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EC6402

COMMUNICATION
THEORY
UNIT I AMPLITUDE MODULATION
PART A(Question and Answer)

1. Define modulation? (MAY/JUNE 2007)


Modulation is a process by which some characteristics of high frequency carrier
signal is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.
2.What are the types of analog modulation? (NOV/DEC 2005)
Amplitude modulation.
Angle Modulation
1. Frequency modulation
2. Phase modulation.
3.Define depth of modulation.
It is defined as the ratio between message amplitude to that of carrier amplitude.
m=Em/Ec
4. What are the degrees of modulation?
Under modulation. m<1
Critical modulation m=1
Over modulation m>1
5.What is the need for modulation?
(OR)
What are the advantages of converting the low frequency signal into high frequency signal?
(May/June 2013).
Needs for modulation:
_ Ease of transmission
_ Multiplexing
_ Reduced noise
_ Narrow bandwidth
_ Frequency assignment
_ Reduce the equipments limitations.
6.What are the types of AM modulators?
There are two types of AM modulators. They are
_ Linear modulators
_ Non-linear modulators
Linear modulators are classified as follows
_ Transistor modulator
There are three types of transistor modulator.
_ Collector modulator
_ Emitter modulator
_ Base modulator
_ Switching modulators
Non-linear modulators are classified as follows
_ Square law modulator
_ Product modulator
_ Balanced modulator
7.Give the classification of modulation.
There are two types of modulation. They are
_ Analog modulation
_ Digital modulation
Analog modulation is classified as follows
_ Continuous wave modulation
_ Pulse modulation
Continuous wave modulation is classified as follows
_ Amplitude modulation
_ Double side band suppressed carrier
_ Single side band suppressed carrier
_ Vestigial side band suppressed carrier
_ Angle modulation
_ Frequency modulation
_ Phase modulation
Pulse modulation is classified as follows
_ Pulse amplitude modulation
_ Pulse position modulation
_ Pulse duration modulation
_ Pulse code modulation
Digital modulation is classified as follows
_ Amplitude shift keying
_ Phase shift keying
_ Frequency shift keying
8.What is single tone and multi tone modulation?
If modulation is performed for a message signal with more than one frequency component then
the modulation is called multi tone modulation.
If modulation is performed for a message signal with one frequency component then the
modulation is called single tone modulation.
9 .The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when only carrier is sent. It increases to
8.93A when the carrier is modulated by a single sine wave. Find the percentage
modulation.
Solution:
Given: Ic =8A It=8.93A m=0.8
Formula: It=Ic (1+m2/2)

8.93=8(1+m2/2)
m=0.701
It=8 (1+0.82/2)

It=9.1A
10.Compare AM with DSB-SC and SSB-SC. ( NOV/DEC 2005)
(OR)
Compare Bandwidth and Power requirement in terms of carrier power Pc for AM,DSB-SC
and SSB? (May/June 2013).

AM signal DSB-SC SSB-SC

Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=fm

Contains USB, LSB, carrier Contains USB,LSB Contains LSB or USB

More power is required for Power required is less than Power required is less than
Transmission that of AM. AM &DSB-SC

PT =PC =PC =PC

11 What are the advantages of VSB-AM? (May/June 2012)


1.It has bandwidth greater than SSB but less than DSB system.
2.Power transmission greater than DSB but less than SSB system.
3.No low frequency component lost. Hence it avoids phase distortion.
12 Compare linear and non-linear modulators.( Nov/Dec 2010)

Linear modulators Non-linear modulators

Heavy filtering is not required Heavy filtering is required


These modulators are used in low level These modulators are used in high level
Modulation modulation
The carrier voltage is very much The carrier voltage is very much greater
greater than modulating signal voltage. than carrier signal voltage.
13.How will you generating DSBSC-AM ?
There are two ways of generating DSBSC-AM such as
1.balanced modulator 2.ring modulators
14. What are advantages of ring modulator?
1.Its output is stable.
2. It requires no external power source to activate the diodes.
3.Virtually no maintenance.
4. Long life.

15. Define demodulation.


Demodulation or detection is the process by which modulating voltage is recovered
from the modulated signal. It is the reverse process of modulation.
16. What are the types of AM detectors?
1. Nonlinear detectors
2. Linear detectors
17.What are the types of linear detectors?
1.Synchronous or coherent detector.
2 .Envelope or non coherent detector.
18 .Define multiplexing.
Multiplexing is defined as the process of transmitting several message signals
simultaneously over a single channel.
20.Define sensitivity. (MAY/JUNE 2007)
It is defined as a measure of its ability to receive weak signals.

21.Define selectivity.
Selectivity of a receiver is defined as its ability to select the desired signals among the
various signals.
22. Define stability.
It is the ability of the receiver to deliver a constant amount of output for a given period of
time.
23.Define super heterodyne principle.
It can be defined as the process of operation of modulated waves to obtain similarly
modulated waves of different frequency. This process uses a locally generated carrier wave,
which determines the change of frequency.
24.A transmitter supplies 8 Kw to the antenna when modulated. Determine the total
power radiated when modulated to 30%.
m=0.3;Pc=8 kw
Pt=Pc(1+m2/2)
=8.36 kw
25.What are the drawbacks of emitter modulator?
1.The amplifier is operated in class A mode, thus the efficiency is low.
2.The output power is very small. Thus it is not suitable for generating high
level modulation.
26. Define frequency modulation.
Frequency modulation is defined as the process by which the frequency of
the carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the
modulating or message signal.
27. What do you meant by multitone modulation? . ( NOV/DEC 2005)
Modulation done for the message signal with more than one frequency component is
called multitone modulation.
29. Define amplitude modulation. Give the expression for AM wave.
(OR)
Represent an amplitude modulated wave as a function of time with amplitude sensitivity of
the modulator as constant. (November/December 2013). (May/June 2014).
It is the process by which the amplitude of the carrier wave is changed in Accordance
with the instantaneous value of the message signal

VAM(t) = VC (1 + ma sin ) sin


30. What are the advantages of SSB. (MAY/JUNE 2007)
(OR)
State the differences between Single Side Band (SSB) and Vestigial Side Band (VSB)
transmission system ( May/June 2014) ?
Fading effect is absent
The power of the suppressed carrier and sideband is saved
The effect of noise at the receiver circuits is reduced
31. What are the advantages of Vestigial Side Band? (April/May 2011)
1.It has bandwidth greater than SSB but less than DSB system.
2.Power transmission greater than DSB but less than SSB system.
3.No low frequency component lost. Hence it avoids phase distortion
32. The average power of a periodic signal g p (t ) is calculated using what theorem? State

the theorem. (November/December 2013)


33. For an AM system, the instantaneous values of carrier and modulating signal are

60 sin and 40 sin c t . Determine the modulation index (May/June 2014).


m=Em/Ec
m= 60/40
m=1.5
34.Consider the signal whose spectrum is as shown in figure 1 modulates the sinusoidal
carrier signal of 1 MHz. Draw the spectrum of AM signal and SSB-SC (upper sideband)
signal.(NOV/DEC-2015)
35.Suggest a modulation scheme for the broad cast video video transmission and justify.
(NOV/DEC-2015)
Vestigial Sideband modulation (VSB) is used for the following reasons
1. Video signal exhibits a large bandwidth and significant low-frequency content which
suggests the use of VSB
2. The circuitry for demodulation in the receiver should be simple and therefore cheap.
VSB demodulation uses a simple envelope detection.
36. List the advantages of FM and AM. (NOV/DEC-2015)
AM has poorer sound quality compared with FM, but is cheaper and can be

transmitted over long distances. It has a lower bandwidth so it can have more stations

available in any frequency range.

FM is less prone to interference than AM. However, FM signals are impacted by

physical barriers. FM has better sound quality due to higher bandwidth.

37.Draw the AM modulated wave for modulation index = 0.5 and its spectra.(APR/MAY-
2015)
38.Define heterodyning. (Apr/May 2015)

In which new frequencies are created by combining or mixing two frequencies. The two
frequencies are combined in a nonlinear signal-processing device such as a vacuum
tube, transistor, or diode, usually called a mixer.
PART B
1.Explain the generation of AM signals using square law modulator Also derive its
efficiency. (16). (NOV/DEC 2005,APR/MAY-2015)
2.Explain the detection of AM signals using envelope detector. (16). (NOV/DEC 2005,
APR/MAY-2015)
3.Explain about Balanced modulator to generate DSB-SC signal. (16)
4.With a neat block diagram explain the SSB transmissions.
5.Explain the operation of a ring modulator. State its advantages. (NOV/DEC 2008)
6.Explain about coherent detector to detect SSB-SC signal. (16)
7.Explain the generation of SSB using balanced modulator. NOV/DEC 2006
8.Draw the circuit diagram of Ring modulator and explain with its operation?
9.Discus the coherent detection of DSB-SC modulated wave with a block diagram of
detector and Explain. (16)
10. With a neat block diagram Explain frequency translation. ( NOV/DEC 2008)
11. Explain the working of Super heterodyne receiver with its parameters. (16)
12. Draw the block diagram for the generation and demodulation of a VSB signal and
explain the principle of operation. (16) (MAY/JUNE 2007)
13. Write short notes on frequency translation and FDM? (16)
14. Explain about AM transmitters. (16)
15. Define sensitivity, selectivity and image frequency of a Receiver system.
16. A commercial AM station is broadcasting with an demodulated carrier power of 10kW.
The modulation index is set at 0.7 for a sinusoidal message signal. Find the total
transmitter power and efficiency.
(MAY/JUNE 2007)
17. With a help of a neat diagram, explain the operation of an envelope detector. Why does
negative peak clipping take place? (April/May 2011)
18. Compare the characteristics of DSBFC, DSBSC, SSBFC, SSBSC, VSB
schemes(April/May 2011)
19. Explain the concept of FDM with a suitable block diagram. (April/May 2011)
20. Draw an envelope detector circuit used for demodulation of AM and ex-plain its
operation. 10 marks (April/May 2010)
21. How SSB can be generated using Weaver's method? Illustrate with a neat block
diagram. 6 marks(April/May 2010)
22. Discuss in detail about frequency translation and frequency division multiplexing
technique with diagrams. (April/May 2010)
23. Compare Amplitude Modulation and Frequency modulation (April/May 2010)
24. (i) With the help of a neat diagram, explain the generation of DSB-SC using balanced
modulator. (ii) Write about the coherent detection method in detail for DSB-SC and
SSB-SC. What happens when there i s phase mismatch? (Nov/Dec 2010)
25. (i)Explain the concept of Frequency Translation (ii) With aid of block diagram explain
the principle of FDM (iii) Illustrate the formation of Basic group and super group
(Nov/Dec 2010)
26. (i) Draw an envelope detector circuit used for demodulation of AM and explain its
operation. (ii) How SSB can be generated using Weavers method? Illustrate with a
neat block diagram. (April/May 2012)
27. (i) What is frequency division multiplexing? Explain. (ii) Compare various amplitude
modulation systems. (April/May 2012)
28. Discuss on the frequency components present in a periodic and non periodic signal?
(May/June 2013).
Derive the equation of an AM wave. Also draw the modulated AM wave for various
modulation index. (May/June 2013).
The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8 ampere when only the carrier is sent.
The current increases to 8.93 A when the carrier is modulated by a single sine wave.
Find the percentage modulation. (May/June 2013).
29. Draw the VSB spectrum and explain the significance (May/June 2013)
How do you demodulate AM signal? Explain (May/June 2013)
A 1000 kHz carrier is simultaneously AM modulated with 300 Hz, 800 Hz and 1.5 kHz
audio sine waves. What will be the frequencies in the output? (May/June 2013)

30. With suitable block diagrams and equations show how will you generate DSBSC signals
and VSB signals (November/December 2013).
31. A sine wave frequency 10Hz is applied to a product modulator together with a carrier
wave frequency of 1 MHz. The modulator output is next applied to a resonant circuit.
Determine the modulated wave after transmission through the circuit. Assume suitable
data.
(November/December 2013)
32. Explain the need for carrier suppression in an AM system. Draw and explain the
functioning of one such system. (May/June
2014)
33. Explain the working of a AM tramsmitter and that of a receiver with a suitable block
schematic.
34. Explain with block diagram the super heterodyne receiver. (8)( APR/MAY-2015)
35. Explain the Hilbert Transform with an example. (8)( APR/MAY-2015)
( NOV/DEC-2014)
36.a) i) Explain the generation of SSB SC signal using phase shift method.
ii) suggest a scheme for recovering the message signal from the signal
s(t)=2m(t)cos2fc t. Explain the same. (
NOV/DEC-2014)
b) i) An AM signal is generated by modulating the carrier fc=800MHz by the signal
m(t) = sin 3000t+0.5cos5000t. the AM signal s(t)=100[1+m(t)]cos2fct is fed to a 50 ohm
load. ( NOV/DEC-2014)
37) (i)Determine the average power in the carrier and in the sidebands. ( NOV/DEC-2014)
(ii) Find the modulation index and peak power delivered to the load. ( NOV/DEC-
2014)
38) Explain the function of switching modulator in the generation of AM signal.
( NOV/DEC-
2014)
39)(i) With neat block diagram explain the function of super heterodyne receiver in
detail.
( NOV/DEC-2014)
i) Illustrate the superiority of super heterodyne receiver over single tuned receivers.

( NOV/DEC-2014)
UNIT II ANGLE MODULATION
PART A (Question and Answer)
1. Define phase modulation.
Phase modulation is defined as the process of changing the phase of the carrier
signal in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal.
2. What are the types of Frequency Modulation?
Based on the modulation index FM can be divided into types. They are Narrow band FM
and Wide band FM. If the modulation index is greater than one thenit is wide band FM and if the
modulation index is less than one then it is Narrow band FM
3. What is the basic difference between an AM signal and a narrowband FM signal?
In the case of sinusoidal modulation, the basic difference between an AM signal and a
narrowband FM signal is that the algebraic sign of the lower side frequency in the narrow band
FM is reversed.
4. What are the two methods of producing an FM wave? NOV/DEC 2006.
Basically there are two methods of producing an FM wave. They are,
i) Direct method
In this method the transmitter originates a wave whose frequency varies as
function of the modulating source. It is used for the generation of NBFM
ii) Indirect method
In this method the transmitter originates a wave whose phase is a function of the
modulation. Normally it is used for the generation of WBFM where WBFM is generated
from NBFM
5. Compare WBFM and NBFM. (April/may 2011) (November/December 2013).

WBFM NBFM

Modulation index is greater than 1 Modulation index less than 1

Frequency deviation 75 KHz Frequency deviation 5 KHz

Bandwidth 15 times NBFM Bandwidth 2fm

Noise is more suppressed Less suppressing of noise


6. List the properties of the Bessel function. ( NOV/DEC 2005)
The properties of the Bessel function is given by,
i) Jn (b)=(-1)nJ-n(b) for all n, both positive and negative.
ii) For small values of the modulation index b ,we have
J0 (b)=1
J1 (b)=b/2
Jn(b)=0,n>2.

7. Define frequency Deviation.


The maximum departure of the instantaneous frequency from the carrier frequency
is called frequency deviation.

8. State the Carsons rule. (April/may 2011) ,(May/June 2013).


An approximate rule for the transmission bandwidth of an FM Signal generated by a
single tone-modulating signal of frequency fm is defined as
B =2 Df(1+1/ b)

9. Define the deviation ratio D for non-sinusoidal modulation.


The deviation ratio D is defined as the ratio of the frequency deviation Df, which
corresponds to the maximum possible amplitude of the modulation signal m(t),to the
highest modulation frequency . D = Df / fm
10. What is the use of crystal controlled oscillator?
The crystal-controlled oscillator always produces a constant carrier frequency
there by enhancing frequency stability.
11. What are the disadvantages of FM system? (May/June 2012)
1. A much wider channel is required by FM.
2. FM transmitting and receiving equipments tend to be more complex and
hence it is expensive Define probability.
12. What is pre-emphasis? Why is it used? (April/May 2010)
(OR)
What is the need for Pre-emphasis filter. (May/June 2013)

The premodulation filtering in the transistor, to raise the power spectral density of the
base band signal in its upper-frequency range is called pre emphasis (or pre distortion) Pre
emphasis is particularly effective in FM systems which are used for transmission of audio
signals.
13. Define phase modulation.
It is a type of modulation, used in communication systems, in which the phase of a carrier
wave is varied by an amount proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating
signal.
14. What are the applications of phase locked loop? .(Nov/Dec 2010)
Phase-locked loops are widely used in radio, telecommunications, computer and other
electronic applications.
15. State the frequency in an FM system is 500 Hz and modulating voltage is 3
V,modulation index is 60. Calculate maximum deviation and bandwidth.

Modulation index m = /fm

60 = / 500

= 60 x 500 = 30 kHz

Bandwidth BW = 2 = 2 x 30 = 60 kHz.

16. Mention advantages of angle modulation over amplitude modulation.

1. The amplitude of FM is constant. It is independent of depth of modulation.Hence


transmitter power remains constant in FM whereas it varies in AM.

2. Since amplitude of FM is constant, the noise interference is minimum in FM.

3. FM uses UHF and VHF ranges, the noise interference is minimum compared to AM
which uses MF and HF ranges.

17. A 80MHz carrier is frequency modulated by sinusoidal signal of 1V amplitude and the
frequency sensitivity is 100Hz/V. Find the approximate bandwidth of the FM waveform if
the modulating signal has a frequency of 10KHz.

2 ( + fm ) = 2 ( 100 + 10000 ) = 20.2 kHz.

18. What is frequency deviation in FM? (November/December 2013).


Frequency deviation is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted
on by a modulating signal frequency. The frequency deviation is typically given as the peak
frequency shift in Hertz (f).
19. What is the bandwidth required for an FM wave in which the modulating frequency
signal is 2 KHz and the maximum frequency deviation is 12 Khz? . ( NOV/DEC 2005)
Bandwidth = 2 ( + fm ) = 2 ( 12 + 2 ) = 28 kHz.

20. A carrier wave of frequency 100 MHz is frequency modulated by a signal 20sin(200 x
103t) What is bandwidth of FM signal if the frequency sensitivity of the modulation is
25kHz/v.

Bandwidth = 2 ( + fm ) = 2 ( 500 + 100 ) = 1.2 MHz.


27. Define modulation index of frequency modulation. (April/May 2010), (May/June 2013)
It is defined as the ratio of maximum frequency deviation to the

modulating frequency. B = f/fm

24. Draw a simple schematic of a PLL demodulator. (November/December 2013)


Message
FM signal
signal Phase Amplifier
LPF
detector

VCO

25. A carrier signal is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal signal of 5 Vpp and 10 kHz. If the
frequency deviation constant is 1 kHz/V, determine the maximum frequency deviation and state
whether the scheme is narrowband FM or Wideband FM. (November/December 2014)
25.Define lock in range and dynamic range of a PLL. (Apr/May 2015)
The range of frequencies over which the PLL can maintain lock with the incoming signal
is called the lock-in range or tracking range. It is expressed as a percentage of theVCO free
running frequency.
* The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an input signal is
called the capture range. It is expressed as a percentage of the VCO free running frequency.
26.A carrier is frequency modulated with a sinusoidal signal of 2 kHz
resulting in a maximum frequency deviation of 5KHz.Find the bandwidth of
the modulated signal. (Apr/May 2015)

(f)= frequency deviation/Modulating Frequency


= 5 KHz/2 Khz= 2.5

PART B
1. Explain the indirect method of generation of FM wave and any one method of
demodulating an FM wave. (16) NOV/DEC 2006
2. Derive the expression for the frequency modulated signal. Explain what is meant by
FM.
3. Explain any two techniques of demodulation of FM. . (16) ( NOV/DEC 2006)
4. Explain the working of the reactance tube modulator and drive an expression to
show how the variation of the amplitude of the input signal changes the frequency of
the output signal of the modulator. (16) (MAY/JUNE 2007)
5. Discuss the effects of nonlinearities in FM. (8)
6. Discuss in detail FM stereo multiplexing. . (8)
7. (i) Derive the expression for the frequency modulated signal. Explain what is meant
by narrow band FM and wideband FM using the expression NOV/DEC 2006.
(ii) Discuss the indirect method of generating a wideband FM signal.
8. Draw the frequency spectrum of FM and explain. Explain how Varactor diode can
be used for frequency modulation. . (16)
9. Draw the circuit diagram of Foster-Seeley discriminator and explain its working.
(8).( APR/MAY-2015)
10. Explain the principle of indirect method of generating a wide-band FM signal with a
neat block diagram. (8) ( NOV/DEC 2006)
11. Explain the principle of indirect method of generating a wide-band FM signal with a
neat diagram.
12. (ii) Differentiate narrow band and wide band FM. (MAY/JUNE 2007)
13. Derive an expression for the spectrum of a FM signal with single Htone modulation.
14. Compare the performance of AM and FM.
15. Derive the expression for the single tone frequency modulation and draw its fre-
quency spectrum (April/May 2011)
16. An angle modulated wave is described by the equation
V(t)=10cos(2x t+10cos2000t) Find (1) Power of the modulated signal (2)
Maximum frequency deviation (3) Bandwidth (April/May 2011)
17. With necessary diagrams explain the operation of slope detector for demodulating
FM signal (April/May 2011)
18. (i) Using suitable Mathematical analysis show that FM modulation produces infinite
sideband. Also deduce an expression for the frequency modulated output and its
frequency spectrum (ii) How can we generate FM from AM and AM from FM
(April/May 2010)
19. (i)Define frequency modulation. Draw the FM waveform. Derive an expression for
single tone frequency modulation. (ii) Compare narrow band and Wide band FM
(Nov/Dec 2010)
20. Draw the circuit diagram of a Foster-Seeley discriminator and explain its working
with relevant phasor diagrams. (April/May 2012)
21. Derive the mathematical expression for FM wave (May/June 2013)
When the modulating frequency in an FM system is 400 Hz and the modulating
voltage is 2.4 v, the modulation index is 60.Calculate the maximum deviation. What
is the modulating index when the modulating frequency is reduced to 250 Hz and
the modulating voltage is simultaneously raised to 3.2 V. ( May/June 2013).
22. Explain the Armstrong method to generate FM signal. (May/June 2013)
How is the phase and frequency modulation are related? Explain (May/June 2013)
A carrier wave of frequency 80 MHz is frequency modulated by a sine wave amplitude of
20 volts and frequency of 80 kHz. The frequency sensitivity of the modulator is 20 kHz/vdf.
i) Determine the approximate bandwidth of the FM wave by Carsons rule ii) Determine
the bandwidth by transmitting only those side frequencies whose amplitude exceed 1 % of
the unmodulated carrier amplitude (use the universal curve/ideal condition
(November/December 2013)
23. Describe how FM wave is generated by the indirect method and give a suitable
demodulating scheme for the same (November/December 2013).
24. Explain Armstrong method of FM generation. (May/June 2014).
Explain the functions of any FM detector circuit. (May/June 2014).
25. Explain how FM is achieved using varactor diodes (May/June 2014).
Make atleast five comparisons of AM and FM systems. (May/June 2014)

12.a) i) Derive the expression for the single tone frequency modulated signal and hence
prove that is the constant envelope modulation requiring infinite bandwidth. (NOV/DEC-
2014)

ii) Draw the typical spectrum of the FM. (NOV/DEC-2014)

b) i) Explain the indirect method of generating FM signal. (NOV/DEC-2014)

ii) Explain the operation of PLL as FM demodulator. (NOV/DEC-2014)

26 Explain with diagrams the generation of FM using direct method. (8).


(NOV/DEC 2008,APR/MAY-2015)
27.An angle modulated wave is described by the equation V(t)=10cos(2x t+0.1 sin
103t)
Find
(1) Considering V(t) as a PM signal with Kp = 10,find m(t)
(2) Considering V(t) as a FM signal with Kp = 10,find m(t) (APR/MAY-2015)
UNIT III- RANDOM PROCESS
PART A(Question and Answer)
1. Define probability.
The probability of occurrence of an event A is defined as,
P(A)= number of possible favorable outcomes
Total number of equal likely outcomes
2. What are mutually exclusive events?
Two possible outcomes of an experiment are defined as being mutually exclusive
if the occurrence of one outcome precludes the occurrence of the other.
3. Define probability density function.
Probability density function is defined as fx(x) is defined in terms of
cumulative distribution function Fx (x) as
fx(x) = d Fx (x)
dx
6. Define noise.
Noise is defined as any unwanted form of energy, which tends to interfere with
proper reception and reproduction of wanted signal.
7. Give the classification of noise.
Noise is broadly classified into two types. They are External noise and internal noise.
8. What are the types of External noise?
External noise can be classified into
1. Atmospheric noise
2. Extraterrestrial noises
3. Man made noises or industrial noises
9. What are types of internal noise
Internal noise can be classified into 1. Thermal noise 2. Shot noise 3. Transit time noise
4. Miscellaneous internal noise
10. What are the types of extra terrestrial noise and write their origin?
The two type of extraterrestrial noise are solar noise and cosmic noise Solar noise is the
electrical noise emanating from the sun. Cosmic noise is the noise received from the center part
of our galaxy, other distant galaxies and other virtual point sources.
11. Define transit time of a transistor.
Transit time is defined as the time taken by the electron to travel from emitter to
the collector.

12. Define flicker noise.


Flicker noise is the one appearing in transistors operating at low audio frequencies.
Flicker noise is proportional to the emitter current and junction temperature and inversely
proportional to the frequency.
13. State the reasons for higher noise in mixers.
1. Conversion transconductance of mixers is much lower than the
transconductance of amplifiers.
2. If image frequency rejection is inadequate, the noise associated with the image
frequency also gets accepted.
14. Define signal to noise ratio.
Signal to noise ratio is the ratio of signal power to the noise power at the same point in a
system.
15. Define noise figure. (May/June 2014), (May/June 2013).
S/ N at the input
Nose figure F = S/ N at the output
S/N = Signal power / Noise Power
16. Explain thermal noise. . ( NOV/DEC 2008), ( NOV/DEC 2006)
Thermal noise is the name given to the electrical noise arising from the random
motion of electrons in a conductor.

17. Give the expression for noise voltage in a resistor.


The mean square value of thermal noise voltage is given by =4KTBR
K Boltz man constant
R resistance
T obsolute temperature
B Bandwidth
17. Explain White Noise. ( NOV/DEC 2007) (May/June 2013). ( May/ June 2014)
Many types of noise sources are Gaussian and have flat spectral density over a wide
frequency range. Such spectrum has all frequency components in equal portion, and is therefore
called white noise. The power spectral density of white noise is independent of the operating
frequency.
18. What is narrowband noise?
The receiver of a communication system usually includes some provision for
preprocessing the received signal. The preprocessing may take the form of a narrowband filter
whose bandwidth is large enough to pass modulated component of the received signal essentially
undistorted but not so large as to admit excessive noise through the receiver. The noise process
appearing at the output of such filter is called narrow band noise.

19. Give the expression for equivalent noise temperature in terms of hypothetical
temperature. (May/June 2012)
The expression for equivalent noise temperature in terms of hypothetical
Temperature is Te = ( F- 1) T0
Where, F is the noise figure and T0 absolute temperature.

20. Give the Friss formula in terms of noise temperature.


The Friss formula in terms of noise temperature is
Te = T1 + T2 / G1 + T3 / G1 G2 +
G1 , G2 , Gain of amplifiers
21. What is called image frequency?
Image frequency is defined as the signal frequency plus twice the intermediate frequency.
This has the effect of two stations being received simultaneously and hence it is undesirable. fsi
= fs + 2 fi fsi - image frequency It can be eliminated by providing adequate image signal
selectivity between antenna and mixer input.
22. What is intermediate frequency? . ( NOV/DEC 2006)
(OR)
. What is meant by image frequency in super heterodyne receiver? (November/December 2014)

Intermediate frequency (IF) is defined as the difference between the signal


frequency and the oscillator frequency. IF = fs fo when fs > fo (or) IF = fo fs when fo > fs

23. Define Partition noise.


In an electron tube having one or more positive grids, this noise is caused by
irratic partition of the cathode current among the positive electrodes. In a transistor, the
partition noise is created from the random fluctuation in the division of current between
the collector and base.

24. Give the expression for noise voltage when several sources are cascaded.
Enr = Sqrt (4 KTB (R1 + R2 + ..) )
Where R1 , R2 --- are the resistances of the noise resistors.
K Boltz man constant
T absolute temperature
B Bandwidth

25. Define random variable (April/May 2010)


Random variable is defined as a rule or mapping from the original sample space
to a numerical sample space subjected to certain constraints. Random variable is also
defined as a function where domain is the set of outcomes _es and whose range is R, is
the real line.

26. Define Random process. (May/June 2012)


A Random process X (s,t) is a function that maps each element of a samples space
into a time function called sample function. Random process is a collection of time
functions.
27. Define equivalent B.W(May/June 2008)
It is defined as B.W of an ideal filter at which the noise power passed by real filter and
ideal filter is same.
31. How will you define narrow-band noise m(t) at the IF filter output in terms of its
inphase and quadrature components. (November/December 2013).
The band pass filters have narrow bandwidths in the sense that bandwidth is small
as compared to center frequency outputof this kind of band pass filter as narrow band noise.

n(t) = nc (t)cos2 fct - nssin 2 fct


32.DC current of 2 mA flows through the semiconductor junction. Consider the effective noise
bandwidth of 1 kHz and calculate the shot noise component (November/December 2014)
33. Define the term noise equivalent temperature(November/December 2014)
Defined as the temperature at which a noisy resistor has to be maintained such that, by
connecting the resistor to the input of a noiseless version of the system, it produces the same
available noise power at the output of the system as that produced by all the source of noise in
the actual system.
Teq=(F-1)To
34.Define the Q factor of a receiver. (APR/MAY-2015)
Q=R/L
R- Resistance
-Angular frequency
L-Inductance
35.Write the equation for the mean square value of thermal noise voltage in a
resister. (APR/MAY-2015)
Pn=4KTRB
K-Boltzmanns constant K=1.38*10^-23
T-Temperature
B-Bandwidth

PART B
1. Derive the effective noise temperature of a cascade amplifier. Explain how the
various noise are generated in the method of representing them.(16)
2. Show how a narrow band noise can be represented as n(t) = nc(t) coswct - ns(t)
sinwct where nc(t) and ns(t) are the in-phase and quadrature phase components of
noise respectively. ( NOV/DEC 2006)
3. Derive the Friis formula. Explain noise effect on bandwidth. ( NOV/DEC 2008)
4. What is noise temperature? Deduce the expression for effective noise temperature
for a cascaded system. Explain narrow band noise. ( NOV/DEC 2008)
5. Explain how the various noises are generated and the method of representing them.
Explain concept of noise equivalent Bandwidth ( NOV/DEC 2007)
6. Write notes on noise temperature and noise figure. (8)
7. What is meant by noise equivalent bandwidth? Illustrate it with a diagram
( NOV/DEC 2006)
8. What is a narrow band noise ? Discuss the properties of the quadrature
components of a narrowband noise. ( NOV/DEC
2006)
9. ( i) Derive the expression for output signaltonoise for a DSBSC receiver using
coherent detection.
(ii) Write short notes on noise in SSB receivers. ( NOV/DEC 2006)
Derive the noise figure for cascade stages. (8)
10. Write short notes on :
(i)Shot noise.(4)
(ii)Thermal noise.(4)
(iii) Noise figure and Noise temperature. (8) MAY/JUNE 2007
11. What is narrowband noise discuss the properties of the quadrature components of
a narrowband noise. (8)
12. What is meant by noise equivalent bandwidth? Illustrate it with a diagram(8)
13. Derive the expression for output signal to noise for a DSB-SC receiver using
coherent detection. . (16)
14. Write short notes on noise in SSB. (16)
15. Discuss the following: . (16)
i) noise equivalent bandwidth (4)
ii) narrow band noise (4)
iii) noise temperature (4)
iv) noise spectral density (4)
16. How sine wave plus noise is represented? Obtain the joint PDF of such noise
component. (16)
17. State and prove four properties of Gaussian process
18. Derive the representation of narrowband noise in terms of envelope and
phase components and list out its properties.
19. Write the details about narrow band noise and the properties of quadrature
components of narrowband noise.
(April/May 2010)
20. (i) List the different types of random process and give the definitions.(ii)
Write a short notes on Shot Noise
(Nov/Dec 2010)
21. State and prove four properties of Gaussian process (April/May
2011)
22. (i) Derive the representation of narrowband noise in terms of envelope and
phase components and list out its properties.(ii) Consider two amplifiers are
connected in cascade. First stage amplifier has gain and noise figure as 10 dB and 2
dB. Second stage has noise figure of 3 dB. Calculate total noise power
(April/May 2011)
23. Derive the representation of narrowband noise in terms of envelope and
phase
components and list out its properties.
25. (i) List the different types of random process and give the definitions.
(ii) Write short notes on shot noise. (April/May 2012)
26. (i) Write the definition, power spectral density and autocorrelation function for white
noise and narrow band noise (filtered white noise).
(ii) What causes thermal noise in a material? Write the expression for RMS value of the
noise. (April/May 2012)
27. Write short notes on shot noise and thermal noise (May/June 2013).
Derive relationship between noise figure and equivalent noise temperature (May/June2013)

28. Explain the following terms mean, correlation, covariance and ergodicity.
(May/June 2013).

How do you represent narrowband noise? (May/June 2013)

29. Summarise the characteristics of various noise found in a communication channel


(November/December 2013)
Derive the equation for finding the probability density function of a one to one
differentiable
function of a given random variable.(November/December 2013).
30.Define and Explain the following : i) Gaussian Noise and Gaussian Distribution ii)
Thermal Noise iii) Shot Noise. What type of PDF does Gaussian noise follow.
(May/June 2014)
1 / 2 ;0 x 2
31.If X is a uniformly distributed f X ( x) find E(X),E(X2), E[cos X] and
0 ; otherwise
E[(X-mx)2] (May/June 2014).

32.let X and Y be real random variables with finite second moments.Prove the Cauchy-
Schwarz inequality.(E[XY])2 E[X2] E[Y2] (8)(APR/MAY-2015)
33.Differentiate the Strict-sence stationary with that of wide sense stationary process.(8)
(APR/MAY-2015)

UNIT IV NOISE CHARACTERIZATION


PART A (Question and Answer)
1. What is TRF receiver? ( NOV/DEC 2006)
Tuned Radio Frequency is also called straight receiver.Here the receiver operates in
straight forward manner without frequency conversion
2. What are the advantages of superheterodyne receiver over TRF? (April/May 2010)
The advantages of superheterodyne receiver over TRF are high selectivity ,improved
sensitivity throughout the carrier frequency band..It eliminates image frequency.
3.What is the figure of merit of DSBSC system ?
The figure of merit of DSBSC signal is unity
4.Compare the noise performance of an AM and FM system? ( NOV/DEC 2008)
The figure of merit of AM system is 1/3 when the modulation is 100 percent and
that of FM is(3/2)mf 2.The use of FM offers improved noise performance
over AM when (3/2)mf 2 > 1/3.mf modulation index in FM.
5.What is Capture effect? (May/June 2012)
When the interference signal and FM input are of equal strength, the receiver fluctuates
back and front between them .This phenomenon is known as the capture effect.
6.What is threshold effect? (May/June 2012)
As the input noise power is increased the carrier to noise ratio is decreased the receiver
breaks and as the carrier to noise ratio is reduced further crackling sound is heard and the output
SNR cannot be predicted by the equation. This phenomenon is known as
threshold effect.
7.How is threshold reduction achieved in FM system?
Threshold reduction is achieved in FM system by using an FM demodulator with
negative feedback or by using a phase locked loop demodulator.
8. What is Pre-emphasis? (APR/MAY-2015)
The premodulation filtering in the transistor, to raise the power spectral density of
the base band signal in its upper-frequency range is called pre emphasis (or pre distortion)
Pre emphasis is particularly effective in FM systems which are used for transmission of audio
signals.
9. Define de-emphasis.
The filtering at the receiver to undo the signal pre-emphasis and to suppress noise
is called de-emphasis.
10.What are the characteristics of a receiver?
The characteristics of a receiver are sensitivity, selectivity, fidelity, signal to noise
ratio.
11.What are components in a frequency discriminator?
Frequency discriminator has got two components .Slope detector or differentiator
with a purely imaginary frequency response that varies linearly with frequency. It produces
output where the amplitude and frequency vary with the message signal. An envelope detector
that recover the amplitude variations and produces message signal.

12.What is a post detection filter?


The post detection filter named asbase-band low pass filter has a bandwidth that is just
large enough to accommodate the highest frequency component of the message signal.

13. Define SNR.

It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power.

14. How to achieve threshold reduction in FM receiver?

When the carrier to noise ratio reduces tocertain value, tyhe message information is
lost.The performance of the envelope detector deteriorates rapidly and it has no proportion with
carrier to noise ratio.

15. This is called thershold effect.

As the input noise power is increased the carrier to noise ratio is decreased the receiver
breaks and as the carrier to noise ratio is reduced further crackling sound is heard and the output
SNR cannot be predicted by the equation. This phenomenon is known as threshold effect.

16. What is threshold effect with respect to noise?

(Or)

Define threshold effect in AM systems. (APR/MAY-2015)

When the carrier to noise ratio reduces to certain value, type message information is
lost.The performance of the envelope detector deteriorates rapidly and it has no proportion with
carrier to noise ratio. This is called thershold effect.

17. What is FM threshold effect? .(Nov/Dec 2010)


As the input noise power is increased the carrier to noise ratio is decreased the receiver
breaks and as the carrier to noise ratio is reduced further crackling sound is heard and the output
SNR cannot be predicted by the equation. This phenomenon is known as threshold effect.

18. Define Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. .(Nov/Dec 2010) (November/ December 2013).

Pre-emphasis
The premodulation filtering in the transistor, to raise the power spectral density of the base band
signal in its upper-frequency range is called pre-emphasis (or pre distortion) Pre emphasis is
particularly effective in FM systems which are used for transmission of audio signals.

De-emphasis

The filtering at the receiver to undo the signal pre-emphasis and to suppress noise is called de-
emphasis.

19. What is Coherent System (May/June 2013)

The local carrier generated at the receiver phase locked with the transmitter carrier is
known as coherent detection.

21. What is known as aliasing (November/December 2013)

It refers to the phenomenon of a high frequency in the spectrum of the signal seemingly
taking on the identity of a lower frequency in the of its sampled version. Simply can define as
over lapping of the adjacent samples.

30. When carrier to noise ratio is high, how will you get the figure of merit of FM systems?
(November/December 2013).
FOM = 3KF2P/W2

PART B
1. Explain how threshold improvement is done through de-emphasis. (
NOV/DEC 2008)
2. Derive an expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio of an AM DSB-FC
system. (8)MAY/JUNE2007.
3. Discuss the noise performance of AM system using envelope detection. (16)
4. Compare the noise performance of AM and FM systems. (16) ( NOV/DEC
2007)
5. Explain the significance of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM system? (8)
6. Derive an expression for the output SNR of an FM receiver and hence obtain
the figure of merit. ( NOV/DEC 2006).
7. Derive the noise power spectral density of the FM demodulation and explain
its performance with diagram. (16).
8. Draw the block diagram of FM demodulator and explain the effect of noise
in detail.
9. Explain the FM threshold effect and capture effect in FM? (16)
10. Discuss the following:
(i) Noise equivalent bandwidth [MARKS 4]
(ii) Narrow-band noise [MARKS 4]
(iii) Noise Temperature [MARKS 4]
(iv) Noise Power Spectral Density [MARKS 4] MAY/JUNE
2007
11. Explain the noise in AM receiver using its noisy model block diagram.
(ii) What are pre emphasis and de emphasis in FM? Draw suitable circuits and Explain.
( NOV/DEC
2006)
12. Explain the capture effect and FM threshold effect. [MARKS 8](ii) Draw the block
diagram of FM demodulator and explain the effect of noise
in detail and compare the performance of AM and FM in the presence of noise(
NOV/DEC 2006).
13. Derive an expression for the output signal to noise ratio of an AM DSB-FC system.
14. Compare the performance of noise in AM and FM.
15. (i) Explain pre-emphasis and De-emphasis in detail. (ii)Compare the performances of
AM and FM systems. (April/May
2010)
16. Define and explain FM Threshold effect. With suitable diagram, explain threshold
reduction by FMFB demodulator.
(Nov/Dec 2010)
17. Derive the expression for figure of merit of AM receiver using envelope detection. What
do u infer from the expression Nov/Dec
2010)
18. (i) Sketch the block diagram of DSB-SC/AM system and derive the figure of merit (ii)
Using heterodyne principle, Draw the block diagram of AM radio receiver and briefly
explain it .
(April/May 2011)
19. Write short notes on noise in SSB receivers.
20. Explain how threshold improvement is done by FMFB technique.
21. Discuss the effects of noise on the carrier in a FM receiver with suitable mathematical
derivations. (April/May 2012)
22. Draw the superheterodyne receiver and explain the operation of each block (May/June
2013).
Derive the figure of merit for AM system for non coherent system, with suitable
assumptions. (May/June 2013)
23. Explain the functioning of a superhetrodyne receiver and elist its characteristics
(November/December 2013)
24. Compare the performance of any two CW modulation scheme. (November/December
2013)
25.Explain the advantages in usage of superheterodyne receivers (May/June 2014).
Explain envelope detection with suitable diagram. (May/June 2014)
26. Explain the method of coherent detection (May/June 2014)
Compare at least three important characteristics of various FM systems (May/June
2014)
27) Derive the expression for the SNR at the output of the FM receiver. Assume that the
input is corrupted by AWGN noise. Discuss the performance of the receiver based on the
derived expression. (NOV/DEC-2014)
28.a) i) The three amplifiers 1,2 and 3 have the following characteristics: F1=9db,
G1=50db, F2=6db,G2=30db,F3=4db, G3=20db. The amplifiers are connected in tandem.
Determine which combination gives the lowest noise figure.
ii) Discuss on thermal noise. (Nov/Dec 2014)
b) i) What is meant by narrow band noise? Explain the characteristics of narrow band
noise.
ii) An AWGN of power spectral density 1uw is fed through a filter with frequency
response H(f) = 1/2 ; |f| < 40 kHz 0 ; elsewhere Calculate the noise power at the output of
the filter. (Nov/Dec 2014)

29.Define noise.Explain the various types of internal noise(8).( APR/MAY-2015)


30.Explain with derivation the effect of noise in cascaded amplifier circuit.(8). ( APR/MAY-
2015)
31.Derive the SNR performance of DSB system and the AM system.Also prove that the
output SNR in AM is at least 3 DB worse than that of DSB system( APR/MAY-2015)
UNIT V INFORMATION THEORY
PART A(Question and Answer)
1. Explain Shannon-Fano coding.
An efficient code can be obtained by the following simple procedure, known as
Shannon- Fano algorthim.
1. List the source symbols in order of decreasing probability.
2. Partition the set into two sets that are as close to equiprobable as possible, and sign 0 to
the upper set and 1 to the lower set.
3. Continue this process, each time partitioning the sets with as nearly equal probabilities
as possible until further partitioning is not possible.

2. What are the types of Correlation?


The types of Correlation are Cross Correlation and Auto Correlation

3. What is the difference between Correlation and Convolution?


1. In Correlation physical time t is dummy variable and it disappears after
solution of an integral. But in convolution i is a dummy variable.
2. Convolution is a function of delay parameter t but convolution is a function of t.
3. Convolution is commutative but correlation is noncom mutative.
4. Define Signal.
A signal is defined as any physical quantity carrying information that varies with
time. The value of signal may be real or complex. The types of signal are continuous
signal and discrete time signal.

5.Define entropy. ( NOV/DEC 2005)


Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is given
by the expression H(X)=_I P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.
6.Define mutual information. . ( NOV/DEC 2006)
Mutual information I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol
H(X)- entropy of the source
H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.
7.State the properties of mutual information.
1. I(X,Y)=I(Y,X)
2. I(X,Y)>=0
3. I(X,Y)=H(Y)-H(Y/X)
4. I(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y)-H(X,Y).
8.Give the relation between the different entropies.
H(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y/X) =H(Y)+H(X/Y)
H(X)- entropy of the source,H(Y/X),H(X/Y)-conditional entropy
H(Y)-entropy of destination
H(X,Y)- Joint entropy of the source and destination
9 .Define information rate. ( NOV/DEC 2007)
If the time rate at which source X emits symbols is r symbols per second. The
information rate R of the source is given by R=r H(X) bits/second H(X)- entropy of the source
10.What is data compaction?
For efficient signal transmission the redundant information must be removed from
the signal prior to transmission .This information with no loss of information is ordinarily
performed on a signal in digital form and is referred to as data compaction or lossless data
compression
11.State the property of entropy.
1.0< H(X) < log2K , is the radix of the alphabet X of the source.
12. What is source coding and entropy coding? ( NOV/DEC 2006)
A conversion of the output of a DMS into a sequence of binary symbols is called
source coding. he design of a variable length code such that its average cod word length
approaches the entropy of the DMS is often referred to as entropy coding.
13.State Shannon Hartley theorem. ( NOV/DEC 2005)
The capacity C of a additive Gaussian noise channel is C=B log2 (1+S/N)
B= channel bandwidth ,S/N=signal to noise ratio.

14.What is the entropy of a binary memory-less source? ( NOV/DEC 2006)


The entropy of a binary memory-less source H(X)=-p0 log2p0-(1-p0)log2(1-p0)
p0-probability of symbol 0,p1=(1- p0 ) =probability of transmitting symbol 1
15.How is the efficiency of the coding technique measured?
Efficiency of the code =H(X) /L L=_p(xi)li average code word length .li=length of the
code word.
16.What happens when the number of coding alphabet increases?
When the number of coding alphabet increases the efficiency of the coding technique
decreases.
17.What is channel diagram and channel matrix?
The transition probability diagram of the channel is called the channel diagram
and its matrix representation is called the channel matrix.

18.What is information theory?


Information theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of a
communication system rather than with physical sources and physical channels

19.What is the channel capacity of a BSC and BEC?


For BSC the channel capacity C=1+plog2 p +(1-p)log2(1-p).
For BEC the channel capacity C=(1-p)
20. Define information rate.

If the time rate at which source X emits symbols is r symbols per second. The
information rate R of the source is given by R=r H(X) bits/second H(X)- entropy of the source .

21. Define entrophy? (May/June 2013).

Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is given by the
expression H(X)=I P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.
22. What is a prefix code?
In prefix code, no codeword is the prefix of any other codeword. It is variable length
code. The binary digits are assigned to the messages as per their probabilities of occurrence.

23. Define mutual information. (May/June 2013).

Mutual information I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol

H(X)- entropy of the source H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.

24. State Shanon Hartley theorem.

The capacity C of a additive Gaussian noise channel is C=B log2(1+S/N) B= channel


bandwidth ,S/N=signal to noise ratio.

25. State any four properties of entropy. (April/May 2011) (May/June 2013).

1.I(X,Y)=I(Y,X)

2.I(X,Y)>=0

3.I(X,Y)=H(Y)-H(Y/X)

4.I(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y)-H(X,Y).

26. Give the expressions for channel capacity of a Gaussian channel. (May/June 2012)

Channel capacity of Gaussian channel is given as, C = B log2 (1 + (S/N))

27.Define the entropy for a discerte memory less source. (April/May 2011)
(OR)
Give the equation for finding the entropy of a binary source. (November/December
2013) (OR)
Define entropy and find the entropy of a DMS with probability S1=0.5,S2=0.25 and
S3=0.25. (APR/MAY-2015)
The entropy of a binary memory-less source H(X)=-p0log2p0-(1-p0)log2(1-p0)
probability of symbol 0,p1=(1- p0) =probability of transmitting symbol 1.
30. Define the significance of the entropy H(X/Y) of a communication system where X is the
transmitter and Y is the receiver.

H(X/Y) is called conditional entrophy. It represents uncertainty of X, on average, when Y


is known.In other words H(X/Y) is an average measure of uncertainty in X after Y is
received.H(X/Y) represents the information lost in the noisy channel.

31. An event has a six possible outcomes with probabilities 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/32.
Find the entropy of the system.

H = Pk log2(1/Pk)

= () log2 2 + () log2 4 + (1/16) log2 16 + (1/32) log2 32 + (1/32) log2 32

= 1.5625.

32. When is the average information delivered by a source of alphabet size 2, maximum?

Average information is maximum, when the two messages are equally likely i.e., p1 = p2
= 1/2. Then the maximum average information is given as, Hmax = 1/2 log2 2 + 1/2 log2 2 = 1
bit / message.

33. Name the source coding techniques. (April/May 2010)

1. Prefix coding 2. Shanon-fano coding 3. Huffman coding.

34. Write down the formula for mutual information. (April/May 2010)

The mutual information is defined as the amount of information transferred when Xi is


transmitted Yj is received. It is represented by I( Xi , Yj ) and it is given as,

I(Xi,Yj) = log ( P(Xi/Yj)/ P(Xi) ) bits.

35. Write the expression for code efficiency in terms of entropy.

Redundancy = 1 - code efficiency. Redundancy should be as low as possible.

36. Is the information of a continuous system non negative? If so, why?

Yes,the information of a continuous system is non- negative. The reason is that I(X;Y)>=
0 is one of its property.

37. Define Channel Capacity. (May/June 2013).


The channel capacity of a discrete memoryless channel is defined as the maximum
mutual information I(X; Y) in any single use of the channel , where the maximization is over all
possible input probability distributions {P(xj)} on X. is denoted as,
C = max I(X;Y)
{P(xj)}
Where, C measured in bits per channel use,bits per transmission

38. For a discrete memoryless channel define channel capacity as per Shannon.
(OR) (November/December 2013).
State Shannons theorem. (May/June 2014)
(OR)
State Shannons Channel capacity theorem. (APR/MAY-2015)

C =B log2 [ 1 + P/N0B] bit/sec


When shannons theorem of channel capacity is applied specifically to a channel in
which the noise is Gaussian is known as Shannon- Hartley theorem.it is also called information
capacity theorem.

. A source emits one of the four symbols A, B, C and D with probabilities 1/3, 1/6, 1/4.
Respectively the emissions of symbols by the source are statistically independent.
Calculate the entropy of the system.
10. Write the shannons theorem for channel capacity.

PART B
1) Discuss Source coding theorem, give the advantage and disadvantage of channel coding
in detail, and discuss the data compaction. (16)
2) Define mutual information. Find the relation between the mutual information
and the joint entropy of the channel input and channel output. ( NOV/DEC 2006)
3) Explain in detail Huffman coding algorithm and compare this with the other types of
coding. (8)
4) Explain the properties of entropy and with suitable example, explain the entropy of
binary memory less source. (8)
5) Give the advantage and disadvantage of channel coding in detail. Discuss the data
compaction. MAY/JUNE 2007
6) What is entropy? Explain the important properties of entropy. (8)
7) Five symbols of the alphabet of discrete memory less source and their probabilities are
given below. (8)
S=[S0,S1,S2,S3,S4]
P[S]=[.4,.2,.2,.1,.1] Code the symbols using Huffman coding.
8) Write short notes on Differential entropy, derive the channel capacity theorem and
discuss the implications of the information capacity theorem. . (16) MAY/JUNE
2007
9) What do you mean by binary symmetric channel? Derive channel capacity formula for
symmetric channel. (8)
10) Construct binary optical code for the following probability symbols using Huffman
procedure and calculate entropy of the source, average code Length, efficiency,
redundancy and variance? 0.2, 0.18, 0.12, 0.1, 0.1, 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, 0.06, 0.04 (16)
11) Define mutual information. Find the relation between the mutual information and the
joint entropy of the channel input and channel output. Explain the important
properties of mutual information. . (16)
12) Derive the expression for channel capacity of a continuous channel. Find also the
expression for channel capacity of continuous channel of a infinite bandwidth.
Comment on the results. (16)
13) A discrete memory less has a alphabet given below. Compute two different Huffman
codes for this source, hence for each of the two Codes. Find
i. The average code-word length.
ii. The variance of the average code-word length over the ensemble of
source symbol. ` ( NOV/DEC 2008)
SYMBOL S0 S1 S2 S3 S4
PROBABILITY 0.55 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.05
14) Show that the joint entropy H(X,Y) = H(X) +H(Y/X)
15) What is the capacity of the Discrete memory less channel? (2)
(ii) A Discrete memory less channel has the following alphabet with
probability of occurrence.
Symbol I SO Sl S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
Probability : 0.125 0.0625 0.25 0.0625 0.125 0.125 0.25
Generate the Huffman code,
Find average encoded Length, entropy and n. (14) ( NOV/DEC 2007)
Prove that the entropy of a discrete memoryless source IS maximised when the symbols are
equiprobable. (6)
(ii) A source has five outputs denoted by [ml, m2, m3, m4, ms] with respective probabilities
[0.41,0.19,0.16,0.15,0.09]. Determine the code words to represent the source outputs using
Shannon-Fano Encoding technique and determine its efficiency. (10) MAY/JUNE 2007
16) (i) Explain any two properties of Binary symmetric channel. (6)
(ii) Encode the source symbols with following set of probabilities using Huffman coding.
m = {0.4, 0.2, 0.12, 0.08, 0.08, 0.08, 0.04}. (10)
B 2174 MAY/JUNE 2007
24. A dicrete source emits 2000 symbols once every second. The symbol probabilities
are{0.40.25,0.15,0.1,0.06,0.04} respectively. Determine the source entropy and
information rate.
25. Derive an expression for source entropy.
26. A dicrete source emits 2000 symbols once every second. The symbol probabilities
are{0.5,0.20,0.15,0.1,0.05} respectively. Determine the source entropy and information
rate.
27. Determine Shannon-Fano code for the source alphabetX with probabilities
P(X)={0.3,0.25,0.2,0.1,0.1,0.05}. Also find the code efficiency.
28. Determine Huffman code for the source alphabetX with probabilities
P(X)={0.07,0.08,0.04,0.26,0.14,0.09,0.07,0.25 }. Also find the code efficiency.
29. Determine Huffman code for the source alphabetX with probabilities
P(X)={0.3,0.25,0.2,0.05,0.05,0.1,0.05 }. Also find the code efficiency.
30. (i) Find the code words for five symbols of the alphabet of a discrete memory- less
source with probability [0.4, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1, 0.1], using Huffman coding and determine the
source entropy and average code word length (ii) Discuss the source coding theorem.
(April/May 2010)
31. (i) Derive the channel capacity of a continuous band limited white Gaussian noise
channel. (ii) Discuss about rate distortion theory.
(April/May 2010)
32. (i) Derive the channel capacity for Binary symmetric channel (ii) Derive the channel
capacity for band limited, power limited Gaussian Channel. .
(April/May 2010)
33. Using Huffman code I, encode the following symbols. S = [0.3, 0.2, 0.25, 0.12, 0.05,
0.08,] Calculate (i) Average code word length (ii) Entropy of the source (iii) Code
efficiency and (iv) Redundancy .
(April/May 2011)
34. The channel transition matrix is given by

. Draw the channel diagram and determine the probabilities associated

with outputs assuming equi probable inputs. (April/May


2011)
35. State and prove the properties of Mutual information. (April/May
2011)
36. A Database Management System (DMS) has following alphabet with probability of
occurrence as shown below
Symbol: s0 s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6
Probability: 0.125 0.0625 0.25 0.0625 0.125 0.125 0.25
Generate the Huffman code with minimum code variance. Determine the code variance
and code efficiency. (April/May
2012)
37. Derive Shannon-Hartley theorem for the channel capacity of a continuous channel
having an average power limitation and perturbed by an additive band-limited white
Gaussian noise. Explain the bandwidth signal- to- noise ratio tradeoff for this theorem.
(April/May 2012)
38. Find the Huffman coding for the probabilities
P 0.0625,0.25,0.125,0.125,0.25,0.125,0.0625} and
the efficiency of the code. (May/June 2013)
State Shannons theorems and explain. (May/June
2013).
39. consider the following binary sequence 11101001100010110100use the Lempel-Ziv
algorithm to encode this sequence. Assume that the binary symbols 0 and1 are already
in the codebook. (May/June 2013)
A telephone network has a bandwidth of 3.4 kHz. Calculate the information capacity of
the telephone channel for a signal to noise ratio of 30 dB. (May/June
2013)
Calculate the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to support information,
transmission through the telephone channel at the rate of 9600 bits/sec with bandwidth
of 9.6 kHz.
(May/June 2013).
40. Prove how you use the source coding to increase average information per bit
(November/December 2013)
Write the advantages of Huffman Coding. (November/December 2013).
40. Write short notes on i) Lossy coding ii) SNR trade off (November/December 2013)
41. Explain Huffman coding with an example. (May/June 2014).
42. Explain the need for source coding and channel coding. (May/June 2014).
Explain how channel capacity could be improved. Explain the S/N tradeoff in detail
(May/June 2014)

43. i) Explain the human source coding algorithm.


ii) Design a Huffman code for the source given in Q9. Determine the average code length
and coding efficiency.
(Q9.A source emits one of the four symbols A, B, C and D with probabilities 1/3, 1/6, 1/4.
Respectively the emissions of symbols by the source are statistically independent. Calculate
the entropy of the system).(NOV/DEC-2014)
44.i) Briefly discuss about the lossy source coding schemes.
ii) Design a Shannon Fano code for the source given in Q.9. Determine the average
code length and efficiency.
(Q9.A source emits one of the four symbols A, B, C and D with probabilities 1/3, 1/6, 1/4.
Respectively the emissions of symbols by the source are statistically independent. Calculate
the entropy of the system).(NOV/DEC-2014)
45.A Database Management System (DMS) has following alphabet with probability of
occurrence as shown below
Symbol: s0 s1 s2 s3 s4 s5
Probability: 0.2 0.3 0.11 0.16 0.18 0.05
Generate the Huffman code and Shannon fano codes compare its efficiency.
(Apr/May 2015)
46.Derive the Mutual information for a BSC ,when the probability of source is likely and
the probability of channel p=0.5. (Apr/May 2015)