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Earthquake Engineering, Tenth Word Conference © 1994 Balkema, Atardam. SBN 9054100605 July 16, 1990 Luzon (Philippines) earthquake R.LSharpe Cupertino, Calif, USA ABSTRACT: The purpose of his paper 1a to present an overview of the July 16, 1990 Luzon, Poilippines earehguake, what vas Learned, and what ce Tes dnpact on the local populace and the country ove of the Largest in ata vhole wae najor. ‘The geoscience and geotechateal structural danage, and the socio fal decades. 2 eposcreNce-cEOTECHNICAL he Philippines Archipelago lies between to of the world’s major tectonic plates. Zhe Puilippines Sea Plate moving northwesterly 12 Being subducted Benesch the archipelage a= about 7 om per year while parte of the Bur~ ‘ian Plate are being subducted below L200 {and Hindanao at about 3 on per year. Ae a Fenult there Rave bean about 10.000 earth= quakes in che Philippines fron 1960 to 1950, ost of then recorded but only a few felt. Sone of the major frulte lie in the PALLip~ pine Fault Zone and ite many branches includ Lag the Digdig Fault. Tia faule zone Leaet 1300 em in lengeh and ia aoetly ‘The July 16, 1990 earthquake (@ atteibuted to the Philippine Fault tone and ite major branch, the Digaig Fault. The Digdig te ap- parently nearly vertical and cuts under oF ear Baguio City. the epicenter is estimated fo be located about 19 km north-northeast of Cabanatuen. The main shock vae magnitode 7.8 (is) with a focal depth of 25 0 Je km There wore nearly 700 aftershocks, with about 60 felt and 1? greater than Richter 5, in to and one half days afeer the main shock (fig rt ‘Ihe Philippine Fault fone splays into to Andependent feuice — the Digaig end the Dingalen. ‘The head of the Seiesology Depart= ent at the Manila Observatory attributes his earehquake £0 the sudden release of strain along @ seismic gep in the Dingalen Fault. There had been ominous quiescence ‘The city of Rgco on the west coast of Luzon Ag one of the main population centers in the region. Large arees around Agoo Liquefied, reer be learned. The earthquake was pects are exanined, folloved by a discussion of Hig L, Faule break and major after shocks (from USGS data and Heri, 1990) settled, and vere flooded with aaa water. Northwest of Agoo the Village of Alaska with some 30 houses was totally destroyed (£19 2)+ Aithough there was exteneive Liquefaction ‘Around’ Agoo, apparently there wae none in the cley Leeee Fig 2. Major Liquefaction sites (from JtcA, 1980) Stope inseabiliey caused Large econenic tone, Rock and landslides were ceused by the nein shock and aftershocks. The monsoon Paine exacerbated the sliding. Te was timated that in sone places in the northern mountains tea percent of the top aoil lost during the esrenquake and up to 20 per~ cent more in the weeks folloving due to af Eershocks and the heavy rains. All mejor roads through the Cental Cordiliecs Houn= sing were closed by Literally thoveands of Tanda ia Te the city of Baguio at many out and £412 sites, the dovahill £11 slopes displaced Ganaging the structures supported theceon. Pault surface rupture damaged buildings and structures located on the rupture are ther bulldinge inmediately adjacent to the ruptue suffered minor or no damage. In the city of Rizal buildings close to or on the surface rupture were danaged but most others in the city were not. One of two bridges northwest of Rizal straddled the capture and was destroyed. The other bridge closer to Rizal but about QD = from the rupture had no ‘The heavy rains were a stxong factor in Liquefaction (raised water table), land~ nd rockalides. Founda Elon settlement induced structural dasage tn any batldings 2 smmuctuRAL DRMeE Major structural damage due to strong ground shaking was Lisivea aostly to the cities of Baguio, Agoo and cabanatoan. Many of the ose apectacwiar building fai2~ lures occurred in the wining, Light industrial land resort center of Baguio. Baguio, a city 7028 fof about 200 000 permanent residents is 1o~ fated about 270 ie north of Manila, at an Glevation of about 1800 =. At the peak of fhe eourise season the population increas by about 120 000 tourteter ‘six buildings over four stories sutfored partial or toval collapee and ancther ten had hajor damage. However, 26 other buidings (60 percent} over four stories had minor or no discernible danage. Only about five per~ Gent of low buildings sustained nore than Sninor danage. Most engineered bulldings are Telnforced concrete aovent resisting frames, often with unrainforeed or under-reinforces ‘Denajor collepee was the 12-etory Hyatt yerraces Hotel. Ore section, the Aparthotel, collapsed onto an adjacent structure in the Knietal shock and then the main portion of the Rotel collapsed during an aftershock @ short tine later. Observers noted hat there wae insufficione transverse reinforcement to adequately confine the longitudinal rebare. In sone areas the vertical reinforcenest.ep- peared inadequate. ‘The hotel was danaged in ‘the 1985 Baguio Farthquake, was closed for Seven onthe for repaire, and reopened after Soaciefactory structural inepection. The facility wae initially built in abous 1975 with sone Inter additions. .guio ark Hotel largely collapsed. The sinevetory Hilltop Hotel ef fered’ total panceke collapse. the building had been condemned after the 1995 earehquaxe and a few illegal occupants were in the Buliding at thee regu Severar soft firer story buildings fate other stories and has linited eeienic resiet~ ance. The first too stories of the sistory FRB Hotel collapsed while the top four stories haa little danage. The lower floor of the cive-story Nevada Hotel collapsed. nine-story reinforced concrete frane building with block infill walla at the University of Baguio collas ‘Thore appeared to be sone torsional. irregi~ larity at the £i¢th floor which collapeed watle several floors in another part of the structure collapsed pancake style. ‘At the Baguio Expert Processing Zone, @ three-story building on filled ground col- Lepecd while a similar nearby building on the cut vide of the eite had linited damage. A Elnber buliding belit on « ateep elope vat seriously damaged and declared unsafe for Oc cupancy. Te ip of interest that the tvo-to-thet story Baguio city Hall of masonry construc~ tion suffered minor danage. Similarly, the massive Baguto Cathedral, built of masonry, hed only cracking of sone parapets bur other~ wise wae not damaged. Tn Baguio almost all Of the structural damage wae induced Dy Ground shaking. Sone homes had chimney dam Soe. Atvershock studies as well as obsexvatione of damage at Baguio and Rizai indicate thee Baguio hed Large amplification of ground no- tise as compared eo Rizal. the ressone for Tn Ages sary low rise bulldings were seri ously damaged. A steel frane single-story Classroom was badly danayed ae vas the two story town ya sore strat story rein~ forced concrete structure. tuan collapsed while nearby buildings of sim Har contruction sustained only minor dam 3 socro-Reovouze aspects ‘The sociovecononic impact was severe through out the affected region. There were approxi~ ately 1200 deathe and 2000 persone injured. approxinately 666 deathe and 1600 ‘the total number of Seaths was prob~ sbly greater becauar Rinerous casualties, The susber of injured say be such greater becsuse early victin treatments were not recorded 7 large proportion of the fa voce caused by building collapses. Perhaps 10 £2 20 fatalities were cue to fire ina large building in Baguio’s export zone. Tn Nueva Vizcaya there weze po. injurtes from felling buildings because of Light weight material ured in bullding constrsc~ ton. Hovever, many vere killed or injured by massive landetice Liquefaction appesred to contrinute to spout 40 fatalities. in Baguio, Cabanatuan, and Agoo — for the ny Lazge high-occupancy collapsed butldings in Baguio, the ix story Christian College buLlding and the parcial collapse of the 1S brary building at Central Luzon state Univer sity at Cabanatuan, and the many badly dam ged low rise buildings in Ages. Organized rescue shifted to mountainous nage by fellow bullding eccupante and Local Feacue personnel. lsck of earch and Fer~ cue training and adequate oquipnent hampered iocal rescuers. Early rescues were by hand. Eater Philippine and Us military personnel and equipment from Suble Bay and Clark Ale Force Bate provided mich needed generators, eue work at the college Building. Foreign heavy-rescue specialists fron the Us, Britain, Japan, France end Singapore Be~ gen arriving two days after the earthquake, 7028 Passage of tine decreases chances for aurviv~ th ba percent of survivors sere cencned Siehin the fire hour an 95 pereone aitten Ze hocre, oe survivor in the Suseio beet ote! wav rescued 1) aye steer The role of foreign reccve teane ehoulé be exanines.. their arrivel sas too lave to neue S'Signieleane aitterence. “snis has seen thes invnany other earthquakes, Rescue teams gene rally aid not fit in to well wisn noena™ Secua efforts although the Singapore foun thd U8 military based in the Philippines pec~ Eletpaced in all aspects of seccus and steyed Sch longer than others: Potore foreign asoletance should be direct ea'to delivering needed technology and =peie~ feent, improving search and rescus capabili~ Tite before a sajor earthqueke, aod srevicing Sssletance in a manner consietent with Local ‘The overall health care effort we greatty hampered by lack of communications and. ime fo Baguio, but roadway danag. ‘The iret access coad to Baguio opened four days after the earthquake. Bridge and roadway failures constrained enes~ gency response and rescue in the loviand The health care situation in the soun- talnous areas northwest of Baguio vae very serious because of the poor access. tand= Sildes wacked many injuries because Bae |guio and Cabanatuen had sufficient med~ seal taosiities to handle the sort serious chees. Helicopters aided in evacuating the Seriously injured co Manila hoepicals and edieal care at clark Air Force Bare and Subse Bay Naval Base. Danage to hospitals and perceived risk of bullding collepee made many nedicel personnel reluctant to recccupy sone hoepitel factli- flees An estimated 12 hoepitale with about 600 beds. (25 percent of total in region) had te be totally reconstructed while the 350-bed Baguio General Hospital and the 300-bed car~ cia Medical Center at Cabesatuan needed ex- Eentive repairs. One major Maniia hospital requixed structural repairs and some patient had to be transferred. in almost all hospi tals there was extensive damage to nobile qulpnent such as oxygen een ‘Occupant perception of danage and safety of bulldinge may be ae important aa the actual safety of the structure. When occupants forrounding batldinge of apparently similar Construction evacuated, they are hard £0 con Vinee that their building 12 ‘ore than ne Hoapital waved patients and equipment {nto makeshift tents despite heavy rains be cnuse of the perception that their facilities Peetwearthquake inspection procedur communication to occupants probably need to Ee vnodified to reassure occupente as well as the structural engineore, 5 socrEraL rapacTs up venporary sheltere regardless of she conditions of hele hones, One estimate shoved abou tom thirds of nevly Ronelees had intact hones. Wearly 80 000 families with a total populan tion of about 500 000 vere affected. Of these, at least 6200 hones vere destroyed ind over 15 900 bones partially damaged. ‘The econoay ef che region will be adversely impacted fora tong tine. Three of the four roads to Bagsio were closed for four to six onthe thos hampering reconstruction. —Daguc pan lost more than one-half of ite central Dusiness disteict. there war # ahortage of skilled Labor and technielane, boilding #0p~ Plies, ang soar inportant finoncial re ‘There was widespread anxiety and depression ‘among the population. A rudinentary treat~ ent program wes started several weeks after ‘The provieion of clean potable water was major problen. The Baguio hospitals purified ater by boiling which in turn used up scarce Einber supply that could have been used to repair hones. Electric power, wats and telephones were out Of city Flectrical” Water Telephone age 7 a = jaguio 2 Upeore or Dagupen 3 a0 one 6 conctusrons Te can be seen from the preceding text that the earthquake wae disestroue for a Large nusber of people end a large geographical area. The following conclusions and sugges Elona are offered. Tm the matter of geoscienc © barge magnitude does not necessarily equate to high peak ground accelerations © ‘Uong rupture length probably meane Long duration 0 Mear-faslt intensities were apparently ower than noreally expected © Strong-notion tnstrunentation should be installed and maintained on # regular Daaie Geotechnical factors caused nore wideapresd ‘damage than steong ground shaking? © Many roadways were closed due to 1ique- faction, bridge failures, foil spreading and Lande} ide © Liquefaction vas the villain in many etetes and rural are: o Water distrintion 1ines and sanitary covers wore roptured in Dagupan ‘Slope instability caused damage to rosd- o“tandeliges blocked xoe@vays and wiped oot come spat vitlages in the nountelae a ‘Tiquetaction vas predictable Soll conditions should be assesses, o4pe- ctatly for belages and Large bullelage o Foundation conditions of Beidges shod se vaimaced eepeciiy on main higheye for buildings and roudvaye should be engineered to ensure o “tite amplification should be important facilities ie appears that high frequency aotions near che epleenter vere less than would be normsl- by expected. The lack of ground shaking~ Sndsced damage to longer period structures in ‘the central plains would indleate thet longer period motions were also low. There appeared fe be large amplification of motions xt Bx gui — but the reasons eherefor are not Slear. One possibility could be long dre ‘thon of low amplitude motions with predomi~ ant frequencies in the range Of those for ‘the structural damage, other than at guis, Agoo and the ieciated failures at Gabanataen, induced by strong mation appeared to be less than would be expected for # nag- nitude 7-8 earthquake, ‘The epicentral inten sitios vere relatively low, on the order of Rossi-rorel Vit. Baguio had higher inten sities for median rise structures while Ages had higher Intensities for low rise atrac- ‘The buflding damage due to streng sotion revealed several sajor contributing factors © Building configuration — soft first story, torsional (plan) irregularities, Ineufticient traneverse confining re inforcenent, ineufticient. splice Lengthe and/or anchorage of rebar, and nonengi- rea infill walla — often remulted in hort” colunne © quality control for design and consteue~ © Consideration should be given to possible amplificavion of structural response £5 low anplitude long duration motion © Mazardous bulldings should be asses and upgraded © Procedures for post~earthquake inepec- lone and communications to occupante and the public need to be 4 © Effects on people of ground shaking and destructive damage (euch an anxiety and depression) should be studied and treat 2 for 7090 nent procedures developed oh major seismic event can caus extensive econouie inpact from: disruption of elec tele power, potable water suplies, sani tary severe, and comminicationsy lose of fetail and production facilities; lack of Skilled workers and materiale ‘Thia earthquake impectea all of Philip~ pines, caused more han US §2 Billion in [oneee, extensive lose of agricultural Land fron liguefactlon-indused wubsid~ fence, and nore than 20 000 jobe were lost "Foreign assistance procedures in search and reecue operations should be reviewed ind possibly be focused on pre-earthguake taining of locele and furniahing of res eee equipment fo Healthcare facilities including steuc~ ores and contente should be evaluated fing strengthened araurocRaper BEIZ. 1990. The Luzon, Philippines earch~ ‘quake of 1990, London: Earthquake Bagi feering Field Iavestigation Team, zeit. 1951. PRilippines Feconnaieaance £6- port. Supplenent’ A to vol 7. Oakland: Esrehquake Engineering Research Inaeitute BoE. 1990. The July 36, 1990 Philippines sarthquake ~~ A quick lock report. San Francisco: 59®. 16h. 1890, Report on July 16, 1990 Philip~ pines earthquake. Tokyo: Japan Interna~ onal cooperation aseoclation. ‘azoh, 7. 1992. Liquefaction-Induced Large Lifelines During the 2990 Luzon, PRilip- pines Farthquake. Technical Report NCEER- Earthquake Engineering Research,