionthroughthematerial,inotherwordsthestresscausedbyfacesofthematerialsliding
relativetooneanother.Anexampleiscuttingpaperwithscissors[4]orstressesduetotorsionalloading.

Strengthterms

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Mechanicalpropertiesofmaterialsincludetheyieldstrength,tensilestrength,fatiguestrength,crackresistance,
andothercharacteristics.[5]

Yieldstrengthistheloweststressthatproducesapermanentdeformationinamaterial.Insomematerials,
likealuminiumalloys,thepointofyieldingisdifficulttoidentify,thusitisusuallydefinedasthestress
requiredtocause0.2%plasticstrain.Thisiscalleda0.2%proofstress.[6]

Compressivestrengthisalimitstateofcompressivestressthatleadstofailureinamaterialinthemannerof
ductilefailure(infinitetheoreticalyield)orbrittlefailure(ruptureastheresultofcrackpropagation,or
slidingalongaweakplaneseeshearstrength).
Tensilestrengthorultimatetensilestrengthisalimitstateoftensilestressthatleadstotensilefailureinthe
mannerofductilefailure(yieldasthefirststageofthatfailure,somehardeninginthesecondstageand
breakageafterapossible"neck"formation)orbrittlefailure(suddenbreakingintwoormorepiecesatalow
stressstate).Tensilestrengthcanbequotedaseithertruestressorengineeringstress,butengineeringstress
isthemostcommonlyused.
Fatiguestrengthisameasureofthestrengthofamaterialoracomponentundercyclicloading,[7]andis
usuallymoredifficulttoassessthanthestaticstrengthmeasures.Fatiguestrengthisquotedasstress
amplitudeorstressrange( ),usuallyatzeromeanstress,alongwiththenumberofcycles
tofailureunderthatconditionofstress.

Impactstrength,isthecapabilityofthematerialtowithstandasuddenlyappliedloadandisexpressedin
termsofenergy.OftenmeasuredwiththeIzodimpactstrengthtestorCharpyimpacttest,bothofwhich
measuretheimpactenergyrequiredtofractureasample.Volume,modulusofelasticity,distributionof
forces,andyieldstrengthaffecttheimpactstrengthofamaterial.Inorderforamaterialorobjecttohavea
highimpactstrengththestressesmustbedistributedevenlythroughouttheobject.Italsomusthavealarge
volumewithalowmodulusofelasticityandahighmaterialyieldstrength.[8]

Strain(deformation)terms
Deformationofthematerialisthechangeingeometrycreatedwhenstressisapplied(asaresultofapplied
forces,gravitationalfields,accelerations,thermalexpansion,etc.).Deformationisexpressedbythe
displacementfieldofthematerial.[9]
Strainorreduceddeformationisamathematicaltermthatexpressesthetrendofthedeformationchange
amongthematerialfield.Strainisthedeformationperunitlength.[10]Inthecaseofuniaxialloadingthe
displacementsofaspecimen(forexampleabarelement)leadtoacalculationofstrainexpressedasthe
quotientofthedisplacementandtheoriginallengthofthespecimen.For3Ddisplacementfieldsitis
expressedasderivativesofdisplacementfunctionsintermsofasecondordertensor(with6independent
elements).
Deflectionisatermtodescribethemagnitudetowhichastructuralelementisdisplacedwhensubjecttoan
appliedload.[11]

Stressstrainrelations

Elasticityistheabilityofamaterialtoreturntoitspreviousshapeafterstressisreleased.Inmanymaterials,
therelationbetweenappliedstressisdirectlyproportionaltotheresultingstrain(uptoacertainlimit),anda
graphrepresentingthosetwoquantitiesisastraightline.

TheslopeofthislineisknownasYoung'smodulus,orthe"modulusofelasticity."Themodulusofelasticitycan
beusedtodeterminethestressstrainrelationshipinthelinearelasticportionofthestressstraincurve.Thelinear
elasticregioniseitherbelowtheyieldpoint,orifayieldpointisnoteasilyidentifiedonthestressstrainplotitis
definedtobebetween0and0.2%strain,andisdefinedastheregionofstraininwhichnoyielding(permanent
deformation)occurs.[12]
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Plasticityorplasticdeformationistheoppositeofelastic
deformationandisdefinedasunrecoverablestrain.
Plasticdeformationisretainedafterthereleaseofthe
appliedstress.Mostmaterialsinthelinearelastic
categoryareusuallycapableofplasticdeformation.
Brittlematerials,likeceramics,donotexperienceany
plasticdeformationandwillfractureunderrelatively
lowstrain,whileductilematerialssuchasmetallics,
lead,orpolymerswillplasticlydeformmuchmore
beforeafractureinitiation.

Considerthedifferencebetweenacarrotandchewedbubble
gum.Thecarrotwillstretchverylittlebeforebreaking.The
chewedbubblegum,ontheotherhand,willplasticallydeform
enormouslybeforefinallybreaking. Basicstaticresponseofaspecimenundertension

Designterms
Ultimatestrengthisanattributerelatedtoamaterial,ratherthanjustaspecificspecimenmadeofthematerial,and
assuchitisquotedastheforceperunitofcrosssectionarea(N/m2).Theultimatestrengthisthemaximumstress
thatamaterialcanwithstandbeforeitbreaksorweakens.[13]Forexample,theultimatetensilestrength(UTS)of
AISI1018Steelis440MN/m2.Ingeneral,theSIunitofstressisthepascal,where1Pa=1N/m2.InImperial
units,theunitofstressisgivenaslbf/inorpoundsforcepersquareinch.Thisunitisoftenabbreviatedaspsi.One
thousandpsiisabbreviatedksi.

AFactorofsafetyisadesigncriteriathatanengineeredcomponentorstructuremustachieve. ,
whereFS:thefactorofsafety,R:Theappliedstress,andUTS:ultimatestress(psiorN/m2)[14]

MarginofSafetyisalsosometimesusedtoasdesigncriteria.ItisdefinedMS=FailureLoad/(FactorofSafety
PredictedLoad)1.

Forexample,toachieveafactorofsafetyof4,theallowablestressinanAISI1018steelcomponentcanbe
calculatedtobe =440/4=110MPa,or =110106N/m2.Suchallowablestressesarealso
knownas"designstresses"or"workingstresses."

Designstressesthathavebeendeterminedfromtheultimateoryieldpointvaluesofthematerialsgivesafeand
reliableresultsonlyforthecaseofstaticloading.Manymachinepartsfailwhensubjectedtoanonsteadyand
continuouslyvaryingloadseventhoughthedevelopedstressesarebelowtheyieldpoint.Suchfailuresarecalled
fatiguefailure.Thefailureisbyafracturethatappearstobebrittlewithlittleornovisibleevidenceofyielding.
However,whenthestressiskeptbelow"fatiguestress"or"endurancelimitstress",thepartwillendure
indefinitely.Apurelyreversingorcyclicstressisonethatalternatesbetweenequalpositiveandnegativepeak
stressesduringeachcycleofoperation.Inapurelycyclicstress,theaveragestressiszero.Whenapartissubjected
toacyclicstress,alsoknownasstressrange(Sr),ithasbeenobservedthatthefailureofthepartoccursaftera
numberofstressreversals(N)evenifthemagnitudeofthestressrangeisbelowthematerialsyieldstrength.
Generally,highertherangestress,thefewerthenumberofreversalsneededforfailure.

Failuretheories

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Therearefourfailuretheories:maximumshearstresstheory,maximumnormalstresstheory,maximumstrain
energytheory,andmaximumdistortionenergytheory.Outofthesefourtheoriesoffailure,themaximumnormal
stresstheoryisonlyapplicableforbrittlematerials,andtheremainingthreetheoriesareapplicableforductile
materials.Ofthelatterthree,thedistortionenergytheoryprovidesmostaccurateresultsinmajorityofthestress
conditions.ThestrainenergytheoryneedsthevalueofPoissonsratioofthepartmaterial,whichisoftennot
readilyavailable.Themaximumshearstresstheoryisconservative.Forsimpleunidirectionalnormalstressesall
theoriesareequivalent,whichmeansalltheorieswillgivethesameresult.

MaximumShearstressTheoryThistheorypostulatesthatfailurewilloccurifthemagnitudeofthe
maximumshearstressinthepartexceedstheshearstrengthofthematerialdeterminedfromuniaxialtesting.
MaximumnormalstresstheoryThistheorypostulatesthatfailurewilloccurifthemaximumnormal
stressinthepartexceedstheultimatetensilestressofthematerialasdeterminedfromuniaxialtesting.This
theorydealswithbrittlematerialsonly.Themaximumtensilestressshouldbelessthanorequaltoultimate
tensilestressdividedbyfactorofsafety.Themagnitudeofthemaximumcompressivestressshouldbeless
thanultimatecompressivestressdividedbyfactorofsafety.
MaximumstrainenergytheoryThistheorypostulatesthatfailurewilloccurwhenthestrainenergyper
unitvolumeduetotheappliedstressesinapartequalsthestrainenergyperunitvolumeattheyieldpointin
uniaxialtesting.
MaximumdistortionenergytheoryThistheoryisalsoknownasshearenergytheoryorvonMises
Henckytheory.Thistheorypostulatesthatfailurewilloccurwhenthedistortionenergyperunitvolumedue
totheappliedstressesinapartequalsthedistortionenergyperunitvolumeattheyieldpointinuniaxial
testing.Thetotalelasticenergyduetostraincanbedividedintotwoparts:onepartcauseschangein
volume,andtheotherpartcauseschangeinshape.Distortionenergyistheamountofenergythatisneeded
tochangetheshape.
FracturemechanicswasestablishedbyAlanArnoldGriffithandGeorgeRankineIrwin.Thisimportant
theoryisalsoknownasnumericconversionoftoughnessofmaterialinthecaseofcrackexistence.
FractologywasproposedbyTakeoYokoboribecauseeachfracturelawsincludingcreeprupturecriterion
mustbecombinednonlinearly.

Amaterial'sstrengthisdependentonitsmicrostructure.Theengineeringprocessestowhichamaterialissubjected
canalterthismicrostructure.Thevarietyofstrengtheningmechanismsthatalterthestrengthofamaterialincludes
workhardening,solidsolutionstrengthening,precipitationhardeningandgrainboundarystrengtheningandcanbe
quantitativelyandqualitativelyexplained.Strengtheningmechanismsareaccompaniedbythecaveatthatsome
othermechanicalpropertiesofthematerialmaydegenerateinanattempttomakethematerialstronger.For
example,ingrainboundarystrengthening,althoughyieldstrengthismaximizedwithdecreasinggrainsize,
ultimately,verysmallgrainsizesmakethematerialbrittle.Ingeneral,theyieldstrengthofamaterialisan
adequateindicatorofthematerial'smechanicalstrength.Consideredintandemwiththefactthattheyieldstrength
istheparameterthatpredictsplasticdeformationinthematerial,onecanmakeinformeddecisionsonhowto
increasethestrengthofamaterialdependingitsmicrostructuralpropertiesandthedesiredendeffect.Strengthis
expressedintermsofthelimitingvaluesofthecompressivestress,tensilestress,andshearstressesthatwould
causefailure.Theeffectsofdynamicloadingareprobablythemostimportantpracticalconsiderationofthe
strengthofmaterials,especiallytheproblemoffatigue.Repeatedloadingofteninitiatesbrittlecracks,whichgrow
untilfailureoccurs.Thecracksalwaysstartatstressconcentrations,especiallychangesincrosssectionofthe
product,nearholesandcornersatnominalstresslevelsfarlowerthanthosequotedforthestrengthofthematerial.

Seealso
Creepofmaterials Fatigueofmaterials Specificstrength
Deformationmechanism Forensicengineering Statics
maps Fracturemechanics Universaltestingmachine
Diffusioninmaterials Fracturetoughness
Dynamics Materialselection
Fatigueofmaterials Specificstrength
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References
1.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.p.210.ISBN9780073529387.
2.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.p.7.ISBN9780073529387.
3.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.p.5.ISBN9780073529387.
4.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.pp.910.ISBN9780073529387.
5.KokcharovI.StrengthofStructuralMaterialshttp://www.kokch.kts.ru/me/t3/SIA_3_Mechanical_Properties.pdf
6.MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).p.52.ISBN9780073529387.
7.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.p.60.ISBN9780073529387.
8.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.pp.693696.ISBN9780073529387.
9.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.p.47.ISBN9780073529387.
10.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.p.49.ISBN9780073529387.
11.R.C.Hibbeler(2009).StructuralAnalysis(7ed.).PearsonPrenticeHall.p.305.ISBN9780136020608.
12.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.pp.5356.ISBN9780073529387.
13.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.pp.2728.ISBN9780073529387.
14.Beer&Johnston(2006).MechanicsofMaterials(5thed.).McGrawHill.p.28.ISBN9780073529387.

Furtherreading
FaHwaCheng,Initials.(1997).Strengthof Lebedev,LeonidP.andMichaelJ.Cloud.
material.Ohio:McGrawHill ApproximatingPerfection:AMathematician's
MechanicsofMaterials,E.J.Hearn JourneyintotheWorldofMechanics.Princeton
Alfirevi,Ivo.StrengthofMaterialsI.Tehnika UniversityPress,2004.ISBN0691117268.
knjiga,1995.ISBN953172010X. Chapter10StrengthofElastomers(http://dx.do
Alfirevi,Ivo.StrengthofMaterialsII.Tehnika i.org/10.1016/B9780123945846.000108),
knjiga,1999.ISBN9536168855. A.N.Gent,W.V.Mars,In:JamesE.Mark,Burak
Ashby,M.F.MaterialsSelectioninDesign. ErmanandMikeRoland,Editor(s),TheScience
Pergamon,1992. andTechnologyofRubber(FourthEdition),
Beer,F.P.,E.R.Johnston,etal.Mechanicsof AcademicPress,Boston,2013,Pages473516,
Materials,3rdedition.McGrawHill,2001.ISBN ISBN9780123945846,10.1016/B978012
0072486732 3945846.000108
Cottrell,A.H.MechanicalPropertiesofMatter. Mott,RobertL.AppliedStrengthofMaterials,
Wiley,NewYork,1964. 4thedition.PrenticeHall,2002.ISBN013
DenHartog,JacobP.StrengthofMaterials. 0885789.
DoverPublications,Inc.,1961,ISBN0486 Popov,EgorP.EngineeringMechanicsofSolids.
607550. PrenticeHall,EnglewoodCliffs,N.J.,1990.
Drucker,D.C.IntroductiontoMechanicsof ISBN0132792583.
DeformableSolids.McGrawHill,1967. Ramamrutham,S.StrengthofMaterials.
Gordon,J.E.TheNewScienceofStrong Shames,I.H.andF.A.Cozzarelli.Elasticand
Materials.Princeton,1984. inelasticstressanalysis.PrenticeHall,1991.
Groover,MikellP.FundamentalsofModern ISBN1560326867.
Manufacturing,2ndedition.JohnWiley& TimoshenkoS.StrengthofMaterials,3rdedition.
Sons,Inc.,2002.ISBN0471400513. KriegerPublishingCompany,1976,ISBN0
Hashemi,JavadandWilliamF.Smith. 882754203.
FoundationsofMaterialsScienceand Timoshenko,S.P.andD.H.Young.Elementsof
Engineering,4thedition.McGrawHill,2006. StrengthofMaterials,5thedition.(MKSSystem)
ISBN0071256903. Davidge,R.W.,MechanicalBehaviorof
Hibbeler,R.C.StaticsandMechanicsof Ceramics,CambridgeSolidStateScienceSeries,
Materials,SIEdition.PrenticeHall,2004.ISBN (1979)
0131290118. Lawn,B.R.,FractureofBrittleSolids,Cambridge
SolidStateScienceSeries,2ndEdn.(1993)

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Green,D.,AnIntroductiontotheMechanical
PropertiesofCeramics,CambridgeSolidState
ScienceSeries,Eds.Clarke,D.R.,Suresh,S.,
Ward,I.M.BabuTom.K(1998)

Externallinks
Failuretheories(http://www.mech.uwa.edu.au/DANotes/SSS/failure/theories.html)
casestudiesinstructuralfailure(http://materials.open.ac.uk/mem/index.htm)

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Condensedmatterphysics

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