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Well Head

1. Back pressure valve preparation

A type of check valve, typically installed in the tubing hanger, to isolate the production tubing.
The back-pressure valve is designed to hold pressure from below yet enable fluids to be pumped
from above, as may be required for well-control purposes

2. Subsurface safety valve control line

A downhole safety valve that is operated from surface facilities through a control line strapped to
the external surface of the production tubing. Two basic types of SCSSV are
common: wireline retrievable, whereby the principal safety-valve components can be run and
retrieved on slickline, and tubing retrievable, in which the entire safety-valve assembly is
installed with the tubing string. The control system operates in a fail-safe mode, with hydraulic
control pressure used to hold open a ball or flapper assembly that will close if the control
pressure is lost.

3. subsurface safety valve control line outlet

Outlet for SCSSV

4. tubing head adaptor

Equipment used to adapt the uppermost connection of the tubing head to the lowermost section
of the tree.

5. Lock screw

A mechanism that actuates the hanger/packoff seals in the event of annulus pressure, preventing
casing movement caused by thermal expansion during production

6. Tubing hanger Pack off

A tubing hanger is a component used in the completion of oil and gas production wells. It is set
in the tree or the wellhead and suspends the production tubing and/or casing. Sometimes it
provides porting to allow the communication of hydraulic, electric and other downhole functions,
as well as chemical injection. To effect hydraulic isolation, either with a sealing device, such as a
packer, or with a specialized plastic or fluid, such as a sealing compound.

7. extended neck tubing hanger with downhole safety valve

Extended neck design ensures positive alignment for the metal U cup seal during installation of
tubing hanger

8. studded side outlet

Preparation for side outlet. The preferred construction for cost effectiveness, fire resistance, and
minimal bending moments on the wellhead, is the studded outlet

9. valve removal preparation

An acceptable connection but only for non-sour service is a buttweld preparation full penetration
welded and X-rayed with the Valve Removal (VR) preparation in the main housing body. The
valve removal preparation (VR) will reduce the nominal size to the actual size of 31.75 mm
(11/4").In all of the options mentioned the valve removal preparation should have a metal to
metal seal because the NPT threads are not hydrocarbon tight.

10. bottom casing pack off

The seal in the annulus between a hanging pipe and the next pipe outward

11. tubing head spool

Piece of equipment attached to the uppermost casing head or smallest casing string which serves
to suspend the tubing and to seal the annular space between the tubing and casing.

12. double studded adaptor

A Double Studded Adapter (DSA) is commonly used to connect flanges with different nominal
sizes, pressure ratings, and configurations.

13. annular casing pack-off

A well tool for running, landing and setting a casing hanger and a packoff in a wellhead housing,
and pressure-testing the integrity of the packoff seal, all in a single trip into the well.

14. casing hanger (slip style)

Mechanism that locks into the casing head, responsible for hanging the casing pipe. The slips
engage the casing evenly, thus distributing the casing load equally to the bowl of the casing head.
slip hangers can provide additional features, like automatic packoff sealing

15. Threaded outlet connection

Female threads are interior, made to receive male threaded pipe fittings Male threads are exterior,
made to screw into the inside of a larger diameter pipe end with internal threading

16. bullplug

A solid plug used as an isolation device in piping systems, conduits or wellbore tubulars.

17. casing head housing

Equipment attached to the uppermost end of the surface casing, which serves to suspend and seal
a casing string18. surface casing

Outer casing cemented in the upper portion of the well bore to protect fresh water formations
from contamination.

19. wellhead support plate

A load-supporting device attached to the starting casing head by means of either mechanical or
permanent (welding) connection

20. tubing pack-off retainer

It is used to close off the annular space between tubing or drill pipe and casing to allow the
placement of cement or fluid through the tubing or drill pipe at any predetermined point behind
the casing or liner, around the shoe, or into the open hole around the shoe.

21. tubing hanger (slip style)

The tubing hanger incorporates a three piece slip and seal design giving the operator positive
indication of proper hanger positioning with in the coiled tubing head profile. The slip and seal
assembly is positively locked in position with multiple tie down bolts.

22. Tubing

Tubing is the normal flow conduit used to transport produced fluids to the surface or fluids to the
formation. Its use in wells is normally considered a good operating practice.

23. studded side outlet connection

Connect studded side outlet

24. Extended neck tubing hanger seal

Hangs the tubing and seals off the annulus.

Provides communication for control lines and chemical injection.

Provides isolation point for BOP Stack

25. annular tubing hanger seal

annular dovetail body seals that will self energize and seal without the aid of a lockdown screw.

26. tubing hanger mandrel

Mechanism used to support a tubing string in a tubing head by means of a male or female thread
attached to the tubing.Traditionally, mandrel hangers are used only to suspend tubing from the
tubing head. Occasionally, they can also be used in intermediate casing spools as an alternative
to the slip-and-seal casing-hanger assembly. The mandrel hanger is a solid body with a through-
bore ID similar to that of the tubing or casing run below, and it also has penetrations for
downhole safety valve line(s) and temperature and pressure gauges, if required.

27. flanged outlet connection

Connect flanged outlet

28. casing hanger mandrel

Mechanism used to support a casing string in a casing head by means of a male or female thread
attached to the casing.

29. casing head spool

Equipment attached to another casing head, which serves to suspend and seal a secondary casing

30. inner casing

Casing that located inside wellhead

31. intermediate casing

A casing string that is generally set in place after the surface casing and before the production
casing. The intermediate casing string provides protection against caving of weak or abnormally
pressured formations and enables the use of drilling fluids of different density necessary for the
control of lower formations

32. flanged end connection

Connect flanged end

33. tubing hanger mandrel seals

Mechanism used to support a tubing string in a tubing head by means of a male or female thread
attached to the tubing.

34. wrap around hanger pack off

Packoff seals the annular space between the wellhead and casing hanger
Christmas Tree
1. Gauge valve

A gauge valve valve is typically a single shutoff needle valve, that isolates the gauge from the
process. A "2 valve manifold" has 3 ports and 2 valves. One valve is a blocking valve, one is a
bleed valve.

2. bonnet nut

A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body. It is commonly semi-permanently screwed into the
valve body or bolted onto it. During manufacture of the valve, the internal parts are put into the
body and then the bonnet is attached to hold everything together inside. To access internal parts
of a valve, a user would take off the bonnet, usually for maintenance. Many valves do not have
bonnets; for example, plug valves usually do not have bonnets. Many ball valves do not have
bonnets since the valve body is put together in a different style, such as being screwed together at
the middle of the valve body.

3. blanking plug

Slickline-retrievable blanking plugs are available to hold differential pressure in the tubing string
from above, below, or both. They can be used in low- or high-pressure applications with
differential pressures up to 10,000 psi [69 MPa]. High-temperature seals for operating above 300
degF [149 degC] are also available. Some blanking plugs can be easily converted to equalizing
standing valves or circulating plugs

4. body

The valve's body is the outer casing of most or all of the valve that contains the internal parts
or trim. Valve bodies are usually metallic or plastic. Brass, bronze, gunmetal, cast
iron, steel, alloy steels and stainless steels are very common.[citation needed] Seawater applications,
like desalination plants, often use duplex valves, as well as super duplex valves, due to their
corrosion resistant properties, particularly against warm seawater. Alloy 20 valves are typically
used in sulphuric acid plants, whilst monel valves are used in hydrofluoric acid (HF Acid)
plants. Hastelloy valves are often used in high temperature applications, such as nuclear plants,
whilst inconel valves are often used in hydrogen applications. Plastic bodies are used for
relatively low pressures and temperatures. PVC, PP, PVDF and glass-reinforced nylon are
common plastics used for valve bodies

5. top connector
Top connectors specified in API Spec 6A have designated uppermost collar connections implied
for specific Flange and Hub sizes and working pressures. API Spec 6A does not mention cross
adaptation, but Operators may specify "Adapting Top Connectors" just as they may specify
Adapter Flanges or Adapter Spools; however, following the exact Flange / Hub top connection
specification allows Operators to always know the uppermost connection if they know
the Run connections of the Christmas Tree

6. swab or crown valve

The topmost valve on a Christmas tree that provides vertical access to the wellbore

7. tee

Connecting master valve 1, master valve 2 , and wing valve

8. wing valve

A valve located on the side of a Christmas tree or temporary surface flow equipment, such as
may be used for a drillstem test. Two wing valves are generally fitted to a Christmas tree. A
flowing wing valve is used to control and isolate production, and the kill wing valve fitted on the
opposite side of the Christmas tree is available for treatment or well-control purposes. The term
wing valve typically is used when referring to the flowing wing.

9. choke

A device incorporating an orifice that is used to control fluid flow rate

or downstream system pressure. Chokes are available in several configurations for both fixed and
adjustable modes of operation. Adjustable chokes enable the fluid flow and pressure parameters
to be changed to suit process or production requirements. Fixed chokes do not provide this
flexibility, although they are more resistant to erosion under prolonged operation or production
of abrasive fluids

10. master valve

A valve located on the Christmas tree that controls all flow from the wellbore. A correctly
functioning master valve is so important that two master valves are fitted to most Christmas
trees. The upper master valve is used on a routine basis, with the lower master valve providing
backup or contingency function in the event that the normal service valve is leaking and needs

11. tubing head adapter

Equipment used to adapt the uppermost connection of the tubing head to the lowermost section
of the tree.