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1. Magnetic flux (Scalar quantity) Long Solenoid of N turns

- Strength of magnetic field at any point on the surface.
- Unit: Weber (Wb) or Tm2
l B =
= BA cos When = 90o , o I
= maximum
l B =
No I
Within solenoid:
B= l
2. Magnetic flux linkage (When N turns of coil is used)
= NBA cos When = 90o , At the end of solenoid:
= maximum 1 o
B= 2 l
= r NBA cos ,
r = relative
3. Change of magnetic flux linkage 5. Faradays law 6. Lenzs law
= When the magnetic flux = The direction of induced
= NBA cos = N BA cos linked with a conductor current is such that the
changes, an e.m.f. which induced current produces
= NB A cos is directly proportional to a magnetic field to
4. Magnetic field the rate of change of oppose the change in the
Straight wire magnetic flux linkage is magnetic flux that
induced in the conductor. induced the current.
l B = d d
o I E = N dt = dt

(2 d ) B =
o I

o I
B= 2 d
Cicular loop of N turns
l B = 7. Rate of change of thermal energy
o I = P = I2R
(2r )B = 8. Induced e.m.f. in a linear conductor (N=1)
- No current initially. Use Flemings right hand rule.
N o I d
E = N dt
B= 2r =
d ( BA cos )
d ( Blx cos )
13. Back-e.m.f. in self-induction
= Blv sin - Induced e.m.f. by a change in the current through the

9. Induced e.m.f. in a rotating coil (with N turns)

d =t
E= N
dt Angular velocity,

d (BA cos ) =2 f
d (NBA cos t )
2 ( r . p60. m . )
Peak e.m.f. = Eo
NBA sin t

= E o sin t
mean-square e.m.f. 14. Self-inductance, L
- Unit : Henry (H)
Erms =
2 L = dI =
11. Instantaneous power
- Powermagnetic field = Fmagnetic x velocity
back e . m . f .
v2 rate of change of current the conductor
- Powerelectric field =
R 15. Self-induction
- Phenomenon which e.m.f. is induced in a conductor when the
12. Eddy current current in the conductor changes
- Induced current from magnetic field that flow in closed E=
loop in large conducting plate, produces heat loss of
d dI
energy N = L
dt dt
- Lareg conducting plate has low resistance, hence large I
- Large I and B formed against Bcoil, produces oscillation N d = L dI
damping ( Lenzs law)
- To reduce eddy current, use metal plate with cut slots N d = L dI
( increase resistance ) or laminate the metal plate (avoid
the formation of magnetic field) N = LI

16. Self-induction in solenoid and coil

Solenoid Coil
LI = N LI = N
Eback = LI = NBA LI = NBA
dI N o
L N( o l I LI = N( 2r A
dt LI =

N A o N 2 A o
L =
L =
l 2r
17. Energy stored in an inductor / Magnetic energy A (i) At the moment an electric motor is switched on, a large
- Energy is stored in the magnetic field. amount of current flows in the armature and causes
P = IV damage. Why does this happen?
dU dI (ii) The electric motor is usually connected in series to an
dt = IL dt inductor to avoid the above situation from occurring. How
can the inductor help to avoid the damage?
dU = I L (dI) Answer:
dU= L I dI (i)Some universal motor has high start torque, and the moment
the motor is switched on, (in rush) a large amount of I will
1 flow in armature and causes damage.
U = 2 LI2 (ii)Inductor is connected in series with motor circuit to counter
the large changes of I , therefore slowly raise the I instead
of inrushflow.
18. Mutual Induction
- Phenomenon which e.m.f. is induced in a conductor when
the current in the neighbouring conductor changes
19. Mutual Inductance
- Unit : Henry (H)
M = dI =
e . m. f . inducedthe secondary coil
rate of change of current the primary coil
20. Mutual induction in solenoid
= N
= N2 BA
N2 (
M o I
= l1

= N2 o
M l1
21. Theory of mutual induction
When current In coil 2, I flows form A to B to produce S pole
starts to flow to oppose S pole from coil 1 due to sudden
in coil 1 increase of I
Constant current I flows from B to A follows magnetic flux
in coil 1 direction of coil 1
When current is I flows from B to A to produce Npole to attract
switched S pole from coil 1 due to sudden decrease of I
off in coil 1

22. Conceptual question:

B. Without magnetic field B, swinging of copper plate has longer oscillation before it
stops. Explain.
At the metal plate swinging entering B, there is induced magnetic field from the plate that
oppose / repel Boriginal .
Braking force is formed to slow down the swing.
Eddy current is produced, thus energy is lost.

Why there is braking force when metal plate swing in magnetic field.

Entering Leaving
Plate enter magnetic field Plate leaves magnetic field. Changes of B
Charges of magnetic field increases decreases
According to Lenz Law, B is induced to both side B induced in both side of plate will attract Borigin
of plate will repel Boriginal. Braking force is applied. Braking force is applied.

C. Explain why rotating plane of coil produces induced emf

in this form.

According to induced emf = NBA sin changes in will

change the area exposed to magnetic field.
From sin t , the graph will formed a sine wave

D. A standard resistor made of eureka wire is non-inductively-wound as shown in figure.

Explain non-inductively wound and explain how it is achieved in the standard resistor shown.
Non inductive = magnetic field is not transferred / no magnetic field.
Since the eureka wire loop is made of a single wire, the I entering the side will be leaving the other side. Since the two wires are placed
closed together as pair and both I flow in opposite direction, magnetic field from wires will cancel each other. Hence, no magnetic field
is induced in the resistor and therefore it is non-inductively wound.
E. The figure shows the cicuit breaker of a water beaker. The circuit breaker cuts off the power supply
when there is a short circuit.
The circuit consists of a transformer with two primary
coils X and Y and a secondary coil that is connected
to an electromagnetic switch which is normally
closed. The coils X and Y have the same number of
turns and are wound in opposite directions. The water
beaker and the primary coils are connected in series
with the main supply.
Suppose that at a particular moment, the live wire
is positive with respect to the neutral wire.
i) Draw a diagram to show the magnetic field in the transformer core due to the current in the primary coil X
and Y. Hence, explain why there is no current induced in the secondary coil, and the switch S remains closed.

In coil X and Y, both magnetic field lines is as diagram :

The B from coil X is cancelling B from coil Y since they are travelling in opposite direction. No B exist in secondary coil to induce
current. Hence no I is induced in secondary coil and the switch remains closed.

ii) If coil Y is cut and the wire is connected. What will happen?
The switch S is opened as there is current induced in the secondary coil due to existence of B from coil X. Since coil Y is taken out
there is no B induced. Hence, B from coil X will induce I in secondary coil. Magnetic field is formed and attract switch, thus the
circuit open. No I will flow to water heater