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Part I1

Pipeline Design

Chapter 8 Expansion, Axial Creeping, UpheavaYLateral Buckling

8.1 Introduction
Expansion may be induced by internal pressure and temperature. In recent years, more and
more High Pressure and High Temperature (HP/HT) fields are developed using pipelines and
steel catenary risers. In this design scenario, axial creeping, buckling in the form of upheaval
movements and lateral movements or a combination of both, may take place.

In this Chapter, the basis for expansion analysis will be outlined first with a focus on effective
force calculation. An analysis model is introduced for axial creeping of a high temperature
flowline in clay soil condition. Simplified mathematical equations are presented for use in the
upheaval buckling and lateral buckling designs. Finally HP/HT flowlines will be considered
on uneven seabed, and their buckling behavior will be characterized as a combination of
upheaval and lateral buckling modes: the flowline will uplift first and then move more
laterally. There are many papers published on these subjects. Hence, we shall focus on the
mathematical formulation that has actually been adopted in the current pipeline design
practice. Some further readings include Ellinas et al. (1990), Kershenbaum et al. (1996), Nes
et al. (1996) and etc.

8.2 Expansion

8.2.1 General Principle


A pipeline can be a single or piggybacked pipeline system, pipe-in pipe or bundled system. Its
expansion is dependent on the temperature, pressure profile, pipeline self weight and friction
forces. The expansion analysis will interface with:
0 Tie-in Design;
0 Lateral and Upheaval Buckling Assessment;
0 Free-span Assessment;
0 Crossing Design;
0 Bottom Roughness/ Stress Assessment.

The maximum pipeline end expansion is calculated for the lower bound friction coefficient
and the highest pipeline axial stresses are derived for the higher bound friction coefficient. The
116 Part 11Pipeline Design

increased axial resistance from backfill along the route should be also accounted for. The input
data for expansion analysis includes:
0 Pipeline and Coatings Properties;

0 Minimum Contents Weight;

0 Temperature Profile & Pressure Profile;

0 Geotechnical Data;

0 Depth of Burial.

8.2.2 Single Flowlines


This section presents the theory behind developing the axial force profile along a flowline
operating under temperature and pressure, which is being restrained by soil friction forces.
The position of the virtual point is found which gives the position where the soil friction force
(including backfill) equals the locked in effective force (where the axial strain is zero). The
end expansion is the integration of the axial strain from this position to the end of the pipeline,
and is therefore:
VAP

A= j(&pressrre + &temp - soil )&


0

The true axial force in the pipeline is:


n
Pwoa= Pef +- M ( D-2ty
4
The effective axial force in the partially restrained region is:
Pef = -p w x

The effective axial force in the fully restrained region is:

Pef= --n AP(D - t )2 + o H v A ,- EaATA,


4
where:
E : axial strain;
Pwall :axial force in the pipe wall;
Pef :effective axial force;
AP : pressure differential;
D : pipeline diameter;
t : wall thickness;
p : axial friction coefficient;
w : pipeline unit weight;
x : distance from free end;
OH : hoop stress;
u : poisons ratio;
Chapter 8 Expansion, Upheaval & Lateral Buckling 117

A, : pipeline wall cross section area;


E : Youngs modulus;
a : thermal expansion coefficient;
AT : temperature differential.

8.3 Axial Creeping of Flowlines Caused by Soil Ratcheting

8.3.1 General
In recent years, continuous monitoring of some high-temperature subsea flowlines operated in
the North Sea has shown that the flowlines are experiencing a gradual overall axial
displacement towards the colder outlet ends. This net axial shift of the pipelines has proved to
be critical for the integrity of the tie-in spools. In this Section, we shall present an analysis
model for axial creeping of flowlines caused by soil ratcheting, based on Tsrnes et a1 (2000).

8.3.2 Cyclic SoiYPipe Interaction Model


In reality, the pipe-soil resistance in clay is far more complex than simple Coulomb friction.
The frictional resistance is strongly non-linear with the maximum force (Fp) reached at a very
small displacement and then gradually reduced to a residual value (Fr) at a relatively large
displacement. This pipe-soil resistance is represented by curve 1 (dashed line) in Figure 8.1.

Frictional Restraint Force

-- Curve 1
Curve 1

I
I *-.
-----._
__
Curve 2

T
Unloading

+ >
Axial Displacement

Figure 8.1 Schematic of soiVpipe interaction model (Ternes et al., 2000).

A modified elasto-plastic Coulomb friction model as represented by curve 2 in Figure 8.1,


may be used to describe the axial pipe-soil resistance in a FE model. Since the flowlines
gradually creep in one direction at an approximate rate of lm per year, this would in theory
remove the peak force. Further, if the peak force is present, this would only be the case at very
small displacements and thus only affect a limited part of the flowline.
118 Part 11 Pipeline Design

The first part of the bi-linear Coulomb friction curve is linear. Initially the expanding pipeline
stretches the surrounding soil and the soil resistance behaves purely elastic. When the static
friction limit is reached, the pipe surface starts to slide relative to soil at the lower residual
frictional value (plastic behaviour). The distance the pipe needs to travel before plastic sliding
occur, is normally referred to as the frictional mobilisation length (y).

8.3.3 Expansion of a Long Flowline with Free ends


In order to explain the creeping behaviour of the flowlines, it is therefore useful to first discuss
pipeline expansion behaviour in general. First, consider an ideal pipeline with free ends laid
on a perfectly flat seabed. The constant pressure and temperature applied to the pipeline, will
cause it to expand and the frictional resistance of the seabed soil will be mobilised. The
accumulation of fiictional forces opposing the expansion will result in an effective
compressive force in the pipeline which increases linearly from each pipeline end. A point is
eventually reached where the strain caused by the frictional resistance exactly counterbalances
the sum of the pressure and thermal strains. Beyond this point, further expansion movement is
prevented and thus the pipeline is fully restrained.

This is shown in Figure 8.2 b), where the effective compressive force increases linearly from
the end to a point where the pipeline becomes fully restrained. In the midsection of the
pipeline, often referred to as the anchor zone, the effective compressive force will remain
constant. Since a section of a long pipeline is fully restrained at full operating condition, it
cannot undergo global axial creep.

URSTHEAT-UP

EFf Y Constant pressure 8 temperature

__ __.I.
a) Definitkw Strelch

EmfcSva
Tension
f
y
No fnclion build up

c) h i e l Displ. Dislribution a1 Full Oparalion

Figure 8.2 Expansion of a long flowline with free ends and constant pressure and temperature
(Tornes et al., 2000).
Chapter 8 Expansion, Upheaval & Lateral Buckling 119

8.3.4 In-situ Expansion Behavior of the Creeping Flowlines


The analysis results presented in this section were obtained by simulating the operational
history of one of the production flowlines under a cyclic temperature profiles and pressure
history. The effective force distribution history as the flowline is gradually heated up and
cooled down during the first cycle, is presented in Figure 8.3. It shows how the negative peaks
on the effective force plot will not initially be located at midline. Instead, the peak moves from
the hot end towards the middle of the flowline as the heat propagates towards the cold end.

(Ref. Fig. 2
800 -hl
- h3
600 - h4

400 -h l
e - h6

.- 200
2 - h7

{ o - h8

.-z* -200 - h9
- hlO
0' -hll
w -400 -hll

-600 h13
-h14
-800 -h15

-1000 -h16

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800


-.la
Distance Along Pipe From Well Im]

Figure 8.3 Schematic of soiVpipe interaction model (Tomes et al., 2000).

Only at the moment friction has been mobilised along the entire length, will the maximum
compressive force occur at midline. As can be seen from Figure 8.3, this occurs approximately
when temperature profile number 9 is applied to the flowline. The corresponding axial
displacement history from the FE analysis is shown in Figure 8.4. A schematic of a
temperature profile and the corresponding effective force and axial displacement distributions
at one instant during the heating up process, i.e. prior to reaching the full operating conditions,
is shown in Figure 8.5.

Since the thermal strain is proportional to the temperature in the line, the tendency to expand
will decrease gradually from the hot end to the point where the pipeline is at ambient
temperature. As the pipeline expands towards the hot end, the accumulation of frictional force
is built up away from this end of the flowline. This means that the further away from the hot
end, the more resistance (higher effective force due to the accumulation of friction force)
against the thermal expansion.
120 Part 11Pipeline Design

1.o

-- 0.6
6

I- 0.2

an
P
-0.2

-0.6

-1.o
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 180
Distance Along Pipe From Well [m]

Figure 8.4 Axial pipe displacements along the flowline through the temperature cycle 1 (Ternes et al.,
2000).

The analysis results showed that this heating up process causes the entire flowline to shift
towards the cold end compared to a case where it is heated up uniformly to its operating
conditions (i.e. without heating it up gradually from the hot towards the cold end).
Furthermore, the entire shift occurs before the maximum effective force is located at midline,
Le. before the frictional resistance is mobilised along the entire line.

The reason for this is as follows: Figure 8.5 shows how the pipeline expands in both directions
from either side of the stationary point at which the maximum effective force occurs. Since
this point gradually moves from the hot end towards the midline, this means that all the points
on the hot half of the pipeline will first experience an expansion movement towards the cold
end followed by movement in the reversed direction towards the hot end. The latter occurs as
soon as the point of maximum effective force passes the point in question.

8.4 Upheaval Buckling

8.4.1 General
Global buckling is a beam-mode buckling that is characterized by an amplitude and
wavelength. An upheaval buckling may take place for a buried pipeline that up-lifts due to
excessive expansion.

8.4.2 Analysis of Up-lifts


A buried pipeline can form a raised loop upward out of the seabed. The buckles can overstress
the pipe wall. It is assumed that the pipeline has an imperfection in the form of plastic
deformations in combination with foundation imperfections. The analysis method is based on
Pedersen and Jensen (1988), who presented a simplified analysis of the pipeline uplifts from
the bottom of the trench. The pipeline is assumed to buckle elastically. Figure 8.6 illustrates
Chapter 8 Expansion, Upheaval & Lateral Buckling 121

the Pedersen and Jensen model that has been derived from an elastic beam theory for the
imperfect pipeline uplifted in the x-w coordinate system.

[EE f Constant pressure FREE


END

a) Definition stretch

b) Temperature profile

,
X
-
KP

A' 7- f I T f -,
A-KP
X

Figure 8.5 Expansion of a flowline with a free end & a temperature gradient (Ternes et al., 2000).
122 Part 11Pipeline Design

P
N-9 D2dp
t I
I t I I

Figure 8.6 Uplifted pipelines (top), and variation in compressive axial force (bottom) (Pedersen &
Jensen, 1988).

A numerical procedure for the calculation of uplift profile is:

1) Calculate the k value associated with a given free span (2L) from Equation (8.5) and
then predict the axial force N using Equation (8.6), where q is the total pipe weight per unit,
qpis the weight due to pipe plastic deformation, and Lois half wave length, L is half uplift
length, respectively .
a Y P 1
+-)sin kL - (- - K) cos kL + -(-aL + P ) = 0 (8.5)
(2 k kZ k2

N = EIk2
where

qp * (3L - 2L0)+ 3 . q . L
P= 3.E.I
9

K=.f (L,-L)*L f o r ~ s ~ , ,
6E.I

or K =0 for L > L o .
Chapter 8 Expansion, Upheaval & Lateral Buckling 123

2) Determine the deflection configuration from Equation (8.7);


1 1 a
w ( x ) = Acosloc+ Bsinkx+-(--mc2 +px+,+y) (8.7)
k2 2 k
where
A= ;(- ++),
B=-,+--.
P K
k k

3) Calculate the associated pressure-temperature combination from Equations (8.8) and


(8.9); Figure 8.7 explains the limiting permissible temperature has been taken as the minimum
temperature on the U-shaped curve in the temperature-buckling wavelength plane (Pedresen
and Jensen, 1988).

n
Without initid impcrfection

Figure 8.7 Minimum temperature increase AT,,,i. for equilibrium curves associated with uplifted
pipelines (Pedersen & Jensen, 1988).

w')' - (w ,')'~ }h- (qAL)*

n n
N , = ;EA, AT - v -D~hp + -D~M
2 4
where NOis effective axial compression away from the buckle, N is compression in the uplift
buckle, D is steel pipe outside diameter, AT is the temperature change, AP is the pressure
- the product and the pressure at the seabed, A, is the pipe steel cross
difference between
sectional area, a is thermal coefficient, v is Poisson's ratio, w'is the differential deflection,
and is the differential initial deflection, respectively.
124 Part 11Pipeline Design

8.4.3 Upheaval Movements


To make an initial assessment of the pipelines propensity for global buckling and to derive the
driving force under the design and operational conditions, a traditional upheaval buckling
assessment can be performed, adopting the method given by Palmer et a1 (1990).
The maximum required download is found by the above relationship for a (worst case) prop
support, which has the highest natural occurring curvature in the pipeline and is a factor of
flowline axial force and bending stiffness:

w = 0.064(Peff,)? 5
EI
(8.10)

where
w : total required download;
Pen : effective axial force;
fa : axial force factor;
H : prop height;
EI : flowline bending stiffness.
An analysis may be carried out to calculate the total required download for a series of prop
heights, which accounts for the true axial force in the flowline by the build up soil friction
forces along the route. A safety factor of 1.2 is normally applied to the axial force. The
required extra download is then calculated as:
wnet = - &PL - wbf (8.1 1)

where:
aet: net required download (rock dump);
OPL : pipeline unit weight;
wbf : backfill unit weight.

The calculation is performed for the design and operational temperature and pressure. In the
calculation, the effect of backfill is considered, for both the axial force and download
components. The net required download finally can be converted into an equivalent soil or
rock dump cover based on the geotechnical properties entered, as follows:

(8.12)

where:
y : submerged weight of the soil and rocks dumped on the pipeline;
Do : pipeline overall diameter;
z : the cover from the top of the pipe to the surface of the soil above the pipe
centreline (backfill depth);
f : an uplift coefficient determined experimentally, generally about 0.7 for rock and
0.5 for sand, but occasionally much smaller in loose sand.
Chapter 8 Expansion, Upheaval & Lateral Buckling 125

8.5 Lateral Buckling

8.5.1 General
Unburied pipe on the seabed will buckle laterally instead of vertically unless the lateral
friction coefficients are very high. The resistance to sideways movement is the submerged
weight multiplied by lateral friction coefficient. The driving force for lateral buckling is the
compressive force induced by operational temperature and pressure. A lateral buckling
analysis may be carried out based on Hobbs (1984), Hobbs and Liang (1989). The effective
axial force is calculated for the operating condition defined within a design envelope (shown
by the series of graphs) for any of the four possible modes presented.

8.5.2 Lateral Buckling of Straight Line on Flat Seabed


The parameters and equations used for the determination of the lateral buckling are presented
as below. The required effective axial force to buckle can be expressed as:

The buckle amplitude is

(8.14)

The force left in the buckle is

(8.15)

The maximum moment induced in the buckle is


M = k , * p i* w . L ( z ) (8.16)

: the location on the pipe;


: buckle length;
: the lateral seabed friction coefficient;
: the axial seabed friction coefficient;
: pipeline submerged unit weight;
: cross section area of pipe;
: Youngs Modulus;
: buckle constant.

Values for the buckling constants are given in the following table.
126 Part 11Pipeline Design

Buckle Mode K1 Kz IG 1<4 KS


1 80.76 6.391e-5 0.5 2.407e-3 0.0694
2 39.48 1.743e-4 1.o 5.532e-3 0.1088
3 34.06 1.668e-4 1.294 1.032e-2 0.1434
4 28.20 2.144e-4 1.608 1.047e-2 0.1483

The maximum amount of pipe which can feed into a buckling occurring at the pipeline end is
equal to the unrestrained expansion of the line. However, the force in the buckied section (P)
would have to be zero. The increase in length of pipe A1 in the buckled section from the
unbuckled state can be determined as:

A1 = ('buck - '). (8.17)


A*E
Expansion of the adjacent slipping length (L,) as force falls from POto P at the start of the
buckle can be expressed as:

Al,? = ('buck -1' ' Ls


(8.18)
A*E
where

L, = ('buck (8.19)
P*U
Total expansion into the buckle is,

A L = A l + A l , = ('buck -1' .( L + ('buck -1


') (8.20)
A*E P'U
For the buckling modes 2 and 4,L is replaced by 2L in the above equation as they are double
buckle modes. The above assessment is sufficient for conceptual design.

8.6 Interaction between Lateral and Upheaval Buckling

A finite element analysis may be applied to gain an understanding of the complex mechanism
between the vertical and horizontal mode of buckling. This included a number of 2D and 3D FE
simulations using a typical 3D seabed model (Nystrom et al., 1997).

3D buckling model
In the first examples, a flat seabed with one realistic vertical seabed imperfection was used
(1.8 m high and 50 m long, see Figure 8.7). A 10'' oil flowline with a residual lay tension of
50 kN and no internal pressure is assumed. The seabed is assumed to be flat in the lateral
plane, however a pipe imperfection of Wom/Lo=O.OO1was introduced in the pipe horizontal
plane. In order to determine the effect of the restraining force, two friction coefficients were
checked (0.3 and 1.O). Temperature loads were applied to the model, in addition to the residual
lay tension.
Chapter 8 Expansion, Upheaval & Lateral Buckling 127

L Lift off Length

-Seabed Profile

-309.5

-310

-310.5
1
+ \

-....

-31 1

Length along model [m]

Figure 8.8 Vertical pipe-seabed profile (Half mode) (Nystrom et al., 1997).

Figure 8.8 shows that, for a friction coefficient of 0.3, the flowline starts to lift off the seabed
at approximately 13C. Little horizontal movement has yet occurred. At 16"C, the vertical
displacement reaches 0.25 m but, suddenly drops down again to zero. In the same instant, the
pipe 'snaps' laterally by 1.85 m to a new equilibrium configuration. As stated previously the
pipe is now fallen back onto the seabed again.

The same effect can be seen for the higher friction case (p=l.O), the differences being that the
vertical movement starts at 15"C, the pipe lifts slightly higher, the lateral buckling temperature
is approx. 2 1"C and the resulting lateral displacement is 1.4 m.

Even though the higher friction case causes the pipeline to buckle laterally at a higher
temperature, Figure 8.9 shows that the flowline buckles at approximately the same effective
force for both fiiction cases. This is an important finding for the understanding of the 3D
buckling behaviour. On an uneven seabed, therefore, it appears that the critical lateral
buckling force is little affected by the lateral friction resistance. This phenomenon can be
explained by the fact that for a pipeline resting on an uneven seabed, the vertical imperfections
can be significantly larger than the horizontal imperfections. As the flowline initially 'buckles'
vertically, it looses lateral restraint (less contact, less lateral restraint) where upon it interacts
with the horizontal mode and buckles laterally. Specifically, the pipe starts to lift vertically at
approximately 170 kN (Ref. Figure 8.9) and starts to loose lateral frictional restraint. As a
result of this reduction in lateral restraint, the lateral buckling force also decreases. The critical
lateral buckling force is reached at an effective axial force of approx. 200 kN. Because the
pipe now has reached the point of axial instability in the horizontal plane, the path of least
resistance is chosen, and a lateral 'snap' to a new equilibrium configuration occurs. It should
be noted that, in theory, not all pipes which lift off vertically will buckle laterally. A situation
could occur where the flowline operational loads only are capable of lifting a section of the
pipeline. In this case the vertical mode would still be governing.
128 Part 11 Pipeline Design

Lateral Deflection -
2wwo

f
B 1
w

t
Pd lw0W

0
ow 050 100 150 2 00 250
AMPLITUDE [m]

Figure 8.9 Static 3D analysis, buck force vs. deflection (Nystrom et al., 1997).

8.7 References
1. Ellinas, CP, Supple, WJ and Vastenholt, H (1990): Prevention of Upheaval Buckling of
Hot Submarine Pipelines by Means of Intermittent Rock Dumping, Proceedings 22nd
Offshore Technology Conference, pp 5 19-528.
2. Hobbs, RE (1984): In-Service Buckling of Heated Pipelines, Journal Transport
Engineering, pp 178-179.
3. Hobbs, RE and Liang, F (1989): Thermal Buckling of Pipelines Close to Restraints,
Proceedings 8th Int. Conf on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Eng, pp 121-127.
4. Kershenbaum, NY, Harrison, GE and Choi, HS (1996): Subsea Pipeline Lateral
Deviation Due to High Temperature Product, Proceedings 6th Int. Offshore and Polar
Eng Conf, Vol2, pp 74-79.
5. Nes, H, Szvik, S, Levold, E. and Johannesen, A., (1996): Expansion Control Design of
Large Diameter Pipelines, Proceedings 15th Int. Conf on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic
Eng, Vol5, pp 279-285.
6. Nystram P.R., Terrnes K., Bai Y. and Damsleth P.A., (1998): 3D Dynamic Buckling and
Cyclic Behavior of HP/HT Flowlines, ISOPE-1997.
7. Pedersen, P. T. and Jensen, J.J, Upheaval Creep of Buried Heated Pipelines with Initial
Imperfections, Marine Structures, 1988.
8. Palmer, A., Ellinas, C., Richards & Guijt (1990): Design of Submarine Pipelines against
Upheaval Buckling, OTC 6335.
9. Terrnes, K., Ose, B.A., Jury, J. and Thomson, P. (2000): Axial Creeping of High
Temperature Flowlines Caused by Soil Ratcheting, OMAE-2000.