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TUGAS TERSTRUKTUR

BAHASA INGGRIS

MODUL DAN ANALISIS JURNAL

Disusun Oleh:

1. Jonepsus Yuangga (165040200111124)


2. Bella Nurdiyanti (165040200111164)
3. Pritty Nahangken Tarihoran (165040200111168)
4. Krisma Kumala Sari (165040201111007)
5. Mia Prastika Devi (165040201111100)

KELAS :Q
MATA KULIAH : B. Inggris
DOSEN : Prof. Dra. Francien H. Tomasowa, Ph.D

PROGRAM STUDI AGROEKOTEKNOLOGI


FAKULTAS PERTANIAN
UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA
MALANG
2017
CHAPTER TWO
START WITH THE CLAUSE

Exercise One

1. A controlling mechanism other than seed weight modified seed yield potential.
Nominal:
A controlling mechanism
Seed weight
Seed yield potential
Verbal :
Modified
Clause :
A controlling mechanism modified seed weight
A controlling mechanism modified seed yield potential
2. In Program Manager, to start MS-DOS Prompt, choose the main group icon.
Adverbial :
In Program Manager
Nominal :
MS-DOS Prompt
Main group icon
Verbal :
Start
Choose
Clause :
In Program Manager, to start MS-DOS Prompt, choose the main group icon
3. The remobilization of 13C and 15N among the plant parts show the origin of the grain
C and N.
Nominal :
Plant parts
The origin of the grain C and N
Verbal :
Remobilization of 13C and 15N
Show
Clause :
The remobilization of 13C among the plant parts show the origin of the grain
C
The remobilization of 15N among the plant parts show the origin of the grain
N
4. Seed density measures dry weight per unit fresh seed volume, requiring average
volume of the excised fresh seed and dry weight per seed.
Nominal :
per unit fresh seed volume
per seed
Verb :
measures
requiring
Noun :
seed density
average volume of the excised fresh seed
Adjective :
dry weight
Clause :
Seed density measures dry weight per unit fresh seed volume, requiring
average volume of the excised fresh seed
Seed density measures dry weight per unit fresh seed volume, requiring dry
weight per seed
6. These membranes do not require intact lipid bilayers, but stain positively for the
presence of suberin
Noun :
Membranes
Lipid bilayers
Presence of suberin
Verbal :
do not require
stain
Adjective :
intact
Adverbial :
positively
Clause :
These membranes do not require intact lipid bilayers
These membranes stain positively for the presence of suberin
7. The two rates of development of leaf water deficit clearly affected the utilization and
remobilization of preanthesis stored C and N as suggested in our previous paper
Noun :
The two rates of development of leaf water deficit
Verb :
Affected
Utilization of preanthesis stored C and N
Remobilization of preanthesis stored C and N
Suggested
Adverbial of manner :
clearly
Clause :
The rates of development of leaf water deficit clearly affected the utilization
of preanthesis stored C and N as suggested in our previous paper
The rates of development of leaf water deficit clearly affected the
Remobilization of preanthesis stored C and N as suggested in our previous
paper
8. A schematic diagram of a simple source-sink pathway from a leaf to a developing
embryo.
Noun :
A schematic diagram of a simple source
Pathway
Leaf
Embryo

Verb :
Sink
Adjective :
Developing
9. Night fell, the silence deepened and the child huddled closer to the tree trunk for
comfort.
Adverbial of time :
night fell
Verb :
silence deepened
huddled closer
Noun :
tree trunk,
Adjective :
comfort
Clause :
Night fell, the silence deepened and the child huddled closer to the tree trunk
for comfort.

Exercise Two

Text one:

ABSTRACT

[contains 13 sentences]

1 Maize at 2 densities was intercropped with sweet potato at 1 density and 6 fertilizer
treatments.

Answer:

Nominal : Maize at 2 densities

Verbal: was intercropped with sweet potato

2 The design was 2x6 factorial with 5 replications; fertilizer treatments were
combinations of N, P and K.

Answer:
Nominal : 1. The design

2. fertilizer treatments

Verbal: 1. was 2x6 factorial with 5 replications

2. were combinations of N, P and K.

3 The result suggested that increasing the density of maize decreased the yield of sweet
potato by 11.33%.

Answer:

Nominal : The result suggested that increasing the density of maize

Verbal: decreased the yield of sweet potato by 11.33%.

4 N fertilizer applied to sweet potato increased the yield of sweet potato but did not
affect maize.

Answer:

Nominal : fertilizer applied to sweet potato

Verbal: increased the yield of sweet potato but did not affect maize

5 P and K applied together but without N also increased yield, but there was no effect of
P an addition to N.

Answer:

Nominal : 1. P and K

2. N also

Verbal:1. applied together

2. increased yield

6 Without fertilizer, the net return of low density maize was higher than that of high
density maize.

Answer:

Nominal : the net return of low density maize

Verbal: was higher than that of high density maize.

7 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Poir) has been cultivated by farmers in East Java in
upland areas during the rainy season or in rice field during the dry season.

Answer:

Nominal : Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Poir)


Verbal: has been cultivated by farmers in East Java in upland areas during the rainy
season or in rice field during the dry season

8 The difference in productivity of sweet potato might be due to the variability in


cultural practices.

Answer:

Nominal : The difference in productivity of sweet potato

Verbal: might be due to the variability in cultural practices.

9 Efforts to increase the productivity of sweet potato are still being done by farmers.

Answer:

Nominal : Efforts to increase the productivity of sweet potato

Verbal: are still being done by farmers.

1 In several regions farmers use fertilizer to increase the yield of sweet potato
0 intercropped with maize.

Answer:

Nominal : In several regions farmers use fertilize

Verbal: to increase the yield of sweet potato intercropped with maize

11 In several regions farmers use fertilizer to increase the yield of sweet potato
intercropped with maize.

Answer:

Nominal : In several regions farmers use fertilize

Verbal: to increase the yield of sweet potato intercropped with maize

1 However, the effect of fertilizer on sweet potato and maize as intercrop is still
2 unknown.

Answer:

Nominal : However, the effect of fertilizer on sweet potato and maize as intercrop

Verbal: is still unknown

1 The research was done to help farmers have information about the fertilizer needed for
3 maize planted as intercrop of sweet potato.

Answer:

Nominal : The research


Verbal: was done to help farmers have information about the fertilizer needed for
maize planted as intercrop of sweet potato

Text two:

PART OF ARTICLE

[contains 3 sentences]

1 The word mathematics comes from the Greek mathematica, meaning things that are
learned.

Verbal 1: meaning

Nominal 1: The word mathematics comes from the Greek mathematica

So, there is 1 clause in this sentence

2 It may seem odd to apply this phrase to a single field of knowledge, but we should
point out that for the ancient Geeks, mathematics included not only the study of
numbers and space but also astronomy and music.

Verbal 1: apply

Nominal 1: It may seem odd

Verbal 2: should point out

Nominal 2: we

Verbal 3: the study

Nominal 3: numbers and space

Verbal 4: the study

Nominal 4: astronomy and music

So, there are 4 clauses in this sentences

3 Nowadays, of course, we do not think of astronomy and music as mathematical


subjects; yet the scope of mathematics today is broader than ever.

Verbal 1: do not think of astronomy and music as mathematical subjects

Nominal 1: we

Verbal 2: is

Nominal 2: the scope of mathematics


So, there are 2 clauses in this sentences.

Exercise Three

NOMINAL PHRASES

Text One:

Maize at 2 densities

Text Two:

It may seem odd

VERBAL PHRASES

Text One:

Was intercropped

Text Two:

Should point out

ADJECTIVAL PHRASES

Text One:

Sweet potato

Text Two:

Ancient Geeks

ADVERBIAL PHRASES OF MANNER

Text One:

Text Two:

ADVERBIAL PHRASES OF TIME


Text One:

The rainy season

Text Two:

Nowadays
CHAPTER THREE
ABOVE THE CLAUSE:
CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

Exercise One
EXERCISE ONE
1. The student is from Bangladesh.
The student sits next to me.
Answer :
- The student who sits next to me is from Bangladesh.
- The student that sits next to me is from Bangladesh.
- The student who is from Bangladesh sits next to me.
- The student that is from Bangladesh sits next to me.
- The students from Bangladesh sits next to me.

2. Algebra problems contain letters.


The letters stand for unknown number.
Answer:
- Algebra problems contain letters that stand for unknown number.
- Algebra problems contain letters which stand for unknown number.

3. The book was good.


I bought the book.
Answer:
- The book that I bought was good.
- The book which I bought was good.

4. I liked the young man.


I met the man at the seminar last month.
Answer:
- I liked the young man that I met at the seminar last month.
- I liked the young man who(m) I met at the seminar last month.
- I met the man who(m) I liked at the seminar last month.

5. I must thank the people.


I got a present from the people.
Answer:
- I got a present from the people that I must thank.
- I must thank the people who I got a present from.

6. The picture was beautiful.


She was looking at the picture.
Answer:
- The picture that she was looking was beautiful.
- The picture which she was looking was beautiful.
- She was looking at the picture that was beautiful.
- She was looking at the picture which was beautiful.

7. I apologized to the woman.


I spilled the womans coffee.
Answer:
- I apologized to the woman whose coffee I spilled.
- I apologized to the woman the coffee of whom I spilled.

8. I live in a dormitory.
The dormitory residents come from many countries.
Answer:
- The dormitory residents that I live in come from many countries.
- I live in a dormitory that the dormitory residents come from many
countries.
- I live in a dormitory the residents of whom come from many countries.

9. The scientist is well-known for her research.


We met the scientist last year.
Answer:
- The scientist that we met last year is well-known for her research.
- The scientist who(m) is well-known for her research we met last year.
- The scientist that is well-known for her research we met last year.

10. That is the restaurant.


I will meet you at that restaurant.
Answer:
- That is the restaurant where I will meet you.
- That is the restaurant which I will meet you.
- That is the restaurant that I will meet you.

11. 07:15 is the time.


My bus arrives at that time.
Answer:
- 07.15 is the time when my bus arrives.
- 07.15 is the time that my bus arrives.
- 07.15 is the time at which my bus arrives.

12. May is the month.


Prof. Camleantea will come in that month.
Answer:
- May is the month that Prof. Camleatea will come in.
- May is the month in which Prof. Camleatea will come.
- May is the month which Prof. Camleatea will come in.
- May is the month when Prof. Camleatea will come.

13. We are studying sentences.


The sentences contain nominal clauses.
Answer:
- We are studying sentences that contain nominal clauses.
- We are studying sentences which contain nominal clauses.

14. I like the poem.


Robert Frost wrote the poem.
Answer:
- I like the poem that Robert Frost wrote.
- I like the poem which Roberts Frost wrote.
- Robert Frost wrote the poem that I like.
- Robert Frost wrote the poem which I like.

15. The meeting was interesting.


They went to the meeting.
Answer:
- They went to the meeting that was interesting.
- They went to the meeting which was interesting.

16. The lady is standing next to Jonathan.


I was telling you about that lady.
Answer:
- I was telling you about the lady that is standing next to Jonathan.
- I was telling you about the lady who is standing next to Jonathan.

17. I come from a country.


The countrys history goes back thousands of years.
Answer:
- I come from a country whose history goes back a thousand of years.
- I come from a country the history of which goes back thousand of years.

18. The students missed the assignment.


The students were absent from class.
Answer:
- The students that missed the assigment were absent from class.
- The students who missed the assigment were absent from class.
- The students that were absent from class missed the assigment.
- The students who were absent from class missed the assigment.

19. I returned the money


I had borrowed that money from my roommate.
Answer:
- I returned the money that I borrowed from my rommate.
- I returned the money which I borrowed from my rommate.

20. That is the box.


She keeps her jewelry in that box.
Answer:
- That is the box where she keeps her jewerly.
- That is the box in which she keeps her jewerly.
- That is the box which she keeps her jewerly in.
- That is the box that she keeps her jewerly in.

EXERCISE TWO

1. The soil had a dark-grey alluvial loam texture.


The soil fertility was analyzed before the experiment.
Answer:
- The soil whose fertility was analyzed before the experiment had a dark-
grey alluvial loam texture.
- The soil of which the fertility was analyzed before the experiment had a
dark-grey alluvial loam texture.

2. The operation is much more complicated.


The operation deals with a large population rather than a single consumer.
Answer:
- The operation that is much more complicated deals with a large population
rather than a single consumer.
- The operation which is much more complicated deals with a large
population rather than a single consumer.

3. Typical consumers are quite aware of changes.


Changes occur in the prices of goods and services purchased regularly.
Answer:
- Typical consumers are quite aware of changes in which occur the prices of
goods and services purchased regularly.
- Typical consumers are quite aware of changes which occur in the prices of
goods and services purchased regularly.
- Typical consumers are quite aware of changes that occur in the prices of
goods and services purchased regularly.

4. It costs more to live during the current year.


One may well know it.
Answer:

5. Selecting the specific items and identifying the outlets is a complex process of
several steps.
Process will be collected from the outlets.
Answer:

6. The CPI is concerned with a population of consuming families and with the
population of cities.
These families live in the cities.
Answer:

7. The production of monthly values for the Consumer Price Index by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics is a highly complex undertaking.
The undertaking involves problems of basic economic theory, measurement
and quantification, sampling statistics, and operations.
Answer:
- The production of monthly values for the Consumer Price Index by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics is a highly complex undertaking in which
involves problems of basic economic theory, measurement and
quantification, sampling statistics, and operations.
- The production of monthly values for the Consumer Price Index by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics is a highly complex undertaking that involves
problems of basic economic theory, measurement and quantification,
sampling statistics, and operations.

8. This trend became even more pronounced during the 1970s.


This trend commenced during the 1960sas an increasing number of women
joining the labor force.
Answer:
- This trend that commenced during the 1960sas an increasing number of
women joining the labor force became even more pronounced during the
1970s.
- This trend at which commenced during the 1960sas an increasing number
of women joining the labor force became even more pronounced during
the 1970s.

9. Gypsum is an inorganic material.


It is used as a soil corrective.
Answer:
- Gypsum that is used as a soil corrective is an inorganic material.
- Gypsum which is used as a soil corrective is an inorganic material.

10. Actinomycetes are tiny organisms.


Actinomycetes create tilth by tunneling in soil.
Answer:
- Actinomycetes that create tilth by tunneling in soil are tiny organisms.
- Actinomycetes which create tilth by tunneling in soil are tiny organisms.

11. Green manure is a growing crop.


Green manure is plowed under for fertilizer and increase of tilth.
Answer:
- Green manure that is plowed under for fertilizer and increase of tilth is a
growing crop.
- Green manure which is plowed under for fertilizer and increase of tilth is a
growing crop.
12. Seed is a specialized structure.
Its development begins in the flower.
Answer:
- Seed whose development begins in the flower is a specialized structure.
- Seed of which development begins in the flower is a specialized structure.
EXERCISE THREE

1. Numerous horticultural plants are grown for their succulent leaves or other
parts produced above ground. Certain of these are classed as salad crops.
Others are grouped as leafy vegetables. Still others are included in neither
group, although grown for their succulent plant parts.
Answer:
(1) Horticultural plants
(2) Horticultural plants
(3) Horticultural plants
(4) Horticultural plants
(5) Neither salad crops nor leafy vegetables
(6) Neither salad crops nor leafy vegetables

2. Lettuce, celery, endive, cress, parsley, and several less important so-called corn
salad plants are salad vegetables. All are used primarily as fresh vegetables,
eaten without being cooked. Among these plants, lettuce and celery far outrank
all the others in popularity and commercial importance. Chicory leaves are
also used as a salad vegetable but the roots of the plant are mostly used dried
for mixing with coffee.
Answer:
1. Vegetables
2. Salad Vegetables
3. Salad Vegetables
4. Salad Vegetables
5. Fresh Vegetables

3. The production of monthly values for the Consumer Price Index by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics is a highly complex undertaking that involves problems of
basic economic theory (for example, the choice between a price index or a
constant satisfaction index), measurement and quantification (for example, of
changes in the quality of items purchased by consumers), sampling statistics
(definition and selection of samples from a wide variety of populations), and
operations (for example, training and supervision of price reporters).
Answer:
(1) The undertaking
(2) Example for problems of basic economic theory.
(3) Example for problems of measurement and quantification.
(4) Example for problems of operation.

4. With the sample ELIs in-hand for each urban area, we pick a scientific sample
of stores or other outlets for pricing each of the ELIs. To do this, the Bureau
of Labor Statistics uses a Point of Purchase Survey (POPS) in each urban area.
This survey is like the CES in that it determines how much consumer units
spend for different classes of items, but it also finds out how much they spend
at each of the places from which the items were bought. From this survey, the
Bureau constructs what statisticians call a SAMPLING FRAME. For each
item category, the sampling frame contains a list of outlets from which the
item category was purchased and of the amounts spent by all sampled
consumer units in the outlet. A probability sample of outlets is then selected
for each item category, with the result that the sample is representative of all
the various types and locations of outlets from which the consumers in that
urban area purchase items in a category.
Answer:
1. pricing each of the ELIs
2. pricing each of the ELIs
3. Point of Purchase Survey (POPS)
4. Point of Purchase Survey (POPS)
5. Point of Purchase Survey (POPS)
6. Consumer
7. Consumer
8. Item
9. Probability sample
10. Survey

5. The importance of the census to current problems such as poverty, health,


education, civil rights, and others brought about requests for shifting to a 5-
year, rather than 10-year census in order to keep information more nearly up to
date. Those requests came from governors of states, mayors of large cities,
scientists, business people, and many others. In 1976, legislation was passed
that called for a 5-year census, but Congress has never appropriated the funds
to carry it out.
Answer:
1. The importance of the census
2. The importance of the census
3. The importance of the census
4. Requests for shifting to a 5-year
5. Legislation
6. The funds

6. In 1970, Thomas Jefferson gave George Washington, our first President, the
results of the first census of the United States of America. Every 10 years
since then, as provided in the Constitution,the decennial census has
determined for the nation essential information about its people.
Answer:
1. Thomas Jefferson
2. first census
3. the decennial census

7. The approach to the job of taking a census differs from that of designing a
totally new system, in that the census has been taken many times before, and
the background and experience of the past serve to guide current efforts.
Answer:
1. The approach to the job of taking a census
2. The approach to the job of taking a census

8. All these factors undoubtedly influence the course of business activity. Some
of them may be more important at a given time than others. No consensus
exists, however, on which is the most important on even on how they all
interact. Hence it is prudent to work with a variety of indicators representing a
broad range of influences. Ready access to a wide range of indicator data
enables one to test competing or complementary hypotheses about current
economic fluctuations.
Answer:
1. factors undoubtedly influence the course of business activity
2. factors undoubtedly influence the course of business activity
3. consensus exists
4. factors undoubtedly influence the course of business activity
5. consensus exists

9. Empirical measures of these characteristics have been constructed for large


numbers of indicators. Such measures have been employed in the Attempt to
obtain data capable of conveying an adequate picture of the changes in the
economy as it moves through stages of prosperity and recession. In addition,
the behavior of the indicators after they have been selected has been
monitored closely. Many of the indicators have survived several successive
evaluations. For example, measures of the average workweek, construction
contracts, and stock prices have been on every one of the successive
lists of indicators that has been drawn up by the National Bureau of Economic
Research since 1937.
Answer:
1. Empirical measures
2. Empirical measures
3. of the changes in the economy
4. the behavior of the indicators
5. indicators have survived several successive evaluations
6. measures of the average workweek, construction contracts, and stock
prices

10. Sampled pods were representative of pods in the upper nodes including the
tertiary branch in the upper node that had a vegetative bud at the time of floral
initiation.
Answer:
1. representative of pods in the upper nodes
11. This value was used as the initial seed density for the sample, which together
with the final seed density, was used to determine the rate of increase in seed
density.
Answer :
1. The value
12.The 1976 trials showed that ashes had a significant effect on some varieties in
Series 1, where the infestation was relatively moderate.
Answer:
1. The 1976 trials
2. The 1976 trials
13. The legless larva burrows into the seed, where it updates and develops into an
adult
Answer:
1. The legless larva burrows
2. The seed
14. Indeed, some parts of the dating procedure can now be carried out by
computer. Since the vast majority of indicators that are of interest show
cyclical movements conforming to business cycles, the peaks and troughs in
each indicator can be matched with those of the business to determine
characteristic that leads and lags.
Answer:
1. dating procedure
2. cyclical movements conforming to business cycles
3. cyclical movements conforming to business cycles
15. The standard lima and baby lima beans rank high. They are grown mostly in
warmer areas.The large lima is a perennial when grown in warmer climates.
The baby lima is an annual, but both types can be grown as annuals in some
parts of the world.
Answer:
1. The standard lima and baby lima beans rank high
2. The standard lima and baby lima beans rank high
16. Green shell beans are of less importance than dry or snap beans. All bean pods
are green when very small, but some turn yellow or white, and some have a
translucent appearance, called they approach edible stage. The yellow and
crystal types are called wax beans. Green podded beans are most popular with
canners, but wax beans are also used. Canners generally seek beans with less
fiber in the pod walls and a minimum of strings.
Answer:
1. Beans
2. Beans
3. Beans
17. Persistence Forecasts. These are forecasts that the current conditions will
prevail into the short-term future. This method provides good results and is
not easy to beat. We know that weather changes infrequently over short time
periods, so persistence forecasting is bound to be rather accurate.
Answer:
1. Persistence Forecasts
2. Persistence Forecasts
3. short-term future
4. good results
18. The pursuit of economic indicator analysis on an international scale, by
international agencies as well as by domestic institutions, has demonstrated the
feasibility of the approach and its potential value in observing and appraising
international fluctuations in economic growth rates and the accompanying
trends in price levels, foreign trade, capital investment, and employment. One
can envision the evolution of a worldwide system of indicators, built on the
plan originally developed for the United States, to support the analysis of
economic indicators on a global scale.
Answer:
1. The pursuit of economic indicator analysis on an international scale
19. Plants, like animals, are subject to diseases of various kinds. It has been
estimated that some 30,000 different diseases attack our economic plants;
forty are known to attack corn, and about as many attack wheat. The result of
unchecked plant disease is all too obvious in countries which have marginal
food supplies. The problem will soon be more widespread as the population of
the world increases at its frightening rate. Even in countries which are now
amply fed by their agricultural products there could soon be critical flood
shortages. It is easy to imagine the consequences of some disastrous attack on
one of the major crops; the resulting famines could kill millions of people, and
the resulting hardship on other millions could cause political upheavals
disastrous to the order of the world.
Answer:
1. Plants, like animals, are subject to diseases of various kinds
2. Estimated
3. Corn and wheat
4. Population of the world increases
5. Even inn countries
6. Countries
7. Amply fed by agricultural products
20. Before tackling this problem, lets consider a more general type of problem
that has many industrial and scientific applications. It may appear to be a new
type, but it is simply a variation on the traveling salesman problem.
Answer:
1. The problem
2. General type of problems
3. industrial and scientific applications
4. new type of industrial and scientific applications.
CHAPTER FOUR
ABOVE THE CLAUSE: PARALLELISM

Exercise :

John gave Jane flowers on Sunday.


John gave Jane a candy on Monday.
John gave Jane a ring on Tuesday.

Answer:

John gave Jane Flowers, candy, and Ring on Tuesday


Not only John gave Jane flowers, but also a candy and ring on Tuesday

He has not met her father.


He has not met her mother.

Answer:

He has not met her father and mother


He has not met both her father and mother
Not only He has not met her father but her mother as well

The country land was narrow.


The country land was steep.
The country land was muddy.

Answer:

The country land were narrow, steep and muddy


The country land not only was narrow, but also were steep and muddy
The country land not only narrow but steep and muddy as well

I dislike living in a city because of the air pollution.


I dislike living in a city because of the many crimes.
I dislike living in a city because of the heavy traffic.

Answer:

I dislike living in a city because of the air pollution, many crimes, and
heavy traffic
I dislike living in a city not only because of the air pollution, but also
there are many crimes and heavy traffic
I dislike living in a city not only because of the air pollution and many
crimes but there is heavy traffic as well
He preferred to play football.
He preferred to spend his time in the streets with others.

Answer:
He preferred to play football and spend his time in the streets with other
He not only preferred to play football but spend his time in the streets as
well

We discussed some of the social problems in Indonesia in class.


We did not discuss any of the political problems in Indonesia in class.
We did not discuss any of the economic problems in Indonesia in class.

Answer:
We discussed some of the social problems in Indonesia but neither any of
the political problems nor the economic problems

She decided to become an expert in medicine because she wanted to help the
wounded.
She decided to become an expert in medicine because she wanted to give
herself the opportunity to review medical science..
She decided to become an expert in medicine because she wanted to earn big
money.

Answer:

She decided to become an expert in medicine because she wanted to help


the wounded, give herself the opportunity to review medical science, and
earn big money
She decided to become an expert in medicine not only because she
wanted to help the wounded and give herself the opportunity to review
medical science, but also she wanted to earn big money.
She decided to become an expert in medicine not only because she
wanted to help the wounded and give herself the opportunity to review
medical science, but she wanted to earn big money as well.

A university education enables you to enhance your knowledge.


A university education enables you to prepare for a profession.
A university education enables you to learn more about yourself.

Answer:

A university education enables you to enhance your knowledge,


prepare for a profession and learn more about yourself.
A university education not only enables you to enhance your
knowledge, but also to prepare for a profession and learn more about
yourself

Java has beautiful beaches.


Java has many interesting tropical trees.
Java has many interesting tropical flowers.
Java has a nice weather.

Answer:

Not only beautiful beaches and a nice weather that java has, but also
many interesting tropical trees and flowers
Java not only has many interesting tropical trees and flowers but also a
nice weather and beautiful beaches
CHAPTER FIVE
ABOVE THE CLAUSE:
TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP

EXERCISES
A. At Sentence Level
after/ before/ when/ as soon as/ while
1. Once the oxygen has combined with and broken down various complex
sugars, energy is released. [before/ after/ while]
Answer: After the oxygen has combined with and broken down various
complex sugars, energy is released.

2. The seedling begins to manufacture food for itself. But first it uses up the
food stored in the seed. [when/ before/ after]
Answer: The seedling begins to manufacture food for itself. After it uses
up the food stored in the seed.

3. The young shoot appears above the surface of the ground. Then it begins
the process of photosynthesis. [before/ as soon as/ while]
Answer: The young shoot appears above the surface of the ground. Before
it begins the process of photosynthesis.

4. Dormant seeds are inactive. During this time they use very little air.
[when/ before/ while]
Answer: Dormant seeds are inactive. When they use very little air.

5. The young rice plants are transplanted to the paddy fields. However, first
they are grown in nurseries for a few weeks where proper care can be
given to the seedlings. [before/ while/ after]
Answer: The young rice plants are transplanted to the paddy fields. After
they are grown in nurseries for a few weeks where proper care can be
given to the seedlings.

6. Once the shoot appears, the plant then grows both above and below the
ground. [before/ while/ after]
Answer: After the shoot appears, the plant while grows both above and
below the ground.

7. During the time the seedlings are small, there are few leaves present to use
sunlight for photosynthesis. [while/ before/ as soon as]
Answer: While the seedlings are small, there are few leaves present to use
sunlight for photosynthesis.

8. A crop of nitrogen-fixing legumes was ploughed in. As a result the crop


produced a higher yield. [while/ until/ after]
Answer: A crop of nitrogen-fixing legumes was ploughed in. Until the
crop produced a higher yield.
9. The spores of disease organisms land on a plant. At the same time they are
killed by the fungicide which has been sprayed or dusted onto the plant
surfaces. [as soon as/ while/ before]
Answer: The spores of disease organisms land on a plant. While they are
killed by the fungicide which has been sprayed or dusted onto the plant
surfaces.

10. The young shoot appears above the surface of the ground. Then it begins
the process of photosynthesis. [after/ until/ when]
Answer: After young shoot appears above the surface of the ground, it
begins the process of photosynthesis

Until
1. The seedling begins to manufacture food for itself. But first it uses up the
food stored in the seed. [change uses to has used]
Answer: The seedling does not begin to manufacture food for itself until it
has used up the food stored in the seed.

2. The young shoot appears above the surface of the ground. Then it begins
the process of photosynthesis. [change appears with has appeared]
Answer: The young shoot doesnt begin the process of photosynthesis
until it has appeared above the surface of the ground.

3. Dormant seeds are inactive. During this time they use very little air.
[change inactive to active]
Answer: Dormant seeds are active until they use very much air.

4. A crop of nitrogen-fixing legumes was plowed in. As a result the next crop
produced a higher yield. [change the next crop to the soil]
Answer: The soil wasnt produced a higher yield until a crop of nitrogen-
fixing legumes was plowed.

5. Once the oxygen has combined with and broken down various complex
sugars, energy is released. [no other change is needed because it has
already become one new sentence, not separate clauses any more]
Answer: Until the oxygen has combined with and broken down various
complex sugars, energy is released.

then/ during/ throughout/ prior to/ if


1. X The seedling begins to manufacture food for itself.
But first it uses up the food stored in the seed
After the seedling manufacturing food for itself, it uses up the
food stored in the seed.
2. X The young shoot appears above the surface of the ground. Then
it begins the process of photosynthesis.
The process of photosynthesis begins and then the young shoot
appears above the surface of the ground.
3. Once the oxygen has combined with and broken down various
complex sugars, energy is released.
Oxygen combines with and breaks down the various complex
sugars prior to energy being released.
4. Dormant seeds are inactive. During this time they use very little
air.
Throughout the time that dormant seeds are inactive, they use
very little air.
5. X The young rice plants are transplanted to the paddy fields.
But first they are grown in nurseries for a few weeks where
proper care can be given to the seedlings.
The young rice plants are transplanted to the paddy fields and
then they are grown in nurseries for a few weeks where proper
care can be given to the seedlings.
6. X Once the shoot appears, the plant then grows both above and
below the ground.
Prior to the shoot appearing, the plant grows both above and
below the ground.
7. During the time the seedlings are small, there are few leaves
present to use sunlight for photosynthesis.
There are few leaves present to use sunlight for photosynthesis
throughout the time that the seedlings are small.
8. X A crop of nitrogen-fixing legumes was plowed in.
As a result the next crop produced a higher yield.
During a crop of nitrogen-fixing legumes was plowed in, the
next crop produced a higher yield.
9. The spores of disease organisms land on a plant.
At the same time they are killed by the fungicide which has
been sprayed or dusted onto the plant surface.
If the spores of disease organisms land on a plant, they are
killed by the fungicide which has been sprayed or dusted onto
the plant surface.
10 The young shoot appears above the surface of the ground. Then
. it begins the process of photosynthesis.
If the young shoot appears above the surface of the ground, it
begins the process of photosynthesis.
B. At Paragraph Level

1. Fertilization is the process whereby one of the male gametes from the
pollen unites with the female gamete in the ovule. The pollen carrying the
male gametes germinates on the stigma. One of the male gametes goes
down the style into the ovary chamber. It fertilizes the female gamete in
the ovule by uniting with it.
[Use the time expressions: FIRSTLY, THEN, and FINALLY]

Answer: Fertilization is the process whereby one of the male gametes


from the pollen unites with the female gamete in the ovule. Firstly, the
pollen carrying the male gametes germinates on the stigma. Then one of
the male gametes goes down the style into the ovary chamber. Finally, it
fertilizes the female gamete in the ovule by uniting with it.

2. The life cycle of a plant is the period of time during which the plant
growth is the germination of the seed. The first stage of plant growth is the
germination of the seed. This forms the beginnings of the stem root
systems. As soon as the stem appears above the ground food manufacture,
or photosynthesis, begins. Pollen is transferred from the stamens to the
stigma where it germinates. Fruit and seeds are produced. This is followed
by the decay of vegetative parts. The seeds are dispersed by insects,
animals, or wind, and the plant dies.
[Use the time expressions: AFTER THAT, DURING THIS STAGE,
NEXT, and FINALLY]

Answer: The life cycle of a plant is the period of time during which the
plant growth is the germination of the seed. The first stage of plant growth
is the germination of the seed. This forms the beginnings of the stem root
systems. As soon as the stem appears above the ground food manufacture,
or photosynthesis, begins. After that, pollen is transferred from the
stamens to the stigma where it germinates. During this stage fruit and
seeds are produced. Next is followed by the decay of vegetative parts.
Finally, the seeds are dispersed by insects, animals, or wind, and the plant
dies

3. Germination is the process whereby the seed awakens from its dormant
state and begins to grow. The first stage in the germination of a bean is the
splitting of the testa. The radicle emerges from the testa and starts to grow
downwards. The plumule, which is curved to protect the growing point,
begins to grow up towards the light. When the young plant breaks the soil
surface, food manufacture by photosynthesis can begin. Below the soil
surface secondary roots develop. The main shoot grows upwards sprouting
leaves; the root system spreads through the soil.
[Use the time expressions: NEXT, ALSO AT THIS STAGE, FINALLY,
and AT THE SAME TIME]
Answer: Germination is the process whereby the seed awakens from its
dormant state and begins to grow. The first stage in the germination of a
bean is the splitting of the testa. Also at this stage The radicle emerges
from the testa and starts to grow downwards. Next The plumule, which is
curved to protect the growing point, begins to grow up towards the light.
When the young plant breaks the soil surface, food manufacture by
photosynthesis can begin. At the same time Below the soil surface
secondary roots develop. Finally,The main shoot grows upwards sprouting
leaves; the root system spreads through the soil.
4. Photosynthesis is the process whereby the plant manufactures food for
itself. Carbon dioxide is taken in through the leaf cells. This is combined
with water from the soil in the presence of sunlight. The sunlight provides
the energy to bind CO2 and H2O together to form sugars and other
carbohydrates. Carbohydrates go to the growing points in th epalnt,
enlarging tisues. Oxygen is given off as a gas. We may summarize this
chemical process as follows: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
[Use the time expressions: FIRST OF ALL, SUBSEQUENTLY, and AT
THE SAME TIME]
Answer: Photosynthesis is the process whereby the plant manufactures
food for itself. Carbon dioxide is taken in through the leaf cells. This is
combined with water from the soil in the presence of sunlight. The
sunlight provides the energy to bind CO2 and H2O together to form sugars
and other carbohydrates. At the same time Carbohydrates go to the
growing points in th epalnt, enlarging tisues. Subsequently Oxygen is
given off as a gas. First of all we may summarize this chemical process as
follows: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
CHAPTER SIX

ABOVE THE CLAUSE:


CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP

EXERCISES ON CASE ONE:

1. The soil particles are fine.


The water cannot percolate easily through the soil.
1 The soil particles are fine, and so the water cannot percolate easily
through the soil.
2 As the soil particles are fine, the water cannot percolate easily through
the soil.
3 The soil particles are fine, therefore, the water cannot percolate easily
through the soil.
4 The soil particles are fine. Therefore, the water cannot percolate easily
through the soil.
5 The soil particles are too fine for the water to percolate easily through
the soil.
6 The soil particles are not coarse enough for the water cannot percolate
easily through the soil.
7 The water cannot percolate easily through the soil because the soil
particles are fine
2. The soil was compact.
It was not suitable for root crops.
1 The soil was compact, and so it was not suitable for root crops.
2 As the soil was compact, it was not suitable for root crops.
3 The soil was compact, therefore, it was not suitable for root crops.
4 The soil was compact. Therefore, it was not suitable for root crops.
5 The soil was too compact for root crops.
6 the soil not loose enough for It was not suitable for root crops.
7 It was not suitable for root crops because the soil was compact
3. Soil aeration was inadequate.
The plant could not receive a proper supply of oxygen.
1 Soil aeration was inadequate and so the plant could not receive a
proper supply of oxygent
2 As soil aeration was inadequate, the plant could not receive a proper
supply of oxygent
3 Soil aeration was inadequate, therefore, the plant could not receive a
proper supply of oxygent
4 Soil aeration was inadequate. Therefore, the plant could not receive a
proper supply of oxygent
5 Soil aeration was too inadequate for the plant to receive a proper
supply of oxygen.
6 Soil aeration not edequate enough for the plant could not receive a
proper supply of oxygen
7 The plant could not receive a proper supply of oxygen because soil
aeration was inadequate
4. The land was waterlogged.
It was not suitable to produce a healthy crop.
1 The land was waterlogged and so it was not suitable to produce a
healthy crop
2 As the land was waterlogged, It was not suitable to produce a healthy
crop
3 The land was waterlogged, therefore, it was not suitable to produce a
healthy crop
4 The land was waterlogged. Therefore, it was not suitable to produce a
healthy crop
5 The land was too waterlogged for produce a healthy crop.
6 The land was not well-drained enough for it was not suitable to
produce a healthy crop
7 It was not suitable to produce a healthy crop because the land was
waterlogged
5. The soil profile was shallow.
The soil could not give the roots sufficient anchorage.
1 The soil profile was shallow and so the soil could not give the roots
sufficient anchorage.
2 As the soil profile was shallow, the soil could not give the roots
sufficient anchorage.
3 The soil profile was shallow, therefore, the soil could not give the
roots sufficient anchorage.
4 The soil profile was shallow. Therefore, the soil could not give the
roots sufficient anchorage
5 The soil profile was too shallow for give the roots sufficient
anchorage.
6 The soil profile was not deep enough for the soil could not give the
roots sufficient anchorage
7 The soil could not give the roots sufficient anchorage because the soil
was shallow
6. The root system was poorly developed.
The plant could not produce a good top growth.
1 The root system was poorly developed and so the plant could not
produce a good top growth
2 As the root system was poorly developed, the plant could not produce
a good top growth
3 The root system was poorly developed, therefore, the plant could not
produce a good top growth
4 The root system was poorly developed. Therefore, the plant could not
produce a good top growth
5 The root system was too poorly developed for produce a good top
growth.
6 The root system was not well developed enough for the plant could not
produce a good top growth
7 The plant could not produce a good top growth because the root
system was poorly developed
7. It was dark.
Photosynthesis could not take place.
1 It was dark and so photosynthesis could not take place.
2 As it was dark, photosynthesis could not take place.
3 It was dark, therefore, photosynthesis could not take place.
4 It was dark. Therefore, photosynthesis could not take place.
5 It was too dark for photosynthesis take place.
6 It was not bright enough for photosynthesis could not take place
7 Photosynthesis could not take place because it was dark
8. The current was swift.
The silt would not be deposited.
1 The current was swift and so the silt would not be deposited.
2 As the current was swift, the silt would not be deposited.
3 The current was swif, therefore, the silt would not be deposited.
4 The current was swif. Therefore, the silt would not be deposited.
5 The current was too swift for the silt would not be deposited.
6 The current was not slow enought for the silt would not be deposited
7 The silt would not be deposited because the current was swift

EXERCISES ON CASE TWO:

1. Cause: You need more memory to turn on an


application.
Result: You can clear the clipboard.
Answ: You need more memory to turn on an
application therefore You should clear the clipboard

2. Cause: The Clipboard stores information in


multiple formats
Result: Clearing the Clipboard might free
some memory.
Answ: The Clipboard stores information in
multiple formats and so Clearing the Clipboard might free some
memory.

3. Cause: An inactive application issue is a status or


error message.
Result: The applications title bar or icon flashes,
and you may hear a beep.
Answ: An inactive application issue is a status or
error message consequently The applications title bar or icon flashes,
you may hear a beep

4. Cause: You change a setting in the applications


program information file (PIF).
Result: You return to what is called AN INACTIVE
WINDOW.
Answ: You change a setting in the applications
program information file (PIF) consequently will return to what is
called AN INACTIVE WINDOW.

5. Cause: You want to save the file on a different drive.


Result: You select the drive you want from the Drives
box.
Answ: as You want to save the file on a different drive, You can select the
drive you want from the Drives box.

6. Cause: You have more than one document window


open.
Result: You can easily switch between the document
windows.
Answ: since You have more than one document window open, You can easily
switch between the document windows.

7. Cause: You click anywhere in the document window


you want to switch to and choose the
document you want.
Result: You switch to another document window in an
application.
Answ: You click anywhere in the document window
you want to switch to and choose the
document you want thus You switch to another document window in
an application

8. Cause: You want to work with Windows.


Result: There are a few basic terms you need to
become familiar with.
Answ: due to the fact that You want to work with Windows, There are a few
basic terms you need to become familiar with

9. Cause: Restart your system.


Result: All changes made to your system during
Setup take effect immediately.
Answ: since you Restart your system, All changes made to your system
during Setup take effect immediately
10. Cause: Open the Drive list and select the letter you
want, or type the drive letter in the Drive box.
Result: You assign a different drive.
Answ: Open the Drive list and select the letter you want, or type the drive
letter in the Drive box, consequently its assigned a different drive.

11. Cause: Document files are associated with


applications.
Result: When you open one of these files, the
associated application starts automatically.
Answ: Document files are associated with applications thus When you open
one of these files, the associated application starts automatically

12. Cause: Windows is running in 386 enhanced mode.


Result: You might not be able to disconnect from
network drives that were active before you
started Windows.
Answ: Windows is running in 386 enhanced mode therefore its might not be
able to disconnect from
network drives that were active before you started Windows

13. Cause: File Manager maintains a list of previous


network drives you have used.
Result: You can easily reconnect to them.
Answ: as File Manager maintains a list of previous
network drives you have used, You can easily reconnect to them

14. Cause: You modify the drive on which the search


was performed and the Search Results
window is active (or is made active).
Result: A dialog appears, asking whether you want to
update the Search Results window.
Answ: You modify the drive on which the search
was performed and the Search Results
window is active (or is made active) consequently A dialog appears,
asking whether you want to update the Search Results window

15. Cause: You choose the Yes to All button.


Result: File Manager does not prompt you for each
file that is replaced.
Answ: You choose the Yes to All button and so File Manager does not prompt
you for each file that is replaced

16. Cause: Release the mouse button, and then release


SHIFT.
Result: A confirmation message appears.
Answ: Release the mouse button, and then release SHIFT thus A confirmation
message appears

17. Cause: The destination directory contains a file with


the same name as the file you are moving.
Result: A dialog appears, prompting you to verify that
you want to replace the existing file.
Answ: The destination directory contains a file with the same name as the
file you are moving A dialog appears consequently prompting you to verify
that
you want to replace the existing file

18. Cause: Press and hold down CTRL while you use
the mouse to drag the source file or directory
icon to the destination.
Result: The mouse pointer changes to a file icon with
a plus sign to indicate that you are copying,
not moving files or directories.
Answ: Press and hold down CTRL while you use
the mouse to drag the source file or directory icon to the destination it is
consequently changes the mouse pointer to a file icon with a plus sign to
indicate that you are copying, not moving files or directories

19. Cause: You have created the patch maps by your


synthesizer.
Result: You can specify the channel mapping for the
new Musical instrument Digital Interface
(MDI) setup.
Answ: since You have created the patch maps by your synthesizer, You can
specify the channel mapping for the new Musical instrument Digital Interface
(MDI) setup

20. Cause: The shape being filled has any breaks in its
border.
Result: The filing color leaks through to the rest of the
drawing area.
Answ: The shape being filled has any breaks in its
border therefore The filing color leaks through to the rest of the drawing area
CHAPTER SEVEN
ABOVE THE CLAUSE:
CONTRASTIVE RELATIONSHIP

EXERCISE ONE

1 If one part of the plant is not functioning properly, the whole plant will
suffer.
But we may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots.
1 If one part of the plant is not functioning properly, the whole plant will suffer yet we
still may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots
2 If one part of the plant is not functioning properly, the whole plant will suffer but we
still may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots
3 Although the whole plant will suffer if one part of the plant is not functioning
properly, we may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots
4 If one part of the plant is not functioning properly, the whole plant will
suffer. Nevertheless, we may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots.
5 If one part of the plant is not functioning properly, the whole plant will
suffer. Nonetheless, we may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots.
6 If one part of the plant is not functioning properly, the whole plant will
suffer. However, we may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots.
7 If one part of the plant is not functioning properly, the whole plant will
suffer. Instead, we may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots.

2 In practice, the essay booklets undergo various stages of haphazard


shuffling before landing on a readers table.
But we have no direct way of determining whether readers typically receive
representative (truly random) samples of essays.
1 Although, in practice, the essay booklets undergo various stages of
haphazard shuffling before landing on a readers table, we have no direct
way of determining whether readers typically receive representative (truly random)
samples of essays.
2 In practice, the essay booklets undergo various stages of haphazard
shuffling before landing on a readers table. Nonetheless, we have no direct
way of determining whether readers typically receive representative (truly random)
samples of essays.
3 In practice, the essay booklets undergo various stages of haphazard
shuffling before landing on a readers table. In contrast, we have no direct
way of determining whether readers typically receive representative (truly random)
samples of essays.
4 In practice, the essay booklets undergo various stages of haphazard
shuffling before landing on a readers table. Instead, we have no direct way
of determining whether readers typically receive representative (truly random)
samples of essays.
5 In practice, the essay booklets undergo various stages of haphazard
shuffling before landing on a readers table yet we still have no direct way
of determining whether readers typically receive representative (truly random)
samples of essays.
6 In practice, the essay booklets undergo various stages of haphazard
shuffling before landing on a readers table. But we have no direct way of
determining whether readers typically receive representative (truly random) samples
of essays.
7 In practice, the essay booklets undergo various stages of haphazard
shuffling before landing on a readers table. On the contrary, we have no
direct way of determining whether readers ty pically receive representative (truly
random) samples of essays.

3 Because of the size of undertaking, it may be hard to give thorough training to the
persons, and the quality check on the work may have to be limited.
A small sample of the inventory items would require fewer persons, and therefore
they could be trained better.
1 Because of the size of undertaking, it may be hard to give thorough training to
the persons, and the quality check on the work may have to be limited. On the
other hand, a small sample of the inventory items would require fewer persons,
and therefore they could be trained better.
2 Because of the size of undertaking, it may be hard to give thorough training to
the persons, and the quality check on the work may have to be limited. On the
contrary, small sample of the inventory items would require fewer persons, and
therefore they could be trained better.
3 Because of the size of undertaking, it may be hard to give thorough training to
the persons, and the quality check on the work may have to be limited. Instead,
a small sample of the inventory items would require fewer persons, and
therefore they could be trained better.
4 Because of the size of undertaking, it may be hard to give thorough training to
the persons, and the quality check on the work may have to be limited. By
contrast, a small sample of the inventory items would require fewer persons,
and therefore they could be trained better.
5 Because of the size of undertaking, it may be hard to give thorough training to
the persons, and the quality check on the work may have to be limited.
Nevertheless, a small sample of the inventory items would require fewer
persons, and therefore they could be trained better.
6 Because of the size of undertaking, it may be hard to give thorough training to
the persons, and the quality check on the work may have to be limited.
However, a small sample of the inventory items would require fewer persons,
and therefore they could be trained better.
7 Because of the size of undertaking, it may be hard to give thorough training to
the persons, and the quality check on the work may have to be limited. In
contrast, a small sample of the inventory items would require fewer persons,
and therefore they could be trained better.
4 Information on the music played on the radio stations cannot be obtained on a
100% census basis because it would be much too costly.
BMI selects a sample of radio stations to determine what music is being played.
1 Information on the music played on the radio stations cannot be obtained on a
100% census basis because it would be much too costly yet BMI still selects a
sample of radio stations to determine what music is being played.
2 Information on the music played on the radio stations cannot be obtained on a
100% census basis because it would be much too costly.
In contrast, BMI selects a sample of radio stations to determine what music is
being played.
3 Information on the music played on the radio stations cannot be obtained on a
100% census basis because it would be much too costly. Nevertheless, BMI
selects a sample of radio stations to determine what music is being played.
4 Information on the music played on the radio stations cannot be obtained on a
100% census basis because it would be much too costly. However, BMI selects
a sample of radio stations to determine what music is being played.
5 Although information on the music played on the radio stations cannot be
obtained on a 100% census basis because it would be much too costly, BMI
selects a sample of radio stations to determine what music is being played.
6 Eventhough information on the music played on the radio stations cannot be
obtained on a 100% census basis because it would be much too costly, BMI
selects a sample of radio stations to determine what music is being played.
7 Information on the music played on the radio stations cannot be obtained on a
100% census basis because it would be much too costly.
Nonetheless, BMI selects a sample of radio stations to determine what music is
being played.

5 Table 2 presents daily averages and their deviations from the mean.
Table 3 shows the average score assigned by each reader over the course of the
experiment.
1 Table 2 presents daily averages and their deviations from the mean. On the
other hand,
table 3 shows the average score assigned by each reader over the course of
the experiment.
2 Table 2 presents daily averages and their deviations from the mean. However,
table 3 shows the average score assigned by each reader over the course of
the experiment.
3 Even though table 2 presents daily averages and their deviations from the
mean, table 3 shows the average score assigned by each reader over the
course of the experiment.
4 Table 2 presents daily averages and their deviations from the mean.
Nevertheless, table 3 shows the average score assigned by each reader over
the course of the experiment.
5 Table 2 presents daily averages and their deviations from the mean.
Nonetheless, table 3 shows the average score assigned by each reader over
the course of the experiment.
6 Table 2 presents daily averages and their deviations from the mean. Instead,
table 3 shows the average score assigned by each reader over the course of
the experiment.
7 While table 2 presents daily averages and their deviations from the mean, table
3 shows the average score assigned by each reader over the course of the
experiment.

6 Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are the
smallest.
Smaller sized particles have a greater exposed surface area than larger sized
particles.
1 Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are
the smallest. On other hand, smaller sized particles have a greater exposed
surface area than larger sized particles.
2 Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are
the smallest. Nevertheless, smaller sized particles have a greater exposed
surface area than larger sized particles.
3 Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are
the smallest. Instead, smaller sized particles have a greater exposed surface
area than larger sized particles.
4 Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are
the smallest. However, smaller sized particles have a greater exposed surface
area than larger sized particles.
5 Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are
the smallest. Nonetheless, smaller sized particles have a greater exposed
surface area than larger sized particles.
6 Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are
the smallest. In contrast, smaller sized particles have a greater exposed surface
area than larger sized particles.
7 Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are
the smallest. By contrast, smaller sized particles have a greater exposed
surface area than larger sized particles.
CHAPTER EIGHT
ABOVE THE CLAUSE:
EXEMPLIFICATION

EXERCISE ONE:
NO. Sentence
1. If you have different network commands, substitute those commands for
Network Connections in the following procedures. Connect Network Drive
and Disconnect Network are examples of different network commands.
If you have different network commands, such as Connect Network Drive
and Disconnect Network, it substitute those commands for Network
Connections in the following procedures,
2. The Immediate Window at the bottom of the screen can be used as a utility
window as you program in the View window. If you want to clear the output
screen, you can execute the CLS statement from the Immediate window.
The Immediate Window at the bottom of the screen can be used as a utility
window as you program in the View window. For example, If you want to
clear the output screen, you can execute the CLS statement from the
Immediate window.
3. At present the text of a program may be prepared using SETUP and
MODIFY if the terminal in use us an ADMS or a VT100 otherwise the
facilities available in the operating environment must be used. EDT is a
facility available in the operating system.
At present the text of a program may be prepared using such as SETUP,
MODIFY, ADMS or a VT100 and EDT. SETUP and MODIFY if the
terminal in use us an ADMS or a VT100 otherwise the facilities available in
the operating environment must be used.EDT is a facility available in the
operating system
4. In UNITY to VMS Filename Translation, after the slash comes the name of
each directory containing the next sub-directory (followed by a /) until
finally the file name is reached.
/usr/lem/filex refers to the file filex in the directory
lem; lem is itself a subdirectory of usr; usr springs directly from the root
directory.
In UNITY to VMS Filename Translation, after the slash comes the name of
each directory containing the next sub-directory (followed by a /) until
finally the file name is reached like /usr/lem/filex. /usr/lem/filex refers to the
file filex in the directory lem; lem is itself a subdirectory of usr; usr springs
directly from the root directory
5. In UNITY to VMS Filename Translation, all files at the top level of this disk
are located below the unity root. If DRAI is the unity root disk, then DRAI:
[ETC] is equivalent to /ect.

In UNITY to VMS Filename Translation, all files at the top level of this disk
are located below the unity root, such as DRAI is the unity root disk then
DRAI:[ETC] is equivalent to /ect.
6. In either case, restriction of water availability is a primary factor preventing
precocious germination during development. Immature bean (Phaseolus
vulgaris L.) seeds germinate precociously in situ if water is injected into the
pods.
In either case, restriction of water availability is a primary factor preventing
precocious germination during development, for instance immature bean
(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds, that germinate precociously in situ if water is
injected into the pods during development.
7. Most plants require larger quantities of water during the later stages than in
the earlier stages. Sugar cane needs heavier irrigation or more frequent
irrigation from about the sixth month onwards.
Most plants require larger quantities of water during the later stages than in
the earlier stages, for example Sugar cane, that needs heavier irrigation or
more frequent irrigation from about the sixth month onwards.
8. Green manure includes leguminous crops which grow quickly. Clover and
Lucerne supply additional nitrogen as well as organic matter.
Green manure includes leguminous crops like Clover and Lucerne supply
additional nitrogen as well as organic matter which grow quickly,
9. Potassium makes the plant tissues stronger and helps the plant withstand
mechanical damage. Broken branches and torn leaves are examples of
mechanical damage.
Potassium makes the plant tissues stronger and helps the plant withstand
mechanical damage, for example broken branches and torn leaves.
10. By withstanding mechanical damage, the entry of disease bearing agents or
pathogens is prevented. Bacteria and fungi are pathogens.
By withstanding mechanical damage, the entry of disease bearing agents or
pathogens is prevented, for instance Bacteria and fungi, they are pathogens.
CHAPTER NINE
ABOVE THE CLAUSE:
EXPLANATION
EXERCISE ONE:

1. Please note that the plotting is a batch job.


If your job limit is 1, please do not log into VAX 8600 during plotting since it
will be running at VAX 8600.
Answers :
Please note that the plotting is a batch job.That is to say, If your job limit
is 1, please do not log into VAX 8600 during plotting since it will be
running at VAX 8600.
Please note that the plotting is a batch job. This mean that, If your job
limit is 1, please do not log into VAX 8600 during plotting since it will be
running at VAX 8600.
Please note that the plotting is a batch job. In other word If your job limit
is 1, please do not log into VAX 8600 during plotting since it will be
running at VAX 8600.
Please note that the plotting is a batch job. This indicate that If your job
limit is 1, please do not log into VAX 8600 during plotting since it will be
running at VAX 8600.

2. Graph-By-Form (GBF) can perform line-fitting.


BGF attempts to determine a continuous function for a set of data points.
Answers :
Graph-By-Form (GBF) can perform line-fitting. That is to say, BGF
attempts to determine a continuous function for a set of data points.
Graph-By-Form (GBF) can perform line-fitting. This mean that, BGF
attempts to determine a continuous function for a set of data points.
Graph-By-Form (GBF) can perform line-fitting. In other word BGF
attempts to determine a continuous function for a set of data points.
Graph-By-Form (GBF) can perform line-fitting. This indicate that BGF
attempts to determine a continuous function for a set of data points.

3. Net groups reach all of USENET (including USENET sites on the ARPANET)
but do not reach any sites that are not on USENET.
USENET is defined as all sites that net general reaches.
Answers:
Net groups reach all of USENET (including USENET sites on the
ARPANET) but do not reach any sites that are not on USENET. That is to
say, USENET is defined as all sites that net general reaches.
Net groups reach all of USENET (including USENET sites on the
ARPANET) but do not reach any sites that are not on USENET. This
means that, USENET is defined as all sites that net general reaches.
Net groups reach all of USENET (including USENET sites on the
ARPANET) but do not reach any sites that are not on USENET. In other
words, USENET is defined as all sites that net general reaches.
Net groups reach all of USENET (including USENET sites on the
ARPANET) but do not reach any sites that are not on USENET. This
indicates that, USENET is defined as all sites that net general reaches.

4. If you are a novice programmer, you should choose Easy Setup. As you learn
more about QuickBASIC, you can reset these options from within the
environment without running SETUP again.
Answers:
If you are a novice programmer, you should choose Easy Setup. That is to
say, as you learn more about QuickBASIC, you can reset these options
from within the environment without running SETUP again.
If you are a novice programmer, you should choose Easy Setup. This
means that, as you learn more about QuickBASIC, you can reset these
options from within the environment without running SETUP again.
If you are a novice programmer, you should choose Easy Setup. In other
words, as you learn more about QuickBASIC, you can reset these options
from within the environment without running SETUP again.
If you are a novice programmer, you should choose Easy Setup. This
indicates that, as you learn more about QuickBASIC, you can reset these
options from within the environment without running SETUP again.

5. QuickBASICs programming tools are instantly available. They include


features for program organization, editing, syntax checking, file management,
printing and debugging even customizing the colours of the environment.
Answers:
QuickBASICs programming tools are instantly available. That is to say,
they include features for program organization, editing, syntax checking,
file management, printing and debugging even customizing the colours
of the environment.
QuickBASICs programming tools are instantly available. This means
that, they include features for program organization, editing, syntax
checking, file management, printing and debugging even customizing
the colours of the environment.
QuickBASICs programming tools are instantly available. In other
words, they include features for program organization, editing, syntax
checking, file management, printing and debugging even customizing
the colours of the environment.
QuickBASICs programming tools are instantly available. This indicates
that, they include features for program organization, editing, syntax
checking, file management, printing and debugging even customizing
the colours of the environment.

6. The double-width mode doubles the width of any size character, while the
double-height mode doubles the height of any size character. These modes are
useful for emphasizing headings in large amounts of text, and obtaining more
impressing printing results.
Answers:
The double-width mode doubles the width of any size character, while the
double-height mode doubles the height of any size character. That is to
say, these modes are useful for emphasizing headings in large amounts of
text, and obtaining more impressing printing results.
The double-width mode doubles the width of any size character, while the
double-height mode doubles the height of any size character. This means
that, these modes are useful for emphasizing headings in large amounts of
text, and obtaining more impressing printing results.
The double-width mode doubles the width of any size character, while the
double-height mode doubles the height of any size character. In other
words, these modes are useful for emphasizing headings in large amounts
of text, and obtaining more impressing printing results.
The double-width mode doubles the width of any size character, while the
double-height mode doubles the height of any size character. This
indicates that, these modes are useful for emphasizing headings in large
amounts of text, and obtaining more impressing printing results.

7. Emphasized and double-strike modes give your printing added emphasis. In


emphasized mode, the LQ prints each character twice as the print head moves
across the paper, with the second dot printed slightly to the right of the first,
thus producing darker, more fully formed characters.
Answers :
Emphasized and double-strike modes give your printing added emphasis.
That is to say, in emphasized mode, the LQ prints each character twice as
the print head moves across the paper, with the second dot printed slightly
to the right of the first, thus producing darker, more fully formed
characters.
Emphasized and double-strike modes give your printing added emphasis.
This main that, in emphasized mode, the LQ prints each character twice
as the print head moves across the paper, with the second dot printed
slightly to the right of the first, thus producing darker, more fully formed
characters.
Emphasized and double-strike modes give your printing added emphasis.
In other word, in emphasized mode, the LQ prints each character twice as
the print head moves across the paper, with the second dot printed slightly
to the right of the first, thus producing darker, more fully formed
characters.

Emphasized and double-strike modes give your printing added emphasis.


This indicate that, in emphasized mode, the LQ prints each character
twice as the print head moves across the paper, with the second dot printed
slightly to the right of the first, thus producing darker, more fully formed
characters.

8. The net effect might well be that the sample results are more accurate than the
100% enumeration. The gains in accuracy from better training and quality
control with a small sample may more than balance the sampling error
introduced by selecting only a sample of inventory items instead of all of them.
Answers :
The net effect might well be that the sample results are more accurate than
the 100% enumeration. That is to say that, the gains in accuracy from
better training and quality control with a small sample may more than
balance the sampling error introduced by selecting only a sample of
inventory items instead of all of them.
The net effect might well be that the sample results are more accurate than
the 100% enumeration. This main that, the gains in accuracy from better
training and quality control with a small sample may more than balance
the sampling error introduced by selecting only a sample of inventory
items instead of all of them.
The net effect might well be that the sample results are more accurate than
the 100% enumeration. In other word, the gains in accuracy from better
training and quality control with a small sample may more than balance
the sampling error introduced by selecting only a sample of inventory
items instead of all of them.
The net effect might well be that the sample results are more accurate than
the 100% enumeration. This indicate that, the gains in accuracy from
better training and quality control with a small sample may more than
balance the sampling error introduced by selecting only a sample of
inventory items instead of all of them.

9. We could use these estimates, obtained from this small sample of essays, to
calibrate readers and days. We could adjust the scores for the entire pool of
essays, by whomever and whenever they were graded, based on the
information collected in the experiment.
Answers :
We could use these estimates, obtained from this small sample of essays,
to calibrate readers and days. That is to say, we could adjust the scores for
the entire pool of essays, by whomever and whenever they were graded,
based on the information collected in the experiment.
We could use these estimates, obtained from this small sample of essays,
to calibrate readers and days. This main that, we could adjust the scores
for the entire pool of essays, by whomever and whenever they were
graded, based on the information collected in the experiment.
We could use these estimates, obtained from this small sample of essays,
to calibrate readers and days. In other word, we could adjust the scores
for the entire pool of essays, by whomever and whenever they were
graded, based on the information collected in the experiment.
We could use these estimates, obtained from this small sample of essays,
to calibrate readers and days. This indicates that, we could adjust the
scores for the entire pool of essays, by whomever and whenever they were
graded, based on the information collected in the experiment.

10. Since we have achieved one-quarter of the gain at one-thirtieth the cost, a
cost/benefit analysis would yield a factor of seven or eight in favor of the
calibration approach. If it cost, say, $5,000 to run the experiment, it would
have cost about $150,000 to hire enough readers for a complete double
reading, and so one-quarter of that amount ($37,000) would be required to
achieve the same gain in reliability
Answers :
Since we have achieved one-quarter of the gain at one-thirtieth the cost, a
cost/benefit analysis would yield a factor of seven or eight in favor of the
calibration approach. That is to say, if it cost, say, $5,000 to run the
experiment, it would have cost about $150,000 to hire enough readers for a
complete double reading, and so one-quarter of that amount ($37,000)
would be required to achieve the same gain in reliability.
Since we have achieved one-quarter of the gain at one-thirtieth the cost, a
cost/benefit analysis would yield a factor of seven or eight in favor of the
calibration approach. This main that, if it cost, say, $5,000 to run the
experiment, it would have cost about $150,000 to hire enough readers for a
complete double reading, and so one-quarter of that amount ($37,000)
would be required to achieve the same gain in reliability.
Since we have achieved one-quarter of the gain at one-thirtieth the cost, a
cost/benefit analysis would yield a factor of seven or eight in favor of the
calibration approach. In other word, if it cost, say, $5,000 to run the
experiment, it would have cost about $150,000 to hire enough readers for a
complete double reading, and so one-quarter of that amount ($37,000)
would be required to achieve the same gain in reliability.
Since we have achieved one-quarter of the gain at one-thirtieth the cost, a
cost/benefit analysis would yield a factor of seven or eight in favor of the
calibration approach. This indicates that if it cost, say, $5,000 to run the
experiment, it would have cost about $150,000 to hire enough readers for a
complete double reading, and so one-quarter of that amount ($37,000)
would be required to achieve the same gain in reliability.