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ABSTRACT.

Heat exchanger is a device that built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to
another. There are two type of flow in double pipe heat exchanger that is counter-flow and
co-current flow. Both hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at the same end and
move in the same direction in parallel flow (co-current). On the other hand, the hot and
cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at opposite ends and flow in opposite directions in
counter flow. The heat exchanger also affected by hot water temperature inlet and the flow
rate variation. Hot water taken from the pump are discharge while the cold water is taken
from the pipe. Both hot and cold water passes through along the concentric tube and the
experiment of counter and co-current was carried out. On the panel, the stabilized
temperatures that appear were taken.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Abstract 1
Table of content 2
1.0 Introduction 3
2.0 Objectives 5
3.0 Theory 6
4.0 Diagram and Description of Apparatus 9
5.0 Experimental Procedures 11
6.0 Result and Discussions 13
7.0 Sample Calculation 18
8.0 Conclusions and Recommendations 21
9.0 References 23
10.0 Appendices 24

1.0 INTRODUCTION.

Heat exchanger is an equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to

another. Different applications of heat exchanger require different types of hardware and

configurations of heat transfer equipment. There are several types of heat exchanger such

as double pipe heat exchanger, compact heat exchanger, shell-and-tube heat exchanger

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and plate and frame heat exchanger. In this experiment, double pipe heat exchanger was

the only apparatus are used.

Heat exchangers are a device that exchanges the heat between two fluids of different

temperatures that are separated by a solid wall. The temperature gradient or the

differences in temperature facilitate this transfer of heat. Transfer of heat happens by three

principle means: radiation, conduction and convection. In the use of heat exchangers

radiation does take place. However, in comparison to conduction and convection, radiation

does not play a major role. Conduction occurs as the heat from the higher temperature

fluid passes through the solid wall. To maximize the heat transfer, the wall should be thin

and made of a very conductive material. The biggest contribution to heat transfer in a heat

exchanger is made through convection.

Double-pipe heat exchanger is the simplest type of heat exchanger consists of two

concentric pipes of different diameter. One fluid in a double-pipe heat exchanger flows

through the smaller pipe while the other fluid flows through the annular space between the

two pipes. Two types of flow arrangement are possible in a double-pipe heat exchanger is

in parallel flow ( co-current ) or counter flow. In parallel flow (co-current), both hot and cold

fluids enter the heat exchanger at the same end and move in the same direction. In

counter flow, on the other hand, the hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at

opposite ends and flow in opposite directions.

The performance of heat exchanger usually deteriorates with time as a result of

accumulation of deposits on heat exchanger surfaces. The layer of deposits represents

additional resistance to heat exchanger and cause the rate of heat transfer in a heat

exchanger to decrease. The net effect of these accumulations on heat transfer is represent

by a fouling factor Rf, which is a measure of the thermal resistance introduced by fouling.

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The most common type of fouling is the precipitation of solid deposits in a fluid on the heat

transfer surfaces. This type of fouling can be notice by a layer of calcium-based deposits

on the surfaces at which boiling occurs. This is especially the case in areas where the

water is hard. The scales of such deposits come off by scratching, and the surfaces can be

cleaned of such deposits by chemical treatment. Another form of fouling, which is common

in the chemical process industry, is corrosion and other chemical fouling. This form of

fouling can be avoided by coating metal pipes with glass or using plastics pipes instead of

metal ones. Heat exchanger may also be fouled by the growth of algae in warm fluids. This

type of fouling is called biological fouling and can be prevented by chemical treatment. The

fouling factor depends on the operating temperature and the velocity of the fluids, as well

as the length of service. Fouling increases with increasing temperature and decreasing

velocity. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power

plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing,

and sewage treatment.

2.0 OBJECTIVES.

In the experiment A and experiment B, the objectives is to demonstrate the

working principles of a concentric tube heat exchanger operating under co-current and

counter current flow conditions. Then, the objectives in the experiment C is demonstrate

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the effect of hot water temperature variation on the performance characteristics of a

concentric tube heat exchanger and experiment D is to demonstrate the effect of flow rate

variation on the performance characteristics of a concentric tube heat exchanger operating

under counter-current flow condition.

3.0 THEORY.

The theory behind the operation of a double-pipe heat exchanger is covered in

Incorporeal and Dewitt (1996). Also in this same textbook is the derivation of how transient

behaviour is treated with respect to heat transfer.

The simplest type of heat exchanger is a double-pipe heat exchanger consists of two

concentric pipes of different diameter. In a double-pipe heat exchanger, one fluid flows

through the smaller pipe while the other fluid flows through the annular space between the

two pipes. There was two types of flow arrangement are possible in a double-pipe heat

exchanger is in parallel flow (co-current) or counter flow. Both hot and cold fluids enter the

heat exchanger at the same end and move in the same direction in parallel flow (co-

current). On the other hand, the hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at opposite

ends and flow in opposite directions in counter flow.

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The counter current design is the most efficient, because it can transfer the most heat

from the heat transfer medium due to the fact that the average temperature difference

along any unit length is greater. In a co-current flow heat exchanger, the fluids travel

roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.

Before calculating the overall heat-transfer coefficient U, power emitted and power

absorbed must be calculated first to determine the value of power lost by using formula:

Power emitted (W) = QHPHCpH (T Hin T Hout )

Power absorbed (W) = QCPCCpC ( T Cout T Cin )

Power lost (W) = power emitted power absorbed

The value of efficiency also must be calculated,

power absorbed
100
Efficiency = power emitted

The determination of the overall heat-transfer coefficient is necessary in order to

determine the heat transferred from the inner pipe to the outer pipe. This coefficient takes

into account all of the conductive and convective resistances (k and h, respectively)

between fluids separated by the inner pipe. For a double-pipe heat exchanger the overall

heat transfer coefficient, U, can be expressed as:

power absorbed
Overall heat transfer coefficient U = tm area

Where,

Area = surface area of contact

= pi x ODinner pipe x Length

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= ( 3.142 x 0.015 x 1.36 ) m2

= 0.0641 m2

In a heat exchanger the log-mean temperature difference is the appropriate average

temperature difference to use in heat transfer calculations. The equation for the log-mean

temperature difference is:

t 1 t 2
Log mean temperature difference tm = t1
ln
t2

The only part of the overall heat-transfer coefficient that needs to be determined is

the convective heat-transfer coefficients. Correlations are used to relate the Reynolds

number to the heat-transfer coefficient. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless ratio of

the inertial and viscous forces in flow.

vd
Reynold number, Re =

If reynold number in range between 2300-4000, this is considered to be laminar flow

and if reynold number greater than 4000 it will be considered to be turbulent flow. Then

entry lengths must to calculate to determine whether it fully develops or developing region,

but in this experiment we assume the flow in tubes is turbulent and fully developing region.

So the formula to calculate the nusselt number used are:

Nusselt number, Nu = 0.023 . (Re0.8 ) . ( Pr 0.33 ) (0.7> Pr4000


160
)
Prandtl number, Pr = . Cp / K

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This gives a Nusselt number that can then be use to find h value.

Surface heat transfer coefficient, h = Nu . k / d

Last but not least, percentage error must be calculating to found out how much error

in this experiment. Before we calculated the percentage error, we must calculated first the

theoretical heat coefficient because to calculate the error, the theoretical heat coefficient

must be subtract the experimental heat coefficient and then divide by theoretical heat

coefficient. The formula used to calculate the theoretical heat coefficients is:

Theoretical heat coefficient, 1/ UAt = 1/ hAc [cold side] + 1/ hAh [hot side]

Where,

= density

= dynamic viscosity

Cp = specific heat

K = thermal conductivity

D = diameter of pipe

4.0 DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS.

8
10
00
1
1 9
2

12

11
13
7

8
6

1. Flowrate indicator
2. Temperature indicator
3. Temperature controller
4. Main switch
5. Concentric tube
6. Selector valve
7. Flowmeter
8. Control valve
9. Control valve
10. Flowmeter
11. Cold water inlet
12. Cold water outlet
13. Hot water inlet

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17

14

16 15

14. Pump inlet


15. Bypass valve
16. Storage tank
17. Loose cover

5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES.

Before started the experiment make sure all valve is closed. After that, opened the water

supplies and main switch and then opened the water pump.

EXPERIMENT A: CO-CURRENT FLOW ARRANGEMENT.

1. Set cold water flow direction control valve for co-current flow. Opened the valve V1

and V3 but keep valve V2 and V4 closed.


2. Controlled hot water temperature at 60oC.
3. Adjust the hot water flow rate, QH at 2.0L/min and cold water flow rate, Qc at 1.5L/min.

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4. Recorded the hot water and cold water temperature at inlet, midpoint and outlet once

conditions have stabilized.

EXPERIMENT B: COUNTER-CURRENT FLOW ARRANGEMENT.

1. Set cold water flow direction control valve for counter flow. Closed the valve V1 and

V3 but opened the valve V2 and V4.


2. Controlled hot water temperature at 60oC.
3. Adjust the hot water flow rate, QH at 2.0L/min and cold water flow rate, Qc at 1.5L/min.
4. Recorded the hot water and cold water temperature at inlet, midpoint and outlet once

conditions have stabilized.

EXPERIMENT C: WATER TEMPERATURE VARIATION.

1. Set cold water flow direction control valve for counter flow. Closed the valve V1 and

V3 but opened the valve V2 and V4.


2. Adjust the hot water flow rate, QH at 2.0L/min and cold water flow rate, Qc at 1.5L/min.
3. Set the temperature at 50oC, 55oC, 60oC, and 65oC.
4. Recorded all water temperature at inlet, midpoint and outlet once the conditions have

stabilized for a range of hot water inlet temperature as set on the controller.

EXPERIMENT D: FLOW RATE VARIATION.

1. Set cold water flow direction control valve for counter flow. Closed the valve V1 and

V3 but opened the valve V2 and V4.


2. Controlled hot water temperature at 60oC.
3. Adjust the cold water flow rate QC at 2.0L/min.
4. Adjust the hot water flow rate QH at 2.0L/min, 3.0 L/min, 4.0L/min and 5.0L/min.
5. Recorded all water temperature at inlet, midpoint and outlet once the conditions have

stabilized for a range of hot water flow rates whilst maintained a constant cold water flow

rate.

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6.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION.

RESULT.

EXPERIMENT A: CO-CURRENT FLOW ARRANEMENT.


Readings

TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 TT5 TT6


(Thin) (Thmid) (Thout) (Tcin) (Tcmid) (Tcout)
o o o 0 o o
C C C C C C

60.4 56.1 53.0 32.2 37.2 40.8


Calculation

Power Power Power Efficiency tm U


o
Emitted Absorbed Lost % C W/m2oC
W W W

1015.30 891.44 123.86 87.80 19.10 728.12

Temperature Flow Reynol Nusselt Surface Theoretica Experimenta Percentag Type


T rate d Numbe heat l l e of
(oC) Q Number r transfer U U error flow
(L/min Re Nu coefficien (W/m2K) (W/m2K) (%)
) t
h
(W/m2K)
Hot 56.7 2.0 5969.28 34.61 1509 634.17 728.12 12.90 Turb
Water ulent

Cold 36.5 1.5 2755.29 22.32 921.07 Tran


water sient

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EXPERIMENT B: COUNTER-CURRENT FLOW ARRANEMENT.
Readings

TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 TT5 TT6


(Thin) (Thmid) (Thout) (TcOut) (Tcmid) (Tcin)
o o o 0 o o
C C C C C C

60.1 55.9 52.4 40.8 41.4 30.7


calculations

Power Power Power Efficiency tm U


o
Emitted Absorbed Lost % C W/m2oC
W W W

1056.46 1047.20 9.26 99.12 20.48 797.70

Temperature Flow Reynol Nusselt Surface Theoretica Experimenta Percentag Type


T rate d Numbe heat l l e of
(oC) Q Number r transfer U U error flow
(L/min Re Nu coefficien (W/m2K) (W/m2K) (%)
) t
h
(W/m2K)
Hot 56.25 2.0 5969.28 34.61 1509 625.78 797.70 21.55 Turb
Water ulent

Cold 35.75 1.5 2637.39 21.92 898.72 Tran


water sient

EXPERIMENT C: WATER TEMPERATURE VARIATION.

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Readings
Temp TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 TT5 TT6
Set (tHin) (tHmid) (tHout) (tCout) (tCmid) (TcIn)
o o o o 0 o o
C C C C C C C

50 50.4 47.7 45.0 36.8 34.1 30.9

55 55.4 52.0 48.7 37.6 34.9 31.1

60 60.4 55.8 51.8 42.0 35.3 31.0

65 66.0 60.2 55.2 61.0 35.8 31.0


calculations

Temp Power Power Power Efficiency tm U


o
Set Emitted Absorbed Lost % C W/m2oC
o
C W W W

50 743.37 816.15 -72.78 109.79 13.85 919.31

55 920.85 899.07 21.78 97.63 17.7 792.43

60 1177.95 1520.29 -340.34 128.84 19.58 1211.31

65 1476.32 4129.84 -2650.52 279.17 12.18 5289.66

EXPERIMENT D: FLOW RATE VARIATION.


Readings

QH TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 TT5 TT6


L/min (tHin) (tHmid) (tHout) (tCout) (tCmid) (TcIn)
o o o o o o
C C C C C C

2.0 60.9 56.5 52.3 40.7 35.0 30.6

3.0 60.2 57.0 53.7 40.1 35.7 30.6

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4.0 60.4 57.7 54.6 42.4 37.6 30.6

5.0 60.8 58.5 55.9 41.8 36.7 30.5


calculations

QH Power Power Power Efficiency tm U


o
L/min Emitted Absorbed Lost % C W/m2oC
W W W

2.0 1179.95 1396.27 -216.32 118.33 20.94 1040.24

3.0 1337.42 1313.61 23.81 98.22 21.57 950.08

4.0 1591.07 1630.86 -39.79 102.50 20.86 1219.68

5.0 1680.22 1561.80 118.42 92.95 22.05 1104.99

Discussion.

In the experiment A, the test are conducted under co-current flow and in the

experiment B the test are conducted under counter current flow. The value of power lost in

experiment A is 123.86W is much greater than experiment B that is 9.26W but value of

efficiency of experiment B, 99.12% is much higher than experiment A, 87.80%.

Based on the result, experiment B (counter-current) is much more better than

experiment A (co-current). The counter current design is the most efficient, because it can

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transfer the most heat from the heat transfer medium due to the fact that the average

temperature difference along any unit length is greater. In a co-current flow heat

exchanger, the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.

The higher the value of reynold number, Re the higher the value of surface heat

transfer coefficient, h.

In the experiment A and B, the value of the experimental U is higher than value of

theoretical U. The water could affect the efficiency of water by composition in the water.

The water supplies could contain contaminant such as sand, dust, microorganism and

others that can be affect the result and heat exchanger cannot work with efficiently. There

are several common problems that always happen in the heat exchanger such as fouling,

scale and corrosive.

But there are several problems when conducting this experiment such as, the value

of power absorbed is much greater than power emitted. This happen because, something

in the heat exchanger makes the cooling water heating more than it supplies, so the value

of power lost is negative and we cannot calculate the efficiency (%).

7.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION.

Experiment A = CO-CURRENT FLOW ARRANGEMENT

Power emitted (W) = QHPHCpH (T Hin T Hout )

16
2.0 L 984.71kg 4.180 KJ 1m
3

= min x m3 x Kg . K x ( 333.4326 ) k x 1000 L x

1 min
60 s

= 1015.30 W

Power absorbed (W) = QCPCCpC ( T Cout T Cin )

1.5 L 1 min 1 m3 993.35 Kg 4.174 KJ


= min x 60 s x 1000 L x m
3 x Kg . K x (313.8

305.2)k

= 891.44 W

Power lost (W) = power emitted power absorbed

= 123.86 W

power absorbed
100
Efficiency ( % ) = power emitted

891.44
= 1015.30 x 100 = 87.80%

T 1T 2 28.212.2
TM ( C ) = T 1 = 28.2 = 19.1oC
ln ( ) ln( )
T 2 12.2

W Power absorbed
U( m . c ) =
2
Tm area

891.44 W
= 19.1 X 0.0641 m
2

728.12 w
= 2
m

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Hot water.

vd
Reynold number, Re =

kg m
983.30 0.189 0.015 m
m 3
s
= kg
0.467 103
m. s

= 5969.28 (turbulent)

Prandtl number, Pr = . Cp / K

3 kg kJ
0.467 10 4.179
m.s kg . k
= W
0.654
m. k

= 2.984

Nusselt number, Nu = 0.023. (Re0.8 ) . ( Pr 0.33 ) (0.7> Pr4000


160
)
= 0.023. (5969.280.8) . (2. 984 0.33)

= 34.61

Surface heat transfer coefficient, h = Nu . k / d

W
34.61 0.654
= m.K
0.015 m

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W
= 1509 m2 . K

Cold water.

vd
Reynold number, Re =

kg m
994.90 0.141 0.015 m
m
3
s
= kg
0.7637 103
m. s

= 2755.79 (transient)

Prandtl number, Pr = . Cp / K

kg kJ
0.7637 103 4.174
m.s kg . k
= W
0.619
m. k

= 5.15

Nusselt number, Nu = 0.023. (Re0.8 ) . ( Pr 0.33 ) (0.7> Pr4000


160
)
= 0.023. (27550.8) . (5.15 0.33)

= 22.32

Surface heat transfer coefficient, h = Nu . k / d

W
22.32 0.619
= m. K
0.015 m

W
= 921.07 m2 . K

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Area of hot water = surface area of contact

= pi x ODinner pipe x Length

= ( 3.142 x 0.013 x 1.36 ) m2

= 0.0556 m2

Area of cold water = surface area of contact

= pi x ODinner pipe x Length

= ( 3.142 x 0.02 x 1.36 ) m2

= 0.0855 m2

Theoretical heat coefficient, 1/ UAt = 1/ hAc [cold side] + 1/ hAh [hot side]

1
U (0.0641 m2 ) =

1 1
+
W W
921.07 2
(0.0855 m2 ) 1509 2 (0.0556 m 2)
m .k m .k

W
U = 634.17 m2 . k

728.12634.17

Percentage error = x 100%

= 12.90%

8.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.

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CONCLUSION.

Between co-current and counter-current, the counter current design is the

most efficient, because it can transfer the most heat from the heat transfer medium due to

the fact that the average temperature difference along any unit length is greater. In a co-

current flow heat exchanger, the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another through

the exchanger. This can be shown at experiment A and B and the efficiency for counter

current is 99.12% while the co-current is 87.80%. The counter-current flow has three

significant advantages over the co-current flow design. First, it has more uniform

temperature difference between hot fluid and cold fluid and it minimize the thermal stress

throughout the exchanger. Second, the outlet temperature of the cold fluid can approach

the highest temperature of the hot fluid. Third, more uniform temperature difference

produces a more uniform rate of heat exchanger throughout heat exchanger.

RECOMMENDATION.

There are a few problems regarding the result while the experiments are conducted. The

result may vary as the surrounding temperature may affect the heat transfer.

Here are recommendations for experiment betterment in the time to come.

Confusion.
When experiment is conducted, the value of power absorbed is much greater than

power emitted. So the value of power lost is negative and we cannot calculate the

efficiency (%). This happen because, something in the heat exchanger make the

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cooling water heating more than it supplies. When we conducted this experiment,

group before us already make this experiment. This heat exchanger is not fully cooled

to the room temperature, and the remaining heat in the apparatus is transfer to the

cooling water. That is the reason why the power absorbed is much greater than power

emitted.

Usage of materials
As a replacement for of using water, it will be more proper if we use other materials or

chemicals such as hydrocarbon or refrigerant .It may expose student to experiment fluid

with different physical and chemical properties.

9.0 REFERENCES.

1. Perry, J.H.(Ed.): Chemical Engineers Handbook, 4 th ed., McGraw-Hill Book

Company, New York, 1993.


2. Chemical engineering laboratory report book.
3. Jeffrey, B.W. DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER, Laboratory Manual

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10.0 APPENDICES.

Physical Properties of Component

o
C Cp Density, p
kJ/kg.K Kg/m3
21.11 4.179 997.40
26.67 4.179 995.80
30.00 4.176 995.26
31.00 4.175 995.10
32.00 4.174 994.94
32.22 4.174 994.90
34.00 4.174 994.23
34.30 4.174 994.14
34.65 4.174 993.99
35.15 4.174 993.83
35.65 4.174 993.61
35.90 4.174 993.53
36.20 4.174 993.38
36.40 4.174 993.35
37.25 4.174 993.02
47.20 4.174 989.42
48.89 4.174 988.80
50.00 4.175 998.18
51.50 4.176 987.36
54.44 4.179 985.70
54.65 4.179 985.61
55.00 4.179 985.46
55.05 4.179 985.42
55.50 4.179 985.22
56.50 4.180 984.71
57.00 4.180 984.48
57.25 4.180 984.41
59.70 4.181 983.16
60.00 4.179 983.30
65.00 4.183 980.60
65.55 4.183 980.30

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