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Shaswat Saincher

Surat - 7
Types of Pressures
The type of pressure to be measured decides the type
of pressure measurement device to be used.
Different types of pressures can be classified into two
based on selection of reference pressure
based on nature

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Classification of Pressures
Based on reference pressure

Absolute Gauge Vacuum Differential

(-ve) gauge ()

Based on nature

Fluid Pressure of Explosion Stagnation Vapor

pressure an ideal gas pressure pressure pressure
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Classification based on Reference

Differential ()


pressure (1 atm)
(-ve) gauge


Perfect Vacuum
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Classification based on Nature

+ + =
Fluid pressure
Pressure in Static fluid systems
The Ocean Atmosphere Irrigation canals

Pressure in Dynamic fluid systems

Highland rivers Flow through pipes

Process piping 5
Fluid pressures
For steady incompressible flow, the Bernoulli eqn. is given by,

+ + =

Assuming incompressibility (density is constant) Bernoulli equation

can be modified as,

+ + =

The static pressure is by virtue of the state of the fluid and is
governed by the equation of state.
The dynamic pressure is by virtue of the velocity of a fluid that is in
motion. A flowing fluid when brought to rest would exert a total
pressure that is equal to the sum of static and dynamic pressures.
The hydro-static pressure is pressure induced by a column of
height of a fluid having density . 6
Classification based on Nature
Pressure of an ideal gas (static pressure)

where, is the density, is the specific gas constant and
is temperature.
Important in estimating static pressure of any fluid.
Important in analyzing compressible flows eg. flow of
air around an aircraft wing

Explosion pressure
Designing bombs
Supernova remnants
Effect of explosions on soldiers during combat
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Classification based on Nature
Stagnation pressure (Pitot pressure) is the sum of
free-stream static and dynamic pressures at any point
where the flow is brought to rest.
at any point in the flow: = +
at a stagnation point in the flow:

Senses Pitot
Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a vapor in
thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed
phases at a given temperature in a closed system.
Monday, September 05, 2016 Measured using an ISOTENISCOPE 8
Artists impression of a Magnetar
(the most powerful magnetic object in the universe)