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AISC Live Webinar Secrets of the Manual

April 27, 2017

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April 27, 2017

AISC Live Webinars

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Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at
the conclusion of this presentation.

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AISC Live Webinars

Copyright Materials
This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution,
display and use of the presentation without written permission of AISC is prohibited.

The American Institute of Steel Construction 2017


The information presented herein is based on recognized engineering principles and is for general
information only. While it is believed to be accurate, this information should not be applied to any
specific application without competent professional examination and verification by a licensed
professional engineer. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such
use.

Course Description
Secrets of the Manual
April 27, 2017

This presentation will highlight efficient ways to take advantage of the various design
aids in the AISC Steel Construction Manual (14th Edition). The speaker will walk through
the different sections of the Manual and highlight useful resources. The speaker will
then focus on shortcuts for connection design, including: stiffeners, web
yielding/crippling, welds, and more. Shortcuts for member design including composite
members will also be reviewed. Learning these shortcuts are a must for those designing
steel structures and checking designs.

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Learning Objectives

Locate important design shortcuts in the Manual


Identify appropriate uses for eccentrically loaded bolt group
tables
Apply table shortcuts for beam bearing and column stiffener
checks
Design beams using composite beam tables in the Manual

Secrets of the Manual


Based on the 14th Edition Manual and AISC 360-10

Presented by
Carol Drucker, PE, SE
Drucker Zajdel Structural Engineers
Chicago, IL

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Manual Organization- General Parts

Part 1: Dimension and Properties d

Part 2: General Design Considerations

Secrets of the Manual 9

Manual Organization Main Member Design


Part 3: Flexural Members

Part 4: Compression Members

Part 5: Tension Members

Part 6: Members Subject to Combined Forces

Secrets of the Manual 10

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Manual Organization-Connections
Part 7: Design of Bolts
Part 8: Design of Welds
Part 9: Design of Elements
Part 10: Simple Shear Connections
Parts 11,12: Moment Connections
Part 13: Bracing and Truss Connections
Part 14: Base Plates, Anchor Rods, Column Splices
Part 15: Hanger Connections, Brackets

Secrets of the Manual 11

Manual Organization-Main Member/Connections


Part 16: Specification, Commentary, and Codes
AISC 360-10
Chapter A- N: Main Member, Stability, Connections, Fabrication, etc
Appendix 1- Appendix 8: Ponding, Fatigue, Fire, Existing, Stability,
Analysis, etc
Commentary for Chapter A-N
Commentary for Appendix 1-8

RCSC: Specification for Structural Joints Using


High-Strength Bolts

AISC: 303-10: Code of Standard Practice

Secrets of the Manual 12

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Manual Organization-Main Member/Connections


Part 17: Miscellaneous Data and Mathematical Information
Metric Shapes
Gage metal thickness
Coefficient of thermal expansion
Material Weights
Properties of Shapes

General Nomenclature

Index

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 1: Structural Properties
A, d, tw, bf, tf, etc
=INDEX('Database v14.0.1'!$1:$1048576,MATCH("W12x96",'Database
v14.0.1'!$C:$C,0),MATCH("bf",'Database v14.0.1'!$2:$2,0))

Link to shapes database: www.aisc.org/publications/steel-construction-manual-resources/

Secrets of the Manual 14

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 1: Structural Properties
Angle Gage in Table 1-7A
Welded Flat Widths HSS
g

g1
g2

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 2: General Design Considerations

Bearing Connections

Table 2-4: Preferred Material Specification- Shapes

Table 2-6: ASTM Fasteners (Bolts, Rods)

ASD to LRFD = 1.5


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Secrets of the Manual

17

Secrets of the Manual

18

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 3: Main Member

Table 3-2: Selection by Zx

Table 3-6: Maximum Total Uniform Load

Table 3-10: Available Moment vs Unbraced Length

Table 3-23: Beam Shear, Moment, and Deflection

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 4, Part 5, Part 6: Main Member

Table 4-1: Compression of W-Sections

Table 4-8 to 4-10: Axial Compression


Double Angles

Table 4-12: Eccentrically Loaded Single


Angles

Table 4-22: kl/r Table

Secrets of the Manual 20

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 4, Part 5, Part 6: Main
Member

Table 4-8 to 4-10: Axial


Compression Double Angles

Secrets of the Manual 21

Manual Organization
Part 4-6: Main Member

Table 4-12: Eccentrically


Loaded Single Angles

The effects of eccentricity can be


neglected using an effective slenderness
ratio if (Spec E5):
Member are loaded at the ends in
compression through same on leg
Member attached by welding or by a
minimum of two bolts
No transfer loading

Secrets of the Manual 22

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Secrets of the Manual

Part 4, Part 5, Part 6: Main Member

Table 4-22: KL/r Table

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Secrets of the Manual

Table 4-22 Use for Whitmore Check for Gussets


KL KL 12
=
r tgusset

Bo Dowswell (2012) Technical Note: Effective Length Factors for Gusset Plates in Chevron
Braced Frames in AISC Engineering Journal 3rd Quarter. Free download for AISC members!

Secrets of the Manual 24

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 7: Bolts
Table 7-1, 7-2, and 7-3: Bolt Shear and
Tension Values

Table 7-4: Bolt Dimensions


ex
Table 7-6: Coefficients C for Eccentrically
loaded bolt groups s
s
Table 7-15 and 7-16: Bolt Installing s
Tolerance s

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Secrets of the Manual


Hex Head Bolt
(ASTM A325)

TC Bolt (ASTM
F1852)

Secrets of the Manual 26

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Bolt Installation-TC Bolts

Example:
gwyinc.com

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Secrets of the Manual


BOLT TENSION
Mc
rt =
n 'b d m

CG (tension group) 2 rt

dm
NA

CG (compression group)

See Manual Fig. 7-7

Secrets of the Manual 28

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Secrets of the Manual

See Manual Fig. 7-6 Case I

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Secrets of the Manual

M = n ( rt ) d
n i i

See Manual Fig. 7-7 Expanded


(similar to DG4* and DG16*)

*free download for AISC members!

Secrets of the Manual 30

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 8: Welds

Figure 8-16: Susceptible and Improved


Details

Table 8-2: Prequalified Welds (AWS)

Table 8-3: Electrode Strength Coefficient, C1

(0.9)(80 ksi)
Table 8-4 to Table 8-11: Coefficients C for C =
Eccentrically Loaded Weld Groups 1 70 ksi

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 8: Welds: Table 8-12
Cost of Welds
Fillet and Groove
Welds

Secrets of the Manual 32

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 9: Connections

Cope Beams: Single Coped and


Double Coped

Prying Action

Rotational Ductility

Filler and Shims

Table 9-4: Beam Bearing Prying

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 9: Connections

Cope Beams: Single Coped and Double Coped

Prying Action
Existing

Rotational Ductility

Filler and Shims


End Plate
WT Connection Connection
Table 9-4: Beam Bearing

Secrets of the Manual 34

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 9: Shear Rupture at Welds
tmin to develop weld:
Shear Rupture = Fillet Weld Strength
(0.6)( Fexx )(2)(0.707)( w)
t min = w Manual Eq.(9 2)
(0.6)( Fu )
D
0.75(0.60)(70 ksi)(2)(0.707)( )
= 16
0.75(0.6)( Fu )
2(1.392)( D )
=
0.75(0.6)( Fu )
6.19 D
= Manual Eq.(9 3) (2-Sided Connections)
Fu

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 10: Connections

Figure 10-3: Encroachment

Table 10-1 to Table 10-9: Connection Tables

Figures: Skewed Plate Welds

Fig. 10-3. Fillet encroachment (riding the fillet).

Secrets of the Manual 36

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Skewed Plate Welds

Secrets of the Manual 37

Skewed Plate Welds

Secrets of the Manual 38

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Skewed Plate Welds


PLs Over

3/16 Max Gap


for Fillet Weld

Support

Support
45
WO S(E)
BTC-P4
WA WA

Secrets of the Manual 39

Skewed Plate Welds


1-Sided Welds

S (E)
CJP
45
W

CJP PJP+REINFORCING FILLET


(AWS Annex A)

Secrets of the Manual 40

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Plate Welds
Alternate Bent Plate Detail Large
Skews

Typically 1/2 Max Plate Thickness

Design from Bend Line

Design of Skewed Connections by


Larry Kloiber and William A. Thornton,
EJ 3rd Quarter 2001

Secrets of the Manual 41

Plate Welds
Examples when rotational
ductility and a fillet weld size
of 5/8t is not always needed

Bracing Connections

Moment Connections

Secrets of the Manual 42

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Welded Angle Legs

5/8 5/8

5/16

43

Secrets of the Manual


Part 11-Part 12: Partially Retrained and Fully
Restrained Moment Connections

Extended End-Plate Moment Connections


Design assumptions 1-11
End-plate effective width = bf + 1 in.
CJP welds are treated as PJP welds between
beam flange-to-web fillets. No weld access holes
Also see DG4* and DG16*

*free download for AISC members!

Secrets of the Manual 44

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 13: Bracing

See DG29 and Design Examples

Link to design examples: www.aisc.org/publications/steel-construction-manual-resources/

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 14: Beam Bearing Plates, Column Base Plates, Anchor Rods, and
Column Spices

Table 14-2: Recommended Maximum


Sizes for Anchor-Rod Holes in
Base Plates (also see DG1*)

Tables 14-3: Cases I-XII

*free download for AISC members!

Secrets of the Manual 46

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 15: Hanger Connections, Bracket Plates, and Crane Rail
Connections

Figure 15-2: Bracket Plates


Table 15-3: Znet plates

Table 15-4 to 15-6:


Clevis, Pins, and Turnbuckles

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 15: Brackets Cont.

Secrets of the Manual 48

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 15: Clevises and Pins
For design: Specification Section D5 and J7
Example: clevelandcityforge.com

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 16: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (360-10),

User Notes

Commentary

Secrets of the Manual 50

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 16: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (360-10),

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Secrets of the Manual


RCSC

Masking Requirements: Fig C-3.1

Section 4:PT and SC Joint


Applications

Section 6: Washer Requirements

Section 8: Bolt Installation Methods

Secrets of the Manual 52

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Secrets of the Manual


Part 16: Code of Standard Practice

Section 3.1.2: Delegate Design


Fabricator shall submit representative samples
of connections
Shop and Erection drawing review

Section 6.4 Fabrication Tolerance

Section 10: AESS Steel

Secrets of the Manual 53

Connection Details for Delegated Design


7/8" A325-N BOLTS, STD HOLES, U.N.O. GRADE 50 PLATE AISC 360-10, LRFD TYPE A2
Show all information to allow for
1-3/4"
checking 7-1/4"
MAX
3" 3" TYP
4-1/2"

(3x3) BOLTS
MIN

@ 3" O.C.

Member forces and sizes 7/16 W14x22


6-7/8"

7/16 V = 35 KIPS
MIN

(LOAD GIVEN
IN RFI 52R)
1-1/2"
TYP

Slopes 1-3/4"
TYP SHAPED PL5/8 w/
SSL HOLES

ASD or LRFD with Specification Edition


W27x84

Plate thickness, edge distances, etc A2-17


EXTENDED SHEAR PLATE CONNECTIONS AT
SLAB ELEVATION CHANGE, S11-02C
NOTES

Secrets of the Manual 54

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Efficient Use of Tables


Pu = 200 k

W14x90 COL
Bearing Example

Given:
AISC Specification 360-10
AISC 14th Edition, LRFD
W Shapes ASTM A992, Fy = 50 ksi
1 cap plate, Grade 50, Fy = 50 ksi e=24
7/8 dia. A325-N, STD holes, rv=24.3 kip
Load Pu = 200 kips
d e d/2
W36x135 BEAM

Secrets of the Manual 55

Efficient Use of Tables


( = 1.00 )
W14x90 COL

Web Local Yielding

AISC Specification Eq. J10-3


Rn = Fywt w ( 2.5k + lb )

Determine lb
24

W36x135 BEAM

Secrets of the Manual 56

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Efficient Use of Tables

W14x90 COL
Length of bearing

lb = twc + 5t pl
= 0.440in. + 5 (1.00in.)
= 5.44in.

24

t pl

1 lb W36x135 BEAM

2.5

Secrets of the Manual 57

Efficient Use of Tables


( = 1.00 )
W14x90 COL

Web Local Yielding


lb = 5.44in.
AISC Specification Eq. J10-3
Rn = Fywt w ( 2.5k + lb )
= 1.00 ( 50 ksi )( 0.600in.) ( 2.5 (1.54in.) + ( 5.44in.) )
= 279 kips Pu = 200 kips o.k.
24

W36x135 BEAM

Secrets of the Manual 58

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Efficient Use of Tables


Web Local Crippling ( = 0.75 )

AISC Specification Eq. J10-4

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Efficient Use of Tables


Web Local Crippling ( = 0.75 )
lb = 5.44in.
AISC Specification Eq. J10-4
1.5

2 lb t w EFywt f
Rn = 0.80tw 1 + 3
d t f tw

5.44in. 0.600in.
1.5
( 29000 ksi )( 50 ksi )( 0.790in.)
= 0.75(0.80) ( 0.600in.) 1 + 3
2


35.6in. 0.790in.
( 0.600in.)
= 389 kips Pu = 200 kips o.k.

Secrets of the Manual 60

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Efficient Use of Tables


Web Local Yielding ( = 1.00 )
lb = 5.44in.
AISC 14th Edition Eq. 9-45a

Rn = R1 + lb ( R2 )
kips
= 116 kips + ( 5.44in.) 30.0
in.
= 279 kips Pu = 200 kips o.k.

Secrets of the Manual 61

Efficient Use of Tables


Web Local Crippling ( = 0.75 )
lb = 5.44in.
AISC 14th Edition Eq. 9-49a

Rn = 2 R3 + lb ( R4 )
kips
= 2 149 kips + ( 5.44in.) 8.32
in.
= 389 kips Pu = 200 kips o.k.

Secrets of the Manual 62

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Efficient Use of Tables


Column Stiffener Checks

Given:
AISC Specification 360-10
AISC 14th Edition, LRFD
W Shapes ASTM A992, Fy = 50 ksi
3/4x9 flange plates, grade 50, Fy = 50 ksi
7/8 dia. A325-N, STD holes, rv=24.3 kip
Load Mu = 300 kips-ft

W14x90 COL
W24x55 BEAM

Secrets of the Manual 63

Efficient Use of Tables


Flange Force
Mu
Pfl =
d
300 kips-ft
=
23.6in.
= 153kips
W14x90 COL

W24x55 BEAM

Secrets of the Manual 64

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Efficient Use of Tables


Web Local Yielding ( = 1.00 )
AISC Specification Eq. J10-2
Rn = Fywt w ( 5kdes + t pl )
= 1.00 ( 50 ksi )( 0.440in.) ( 5 (1.31in.) + ( 0.75in.) )
= 161 kips Pfl = 153kips o.k.

W14x90 COL
W24x55 BEAM

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Efficient Use of Tables


Web Local Crippling ( = 0.75 )
AISC Specification Eq. J10-4
t pl t w EFywt f
1.5
2
Rn = 0.80t w 1 + 3

d t f tw

0.75in. 0.440in.
1.5
( 29000 ksi )( 50 ksi )( 0.710in.)
= 0.75(0.80) ( 0.440in.) 1 + 3
2


14in. 0.710in. ( 0.440in.)
= 192 kips Pu = 153kips o.k.

Secrets of the Manual 66

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Efficient Use of Tables


Web Compression Buckling ( = 0.9 )
AISC Specification Eq. J10-8
24t w3 EFyw
Rn =
h
24 ( 0.440in.) ( 29000 ksi )( 50 ksi )
3

= (0.9)
14in. 2 (1.31in.)
= 194 kips Pfl = 153kips o.k.

W14x90 COL
W24x55 BEAM W24x55 BEAM

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Efficient Use of Tables


Flange Local Bending ( = 0.9 )
AISC Specification Eq. J10-1
Rn = 6.25 Fyf t 2f
= 0.9 ( 6.25 )( 50 ksi )( 0.710 in.)
2

= 142 kips Pfl = 153 kips n.g.


Stiffeners are needed

See Blodgett 5.7-8

Secrets of the Manual 68

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Efficient Use of Tables


Web Local Yielding ( = 1.00 )
AISC 14th Edition Eq. 4-2a

Rn = Pwo + Pwi lb
kips
= 144 kips + 22.0 ( 0.75in.)
in.
= 161kips Pfl = 153kips o.k.

Secrets of the Manual 69

Efficient Use of Tables


Web Local Crippling ( = 0.75 )
AISC 14th Edition Eq. 9-49a

Rn = 2 R3 + lb ( R4 )
kips
= 2 88.8 kips + ( 0.75in.) 9.29
in.
= 192 kips Pu = 153kips o.k.

Secrets of the Manual 70

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Efficient Use of Tables


Web Compression Buckling ( = 0.9 )
AISC 14th Edition Eq. 4-3a

Rn = Pwb
= 194 kips Pfl = 153 kips o.k.

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Efficient Use of Tables


Flange Local Bending ( = 0.9 )
AISC 14th Edition Eq. 4-4a

Rn = Pfb
= 142 kips Pfl = 153 kips n.g.
Stiffeners are needed

Secrets of the Manual 72

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Polling Question

Secrets of the Manual 73

Understanding Tables
Determine End Reaction from UDL
w
Given:
AISC Specification 360-10
AISC 14th Edition, LRFD l
W14x22 ASTM A992, Fy = 50 ksi
L= 20 ft V+
End Reaction = 50% UDL

M
+

Secrets of the Manual 74

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Understanding Tables
Shear Based on Flexural Yielding Strength ( = 0.9 )
AISC Specification Eq. F2-1
M n = Fy Z x
= 0.9 ( 50 ksi ) ( 33.2 in.3 )
= 1494 kip-in (1 ft/12 in.)
= 125 kip-ft

M n (8)
wl flexure =
l w( l ) 2
M max =
125 kip-ft ( 8 ) 8
=
(20 ft)
= 49.8 kips

Secrets of the Manual 75

Understanding Tables
Shear Based on Shear Strength ( = 1)
AISC Specification Eq. G2-1
Vn = (0.6)( Fy )( Aw )(Cv )
= 1( 0.6 )( 50 ksi )(13.7 in.)( 0.23 in.) (1)
= 94.5 kips w(l )
Vmax =
2
wlshear = Vn (2)
= 94.5 kips ( 2 )
= 189 kips

Secrets of the Manual 76

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Understanding Tables
Determine End Reaction Based on
Percent UDL
(%UDL) wlshear
Vu = min(( wl flexure ) , ) wl= 49.8
100% 2
(50%) 189 kips
= min(49.8 kip , )
100% 2
= min(24.9 kip, 94.5 kip)
= 24.9 kip

Vu Vu

Secrets of the Manual 77

Understanding Tables
UDL Cautions:

For 100% composite, Mn 297 kip-ft.

This gives:

M n (8)
Vu =
l (2)
297 kip-ft ( 8 )
=
20 ft (2)
= 59.4 kips 119% UDL

Secrets of the Manual 78

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Understanding Tables
UDL Cautions:

For Point Loads

Vu _ max = (0.6)( Fy )( Aw )(Cv )


= 1( 0.6 )( 50 ksi )(13.7 in.)( 0.23 in.) (1)
= 94.5 kips 190% UDL

Secrets of the Manual 79

Understanding Tables
Working backwards: DOUBLE ANGLES
Given: Connection strength, Find: Vn _ connection
Minimum beam length, lmin

M n (8)(%UDL)
lmin_ flexure =
100%(Vn _ connection )


@ 3 O.C.
n BOLTS

Lweb
M n (8)
COLUMN

lmin_ shear =
Vn (2) BEAM

lmin = max(lmin_ flexure , lmin_ shear )


UNCOPED

Secrets of the Manual 80

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Understanding Tables
Working backwards:
Given: Connection strength, Vn _ connection = 71 kip
Find: Minimum beam length, lmin

M n (8)(%UDL) (125 kip-ft)(8)(50%)


lmin_ flexure = = = 7.04 ft
100%(Vn _ connection ) 100%(71 kip)


Vu= 142k/2=71k
M n (8) (125 kip-ft)(8)
lmin_ shear = = = 5.29 ft
Vn (2) (94.5 kip)(2)

lmin = max(lmin_ flexure , lmin_ shear ) = 7.04 ft

Secrets of the Manual 81

Understanding Tables

Secrets of the Manual 82

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Efficient Use of Tables


Instantaneous Center of Rotation Method
Spandrel example

Given:
AISC Specification 360-10
AISC 14th Edition, LRFD
W Shapes ASTM A992, Fy = 50 ksi W14x48 BEAM
3/8 plates, grade 50, Fy = 50 ksi
7/8 dia. A325-N, STD holes, rv=24.3 kip
Bolt spacing: 3 vertical, 3 horizontal
Load: Faade moment Mf = 100 kip-in
W24x55 BEAM

Secrets of the Manual 83

Efficient Use of Tables


3 in.

6
I x = xi2 = 6 (1.5in.)
2
x1

i =1

= 13.5in 2 3 in. y1
6
I y = y = 4 ( 3in.)
2 2
i
i =1

= 36 in 2
W14x48 BEAM
I p = Ix + I y 3 in.

= 49.5in 2

W24x55 BEAM

Secrets of the Manual 84

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Efficient Use of Tables


M f max ( yi ) (100 kip-in.)(1.5in.) Ry

Rx = i =1..6
= Rx Rx
Ip 49.5in.2
= 3.03kip Ry

M f max ( xi ) (100 kip-in.)( 3.0in.) Ry


Ry = i =1..6
=
Ip 49.5in.2
= 6.06 kip
Ry W14x48 BEAM

( 3.03kip ) + ( 6.06 kip )


2 2
R= R +R =2
x
2
y
Ry

Rx Rx
= 6.78 kip
Ry
W24x55 BEAM

Secrets of the Manual 85

Efficient Use of Tables


M max_1 = M f
(rnv )
= 100 kip-in
( 24.3kips )
R 6.78 kips
= 360 kips-in.

Use the Instantaneous Center of Rotation Method


with C'
C ' = 15.8 (From Table 7-7)
M max_ 2 = C '(rnv ) = (15.8in.)( 24.3kips )
= 384 kip-in.

Mf 100 kip-in.
= = 14.8 in. C ' = 15.8 in
R 6.78in.

Secrets of the Manual 86

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Efficient Use of Tables

i max
10 l
0.55

C ' = li 1 e lmax , in. Manual Eq. (7-21)

Secrets of the Manual 87

Efficient Use of Tables


Faade and Gravity
Moments Should Act
Opposite Mg
Mf Mf Vg Vg

FACADE GRAVITY

Secrets of the Manual 88

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Efficient Use of Tables

Vg Vg
Mg Mg
Vg
Mf Mf Vg

+ =
e
e=e + Mf / Vg

FACADE GRAVITY TOTAL

Secrets of the Manual 89

Efficient Use of Tables

NON EXTENDED SPANDREL CONNECTIONS

Secrets of the Manual 90

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Efficient Use of Tables


Pick a clevis: 2 rod, Fy = 36 ksi, full strength
( d rod
2
) ( 2 in.)
2

Arod = =
4 4
= 3.14 in.2
Tmax = Arod Fy _ rod = 0.9 ( 3.14 in.2 ) ( 36 ksi )
= 102 kips
Select Clevis Number 6,
Design strength = 135 kips 102 kips

Secrets of the Manual 91

Secrets of Manual
Check Double-Angle Tolerance using Fig 10-3 W24x62
tw = 7/16
W

W8x28,
T= 6-1/8
2L3x3x3/8 kdet = 15/16
tf =7/16

15 7 1
Fig. 10-3. Fillet encroachment (riding the fillet).
k det t f = in. in.= in.
16 16 2
3
Encr. = in.
16

Secrets of the Manual 92

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Secrets of Manual
Check Double-Angle Tolerance using Fig 10-3 W24x62
tw = 7/16

W
W8x28,
T= 6-1/8
1 3 1
Wmax = T + (2) Encr. = 6 in.+(2) in. = 6 in. 2L3x3x3/8 kdet = 15/16
8 16 2 tf =7/16
7 7
W = t w + (2) bangle = in. + (2) 3 in. = 6 in.
16 16
W Wmax o.k.

Secrets of the Manual 93

Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Strength of Column at Grid B/1
A B C A B C A B C

3
2nd Floor, TOS=10-0 3rd Floor, TOS=25-0 Roof, TOS=40-0

Secrets of the Manual 94

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1
Efficient Use of Tables
Determine Strength of Column at Grid B/1

15-0
Given:
AISC Specification 360-10
AISC 14th Edition, LRFD
W14x90 ASTM A992, Fy = 50 ksi

15-0
rx = 6.14 in.
ry = 3.70 in.

Lx = 30 ft, Ly = 15 ft
K =1.0

Secrets of the Manual 95

1
Efficient Use of Tables
Determine Unbraced Length
15-0

Since unbraced length differs in the two axes, select


member based on y-y axis then check equivalent y-y axis
length for x-x axis.

KLx KLy
=
rx ry
15-0

KLx rx
=
KLy ry

KLx
KLy _ EQ =
rx

ry

Secrets of the Manual 96

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1
Efficient Use of Tables
Determine Unbraced Length

15-0
rx 6.14 in.
= = 1.66 (See Table T4-1a)
ry 3.70 in.

KLx 30.0 ft
KLy _ EQ = = = 18.1 ft (Controls)

15-0
rx 1.66

ry

KLy = 15.0 ft

Secrets of the Manual 97

Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Strength

Using KLy_EQ = 18.1 ft and interpolation:

Pn = 926 kips

Secrets of the Manual 98

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Efficient Use of Tables


Check Using Specification

KLx 1(30.0 ft)(12 in./ft)


= = 58.6 (Controls)
rx 6.14 in.

KLy 1(15 ft)(12 in./ft)


= = 48.6
ry 3.7 in.

E 29,000 ksi
4.71 = 4.71 =113
Fy 50 ksi

Secrets of the Manual 99

Efficient Use of Tables


Check Using Specification
2 E 2 (29,000 ksi)
Fe = = = 83.3 (E3-4)
( 58.6 )
2 2
kL

r

Fy
50 ksi

Fcr = 0.658 Fe Fy = 0.658 83.3 ksi 50 ksi=38.9 ksi (E3-2)

Fcr = (0.9)38.9 ksi = 35.0 ksi

Pn = 0.9 Fcr Ag = (35.0 ksi) (26.5 in.2 ) = 927 kips 926 kips o.k.

Secrets of the Manual 100

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Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Strength of Beam Between Grids A/2 to B/2
A B C

Given: 1

AISC Specification 360-10


AISC 14th Edition, LRFD
W18x35 ASTM A992, Fy = 50 ksi
L= 30 ft
2
Braced points only at beam-to-girder connections
Equally spaced bays
Cb = 1.0, conservative

Secrets of the Manual 101

Efficient Use of Tables


From Table 3-2
Lp = 4.31 ft
Lr = 12.3 ft

y y0 y1 y0
=
x x0 x1 x0
x x0
Solving for y : y = y0 + ( y1 y0 )
x1 x0

L Lp
M nx = M px + ( M rx M px )
Lr L p
10 ft 4.31 ft
= 249 kip-ft + (151 kip-ft 249 kip-ft ) = 179 kip-ft
12.3 ft 4.31 ft

Secrets of the Manual 102

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Efficient Use of Tables


Check if Compact for Flexure

Secrets of the Manual 103

Efficient Use of Tables


From Manual Table 3-2, Cb = 1 (See Table 3-1 for other Cb)

Secrets of the Manual 104

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Efficient Use of Tables


From Specification:

Secrets of the Manual 105

Efficient Use of Tables


Deflection

Secrets of the Manual 106

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Efficient Use of Tables


From Specification:

Secrets of the Manual 107

Efficient Use of Tables


From Specification:

Secrets of the Manual 108

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Efficient Use of Tables


Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, Galambos

Secrets of the Manual 109

Efficient Use of Tables


Manual Fig 3-1 (also see Commentary Figure C-F1.2)

Secrets of the Manual 110

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Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Strength of Composite Beam (shown)
Given:
AISC Specification 360-10 & AISC 14th Edition, LRFD
W16x26 ASTM A992, Fy = 50 ksi, L = 30 ft
3 NLWT concrete (fc = 4 ksi) on 3 metal deck
dia. stud

Secrets of the Manual 111

Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Effective Width of Concrete Slab (Specification I3.1a)

Each side of beam centerline, minimum of: beff

Lb ( 30 ft )(12 in/ft )
1) 1/8 of span = = = 45 in., controls
8 8
b 1 ( 30 ft )(12 in/ft )
2) 1/2 c.c. beam spacing = o = = 60 in.
2 2 ( 3 spaces )
3) distance to edge of slab = N/A

For this example, beff =(2 sides of beam centerline)(45 in) = 90 in.

Secrets of the Manual 112

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Efficient Use of Tables


Load Transfer Between Steel Beam and Concrete Slab (Specification I3.2d(1),
Positive Flexural Strength where concrete slab is in compression)
(a) Concrete crushing (concrete fully in compression)
V 'c = 0.85 f 'c Ac = 0.85(4 ksi)(3 in)(90 in.) = 918 kips
( Note : only concrete above deck considered.)
(b) Tensile yielding of steel section (steel fully in tension)
V 's = As Fy = (50 ksi)(7.68 in 2 ) = 384 kips < V 'c PNA in concrete
(c) Shear strength of steel studs
V 'q = Qn = min(V 'c , V 's ) for 100% composite

Secrets of the Manual 113

Efficient Use of Tables


Stud Strength (Specification Eq. I8-1)
Qn = 0.5 Asa f 'c Ec Rg R p Asa Fu
Asa = area of stud, in 2
Ec = concrete modulus of elasticity = wc1.5 f 'c , ksi
Fu = specified minimum tensile strength of stud = 65 ksi

Qn = 0.5 ( 0.4418 in 2 ) (4 ksi) (145 pcf )



1.5
( 4 ksi
)
= 26.1 kips/stud

Rg R p Asa Fu = 1.0(0.6)(0.4418 in 2 )(65 ksi)


= 17.2 kips/stud, controls

Secrets of the Manual 114

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Efficient Use of Tables


Use Table 3-21 for Stud Strength

Deck
Perpendicular
Weak Studs
per rib
(Rp = 0.60)

Secrets of the Manual 115

Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Number of Studs
For 100% composite, studs required between points of maximum and zero
bending moment (half span of beam):
V 'q = min(V 'c , V 's )
# of studs =
384 kips
= = 22.3 46 studs for beam total length
Qn 17.2 kips/stud
However, for 46 studs, there will be (2) studs per rib. For (2) studs per rib,
Rg =0.85 Qn =14.6 kips/stud
bending moment (half span of beam):
V 'q = min(V 'c , V 's )
# of studs =
384 kips
= = 26.3 54 studs for beam total length
Qn 14.6 kips/stud
*See Design Example I.1 on page I-15 for more information
Secrets of the Manual 116

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Efficient Use of Tables


Determine 100% Composite Strength

a=
Q n
=
384 kips
= 1.25 in.
0.85 f 'c beff 0.85 ( 4 ksi )( 90 in.)
Y2 = Distance top of
1.25 in.
Y 2 = ( 3 in. conc. + 3 in. deck )
steel to beam to center
= 5.38 in. line of the concrete
2 flange force

- Sum moments about a/2:


d 384 kips 15.7 in.
b M n = As Fy Y 2 + bm = 0.9 5.38 in. + = 381 kip-ft
2 12 in./ft 2

Secrets of the Manual 117

a/2
Efficient Use of Tables a
Ycon Y2
1
For Use with Table 3-19 (see also Figure 3-3 in Manual) Y1
Y1 = distance from top of steel flange to any of the PNA locations listed 5
PNA locations:
TFL = Top of Flange (beam top flange), also 1
BFL = Bottom of Flange (beam top flange), also 5
2,3,4 = 4 equal spaces within flange

6=
Qn at BFL + Qn at 7
2
7 = 0.25Fy As

Y 2 = Ycon
a
a=
Q n

2 0.85 f 'c beff


and Ycon = top of steel to top of concrete

Secrets of the Manual 118

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Efficient Use of Tables


Table 3-19
From above,
V 'c = 918 kips
V 's = 384 kips

Enter Table with PNA at TFL and


Q 384 kips
Q a= = = 1.25 in.
n
= 384 kips (100% composite)
n
0.85 f 'c beff 0.85 ( 4 ksi )( 90 in.)

1.25 in.
Y 2 = ( 3 in. conc. + 3 in. deck ) = 5.38 in.
2

Secrets of the Manual 119

Efficient Use of Tables


Moment Capacity based on Table 3-19 (100% composite)

5.5 in. 5.38 in.


b M n = 384 kft ( 384 kft 370 kft ) = 381 kip-ft
5.5 in. 5 in.

Compare to
d 384 kips 15.7 in.
b M n = As Fy Y 2 + bm = 0.9 5.38 in. + = 381 kip-ft
2 12 in./ft 2

Secrets of the Manual 120

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Efficient Use of Tables


Using Table 3-19 for 63% composite
For 63% composite, enter Table with
Q n _ 63% = ( 0.63)( 384 kips ) = 242 kips

a=
Q n _ 63%
=
242 kips
= 0.791 in. Y 2 = 6 in.
0.791 in.
= 5.60 in.
0.85 f 'c beff 0.85 ( 4 ksi )( 90 in.) 2

Secrets of the Manual 121

Efficient Use of Tables


Using Table 3-19 for 63% composite
For 63% composite, enter Table with
Q n _ 63% = ( 0.63)( 384 kips ) = 242 kips
Note : PNA at 4.

6 in. 5.6 in.


b M n _ 63% = 333 kft ( 333 kft 324 kft ) = 326 kip-ft
6 in. 5.5 in.

Secrets of the Manual 122

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Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Moment Capacity using 63% Composite
From AISC Commentary Section C-I3.2a and Equation C-I3-10,

For partial composite


Sum Fx = 0 action, there is a neutral
C+ Asc Fy = Py - Asc Fy axis in the concrete and
a neutral axis in the
Asc Fy = (Py C)/(2) steel.

Sum moments about


Cs/2

M n = C (d1 + d 2 ) + Py (d3 d 2 ) AISC Commentary Eq. C-I3-10

Secrets of the Manual 123

Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Moment Capacity using 63% Composite (contd)
where:
C = Qn
Py = As Fy
d1 = distance from centroid of compression force, C , in concrete
to top of steel, in.
d 2 = distance from centroid of the compression force in steel section
to top of steel section, in. (d 2 = 0 for no compression in steel)
d3 = distance from Py to top of steel section, in.

Secrets of the Manual 124

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Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Moment Capacity using 63% Composite (contd)

Py = 384 kips C63% = Qn _ 63% = 0.63(384 kips) = 242 kips

C63% 242 kips


a= = = 0.791 in.
0.85 f 'c beff 0.85(4 ksi)(90 in.)

a 0.791 in. dbm 15.7 in.


d1 = tslab = 6 in. = 5.60 in. d3 = = = 7.85 in.
2 2 2 2

x 1 As Fy C63% 1 ( 384 kips 242 kips )


d2 = = = = 0.129 in.
2 2 2 b f Fy 2 ( 2 ) (5.50 in.)(50 ksi)

Secrets of the Manual 125

Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Moment Capacity using 63% Composite (contd)

M n _ 63% = C63% (d1 + d 2 ) + Py (d3 d 2 )


= ( 242 kips )( 5.60 in. + 0.129 in.) + ( 384 kips )( 7.85 in. 0.129 in.)
= 4351 k-in.

0.9 ( 4351 kip-in )


M n _ 63% = = 326 kip-ft
12

Secrets of the Manual 126

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Efficient Use of Tables


Determine Number of Studs
For 63% composite,
0.63 ( 384 kips )
# of studs = = 14.1 30 studs for beam total length
17.2 kips/stud
Note : Portion of steel beam will be compression.

Secrets of the Manual 127

Summary
Be familiar with the information contained in the Manual

Use the Database when possible

Read descriptions of the tables

Include all design information on details to facilitate review and checking

Manual can facilitate efficient design.

Secrets of the Manual 128

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Polling Question

Secrets of the Manual 129

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folder!
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