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CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

1. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

1. Energy is required to cause a chemical or physical change in matter.


2. A chemical change involves the formation of a new substance which is different in
composition and property from the original reactants.
3. A physical change only involves a change in form but no new substances are
formed.

2. HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

1. An exothermic reaction is one which releases heat to the environment.


2. An endothermic reaction is one that absorbed heat from the environment.
3. Exothermic and endothermic reactions bring about changes in temperature to the
reactants and products.

3. THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

REACTIVITY OF METAL WHEN REACTING WITH


METAL
Water Dilute acid Oxygen
Pottasium (K)
Sodium (Na) React with cold water
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg) React with dilute acid Reactivity of
Aluminium (Al) React with hot water or Metals in
Zinc (Zn) steam decreasing
Iron (Fe) order
Tin (Sn)
Lead (Pb) Do not react with cold React with hot dilute
Copper (Cu) water or steam acid
Silver (Ag)
Do not react with dilute
Gold (Au)
acid

1. Reactive metals such as sodium, calcium and pottasium reacts vigorously with water.
2. Less reactive metals such as zinc and iron react with steam.
3. Inactive metals such as gold and silver do not react with water or steam.
4. Most metals react with acids giving off hydrogen.
5. Most metals react with oxygen to form metallic oxides.
6. The reactivity series of metals consists of metals arranged in order of reactivity based
on its reactions with several substances.

4. APPLICATION OF REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

1. The extraction of metals is an industrial process of separating a pure metal from its
ore. In industry, metals are heated with carbon to separate them from the impurities
in ore.

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5. ELECTROLYSIS

1. Reactions that use electrical energy to dissociate a chemical compound is called


electrolysis.
2. A chemical compound that is capable of conducting an electric current in its molten or
aqueous form is known as an electrolyte.
3. The materials immersed in an electrolyte to enable electrical conductivity are called
electrodes.
4. The electrodes connected to the negative terminal of the battery or cell is termed the
anode.
5. The electrodes connected to the positive terminal of the battery or cell is termed the
cathode.
6. Anions and cations are charged particles that will be attracted to the anode and
cathode respectively during electrolysis.
7. In industry, electrolysis is widely used in the extraction of metals, purification of
metals and metal electroplating.

6. THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS

1. Dry cell, lead acid accumulator, alkaline battery, silver oxide mercury batteries and
nickel cadmium batteries are some of the main sources of electrical energy.

7. CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR IN THE PRESENCE OF LIGHT

1. Some chemical reactions are initiated by light energy e.g. photosynthesis and
reaction of chemical photographic film.
2. Chemical should be stored in dark container to prevent them from reacting to light.
3. Sources of energy should be used carefully and prudently. Its use should not pollute
the environment or pose a danger to human health

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PAPER 1

1. Which of the following is a chemical change?

A. Ice melts C. Salt dissolves in water


B. Milk turns sour D. Water evaporates from a pool

2. The diagram shows paper burning.

What type of change is taking place?

A. Colour change C. Physical change


B. Rate of change D. Chemical change

3. Why is crystallization of copper (II) sulphate considered a physical change?

A. New substance is formed


B. No new substance is formed
C. More heat is absorbed during the reaction
D. Chemical bonds between particles take place

4. Which of the following pairs of changes is true?

Physical change Chemical change


A Not reversible Reversible
B More energy needed Less energy needed
C No new substances formed New substances formed
D New particles are formed No formation of new particles

5. Which of the following is an endothermic reaction?

A. Haber Process
B. Contact Process
C. Reaction of acid and alkali
D. Dissolving ammonium nitrate in water

6. Which of the following is true for endothermic reaction?

A. Heat is released to the surroundings


B. The temperature of the solution decreases
C. The pressure of the surroundings increases
D. The products have less energy than the reactants

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7. Which of the following chemicals absorb heat from the surrounding when
dissolved in water?

A. Sodium hydroxide C. Sulphuric acid


B. Ammonium chloride D. Hydrochloric acid

8. The table shows the result of dissolving one spatula of sodium hydroxide in
distilled water.

Type of solution Temperature( 0C)


Distilled water 29
Distilled water + Sodium hydroxide 31
Rises in temperature 2

What has caused the increase in temperature?

A. Oxidation took place


B. Exothermic reaction took place
C. Endothermic reaction took place
D. Heat was absorbed from the surrounding area

9. The information shows a chemical reaction.

Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ammonia + Heat

Which of the following statements is true?

A. The process is called the Contact Process


B. Heat was absorbed from the surrounding area
C. The chemical reaction above is an exothermic reaction
D. The chemical reaction above is an endothermic reaction

10. The diagram shows the heating of copper (II) carbonates

Solution X

What is solution X?

A. Lime water C. Hydrochloric acid


B. Distilled water D. Potassium manganate (IV)

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11. Which of the following is the process of producing ammonia?

A. Haber process C. Reducing process


B. Contact process D. Electrolysis process

12. Which of the following metals reacts more vigorously with oxygen?

A. Zinc C. Aluminium
B. Copper D. Magnesium

13. Which of the following is more reactive than carbon?

A. Zinc C. Ferum
B. Sodium D. Copper

14. What is the product when reactive metals reacts with water?

A. Metallic oxide
B. Salt and hydrogen gas
C. Alkali solution and hydrogen gas
D. Alkali solution and metallic oxide

15. Which of the following shows the difference between calcium and zinc?

A. Has a shiny surface


B. Reacts with cold water
C. Only reacts with steam
D. Does not conduct electricity

16. What will happen to a zinc roof when acid rains fall on it?

A. Corrode
B. Change its shape
C. Become black in colour
D. Become stronger and harder

17. The diagram shows an apparatus used to investigate the reactivity of metals
toward oxygen.

Substance P

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What is substance P?

A. Copper (II) oxide C. Sodium hydroxide


B. Ammonium chloride D. Potassium manganate(VII)

18. The diagram shows a reaction of metal with water.


Sodium

Water

Which of the following observation is correct?

A. The beaker becomes cool


B. The sodium sinks in water
C. Heat energy is released to the surroundings
D. The sodium changes to become a black solid

19. The information below is about the reaction of metals L, M and N with water
and steam.

Metal Observation
L Reacts vigorously with water.
M Does not react with cold water or steam.
N Reacts with steam but not with cold water.

Which of the following is the correct arrange of reactivity in ascending order?

A. L,M,N C. N,M,L
B. M,N,L D. M,L,N

20. The diagram shows gas P is collected in the experiment.

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What is P?

A. Oxygen C. Chlorine
B. Nitrogen D. Hydrogen

21. Aluminium + hydrochloric acid Aluminium chloride + Gas X

Based on the above equation, what is gas X?

A. Oxygen C. Helium
B. Hydrogen D. Carbon dioxide

22. What is the product when magnesium reacts with oxygen?

A. Magnesium oxide C. Magnesium hydroxide


B. Magnesium chloride D. Magnesium carbonate

23. The information shows the observations of metals P, Q and R when heated.

Metal Observation
P A bright flame spreads slowly.
Q A glow spreads slowly.
R Burns with shiny white flame.
S No change.

Which metal is the most reactive?

A. P C. R
B. Q D. S

24. Which of the following metal oxides does not react with carbon?

A. Zinc oxide C. Copper(II) oxide


B. Ferum oxide D. Aluminium oxide

25. Which of the following statements about electroplating iron nail with silver is
correct?

A. The iron nail is the anode


B. The iron nail is the cathode
C. The silver plate is the cathode
D. The iron (II) nitrate solution is used as electrolyte

26. What is the element that is involved during the extraction of tin?

A. Carbon C. Cryolite

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B. Iron granules D. Quicklime
27. Why is Aluminium metal extracted from its ore by electrolysis and not
through heating with carbon ?

A. Heating methods are complex


B. Aluminium is more reactive than carbon
C. Because source of carbon is hard to find
D. The cost of extraction through electrolysis is cheaper

28. Which of the following equations represents the reaction that takes place in a
blast furnace during the extraction of tin ore ?

A. Tin + Carbon dioxide Tin oxide + Carbon


B. Tin oxide + Carbon Tin + Carbon dioxide
C. Tin carbonate Tin oxide + Carbon dioxide
D. Tin oxide + Zinc Tin + Zinc oxide

29. Which of the following states of electrolyte could conduct electricity?

A. Solid.
B. Solid and molten
C. Solid and aqueous
D. Molten or aqueous

30. Which of the following is the application of electrolysis?

A. Purification of metal
B. Purification of non-metal
C. Production of electrical energy
D. Production of radioactive energy

31. The diagram shows an electroplating of an iron spoon.

Chromium
Solution R

Iron spoon

What is solution R?

A. Chromium(III) nitrate C. Iron (II) sulphate

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B. Hydrochloric acid D. Silver nitrate
32. The diagram shows electrolysis process.
Switch

Bulb

Carbon rod

Substance X

What is substance X?

A. Sugar solution C. Ethanol solution


B. Glucose solution D. Sodium chloride solution

33. The diagram shows an electrolysis process.

Switch

Bulb

Carbon rod

Molten lead bromide

Heat

What are the products of electrolysis at the anode and cathode?

Anode Cathode
A Oxygen Hydrogen
B Bromine Lead
C Lead Bromine
D Hydrogen Oxygen

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34. What is the purpose of cryolite in aluminium extraction?

A. To purify the aluminium oxide


B. To lowered the melting point of aluminium oxide
C. To reduce the conductivity of aluminium oxide
D. To extract aluminium from the aluminium oxide

35. The diagram shows how electrolysis is used to purify copper.

X Y

Copper (II)
nitrate

What is X and Y ?
X Y
A Carbon Pure copper
B Pure copper Impure copper
C Impure copper Pure copper
D Pure copper Carbon

36. Which of the following involves the conversion of chemical energy to


electrical energy?

A. Dry cell
B. Electroplating
C. Electrolysis of molten aluminium ore
D. Reduction of a metallic ore by carbon

37. What type of battery is used in watches?

A. Dry cell C. Silver oxide mercury


B. Nickel cadmium D. Lead acid accumulator

38. What is the advantage of alkaline cell compared to dry cell?

A. It is cheaper C. The size is smaller


B. It is rechargeable D. It has a longer life span

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39. The diagram shows a simple cell.

Which electrodes and electrolyte could be used to cause the bulb to light up?

R S Electrolyte
A Copper Copper Copper(II) sulphate
B Carbon Carbon Sulphuric acid.
C Zinc Copper Ethanol
D Magnesium Copper Hydrochloric acid.

40. Which of the following is true for silver oxide mercury cell?

A. Small
B. Cheap
C. Heavy
D. Rechargeable

41. The diagram shows a simple cell.

Which of the following metals would be Q?

P Q
A Zinc Aluminium
B Zinc Iron
C Lead Iron
D Copper Magnesium

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42. Which of the following is the advantage of using lead acid accumulator?

A. Portable C. High voltage


B. It is cheaper D. Not rechargeable

43. The diagram shows a simple cell.

What is X and Y?

X Y
A Carbon rod Carbon rod
B Zinc plate Copper plate
C Copper plate Copper plate
D Glass rod Iron rod

44. Which of the following processes requires light to function?

A. Rusting C. Respiration
B. Burning D. Photosynthesis

45. The word equation below shows the decomposition reaction by light energy.

Silver chloride Silver + Chlorine

Which of the following changes of energy is correct?

A. Heat energy light energy


B. Light energy chemical energy
C. Heat energy chemical energy
D. Chemical energy heat energy

46. Why does photography paper exposed to sunlight become black?

A. Sunlight emits black light


B. Sunlight causes the formation of black pigments
C. The layers of silver at photography paper is oxidized

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D. Silver bromide decomposes to silver and bromine
47. What is the advantage of a dry cell compared to an acid-lead accumulator?

A. The voltage is higher


B. It has longer life span.
C. Its electrolyte does not spill
D. It is long lasting as long as fuel is supplied

48. Which of the electric cells can be recycle?

A. Dry cell
B. Alkaline batteries
C. Lead acid accumulators
D. Silver oxide-mercury batteries

49. Why photosensitive chemical are stored in dark bottle?

A. Sensitive to light
B. Sensitive to heat
C. React with water
D. React with oxygen

50. What type of battery is used in a car?

A. Alkaline battery
B. Acid-lead battery
C. Silver oxide battery
D. Nickel-cadmium battery

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PAPER 2

SECTION A

1. The diagram shows an experiment of reaction between calcium and water. The
volume of gas X collected from the reaction is shown in table I.

DIAGRAM 1

b) Based on table I, draw a graph to show the relationship at the


total volume of gas X against time.

80

Volume of X
(cm3)

60

40

20

0 30 60 90 120 150
Time / s
20
20

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a) What is the relationship between the volume of gas X and time in the
first 90 second?

..
(1 mark)

b) State the hypothesis based on Table 1.

..

...
(1 mark)
c) State the responding variable in this experiment.


(1 mark)

d) What is the total volume of gas X, which is collected in 90 second?


(1mark)

e) Predict the volume of gas X, which is collected in 180 second


(1mark)

2. Diagram 2 shows an arrangement of apparatus to study the purification of metal.

Copper(ll)nitrate solution

DIAGRAM 2

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The experiment is repeated a few times with different quantities of electric
current. The mass of cathode after 10 minutes are recorded in table 2.

Electric
0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1
current (A)
Mass of
1.05 1.10 1.15 1.25 1.30 1.35
cathode (g)
TABLE 2

(a) In diagram 2, mark the positive electrode and the negative electrode with the
symbol (+) and (-).
(1 mark)
(b) Draw a graph showing the mass of cathode versus the quantity of
electric current.
1.4
Mass of
cathode
(g)

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Quantity of Electric current (A)

c) From the graph, drawn, determine the mass of cathode when the quantity of
electric current is 1.2A.


(1 mark)
d) What is the relationship between the quantity of electric current and the
mass of cathode?

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(1 mark)

3. Diagram 3 shows an experiment done by a student.


Thermometer

Sodium chloride
Ammonium chloride

Hydrochloric Water
acid

Beaker A Beaker B

DIAGRAM 3

Table 3 shows the result of the experiment.

Initial Final
Beaker Substance
temperature temperature
Hydrochloric acid +
A 29 0C 34 0C
sodium chloride
Water +
B 29 0C 25 0C
ammonium chloride

TABLE 3

(a) State the type of chemical reaction in both beakers.


i. Beaker A.

ii. Beaker B.

......
(2
marks)

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(b) Give inference for your answer in (a).

..

..
(1 mark)

(c) Name the variable involved in this experiment.

i. Manipulated variable.

ii. Constant variable.

.
(2 marks)

4. Diagram 4 shows a simple cell for the production of electrical energy.

Experiment I Experiment II

DIAGRAM 4

Table 4 shows the result of the experiment.

Experiment Pair of metals Voltmeter/V


I Zinc and copper
II Lead and copper
TABLE 4

(a) Based on experiment above, complete the voltmeter reading in Table 4.


(2
marks)
(b) Give your inference from the observation?

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...

(1 mark)
(c) State the variables in this experiment.
i. Manipulated variable.

ii. Responding variable.


(2
marks)
(d) If copper plates are used for electrode A and B, predict the voltmeter reading.

(1 mark)

SECTION B

1. Diagram 5 shows a model of a simple cell. Galvanometer

Copper plate
Zinc plate

Vinegar solution

DIAGRAM 5

a) What can be observed on the Galvanometer?

(1mark)
b) Give an inference to the observation in 1(a).

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(1 mark)

c) Write the energy, transformation that occurs in this experiment.

(1 mark)

d) (i) What will happen if the copper plate is replaced with a carbon rod?

(1mark)

2. Diagram 6 shows an experiment to study the reactivity of metals with oxygen.

The metal is heated first before potassium manganate(VII) is heated.


metal

DIAGRAM 6

The observation of this experiment is recorded in Table 5.

Metal Observation
P Glow brightly
Q Glow dimly
R Burn brightly

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TABLE 5

(a) Arrange the above metals in the decreasing order of reactivity with oxygen.

..
(1
mark)

(b) What is the function of potassium manganate (VII)?


(1 mark)

(c) Explain why the glass wool is placed in between the metals and the potassium
maganate(VII) .

...

.
..
(1 mark)
(d) Explain why the metals are heated first before heating
potassium manganate(VII).

..

..

(1 mark)

3. Diagram 7 shows the apparatus to electroplate an iron ring.

Silver
Iron ring

Electrolyte

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DIAGRAM 7

(a) Give two reasons why iron ring need to be coated with silver.


(2
marks)

(b) Suggest a suitable electrolyte.

..
(1 mark)

(c) State the observation that occur at

i. anode.

..

ii. cathode.

.
(2 marks)

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SECTION C

1. Study the statement below carefully.

A large amount of air bubbles is released when a magnesium strip is placed in


hydrochloric acid but when a copper plate is placed in the same acid, no
changes are observed.

(a) Suggest a suitable hypothesis to investigate this statement. [1 mark]

(b) Describe one experiment to test your hypothesis based on the following.
(i) Aim of experiment [1 mark]
(ii) Variables [2 marks]
(iii) List of apparatus [1 mark]
(iv) Method [3 marks]
(v) Tabulation of data [1 mark]
(vi) Conclusion [1 mark]

2. (a) State one method used to purify a piece of impure copper.


Explain the method. [4 marks]

(b) A man found a strange substance and after examines he confirmed that
substance is a metal ore. . He heat the substance with carbon to
purified it but no reaction occurs. Explain how the substance can be
extracted from the metal ore.

Your answers should include the following.


(i) Identify the problem
(ii) Clarification of the problem
(iii) Solving methods
(iv) Explain the method using [6 marks]

3. (a) Diagram 8 shows the formation of white fumes when ammonia gas
and hydrogen gas are mixed.

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DIAGRAM 8

State four reasons why the reaction above is considered as


a chemical change. [4 marks]

(b) Diagram 9 shows the physical changes that happen to two different
substances.
Soap powder

Water Soap solution

Zinc nitrate

Water Zinc nitrate


solution

DIAGRAM 9

Study the activities above carefully. Build a concept regarding the physical
changes. Explain your answer based on the following.

(i) Identify the information [1 mark]


(ii) Identify two common features [2 marks]
(iii) Relate the common features with the
physical changes to
build an initial concept [1 mark]
(iv) State one example of physical change and one non-examples [1 mark]
(v) State the actual concept of physical change [1 mark]

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