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1K Ansichten65 Seiten1 ESO - UNIT 10 - LINES AND ANGLES. GEOMETRIC FIGURES.

May 14, 2017

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1 ESO - UNIT 10 - LINES AND ANGLES. GEOMETRIC FIGURES.

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1K Ansichten65 Seiten1 ESO - UNIT 10 - LINES AND ANGLES. GEOMETRIC FIGURES.

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1. LINES.

1.1. PERPENDICULAR BISECTOR.

In Geometry, Bisection is the division of something into two equal parts, usually

by a Line, which is then called a Perpendicular Bisector or Segment Bisector (a line

that passes through the Midpoint of a given segment).

?

Step 1: Stretch your compasses until it is more than half the length of

. Put the

.

sharp end at and mark an arc above and another arc below line segment

Step 2: Without changing the width of the compasses, put the sharp end at and

that will intersect with the arcs

mark arcs above and below the line segment

drawn in step 1.

Unit 10 April

Step 3: Join the two points where the arcs intersect with a straight line. This line is

. P is the midpoint of

the perpendicular bisector of .

Unit 10 April

The Angle Bisector is a line that passes through the apex of an angle, that

divides it into two equal angles.

Step 1: Put the sharp end of your compasses at point and make one arc on the

line

(point ) and another arc on line

(point ).

Step 2: Put the sharp end of the compasses at and make an arc within the

lines . Do the same at T and make sure that the second arc intersects

and

the first arc.

Unit 10 April

Step 3: Draw a line from point to the points of intersection of the 2 arcs. This

.

line bisects

Midpoint, Segment, Line, Apex.

Unit 10 April

2. ANGLES.

2.1. PARALLEL ANGLES.

When Parallel Lines get crossed by another line (which is called a Transversal),

you can see that many angles are the same.

Unit 10 April

The pairs of angles on opposite sides of the transversal but outside the two

lines are called Alternate Exterior Angles.

The pairs of angles on opposite sides of the transversal but inside the two lines

are called Alternate Interior Angles.

Unit 10 April

The pairs of angles on one side of the transversal but inside the two lines are

called Consecutive Interior Angles.

Vertically Opposite Angles are the angles opposite each other when two lines

cross.

Vertically Opposite Angles are equal.

Exterior Angles, Corresponding Angles, Alternate Interior Angles, Consecutive Interior

Angles, Vertically Opposite Angles.

Unit 10 April

2.2.1. SEXAGESIMAL DEGREE.

A Straight Angle is .

A Full Angle is .

There are in one Full Rotation (one complete circle around). The

most usual unit of measurement for angles is the Sexagesimal Degree, which consists

Unit 10 April

denoted by the symbol . To get an idea, one degree corresponds to the following

aperture:

submultiples of a degree, so we avoid working with expressions like the following:

This angle measures 0.56 degrees

Thus, the Sexagesimal Degree has submultiples: these are the Minute and the

Second. The Minute is designated as and the second as .

Unit 10 April

The measurement of an angle in degrees, minutes and seconds would be, for

example, . It would be read as: an angle of degrees, minutes and

seconds.

Let's see the exact value of minutes and seconds:

One Minute is the result of taking a degree and dividing it into equal parts. This

is, mathematically expressed:

= =

A Second is the result of taking a minute and dividing it in equal parts. This is,

mathematically expressed:

= =

from to . You find two scales marked to , one in clockwise direction and

the other in anti-clockwise direction. Each subdivision stands for .

Steps to measure:

Place the center of the protractor on the vertex of the angle.

Base line should fall along any of the sides.

Unit 10 April

The scale (clock wise or anti-clock wise direction), which begins with zero on the

side, is chosen.

Read the mark on the scale where the other arm crosses it.

To change degrees into minutes and seconds we will always work by means of

Conversion Factors. To convert from Complex Form to Non-Complex Form:

= ,

Write 73 13 48 in seconds:

73 = 73 3,600 = 262,800

13 = 13 60 = 780

Unit 10 April

To do it backwards:

= ; =

= ; =

= ; =

,

828 60 = 13 , = 48

Therefore:

263,628 = 73 13 48

MATH VOCABULARY: Right Angle, Straight Angle, Sexagesimal Degree, Full Angle,

Minute, Second, Protractor.

2.3.1. ADDING ANGLES USING THE SEXAGESIMAL MEASURE.

To Add we need to add separately degrees or hours, minutes and seconds and

then convert the seconds into minutes and the minutes into degrees/hours if we get

more than .

Unit 10 April

Add 15 43 30 + 25 50 34

15 43 30

+ 25 50 34

40 93 64

+1 60

40 94 4

+1 60

41 34 4

seconds, if we do not have enough seconds or minutes we convert one degree/hour

into minutes or a minute into seconds.

Subtract 56 38 11 32 43 56

56 38 11

32 43 56

56 38 11

1 + +60

55 97 71

32 43 56

23 54 15

given +60 to seconds.

convert the seconds into minutes and the minutes into degrees/hours when we get

more than subunits.

Unit 10 April

13 23 26

4

52 92 104

+1 60

52 93 44

+1 60

53 33 44

that must be added to the previous quantity that we had, divide the minutes and we

repeat the same that we have before. The remainder is in seconds.

Unit 10 April

2.4.1. TRIANGLES.

60 + 90 + 30 = 180

70 + 80 + 30 = 180

Unit 10 April

2.4.2. QUADRILATERALS.

up to .

90 + 90 + 90 + 90 = 360

100 + 80 + 90 + 90 = 360

Unit 10 April

2.4.3. PENTAGON.

A Pentagon has 5 sides, and can be made from three triangles. Its interior

angles add up to = . And when it is regular (all angles the same),

then each angle is / = .

etc), we add another to the total:

Unit 10 April

= ( )

( )

( ) =

2.5.1. CENTRAL ANGLE.

Central Angle is the angle subtended at the center of a circle by two given

points on the circle.

circumference.

is the "Apex Point"

Unit 10 April

An Inscribed Angle is half of the Central Angle . Called The Angle at the

Center Theorem.

And (keeping the endpoints fixed) the angle is always the same, no matter

where it is on the circumference the angle is the same. Called The Angles

Subtended by Same Arc Theorem.

Unit 10 April

An Angle Inscribed in a Semicircle is always a Right Angle. The end points are

either end of a circle's diameter, the apex point can be anywhere on the

circumference.

Side, Pentagon, Hexagon, Heptagon, Octagon, Nonagon, Decagon, Circumference,

Central Angle, Circle, Arc, Inscribed Angle, End Points, Apex Point, Theorem, Semicircle.

Unit 10 April

3.1. LINE OF SYMMETRY.

Another name for Reflection Symmetry. One half is the reflection of the other

half. The "Line of Symmetry" is the imaginary line where you could fold the image and

have both halves match exactly.

You can find if a shape has a Line of Symmetry by folding it. When the folded

part sits perfectly on top (all edges matching), then the fold line is a Line of Symmetry.

But when I try it this way, it does work (the folded part sits perfectly on top, all

edges matching):

Unit 10 April

3.2. TRIANGLES.

3.3. QUADRILATERALS.

Unit 10 April

A Regular Polygon has all sides equal, and all angles equal:

A regular polygon of 10 sides has 10 Lines of Symmetry

...

A regular polygon of "n" sides has "n" Lines of Symmetry

Unit 10 April

3.5. CIRCLE.

A line (drawn at any angle) that goes through its center is a Line of Symmetry.

So a Circle has infinite Lines of Symmetry.

If a Plane Shape has Lines of Symmetry, all of then cut in one point, and

every two near lines form an angle:

=

= =

Symmetry, Rhombus.

Unit 10 April

4. PLANE FIGURES.

4.1. TRIANGLES.

4.1.1. EQUILATERAL, ISOSCELES AND SCALENE.

There are three special names given to triangles that tell how many sides (or

angles) are equal. There can be 3, 2 or no equal sides/angles.

Triangles can also have names that tell you what type of angle is inside:

Unit 10 April

In a Triangle:

The longest side is always opposite the largest interior angle.

Recall that in a Scalene Triangle, all the sides have different lengths and all the

interior angles have different measures. In such a triangle, the shortest side is always

opposite the smallest angle. (These are shown in bold color above)

Unit 10 April

Similarly, the longest side is opposite the largest angle. If the smallest side is

opposite the smallest angle, and the longest is opposite the largest angle, then it

follows that since a triangle only has three sides, the midsize side is opposite the

midsize angle.

An Equilateral Triangle has all sides equal in length and all interior angles equal.

Therefore there is no "largest" or "smallest" in this case.

Isosceles Triangles have two sides the same length and two equal interior

angles. Therefore there can be two sides and angles that can be the "largest" or the

"smallest".

We can use a pair of compasses and a ruler to construct a triangle when the

lengths of its sides are given.

= , = .

Step 1: Draw a line segment

x cm

Step 2: To draw

the sharp point at point and mark an arc with the pencil end.

Unit 10 April

x cm

Step 3: To draw

, adjust the compasses to , place the sharp point at

point and mark an arc with the pencil end. You need to draw the arc so that it

will intersect with the arc drawn in step 2. Label the point of intersection as

point .

x cm

x cm

Unit 10 April

midpoint of the opposite side.

A triangle has three medians, and they all cross over at a special point called

the "Centroid".

Altitude is another word for height. In a triangle is the line at right angles to a

side that goes through the opposite corner.

Unit 10 April

Note that sometimes the edges of the triangle have to be extended outside the

triangle to draw the Altitudes. Then the Orthocenter is also outside the triangle.

4.1.7. CIRCUMCENTER.

"Circumcircle", called the "Circumcenter":

Unit 10 April

4.1.8. INCENTER.

Where all three angle bisectors intersect is the center of a triangle's "Incircle",

called the "Incenter"

Unit 10 April

When a triangle has a Right Angle (90), and squares are made on each of the

three sides, then the biggest square has the exact same area as the other two squares

put together!

Note: is the longest side of the triangle, and are the other two sides.

Unit 10 April

The longest side of the triangle is called the "Hypotenuse", so the formal

definition is:

In a right angled triangle: the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the

squares of the other two sides.

52 = 32 + 42

25 = 9 + 16 = 25

Unit 10 April

There are many geometric problems where we have to use the Pythagoras'

Theorem:

We have to study the shape to find out the right angles and the right triangles,

and apply the Pythagoras' Theorem:

Unit 10 April

Rhombi

Trapezoids

Regular Polygons

Circles

Unit 10 April

The Perimeter is the distance around the edge of the triangle: just add up the

three sides:

208 + 145 + 203 = 556

The Area is half of the base times height. "" is the distance along the Base. ""

is the height (measured at right angles to the base).

Unit 10 April

Many times we will have to use the Pythagoras' Theorem to find the height of

the triangle.

2 + 52 = 102

2 = 102 52 = 100 25 = 75

= 75 8.7

10 8,7

= = 43.5 2

2

Median, Centroid, Altitude, Orthocenter, Circumcenter, Incenter, Pythagoras' Theorem,

Hypotenuse, Rhombus, Trapezoid, Area, Perimeter, Base.

Unit 10 April

4.2. QUADRILATERALS.

Quadrilateral just means "four sides" (quad means four, lateral means side). A

Quadrilateral has four-sides, it is 2-dimensional (a flat shape), closed (the lines join

up), and has straight sides.

Unit 10 April

4.2.1. SQUARE.

A Square is a flat shape with 4 equal sides and every angle is a right angle (90).

Properties:

Each internal angle is 90.

Opposite sides are parallel (so it is a Parallelogram).

= =

Unit 10 April

= + + + =

A square has two Diagonals; they are equal in length and intersect in the

middle. The Diagonal is the side length times the square root of 2:

4.2.2. RECTANGLE.

A Rectangle is a four-sided flat shape where every angle is a right angle (90).

Properties:

Opposite sides are parallel (so it is a Parallelogram).

Unit 10 April

The Perimeter is the distance around the edges. The Perimeter is 2 times the

(width + height):

= + = ( + )

A rectangle has two Diagonals, they are equal in length and intersect in the

middle.

= +

4.2.3. RHOMBUS.

Unit 10 April

Properties:

Opposite sides are parallel, and opposite angles are equal (it is a Parallelogram).

The Altitude is the distance at right angles to two sides.

And the Diagonals "" and "" of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles.

The Square is a Rhombus.

The Perimeter is 4 times "s" (the side length) because all sides are equal in

length:

=

Unit 10 April

It is more common to call this shape a Rhombus, but some people call it a

Rhomb or even a Diamond. The plural is Rhombi or Rhombuses, and, rarely, Rhombbi

or Rhombbuses (with a double b).

4.2.4. PARALLELOGRAM.

A Parallelogram is a flat shape with opposite sides parallel and equal in length.

Properties:

Opposite sides are equal in length.

Opposite angles are equal (angles "" are the same, and angles "" are the same).

Angles "" and "" add up to , so they are supplementary angles.

A Parallelogram where all angles are right angles is a rectangle.

Unit 10 April

= + = ( + )

diagonals intersect each other at the half-way point.

4.2.5. TRAPEZOID.

A Trapezoid is a 4-sided flat shape with straight sides that has a pair of opposite

sides parallel (marked with arrows below):

Properties:

Is an Isosceles Trapezoid when both angles coming from a parallel side are equal,

and the sides that aren't parallel are equal in length.

Is called a "Trapezium" in the UK.

Unit 10 April

The Area is the average of the two base lengths times the altitude:

= + + +

between the two bases.

+

=

You can calculate the area when you know the median, it is just the median

times the height:

=

Unit 10 April

and UK have their definitions swapped over.

4.2.6. KITE.

A Kite is a flat shape with straight sides. It has 2 pairs of equal adjacent sides.

Properties:

Each pair is made up of adjacent sides (they meet) that are equal in length.

The angles are equal where the two pairs meet.

Diagonals (dashed lines) cross at right angles, and one of the diagonals bisects

(cuts equally in half) the other.

When all sides have equal length the Kite will also be a Rhombus.

When all the angles are also the Kite will be a Square.

To find the Area of a Kite, Multiply the lengths of the diagonals and then divide

by 2 to find the Area:

=

Unit 10 April

= ( + )

Rhombbi, Rhombbuses, Parallelogram, Trapezoid, Trapezium, Midsegment, Kite, Dart.

4.3. POLYGONS.

shapes. They are made of straight lines, and the shape is "closed" (all the lines connect

up).

Unit 10 April

A Regular Polygon has all angles equal and all sides equal, otherwise it is

Irregular.

angle can be more than . If any internal angle is greater than then the

polygon is Concave. (Think: concave has a "cave" in it).

A Simple Polygon has only one boundary, and it doesn't cross over itself.

A complex polygon intersects itself! Many rules about polygons don't work when it is

Complex.

Unit 10 April

Unit 10 April

They are just the names of the "Outer" and "Inner" circles (and each Radius)

that can be drawn on a polygon like this:

The "outside" circle is called a Circumcircle, and it connects all vertices (corner

points) of the polygon. The Radius of the circumcircle is also the radius of the polygon.

The "inside" circle is called an Incircle and it just touches each side of the polygon at its

midpoint. The radius of the incircle is the Apothem of the polygon.

We can learn a lot about regular polygons by breaking them into triangles like

this:

Unit 10 April

Notice that:

The "Height" of the triangle is the "Apothem" of the polygon.

Now, the Area of a Triangle is half of the base times height, so:

= =

To get the area of the whole polygon, just add up the areas of all the little

triangles ("" of them)

= =

4.4. CIRCLE.

A Circle is easy to make: Draw a curve that is "Radius" away from a central

point. All points are the same distance from the center.

Unit 10 April

The Radius is the distance from the center outwards. The Diameter goes

straight across the circle, through the center. The Circumference is the distance once

around the circle.

Unit 10 April

A line that goes from one point to another on the circle's circumference is

called a Chord. If that line passes through the center it is called a Diameter. A line that

"just touches" the circle as it passes by is called a Tangent. And a part of the

circumference is called an Arc.

There are two main "Slices" of a circle. The "pizza" slice is called a Sector. And

the slice made by a chord is called a Segment

Unit 10 April

The Quadrant and Semicircle are two special types of Sector: Quarter of a circle

is called a Quadrant. Half a circle is called a Semicircle.

You can work out the Area of a Sector by comparing its angle to the angle of a

full circle.

= ( )

The Area of a Segment is the area of a sector minus the triangular piece (shown

in light blue here).

Unit 10 April

= ( )

Unit 10 April

MATH VOCABULARY: Convex, Center, Diameter, Slice, Chord, Tangent, Arc, Sector,

Segment, Quadrant, Semicircle.

Unit 10 April

5. SOLID GEOMETRY.

we live in. It is called three-dimensional, or 3D, because there are three dimensions:

Width, Depth and Height.

Unit 10 April

There are two main types of solids, "Polyhedra", and "Non-Polyhedra": The

Polyhedra must have flat faces. If not they are Non-Polyhedra.

5.1. POLYHEDRONS.

and cylinders are not polyhedrons.

The same number of polygons meet at each vertex (corner).

Unit 10 April

5.1.2. PRISMS.

Identical ends.

Flat faces.

The same cross section all along its length.

Unit 10 April

The Cross Section of this object is a triangle it has the same cross section all

along its length so it's a Triangular Prism. The ends of a prism are parallel each one is

called a Base.

The side faces of a prism are Parallelograms (4-sided shapes with opposite

sides parallel).

Unit 10 April

All the previous examples are Regular Prisms, because the cross section is

regular (in other words it is a shape with equal edge lengths, and equal angles.). Here is

an example of an Irregular Prism:

Unit 10 April

5.1.3. PYRAMIDS.

There are many types of Pyramids, and they are named after the shape of their

Base.

Unit 10 April

This tells us where the top (apex) of the pyramid is. When the apex is directly

above the center of the base it is a Right Pyramid, otherwise it is an Oblique Pyramid.

This tells us about the shape of the base. When the base is a regular polygon it

is a Regular Pyramid, otherwise it is an Irregular Pyramid.

Unit 10 April

5.2. NON-POLYHEDRA.

5.2.1. SPHERE.

Properties:

It is perfectly symmetrical.

All points on the surface are the same distance "r" from the center.

It has no edges or vertices (corners).

It has one surface (not a "face" as it isn't flat).

It is not a polyhedron.

A Sphere is a Rotated Circle.

5.2.2. CYLINDER.

Properties:

Unit 10 April

From base to top the shape stays the same.

It has one curved side.

It is not a polyhedron as it has a curved surface.

A Cylinder is a Rotated Rectangle.

5.2.3. CONE.

Properties:

It has one curved side.

It is not a polyhedron as it has a curved surface.

The pointy end of a cone is called the Apex.

The flat part is the Base

A Cone is a Rotated Triangle.

MATH VOCABULARY: 3D Shapes, Sphere, Torus, Cylinder, Cone, Cube, Cuboid, Pyramid,

Prism, Polyhedra, Non-Polyhedra, Polyhedron, Platonic Solids, Edge, Face, Vertices,

Vertex, Apex.

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