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Using an adequate programming language (quick Basic, Matlab, Excel), produce a simple computer program capable of calculating the 10 first torsional natural vibration frequencies, of any torsional system up to 20 inertia masses with or without reduction gear boxes. The program should also draw the swing form of torsional vibration, additional stress diagram and the vector sum up to the 16 order of vibration.

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Using an adequate programming language (quick Basic, Matlab, Excel), produce a simple

computer program capable of calculating the 10 first torsional natural vibration frequencies, of

any torsional system up to 20 inertia masses with or without reduction gear boxes. The program

should also draw the swing form of torsional vibration, additional stress diagram and the vector

sum up to the 16 order of vibration.

The LR relevant rules are also at the Blackboard so that the LR requirements must be

considered.

Number of cylinders: 6

Firing order:1-5-3-4-2-6

Number of blades: 5

2

1. Introduction

2. Calculation of Torsional Vibration

3. LR Allowable Stress Limits

4. Symbols and definitions considered

5. Particulars of Plant

6.0 1 Node Mode of Vibration analysis (Holzer table)

6.1 2 Node Mode of Vibration analysis (Holzer table)

7.0 Result Analysis

8.0 Conclusions

9.0 References

3

1. Introduction

All rotating machinery systems experience torsional oscillations to some degree during start up,

shut down, and continuous operation. Consequently, the torsional response characteristics of

rotating and reciprocating equipment should be analysed and evaluated to ensure the systems

reliability. Severe torsional vibrations often occur with the only indications of a problem being

gear noise or coupling wear. Excessive torsional vibration can result in gear wear, gear tooth

failures, key failures, shrink fit slippage, and broken shaft in severe cases.

This report reviews the analysis techniques in assessing torsional vibration in marine 2 stroke

engine from the design point of view. The LR Rules is also discussed together with the survey

procedures for piston engines. A discussion regarding the Torsional Vibration Calculations

(Abbreviated as TVCs) is included together with a brief description of the operation of flexible

couplings and torsional dampers and their role in vibration isolation. 1

Aim: To develop an excel spread sheet, or in any other language, to perform the calculation of a

torsional system, that can be branched or nonbranched.

Scope of calculations

Carried out by recognised techniques, for the full dynamic system formed by the oil engines

Given due consideration to the potential deviation in values used to represent component

characteristics.

Estimates of crankshaft stress at all designated operating/service speeds, as well as at any

major critical speed.

calculations is representative of the appropriate range of effective dynamic stiffness

Method of calculation

A common iteration method based upon equilibrium of torque at resonance is effectively used to

evaluate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of shafting system. The procedure adopted

is a trial and error method of searching the natural frequency.

The shaft under free vibration conditions (without a force torque, T = 0), Ji** ^2 = 0 will

hold true only if is the natural frequency. The values of the summation will be nonzero at non

resonant conditions; the non zero value is called the residual torque.

Since the value of summation is zero only at natural frequencies, it is obvious that the sign of

the residual is opposite on either side of the natural frequency.

The Holzer method is begun by estimating the first natural frequency and calculating the

residual.

1

Analysis of Torsional Vibrations in Rotating Machinery by J.C Wachel and Fred R.Szenasi

4

3. LR Allowable Stress Limits

5

4. Symbols and definitions considered

Fn Natural frequency of mode of vibration

N = engine speed, in rev/min

Nc = critical speed, in rev/min

Ns = maximum continuous engine speed, in rev/min, or, in the case of constant speed

generating

sets, the full load speed, in rev/min

Tm Resultant mth harmonic component of tangential effort at each crank pin, expressed per

unit

area of piston in kgf/cm2

R Crank Radius in cm

Relative amplitude in radian

J Inertia in kg.cm.sec2

Me Engine Magnifier

Mp Propeller Magnifier

MD Vibration Damper magnifier

M Combined dynamic magnifier

5. Particulars of Plant

Number of cylinders: 6

Cylinder bore: 600 mm

Maximum combustion pressure: 127.5 bar

Firing order:1-5-3-4-2-6

Piston stroke: 1944 mm

Mean Indicated Pressure: 12.3 bar

Output: 9105 BHP

Number of blades: 5

Inertia (dry) 210000 kg cm s2

Diameter of crankshaft 672 mm

Diameter of intermediate shaft 425 mm

Diameter of propeller shaft 530 mm

Propeller type Solid

Propeller diameter 5600 mm

Frequency of 1-node mode of vibration : 394,6 (vib./min.)

Frequency of 2 node mode of vibration: 1737.7 (vib./min.)

6

Plant :

Idenfication No. : 6L60MCE

Density (kg/cm^3) : 0.00785

G-Modulus (kg/cm^2)

830000

:

Cylinder 1 0 82500

Cylinder 5 60 82500

Coupling 3300

Shaft Properties

Length Outer Weight Inertia

Shaft

diameter

(-) (cm) (cm) (kg) (kg.cm^2)

A2 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246

A3 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246

A4 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246

A5 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246

A6 104.69 67.2 2914.699 1645289.294

A7 106.35 67.2 2960.964 1671404.997

A8 547.65 42.5 6098.715 1376975.454

A9 626.88 53 10856.688 3812054.582

7

6.0 1 Node Mode of Vibration analysis (Holzer table)

Hozer table

W1

f1_CPM 398.90 41.77

[rad/s]

Torsional Torsional

Sum. of inertia

MOI Flexibility Stiffness Inertia torque amp. at amp.

Mass torque

shaft Ratio

No.

Ji (Rad/kg.cm)*10^- ( (

MASS ID Ji*^2 ki*10^(10) Ji**^2*10^8

(kg.cm.s^2) 10 ji**w^2)/ki ji**w^2)*10^8

1.00 1 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.44 0.01 1.00 1.44

2.00 2 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.42 0.02 0.99 2.86

3.00 3 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.39 0.03 0.97 4.25

4.00 4 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.34 0.04 0.93 5.59

5.00 5 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.28 0.05 0.89 6.87

6.00 6 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.64 1.57 1.20 0.05 0.83 8.07

Chain

7.00 39900.00 69624176.11 1.56 0.54 0.06 0.78 8.61

Drive 0.64

8.00 Fly Wheel 26000.00 45369137.32 20.06 0.05 0.33 1.79 0.73 8.94

9.00 Coupling 3300.00 5758390.51 9.75 0.10 -0.06 0.87 -1.07 8.88

10.00 Propeller 265000.00 462416207.26 0.00 0.00 -8.94 #DIV/0! -1.93 0.00

8

6.1 2 Node Mode of Vibration analysis (Holzer Table)

W1

f1_CPM 1738.2327 [rad/s] 182.0273065

Torsional Torsional

Sum. of

MOI Flexibility Stiffness Inertia torque amp. at amp.

Mass inertia torque

shaft Ratio

No.

Ji (Rad/kg.cm)*10^- ( (

MASS ID Ji*^2 ki*10^(10) Ji**^2*10^8

(kg.cm.s^2) 10 ji**w^2)/ki ji**w^2)*10^8

1 1 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 27.3355 0.2181 1.0000 27.3355

2 2 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 21.3726 0.3887 0.7819 48.7081

3 3 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 10.7476 0.4745 0.3932 59.4557

4 4 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 -2.2219 0.4567 -0.0813 57.2337

5 5 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 -14.7068 0.3394 -0.5380 42.5270

6 6 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.635 1.57 -23.9835 0.1178 -0.8774 18.5435

7 Chain Drive 39900.0 1322044218.3098 0.64 1.56 -13.1560 0.0345 -0.9951 5.3875

8 Fly Wheel 26000.0 861482448.0215 20.06 0.05 -8.8699 -0.6986 -1.0296 -3.4824

9 Coupling 3300.0 109342003.0181 9.75 0.10 -0.3620 -0.3748 -0.3310 -3.8443

10 Propeller 265000.0 8780494181.7571 0 0 3.8443 #DIV/0! 0.0438 0.0000

9

7.0 Result Analysis

Stress

ORDER Amplitude RPM Intermediate

Crank Shaft Propeller Shaft

shaft

0.002197

1.00 398.90 31.76 130.34 66.75

0.004422

2.00 199.45 63.91 262.32 134.33

0.007005

3.00 132.97 101.26 415.59 212.82

0.001582

4.00 99.73 22.86 93.84 48.05

0.000222

5.00 79.78 3.21 13.16 6.74

0.010149

6.00 66.48 146.71 602.13 308.34

0.000046

7.00 56.99 0.67 2.74 1.40

0.000075

8.00 49.86 1.09 4.46 2.28

0.000118

9.00 44.32 1.71 7.00 3.59

0.000027

10.00 39.89 0.40 1.63 0.83

0.000005

11.00 36.26 0.08 0.32 0.16

0.000436

12.00 33.24 6.30 25.86 13.24

0.000003

13.00 30.68 0.04 0.18 0.09

0.000008

14.00 28.49 0.12 0.50 0.26

0.000020

15.00 26.59 0.29 1.19 0.61

0.000006

16.00 24.93 0.09 0.38 0.20

10

11

12

LR Rules Part 5, Chapter,Section 2

Crank Shafts

(Barred

Critical Speed, Nc 66.48 RPM

Speed)

Max. Engine Speed, Ns 110 RPM

Therefore, r = Nc/Ns 0.60

Therefore critical occurs below the maximum revolutions

per minute

388.9 kgf/cm

Therefore, c

3 2

145.0 kgf/cm

Crank Shaft stress at 6th order (maximum stress)

5 2

Being critical within the running range, should not be 777.8 kgf/cm

greater than 2.c 6 2

In reference to table 8.2.1(a) for Crank Shaft

kgf/cm

Permissible vibration stress from graph 215

2

Being Maximum stress is less than permissible and critical

Pass

stresses

Intermediate Shaft

d, Minimum shaft diametar 42.5 cm

(Barred

Critical Speed, Nc 66.48 RPM

Speed)

Max. Engine Speed, Ns 110 RPM

Therefore, r = Nc/Ns 0.60

Therefore critical occurs below the maximum revolutions

per minute

564.9 kgf/cm

Therefore, c

2 2

595.3 kgf/cm

Inermediate Shaft stress at 6th order (maximum stress)

4 2

Being critical within the running range, should not be 960.3 kgf/cm

greater than 1.7.c 6 2

In reference to table 8.2.1(b) for Intermediate and thrust

shaft

kgf/cm

Permissible vibration stress from graph 580

2

Being Maximum stress is greater than permissible stress Fails Marginal ( 97%)

Speed in the range 61.15 - 72.28 RPM is barred in this

case

13

Propeller Shaft

d, Minimum shaft diametar 53 cm

(Barred

Critical Speed, Nc 66.48 RPM

Speed)

Max. Engine Speed, Ns 110 RPM

Therefore, r = Nc/Ns 0.60

Therefore critical occurs below the maximum revolutions

per minute

562.4 kgf/cm

Therefore, c

4 2

304.8 kgf/cm

Propeller Shaft stress at 6th order (maximum stress)

7 2

Being critical within the running range, should not be 956.1 kgf/cm

greater than 1.7.c 4 2

In reference to table 8.2.1(b) for Intermediate and thrust

shaft

kgf/cm

Permissible vibration stress from graph 580

2

Being Maximum stress is less than permissible and critical

Pass

stresses

8.0 Conclusions

Barred speed range and stresses due to 6th order resonance figured as followings,

Maximum stresses on shafts at barred speeds,

Intermediate Shaft 602 kgf/cm2

Propeller Shaft 308 kgf/cm2

Validated the results with LR Rules and observed that the Intermediate shaft stresses higher

than the Rule permissible limit at barred speed range. Hence it is a condition that continues

running at barred speed range is not permissible.

14

References

Lloyds Register Rules and Regulations for the classification of Ships, Part 5, Chapter 8

R.Szenasi

15

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