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# Post School Assignment

Using an adequate programming language (quick Basic, Matlab, Excel), produce a simple
computer program capable of calculating the 10 first torsional natural vibration frequencies, of
any torsional system up to 20 inertia masses with or without reduction gear boxes. The program
should also draw the swing form of torsional vibration, additional stress diagram and the vector
sum up to the 16 order of vibration.

The LR relevant rules are also at the Blackboard so that the LR requirements must be
considered.

## Engine type: 6L60ME

Number of cylinders: 6

## Maximum combustion pressure: 127.5 bar

Firing order:1-5-3-4-2-6

## Frequency of 2 node mode of vibration: 1737.7 (vib./min.)

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1. Introduction
2. Calculation of Torsional Vibration
3. LR Allowable Stress Limits
4. Symbols and definitions considered
5. Particulars of Plant
6.0 1 Node Mode of Vibration analysis (Holzer table)
6.1 2 Node Mode of Vibration analysis (Holzer table)
7.0 Result Analysis
8.0 Conclusions
9.0 References

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1. Introduction

All rotating machinery systems experience torsional oscillations to some degree during start up,
shut down, and continuous operation. Consequently, the torsional response characteristics of
rotating and reciprocating equipment should be analysed and evaluated to ensure the systems
reliability. Severe torsional vibrations often occur with the only indications of a problem being
gear noise or coupling wear. Excessive torsional vibration can result in gear wear, gear tooth
failures, key failures, shrink fit slippage, and broken shaft in severe cases.

This report reviews the analysis techniques in assessing torsional vibration in marine 2 stroke
engine from the design point of view. The LR Rules is also discussed together with the survey
procedures for piston engines. A discussion regarding the Torsional Vibration Calculations
(Abbreviated as TVCs) is included together with a brief description of the operation of flexible
couplings and torsional dampers and their role in vibration isolation. 1

## 2. Calculation of Torsional Vibration

Aim: To develop an excel spread sheet, or in any other language, to perform the calculation of a
torsional system, that can be branched or nonbranched.

Scope of calculations

Carried out by recognised techniques, for the full dynamic system formed by the oil engines
Given due consideration to the potential deviation in values used to represent component
characteristics.
Estimates of crankshaft stress at all designated operating/service speeds, as well as at any
major critical speed.
calculations is representative of the appropriate range of effective dynamic stiffness

Method of calculation

A common iteration method based upon equilibrium of torque at resonance is effectively used to
evaluate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of shafting system. The procedure adopted
is a trial and error method of searching the natural frequency.

The shaft under free vibration conditions (without a force torque, T = 0), Ji** ^2 = 0 will
hold true only if is the natural frequency. The values of the summation will be nonzero at non
resonant conditions; the non zero value is called the residual torque.
Since the value of summation is zero only at natural frequencies, it is obvious that the sign of
the residual is opposite on either side of the natural frequency.
The Holzer method is begun by estimating the first natural frequency and calculating the
residual.

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Analysis of Torsional Vibrations in Rotating Machinery by J.C Wachel and Fred R.Szenasi

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3. LR Allowable Stress Limits

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4. Symbols and definitions considered

## Natural phase velocity of the mode of vibration in rad/sec

Fn Natural frequency of mode of vibration
N = engine speed, in rev/min
Nc = critical speed, in rev/min
Ns = maximum continuous engine speed, in rev/min, or, in the case of constant speed
generating
sets, the full load speed, in rev/min
Tm Resultant mth harmonic component of tangential effort at each crank pin, expressed per
unit
area of piston in kgf/cm2
J Inertia in kg.cm.sec2
Me Engine Magnifier
Mp Propeller Magnifier
MD Vibration Damper magnifier
M Combined dynamic magnifier

5. Particulars of Plant

## Engine type: 6L60ME

Number of cylinders: 6
Cylinder bore: 600 mm
Maximum combustion pressure: 127.5 bar
Firing order:1-5-3-4-2-6
Piston stroke: 1944 mm
Mean Indicated Pressure: 12.3 bar
Output: 9105 BHP
Inertia (dry) 210000 kg cm s2
Diameter of crankshaft 672 mm
Diameter of intermediate shaft 425 mm
Diameter of propeller shaft 530 mm
Propeller type Solid
Propeller diameter 5600 mm

## Validation data for the in line engine:

Frequency of 1-node mode of vibration : 394,6 (vib./min.)
Frequency of 2 node mode of vibration: 1737.7 (vib./min.)

## Torsional stiffness and inertia of shaft element

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Plant :
Idenfication No. : 6L60MCE
Density (kg/cm^3) : 0.00785
G-Modulus (kg/cm^2)
830000
:

## Propeller Inertia : 265000 kg.cm.s^2

Cylinder 1 0 82500

## Cylinder 4 180 82500

Cylinder 5 60 82500

## Cylinder 6 300 82500

Coupling 3300

Shaft Properties
Length Outer Weight Inertia
Shaft
diameter
(-) (cm) (cm) (kg) (kg.cm^2)

## A1 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246

A2 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246
A3 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246
A4 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246
A5 132.94 67.2 3701.205 2089256.246
A6 104.69 67.2 2914.699 1645289.294
A7 106.35 67.2 2960.964 1671404.997
A8 547.65 42.5 6098.715 1376975.454
A9 626.88 53 10856.688 3812054.582

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6.0 1 Node Mode of Vibration analysis (Holzer table)

Hozer table

W1
f1_CPM 398.90 41.77

Torsional Torsional
Sum. of inertia
MOI Flexibility Stiffness Inertia torque amp. at amp.
Mass torque
shaft Ratio
No.
MASS ID Ji*^2 ki*10^(10) Ji**^2*10^8
(kg.cm.s^2) 10 ji**w^2)/ki ji**w^2)*10^8
1.00 1 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.44 0.01 1.00 1.44

2.00 2 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.42 0.02 0.99 2.86

3.00 3 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.39 0.03 0.97 4.25

4.00 4 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.34 0.04 0.93 5.59

5.00 5 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.80 1.25 1.28 0.05 0.89 6.87

6.00 6 Cyl 82500.00 143959762.64 0.64 1.57 1.20 0.05 0.83 8.07
Chain
7.00 39900.00 69624176.11 1.56 0.54 0.06 0.78 8.61
Drive 0.64
8.00 Fly Wheel 26000.00 45369137.32 20.06 0.05 0.33 1.79 0.73 8.94

9.00 Coupling 3300.00 5758390.51 9.75 0.10 -0.06 0.87 -1.07 8.88

10.00 Propeller 265000.00 462416207.26 0.00 0.00 -8.94 #DIV/0! -1.93 0.00

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6.1 2 Node Mode of Vibration analysis (Holzer Table)

W1
Torsional Torsional
Sum. of
MOI Flexibility Stiffness Inertia torque amp. at amp.
Mass inertia torque
shaft Ratio
No.
MASS ID Ji*^2 ki*10^(10) Ji**^2*10^8
(kg.cm.s^2) 10 ji**w^2)/ki ji**w^2)*10^8
1 1 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 27.3355 0.2181 1.0000 27.3355
2 2 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 21.3726 0.3887 0.7819 48.7081
3 3 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 10.7476 0.4745 0.3932 59.4557
4 4 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 -2.2219 0.4567 -0.0813 57.2337
5 5 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.798 1.25 -14.7068 0.3394 -0.5380 42.5270
6 6 Cyl 82500.0 2733550075.4527 0.635 1.57 -23.9835 0.1178 -0.8774 18.5435
7 Chain Drive 39900.0 1322044218.3098 0.64 1.56 -13.1560 0.0345 -0.9951 5.3875
8 Fly Wheel 26000.0 861482448.0215 20.06 0.05 -8.8699 -0.6986 -1.0296 -3.4824
9 Coupling 3300.0 109342003.0181 9.75 0.10 -0.3620 -0.3748 -0.3310 -3.8443
10 Propeller 265000.0 8780494181.7571 0 0 3.8443 #DIV/0! 0.0438 0.0000

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7.0 Result Analysis

Stress
ORDER Amplitude RPM Intermediate
Crank Shaft Propeller Shaft
shaft

0.002197
1.00 398.90 31.76 130.34 66.75
0.004422
2.00 199.45 63.91 262.32 134.33
0.007005
3.00 132.97 101.26 415.59 212.82
0.001582
4.00 99.73 22.86 93.84 48.05
0.000222
5.00 79.78 3.21 13.16 6.74
0.010149
6.00 66.48 146.71 602.13 308.34
0.000046
7.00 56.99 0.67 2.74 1.40
0.000075
8.00 49.86 1.09 4.46 2.28
0.000118
9.00 44.32 1.71 7.00 3.59
0.000027
10.00 39.89 0.40 1.63 0.83
0.000005
11.00 36.26 0.08 0.32 0.16
0.000436
12.00 33.24 6.30 25.86 13.24
0.000003
13.00 30.68 0.04 0.18 0.09
0.000008
14.00 28.49 0.12 0.50 0.26
0.000020
15.00 26.59 0.29 1.19 0.61
0.000006
16.00 24.93 0.09 0.38 0.20

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LR Rules Part 5, Chapter,Section 2

Crank Shafts

(Barred
Critical Speed, Nc 66.48 RPM
Speed)
Max. Engine Speed, Ns 110 RPM
Therefore, r = Nc/Ns 0.60
Therefore critical occurs below the maximum revolutions
per minute

388.9 kgf/cm
Therefore, c
3 2

145.0 kgf/cm
Crank Shaft stress at 6th order (maximum stress)
5 2
Being critical within the running range, should not be 777.8 kgf/cm
greater than 2.c 6 2
In reference to table 8.2.1(a) for Crank Shaft
kgf/cm
Permissible vibration stress from graph 215
2
Being Maximum stress is less than permissible and critical
Pass
stresses

Intermediate Shaft
d, Minimum shaft diametar 42.5 cm
(Barred
Critical Speed, Nc 66.48 RPM
Speed)
Max. Engine Speed, Ns 110 RPM
Therefore, r = Nc/Ns 0.60
Therefore critical occurs below the maximum revolutions
per minute

564.9 kgf/cm
Therefore, c
2 2

595.3 kgf/cm
Inermediate Shaft stress at 6th order (maximum stress)
4 2
Being critical within the running range, should not be 960.3 kgf/cm
greater than 1.7.c 6 2
In reference to table 8.2.1(b) for Intermediate and thrust
shaft
kgf/cm
Permissible vibration stress from graph 580
2
Being Maximum stress is greater than permissible stress Fails Marginal ( 97%)
Speed in the range 61.15 - 72.28 RPM is barred in this
case

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Propeller Shaft
d, Minimum shaft diametar 53 cm
(Barred
Critical Speed, Nc 66.48 RPM
Speed)
Max. Engine Speed, Ns 110 RPM
Therefore, r = Nc/Ns 0.60
Therefore critical occurs below the maximum revolutions
per minute

562.4 kgf/cm
Therefore, c
4 2

304.8 kgf/cm
Propeller Shaft stress at 6th order (maximum stress)
7 2
Being critical within the running range, should not be 956.1 kgf/cm
greater than 1.7.c 4 2
In reference to table 8.2.1(b) for Intermediate and thrust
shaft
kgf/cm
Permissible vibration stress from graph 580
2
Being Maximum stress is less than permissible and critical
Pass
stresses

8.0 Conclusions

Barred speed range and stresses due to 6th order resonance figured as followings,

## Barred speed range at shaft stresses than permissible: 62 72 RPM

Maximum stresses on shafts at barred speeds,

## Crank Shaft 146 kgf/cm2

Intermediate Shaft 602 kgf/cm2
Propeller Shaft 308 kgf/cm2

Validated the results with LR Rules and observed that the Intermediate shaft stresses higher
than the Rule permissible limit at barred speed range. Hence it is a condition that continues
running at barred speed range is not permissible.

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References

Lloyds Register Rules and Regulations for the classification of Ships, Part 5, Chapter 8

R.Szenasi

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