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Introduction to Mechatronics

An overview of trends and technologies for innovation

Dario Petri
Department of Industrial Engineering

Ciclo di Seminari per lIngegneria Industriale 17 Marzo 2015


Outline

What is mechatronics?
Role of Mechatronics for Industry and Society
What is a Mechatronic System
The core of Mechatronic Systems: the
Embedded processing Platform
Transducers and MEMS

Annex: M.Sc. Mechatronic Engineering


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What is Mechatronics ?

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What is mechatronics ?
a synergistic
integration and convergence of disciplines

A definition:
approach aiming at the
synergistic integration of
mechanics, electronics,
control theory, and
computer science in
order to improve and/or
optimize functionality of
systems or processes

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Role of Mechatronics
for Industry and Society

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Where is mechatronics used?

Automotive Ambient Assisted Instruments


Living (AAL)

Robotics Industrial automation Home appliances


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What perspectives for Mechatronics ?

a key role within the European research and innovation funding


programme (2014-20) called Horizon 2020

Horizon 2020 goals:


Responding to the economic crisis to invest in future jobs and growth
Addressing peoples concerns about their livelihoods, safety and
environment
Strengthening the EUs global position in research, innovation and
technology
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Horizon 2020 priorities

32%
Excellent Total:
science 80 bn

Industrial Societal
leadership challenges
22% 38%
Others: 8%

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Horizon 2020 priorities vs Mechatronics

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Example: Automotive
automobiles as distributed embedded systems

multiple processors
up to 100 and more
networked together 10
Example: factory of the Future

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Example: Smart City
rational management of resources, sustainable
development, for the benefit of citizens,
companies, institutions

pervasive use of information, mechanical and


control technologies for communications,
mobility, environment, energy,
Example: Smart Grids

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Example: Smart Home
Buildings as
Composition of
Subsystems

Sensors, Actuators,
Networks
Performance Database

Security
Safety
Entertainment

Environmental Control
Energy Efficiency
Example: Ageing and Well-being

Health Social Interaction Home Care

Inclusive Society Mobility


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What is a
Mechatronic System?

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General functional overview
digital control
digital filtering
accelerometers parameter estimation
analog filtering
cameras feature extractions D/A conversion
amplification
sonar optimization power amplification
A/D conversion

input signal embedded output signal


signals
sensors conditioning processing conditioning
& interfacing & interfacing
communication
of external quantities (MCU, P, FPGA, PLC, DSP, )
(related to the environment)

a feedback system!
signals (gears, axles, )

of internal quantities mechanical


sensors actuators
(related to the system itself) system

valves
gyroscopes autonomous vehicle
motors (electric,
potentiometers manipulators
pneumatic, hydraulic,)
encoders assembling lines 17
Real-time operation
Time between data
acquisition and Residual Time
actuation

Release
time Period Deadline

Most of mechatronic systems have to work in real-time:


Hard real-time: missing deadlines may cause
catastrophic consequences
Examples: Airbags, ABS
Soft real-time: meeting deadlines is desirable for
performance reasons, but missing them is not critical
Examples: command interpreter of the user interface

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An excellent example: The Robot
The term has been used for a variety of autonomous mechanical systems.
A robot is a reprogrammable multifunctional system designed to move
materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed
motions for the performance of a variety of tasks
(Robotics Institute of America)

Widely accepted definition of robotics: the science studying the intelligent


connection between perception and action

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Design controls for robots
kynematics and dynamic models
robot describe the system time evolution

control electronics

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The core of Mechatronic Systems:
the
"Embedded" Processing Platform

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Embedded platform

Software (Flash)

Data Link
Network
Aggregation Level
Protocols
Algorithms Protocols
to 10s of mm3
and 10s of W
Micro-OS and Middleware
from 10s of cm3
and 10s of mW Radio Unit

Processor BB Radio
sensor

A/D
SRAM Flash Acc.
D/A
Other Electronics Power Generator
Location finding
actuator
DC/DC Converter
Sensing Unit Processing Unit Power Unit
The central processing unit (CPU)
The CPU consists of:
data section (containing registers and ALU - arithmetic and logic
unit) also known as the datapath
control section, which interprets instructions and effects register
transfers

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CPU options for Mechatronics
performance

Embedded Microprocessors
Application specific processors
architectures (ASIC) disappearing
distinction

performance
Microcontrollers evolution

cost
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A CPU architecture: ARM A9

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Increasingly on the Same Chip

System-on-Chip (SoC)
Copyright 2003 Mani Srivastava
Embedded design variables

Embedded systems are computing systems dedicated to an application


domain and embedded into a technical environment (e.g. car, robot)

Contributions to cost:
silicon area
cost

memory (program, data)


packaging
power hardware design effort
consumption
time-to-market
software design effort

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Embedded system characteristics
Real-Time Operation
Reactive: computations must occur in response to external events
Correctness is partially a function of time
Small Size, Low Weight
Hand-held electronics and Transportation applications -- weight costs
money
Low Power
Battery power for several hours (laptops often last only 2 hours)
Harsh environment
Heat, vibration, shock, power fluctuations, RF interference, lightning, corrosion
Safety- critical operation
Must function correctly and Must not function in correctly
Extreme cost sensitivity
$0.05 adds up over 1,000,000 units
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Hardware-software co-design

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Microelectronic evolution: Moores law
Gordon Moore: noted that the number of transistors on a chip
doubled every 18 to 24 months (1965)
Prediction: semiconductor technology will double its effectiveness
every 18 months (strong impact on both CPUs and memories)
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COMPONENTS PER INTEGRATED FUNCTION

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14
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LOG2 OF THE NUMBER OF

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11
10
9 Electronics,
8
7 April 19, 1965
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5
4
3
2
1
0
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975

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Transistor count growth in CPUs
2012
> 1 billion
transistors
K 1 billion
1,000,000 transistors

100,000
Pentium III
10,000 Pentium II
Pentium Pro
1,000 Pentium
i486
100 i386
80286
10 8086

1
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
projected
Courtesy, Intel 31
Embedded HW: Moores Law
18 nm
5000 Kgates/mm2

45 nm today
2600 Kgates/mm2
atomic
65 nm
1400 Kgates/mm2 radius
30-300 pm

Margarshack03
STMicroelectronics
Roadmap
P.Marwedel
Instruction level parallelism
Instruction Level Parallelism (IPL): the capability of a CPU to run
more instructions at the same time
the most classic solution: the pipeline

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The power wall

design goal (late 1990s - early 2000s): drive the clock rate up
by increasing parallelism
this increased the power dissipation of the CPU chip beyond
the capacity of inexpensive cooling techniques
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Power density

Power density too high to keep junctions at low temp


Solution: multi-core CPUs

Sequential App
Performance

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A multi-core CPU: ARM11 MPcore

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Evolution
of micro-integration

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Integration of Technologies
3-D Hyperintegration and Packaging
Technologies for Micro-Nano Systems
Proceedings of the IEEE , January 2009

3D technology integration: ICT, Nano e Bio


Transducers
and MEMS

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What is a transducer ?
transducer: a device that converts a quantity with a primary form of
energy to another
primary energy forms: mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, optical, chemical

it takes form of:


sensor (e.g., thermometer): a transducer that acquires information
from the empirical world providing an electrical signal at its output
actuator (e.g., heater): a transducer that acts on the empirical
world converting information into an action

sensor intelligent
empirical feedback
world actuator system

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Transducer examples
Light Sensors
photoconductor:
R = f (light level)

photodiode
I = f (light level)

Pressure sensors
resistive R = f (pressure)
capacitive C = f (pressure)

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Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Characteristics:
miniaturization (size: 1 m 1 mm)
fabricated using micromachining
(technologies derived from electronics)
batch fabrication reduces cost
low power consumption
micro-fluidics
new capabilities:
micro-analysis and micro-manipulation systems

micro-gears micro-mirrors micro-electrodes 43


MEMS in automotive applications
distributed all over the vehicle

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Ecall
mandatory in all EU new cars since October 2015
activated by airbag sensors, send an alarm signal to 112
(emergency call number) with date, time and GPS coordinates
of the vehicle

expected cut help


delay: about 50%

-2500 dead/year
cost: 50-300 euro
3D imagers
Maneuvering 3D imagers rely on the measurement of
area Time-of-Flight (ToF) of optical pulses

range 1 - 20 m, accuracy of a few cm

Functional scheme target identification


distance measurements
output

50 m 80 m

10 m

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Autonomous Vehicle

Arnold Schwarzenegger
Total Recall, 1990

Piero Angela
Parma, Jan 2014
M.S. (Laurea Magistrale) in
Mechatronic Engineering
classe
Mechanical Engineering

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M.S. Mechatronic Engineering
Curriculum Mechanics Mechatronics Curriculum Electronics - Robotics
1 year Manifesto 2014-15 (draft) 2 year

1 Semester
1Semester

Comp. Meth. for Mechatronics (6 CFU) Robotic Perception and Action (6/9 CFU)
Manufacturing Automation (6 CFU) Design Control of Product. Proc. (6 CFU)
Systems and tech. for D.S.P. (9 CFU) Functional and Smart Materials (6 CFU)
Mech. Design Machine Elem. (9 CFU) Elective course (6 CFU)
Introduction to Electr. Syst. (6 CFU) Elective course (6 CFU)
Elective course* (6 CFU)
Modeling design finite elements (6 CFU)
2Semester

2Semester
Automatic Control (9 CFU) Dynamic control vehicles robots (9 CFU)
Mechanical Vibrations (6 CFU) Embedded Systems (9 CFU)
Modeling Simul. Mech. Systems (9 CFU) Other activities (3 CFU)
Elective course* (6 CFU) Final project (15 CFU)

Computer Vision (6 CFU) Aerodinamica (6 CFU)


Distrib. Systems Meas. Autom. (6 CFU) Informatica e Programmaz.* (6 CFU)
Industrial Robotics (6 CFU) Metodi Progettazione Industriale (6 CFU)
Logistica Gestione Impianti Ind. (6 CFU)
Introd. to Electronic Systems* (6 CFU)
Quality and Innovation Engin. (6 CFU)