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1. Capacitance, 6. Capacitance energy, U = QV = CV2 =

C= = =
Q = charge on both plates
V = potential difference between the plates Work done by applied voltage in charging capacitor, W = VQ
* Capacitance is always constant unless the physical factor Energy stored in charged capacitor = QVacross the capacitor
varied (Temperature, properties of dielectric, area of metal Energy dissipated as heat by the same capacitor during
plates and distance between two plates). discharging = C C
* Thus, C of capacitor does not depend on the potential
difference, V across it. Work done against electric field when capacitance is changed
*Since C is constant, Q V. = C1 - C2
= EA = A
2. Parallel plate capacitors
7. Charging and discharging of capacitor through a resistor
When Vcapacitor = e.m.f.battery, Charging Discharging
The flow of electrons V = Vo (1 ) V = Vo ( )
from the battery stops.
Charge on the metal plates reached to maximum. Q = Qo (1 ) Q = Qo ( )
No current flows through the capacitor. I = Io ( ) I = Io ( )
Capacitor is fully-charged. Vo = maximum voltage available relative to initial voltage
3. Theory of dielectrics
The molecules of dielectric are
polarized by the electric field
between the plates.
The surface of the dielectric facing
the positive plate is charged negative
and vice versa.
A reverse (polarized) electric field is In STPM syllabus: (- sign of discharging current have been
set up in dielectric. considered earlier in the derivation)
Resultant electric field between the
plates decreases.
Eresultant = E Epolarisation
From Eresultant = , potential difference between the plates
decreases. From C = , C is increased. 8. They are positive or negative charge on either each plate of
capacitor with same magnitude.
4. Series and parallel circuit
Series Parallel
9. Principle of conservation of charge
= Electric charge can neither be created
nor destroyed.
The magnitude of the net quantity of charge (of two
capacitors) is the magnitude of algebraic sum of all the
Current, I is constant. Voltage, V is constant charge on one side where both capacitors are connected.
From Q = It, Q is constant. Vtotal = V1 = V2 = V3 Algebraic sum of charge took into account of positive and
QT = Q 1 = Q 2 = Q 3 negative terminals.
VT = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 QT = Q 1 + Q 2 + Q 3 10. Clarification on series and parallel.
CTVT = C1V1 + C2V2 + C3V3
C12F is series with C6F
CTVT = VT ( C1 + C2 + C3 )
) C8F is parallel with C12F + 6F
CT = C1 + C2 + C3
C8F is not parallel with C12F
C8F is not parallel with C6F

5. Simple formulation : Q = CV
Answering question such as :
If +ve sign of C1 connected to +ve
sign of C2. C1 is parallel with C2.
* Cnet = +C1 + (+C2)
Qnet = +Q1 + (+Q1)
If +ve sign of C1 connected to -ve
Connected to battery Disconnected from battery sign of C2. C1 is series with C2
(Switch to A) (Switch to B) * Cnet = +C1 + (+C2)
V = constant Q = constant Qnet = +Q1 + (-Q2 )
= = e.m.f.battery C1V1 = C2V2= C3V3 =