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ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF THREE STOREY


FRAMED BUILDING.

Data May 2012


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3437.5528

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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE
DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
ON
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF THREE STOREY FRAMED
BUILDING

BY
UMER FAROOQ MUZAMIL YOUSUF
ROLL NO 01-CE-2008 ROLL NO 22-CE-2008

Department of civil engineering


Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri

1
PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE
DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
ON
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF THREE STOREY FRAMED
BUILDING
BY
UMER FAROOQ MUZAMIL YOUSUF
ROLL NO 01-CE-2008 ROLL NO 22-CE-2008

Under the guidance of


MR. VASEEM AHMAD SHAHNAZ
Head of Department of civil engineering
Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri

2
ACKNOWLEGDGEMENTS
At the outset, I express my deepest thanks to our Lord, the most Gracious,
the most merciful, the cherisher and sustainer of the worlds.

I am thankful to my parents who continuously look after me right from


my birth, provided me with the best facilities that they could provide me and
continuously encouraged me to perform well in my studies and my daily life in
general. All these factors were the favorable conditions that made me to strive
for the better future life. May the almighty forgive me, my parents and all the
believers on the Day of Reckoning

I express my deepest gratitude to my teacher Mr. Mir Aijaz Ahmad who


as a mentor and Asstt. Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering for
his invaluable guidance and inputs. I thank him for allowing me to work on this
project and for his constant help and support throughout my endeavor. I
consider myself fortunate to have worked under his supervision. It was a
matter of great pleasure to have him as a guide in the preparation of this
project report.

I take this great opportunity to express my profound gratitude to HOD


Civil Engineering Mr Vaseem Shahnaz for his superlative flow of ideas and
guidance as well as moving inspirations all throughout the classes. I owe a lot
to him for his kind gesture in serving our teacher. I also thank him for
checking the report before submission.

Umer Farooq Muzamil Yousuf

Roll no. 01-CE-2008 Roll no. 22-CE-2008

3
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
BABA GHULAM SHAH BADSHAH UNIVERSITY
RAJOURI J&K- 185131 (INDIA)
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this report entitled ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF


THREE STOREY FRAMED BUILDING submitted by UMER FAROOQ
(01-CE-2008), and MUZAMIL YOUSUF (22-CE-2008) in partial fulfillments
for the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology Degree in
Civil Engineering at College of Engineering & Technology, BGSB
University, Rajouri (J&K) is an authentic work carried out by them under
my supervision and guidance.

To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in this report has not
been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any
Degree or Diploma.

Date:

Mr. Vaseem Ahmad Shahnaz

HOD External Examiner

Department of Civil Engineering

4
CONTENTS

S. No. Description Page No.

1. Abstract 6

2. History 7

3. Introduction 12

4. Analysis under Vertical loads 15

5. Design of Slabs 25

6. Design of Beams 38

7. Design of Columns 47

8. Design of Footing 53

9. Design of Stairs 71

10. References 74

5
ABSTRACT

Structural design is the primary aspect of civil engineering. The foremost


basic in structural engineering is the design of simple basic components and
members of a building viz., Slabs, Beams, Columns and Footings. In order to
design them, it is important to first obtain the plan of the particular building.
Thereby depending on the suitability; plan layout of beams and the position of
columns are fixed. Thereafter, the vertical loads are calculated namely the
dead load and live load.

Once the loads are obtained, the component takes the load first i.e the slabs
can be designed. Designing of slabs depends upon whether it is a one-way or
a two-way slab, the end conditions and the loading. From the slabs, the loads
are transferred to the beam. The loads coming from the slabs onto the beam
may be trapezoidal or triangular. Depending on this, the beam may be
designed. Thereafter, the loads (mainly shear) from the beams are taken by
the columns. For designing columns, it is necessary to know the moments
they are subjected to. For this purpose, frame analysis is done by Moment
Distribution Method. After this, the designing of columns is taken up
depending on end conditions, moments, eccentricity and if it is a short or
slender column. Most of the columns designed in this mini project were
considered to be axially loaded with uniaxial bending. Finally, the footings are
designed based on the loading from the column and also the soil bearing
capacity value for that particular area. Most importantly, the sections must be
checked for all the four components with regard to strength and serviceability.

6
CHAPTER 1
HISTORY

7
HISTORY
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
A structure refers to a system of two or more connected parts use to support
a load. It is an assemblage of two or more basic components connected to
each other so that they serve the user and carry the loads developing due to
the self and super-imposed loads safely without causing any serviceability
failure. Once a preliminary design of a structure is fixed, the structure then
must be analyzed to make sure that it has its required strength and rigidity. To
analyze a structure a structure correctly, certain idealizations are to be made
as to how the members are supported and connected together. The loadings
are supposed to be taken from respective design codes and local
specifications, if any. The forces in the members and the displacements of the
joints are found using the theory of structural analysis.
The whole structural system and its loading conditions might be of complex
nature so to make the analysis simpler, we use certain simplifying
assumptions related to the quality of material, member geometry, nature of
applied loads, their distribution, the type of connections at the joints and the
support conditions. This shall help making the process of structural analysis
simpler to quite an extent.

Methods of structural analysis


When the number of unknown reactions or the number of internal forces
exceeds the number of equilibrium equations available for the purpose of
analysis, the structure is called as a statically indeterminate structure. Most of
the structures designed today are statically indeterminate. This indeterminacy
may develop as a result of added supports or extra members, or by the
general form of the structure.
While analyzing any indeterminate structure, it is essential to satisfy
equilibrium, compatibility, and force-displacement requisites for the structure.
When the reactive forces hold the structure at rest, equilibrium is satisfied and

8
compatibility is said to be satisfied when various segments of a structure fit
together without intentional breaks or overlaps.
Two fundamental methods to analyze the statically indeterminate structures
are discussed below.

Force methods-
Originally developed by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864, later developed by
Otto Mohr and Heinrich Muller-Breslau, the force method was one of the first
methods available for analysis of statically indeterminate structures. As
compatibility is the basis for this method, it is sometimes also called as
compatibility method or the method of consistent displacements. In this
method, equations are formed that satisfy the compatibility and force-
displacement requirements for the given structure in order to determine the
redundant forces. Once these forces are determined, the remaining reactive
forces on the given structure are found out by satisfying the equilibrium
requirements.

Displacement methods-
The displacement method works the opposite way. In these methods, we first
write load-displacement relations for the members of the structure and then
satisfy the equilibrium requirements for the same. In here, the unknowns in
the equations are displacements. Unknown displacements are written in
terms of the loads (i.e. forces) by using the load-displacement relations and
then these equations are solved to determine the displacements. As the
displacements are determined, the loads are found out from the compatibility
and load- displacement equations. Some classical techniques used to apply
the displacement method are discussed.
Slope deflection method-
This method was first devised by Heinrich Manderla and Otto Mohr to study
the secondary stresses in trusses and was further developed by G. A. Maney
extend its application to analyze indeterminate beams and framed structures.

9
The basic assumption of this method is to consider the deformations caused
only by bending moments. Its assumed that the effects of shear force or axial
force deformations are negligible in indeterminate beams or frames.
The fundamental slope-deflection equation expresses the moment at the end
of a member as the superposition of the end moments caused due to the
external loads on the member, while the ends being assumed as restrained,
and the end moments caused by the displacements and actual end rotations.
A structure comprises of several members, slope-deflection equations are
applied to each of the member. Using appropriate equations of equilibrium for
the joints along with the slope-deflection equations of each member we can
obtain a set of simultaneous equations with unknowns as the displacements.
Once we get the values of these unknowns i.e. the displacements we can
easily determine the end moments using the slope-deflection equations.

Moment distribution method-


This method of analyzing beams and multi-storey frames using moment
distribution was introduced by Prof. Hardy Cross in 1930, and is also
sometimes referred to as Hardy Cross method. It is an iterative method in
which one goes on carrying on the cycle to reach to a desired degree of
accuracy. To start off with this method, initially all the joints are temporarily
restrained against rotation and fixed end moments for all the members are
written down. Each joint is then released one by one in succession and the
unbalanced moment is distributed to the ends of the members, meeting at the
same joint, in the ratio of their distribution factors. These distributed moments
are then carried over to the far ends of the joints. Again the joint is temporarily
restrained before moving on to the next joint. Same set of operations are
performed at each joints till all the joints are completed and the results
obtained are up to desired accuracy. The method does not involve solving a
number of simultaneous equations, which may get quite complicated while
applying large structures, and is therefore preferred over the slope-deflection
method.

10
Kanis method-
This method was first developed by Prof. Gasper Kani of Germany in the year
1947. The method is named after him. This is an indirect extension of slope
deflection method. This is an efficient method due to simplicity of moment
distribution. The method offers an iterative scheme for applying slope
deflection method of structural analysis. Whereas the moment distribution
method reduces the number of linear simultaneous equations and such
equations needed are equal to the number of translator displacements, the
number of equations needed is zero in case of the Kanis method. This
method may be considered as a further simplification of moment distribution
method wherein the problems involving sway were attempted in a tabular
form thrice (for double story frames) and two shear coefficients had to be
determined which when inserted in end moments gave us the final end
moments. All this effort can be cut short very considerably by using this
method.

Advantages of Kanis method:


All the computations are carried out in a single line diagram of the
structure.
The effects of joint rotations and sway are considered in each cycle
of iteration. Henceforth, no need to derive and solve the simultaneous
equations. This method thus becomes very effective and easy to use
especially in case of multistory building frames.
The method is self correcting, that is, the error, if any, in a cycle is
corrected automatically in the subsequent cycles. The checking is
easier as only the last cycle is required to be checked.
The convergence is generally fast. It leads to the solutions in just a
few cycles of iterations.

11
CHAPTER 2

INTRODUCTION

12
Introduction
Structural analysis is the backbone of civil engineering. During recent
years, there has been a growing emphasis on using computer aided
softwares and tools to analyze the structures. There has also been
advancement in finite element analysis of structures using Finite
Element Analysis methods or matrix analysis. These developments are
most welcome, as they relieve the engineer of the often lengthy
calculations and procedures required to be followed while large or
complicated structures are analyzed using classical methods. But not
all the time such detailed analysis are necessary to be performed i.e.
sometimes, just approximate analysis could suffice our requirements as
in case of preparing the rough estimates and participating in the
bidding process for a tender. It may even happen that sometimes the
analysis software or tool is not available at hand? Or the worst case,
the computer itself is not available?? Then in such cases, accurate
analysis of such large and complicated structures involving so many
calculations is almost impossible.
Now-a-days, high rise buildings and multi-bay-multi-storey buildings are
very common in metropolitan cities. The analysis of frames of multi-
storeyed buildings proves to be rather cumbersome as the frames have
a large number of joints which are free to move. Even if the commonly
used Moment distribution method is applied to all the joints, the work
involved shall be tremendous. However, with certain assumptions,
applying the substitute analysis methods like substitute frame method,
portal method, cantilever method or factor method, the structures can
be analyzed approximately.

Substitute frame method


By considering any floor of the frame called substitute frame, the
moments can be calculated and results can be obtained in good

13
agreement with the results from rigorous analysis. The moments
carried from floor to floor through columns are very small as compared
to the beam moments; therefore, the moments in one floor have
negligible effect on the moments on the floors above and below.
Therefore, in this method, the analysis of the multi-storeyed frames is
carried out by taking one floor at a time. Each floor is taken with
columns above and below fixed at far ends, and the moments and
shears are calculated in beams and columns.
The method is very effective in analyzing any framed structure under
vertical loadings. This work is focused to check its applicability and
efficacy under the lateral loading conditions
Objectives
To manually analyze the problem frame, using Kanis method under
vertical loading conditions.
To perform the same analysis using standard analysis software
Staad.Pro
Perform substitute frame analysis for the loading cases
Compare the accuracy of the substitute frame analysis with manual
and Staad.Pro analysis and check its validity in lateral loading cases.
Optimize the substitute frame method to further lessen the
calculations so as to get the final results within permissible limit of
errors.
Design the Structural members of the multistory.

14
CHAPTER 3
ANALYSIS UNDER VERTICAL LOADS

15
Approximate analysis of the frame for
vertical loads:
The analysis is made by considering the following assumptions:
1) Beams do not receive axial forces.
2) For any beam a point of contra flexure occurs at a distance of 0.1L
form each end of the span, where L is the span of beam

Dead load on the beams = 25 kN/m


Live load on the beams = 15 kN/m
Span of the beams between AB, EF, IJ, CD, GH, KL = 6.1 m
Span of the beams between BC, FG, JK = 2.1 m
Assume points of contra flexure at 0.1 L from each end i.e. 0.1 x 6.1 = 0.61 m
from each end for the long beams.
Distance between points of contra flexure, L1 = 6.1 - (2x0.61) = 4.88 m

16
2
Maximum positive B.M = x 4.88 = 119.1 kN-m

.
Shear at each point of contra flexure = (15+25) = 97.6 kN

Maximum negative moment at each end of the beam =


. .
- [97.6 x 0.61+ ] = - 67 kN
Maximum shear force for a beam occurs at each end of the beam and is
.
equal to = 122 kN

Analysis of columns:
Consider the end column AEMN
Axial force in AE = 40 x 3.05 = 122 kN
Axial force in EI = 122+122 = 244 kN
Axial force in IM = 244+122 = 366 kN
Moment at the upper end of column = Moment at the end of beam = 67 kN-m
Assuming equal stiffness for column moment transmitted to each column by a
beam at E or I = 67/2 = 33.5 kN-m
Now consider any interior column.
There will be no moment transmission to the interior column.
Consider the column BFJN
Axial force in BF = 40 x 6.1 = 244 kN,
Axial force in FJ = 244+244 = 488 kN
Axial force in JN = 488+244 =732 Kn

17
Method of substitute frames :

Analysis of multi-storey building frames involves lot of complications and


tedious calculations by using conventional methods. To carry out exact
analysis is a time consuming task. Substitute frame method for analysis
of multistory frame can be handy in approximate and quick analysis. This
method has been applied only for vertical loading conditions.
The method assumes that the moments in the beams of any floor are
influenced by loading on that floor alone. The influence of loading on the
lower or upper floors is ignored altogether.
The process involves the division of multi-storied structure into smaller
frames. These sub frames are known as equivalent frames or substitute
frames.
The sub frames are usually analyzed by the moment distribution method,
using only Two cycle of distribution. It is only necessary to consider the loads
on the two nearest spans on each side of the point .

The substitute frames are formed by the beams at the floor level under
consideration, together with the columns above and below with their far ends
fixed.

18
The distributed B.M are not carried over far ends of the columns in this
process; the moments in the columns are computed at each floor level
independently and retained at that floor irrespective of further analysis.

Assumptions
Slab thickness = 0.15m floor finish thickness = 0.05m
Beam section = 0.35mx0.45m column section = 0.35mx0.35m
Density of concrete used = 25 Kn/m3 live load for educational building =
3kN/m2
Clockwise moment positive and vice-versa
Loading-
Slab dead load = 0.15x1x25 = 3.75 kN/m2
Floor finish = 1.25 kN/m2, live load = 3kN/m2
Beam self weight = 0.35x0.45x25 = 3.9 kN/m
Total vertical load per metre length of beam = (3.75+1.25+3)+3.9 = 12kN/m
Fixed end moments induced

19

Mab = Mef = Mij =Mcd = Mgh = Mkl = - = - 36 kN-m

Mba = Mfe = Mji =Mdc = Mhg = Mlk = = 36kN-m


Mbc = Mfg = Mjk = - = - 4kN-m


Mbc = Mgf = Mkj = = 4kN-m

Moment of Length Relative Distribution Rotation


Span inertia (mm3) (L) stiffness factors Factor =
x103 metres (K) = K/k -(1/2)( K/k)
AB 443 6 73.8 0.34 -0.17
AE 417 3 139 0.65 -0.325
BA 443 6 73.8 0.08 -0.04
BF 417 3 139 0.15 -0.075
BC 1328 2 664 0.75 -0.375
CB 1328 2 664 0.75 -0.375
CG 417 3 139 0.15 -0.075
CD 443 6 73.8 0.08 -0.04
DC 443 6 73.8 0.34 -0.17
DH 417 3 139 0.65 -0.325
EA 417 3 139 0.39 -0.195
EF 443 6 73.8 0.21 -0.105
EI 417 3 139 0.39 -0.195
FE 443 6 73.8 0.07 -0.035
FB 417 3 139 0.14 -0.07
FG 1328 2 664 0.65 -0.325
FJ 417 3 139 0.14 -0.07
GF 1328 2 664 0.65 -0.325
GC 417 3 139 0.14 -0.07
GH 443 6 73.8 0.07 -0.035
GK 417 3 139 0.14 -0.07
HD 417 3 139 0.39 -0.195
HL 417 3 139 0.39 -0.195
HG 443 6 73.8 0.21 -0.105
20
IE 417 3 139 0.48 -0.24
IJ 443 6 73.8 0.25 -0.125
II 313 4 78.3 0.27 -0.135
JI 443 6 73.8 0.08 -0.04
JF 417 3 139 0.14 -0.07
JK 1328 2 664 0.70 -0.35
JJ 313 4 78.3 0.08 -0.04
KJ 1328 2 664 0.70 -0.35
KG 417 3 139 0.14 -0.07
KL 443 6 73.8 0.08 -0.04
KK 313 4 78.3 0.08 -0.04
LH 417 3 139 0.48 -0.24
LL 313 4 78.3 0.27 -0.135
LK 443 6 73.8 0.25 -0.125

Spacing of the frame = 5.4 m


D.L of Slab = 5 kN/m2 , L.L of Slab = 3 kN/m2
D.L of floor per meter run of girder = (5 x 5.4) + 8.1 = 35.1 kN/m
L.L of floor per meter run of girder = 3 x 5.4 = 16.2 kN/m
Fixed end moments: The fixed end moments due to dead load and live load
are-

Member D.L per metre L.L per metre F.E.M due to F.E.M due to
(kN/m) (kN/m) D.L (kN-m) D.L+L.L(kN-m)

EF 35.1 16.2 105.3 153.9

FG 35.1 16.2 11.7 17.1

GH 35.1 16.2 105.3 153.9

21
Frame will be analyzed be two cycle moment distribution:

Bending Moment in columns:


Loading: D.L on EFGH, L.L on EF and GH
JOINT E F G H
Column
distribution
factors

Just above floor 0.39 0.14 0.14 0.39

Just below floor 0.39 0.14 0.14 0.39

Horizontal EF FE FG GF GH HG
members
Distribution 0.21 0.07 0.65 0.65 0.07 0.21
factors

FEM due to D.L -11.7 11.7

F.E.M due to -153.9 153.9 -153.9 153.9


total load

Distribution -4.977 16.16 -92.43 92.43 -16.16 4.977


+carry over

Summation -158.877 170.06 -104.13 104.13 -170.06 158.87

Distribution to
22
columns

Just above floor 61.95 9.23 -9.23 61.95

Just below floor 61.95 9.23 -9.23 61.95

joints E F G H
Members EF FE FG GF GH HG
Distribution 0.21 0.07 0.65 0.65 0.07 0.21
factors
FEM,s -153.9 153.9 -17.1 17.1 -153.9 153.9
Distribution 32.32 -9.57 -88.92 88.92 -9.57 -32.32
Carry over -4.78 16.16 -49.24 -4.78 -16.16 4.8
Distribution 1.0 -2.31 21.47 25.79 2.77 1.08
Carry over -1.15 0.5 12.89 10.73 0.54 1.38
Distribution 0.24 -0.57 8.25 6.62 0.71 0.28
Total moment -126.3 158.1 -112.7 128.6 -156.5 124.8

23
Members Staad Pro Kanis Method Substitute frame Kanis Method
End moments End Moments end moments Vs
S/F Method
EF -129.23 -133.37 -126.3 5.5%
FE 156.52 160.43 158.1 1.47%
FG 108.57 -113.51 -112.7 0.7%
GF 120.64 128.6 128.6 0
GH -150.42 -159.76 -156.5 2.08%
HG 127.60 125 124.8 0.2%

The inference made from the table is that in case of vertical loading, the
difference between the Kanis analysis and substitute frame method (S/F
method) is very less.

24
Chapter 4
Design of Slab

25
Design of slab:

Plan of Ground Floor and First Floor

26
Design of slab: S1 (Two-way slab)

Size of slab = 5.4 m x 6.3 m

Edge conditions = two adjacent edges discontinuous

Materials used = M-20 grade of concrete and Fe-415 HYSD bars

Depth of slab: 6 inch = 152.4mm

Adopt the effective depth (d) = 135mm

Loads:

Self weight of slab = (25 x 0.22) = 5.5 kN/m2

Imposed load = 3 kN/m2

Weight of flooring 50 mm thick = (0.05 x 24) = 1.2 kN/m2

Total working load = w = 9.7 kN/m2

Therefore design ultimate load = wu = (1.5 x 9.7) = 14.55kN/m2

Ultimate design moments

The moment coefficients for (Ly/Lx) = (6.3/5.4) =1.16

Short span moment coefficients:

a) ve moment coefficient = x = 0.053


b) +ve moment coefficient = x = 0.040

Long span moment coefficients:

a) ve moment coefficient = y = 0.042


b) +ve moment coefficient= y = 0.035

Mux(-ve) = (x wu Lx2) = (0.053 x 14.55 x 5.42 ) = 22.9 kN-m

Mux(+ve)= (x wu Lx2) = (0.040 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 16.97 kN-m

Muy(-ve) = (y wu Lx2) = (0.042 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 17.82 kN-m

Muy(+ve) = (y wu Lx2) = (0.035 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 14.85 kN-m

Vu = 0.5 wu Lx = 0.5 x 14.55 x 5.4 = 39.3 kN


27
Check for depth: Mu,lim = 0.138 fck b d2

d = (22.9 x 106)/(0.138 x 20 x 1000) = 91mm < 135mm

hence the effective depth selected is sufficient to resist the design ultimate
moment

Ast,min =(0.12% b d) = 0.0012 x 1000 x 153 = 183.6 mm2

Reinforcements along short and long span directions

the area of reinforcement is calculated using the relation,

Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d {1- Ast f y/ b d fck}

Spacing of the selected bars are computed using the relation,

Spacing = S = (Area of 1 bar/ total area) x1000 such that Ast(provided)


Ast(min)

In addition, the spacing should be the least Of three times the effective depth
or 300 mm. using 10 mm diameter bars for long span, d = 135 mm & for short
span, d = 125 mm.

The detail of reinforcements provided in the two-way slab is compiled in the


table below:

Location Ast (required) Spacing of 10 mm bars


1) Short span
a) ve B.M(top of supports) 560 mm2 140 mm c/c
b) +ve B.M(centre of span) 403 mm2 190 mm c/c
2) Long span
a) ve B.M (top of supports) 388 mm2 200 mm c/c
b) +ve B.M(centre of span) 320 mm2 240 mm c/c

Torsion Reinforcement at corners

Area of torsional steel in each 4 layers = (0.75 x 403) = 302.25 mm2

28
Distance over which the torsion reinforcement is provided = (1/5 short span) =
(0.2 x 5400) = 1080 mm. Provide 6 mm diameter bars at 75 mm c/c for a
length of 1080 mm at all 4 corners in 4 layers

Design of slab: S2 (Two-way Slab)

Size of slab = 5.4 m x 6.3 m

Edge conditions = one edge discontinuous

Materials used = M-20 grade of concrete and Fe-415 HYSD bars

Depth of slab: 6 inch = 152.4mm

Adopt the effective depth (d) = 135mm

Loads:

Self weight of slab = (25 x 0.22) = 5.5 kN/m2

Imposed load = 3 kN/m2

Weight of flooring 50 mm thick = (0.05 x 24) = 1.2 kN/m2

Total working load = w = 9.7 kN/m2

Therefore design ultimate load = wu = (1.5 x 9.7) = 14.55 kN/m2

Ultimate design moments

The moment coefficients for (Ly/Lx) = (6.3/5.4) =1.16

Short span moment coefficients:

c) ve moment coefficient = x = 0.048


d) +ve moment coefficient = x = 0.036

Long span moment coefficients:

c) ve moment coefficient = y = 0.037


d) +ve moment coefficient= y = 0.028

Mux (-ve) = (x wu Lx2) = (0.048 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 20.36 kN-m

29
Mux (+ve) = (x wu Lx2) = (0.036 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 15.27 kN-m

Muy (-ve) = (y wu Lx2) = (0.037 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 15.69 kN-m

Muy (+ve) = (y wu Lx2) = (0.028 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 11.88 kN-m

Vu = 0.5 wu Lx = 0.5 x 14.55 x 5.4 = 39.3 kN

Check for depth:

Mu, lim = 0.138 fck b d2

d = (20.36 x 106) / (0.138 x 20 x 1000) = 85.88mm < 135mm

Hence the effective depth selected is sufficient to resist the design ultimate
moment

Ast, min = (0.12% b d) = 0.0012 x 1000 x 153 = 183.6 mm2

Reinforcements along short and long span directions

The area of reinforcement is calculated using the relation,

Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d {1- Ast f y/ b d fck}

Spacing of the selected bars are computed using the relation,

Spacing = S = (Area of 1 bar/ total area) x1000, such that Ast (provided) Ast
(min)

In addition, the spacing should be the least Of three times the effective depth
or 300 mm. using 10 mm diameter bars for long span, d = 135 mm & for short
span, d = 125 mm.

The detail of reinforcements provided in the two-way slab is compiled in the


table below:

30
Location Ast (required) Spacing of 10 mm
bars
3) Short span
c) ve B.M(top of supports) 490 mm2 160 mm c/c
d) +ve B.M(centre of span) 360 mm2 215 mm c/c
4) Long span
c) ve B.M (top of supports) 340 mm2 230 mm c/c
2
d) +ve B.M(centre of span) 254 mm 305 mm c/c

Torsion Reinforcement at corners

Area of torsional steel in each 4 layers = (0.75 x 360) = 270 mm2

Distance over which the torsion reinforcement is provided = (1/5 short span) =
(0.2 x 5400) = 1080 mm. Provide 6 mm diameter bars at 75 mm c/c for a
length of 1080 mm at all 4 corners in 4 layers

(Same for Design of other slabs having same area and end conditions)

Design of slab S3 (One-way Slab)

Size of slab = 5.4 m x 2.1m

Edge conditions = one edge discontinuous

Materials used = M-20 grade of concrete and Fe-415 HYSD bars

Depth of slab: 6 inch = 152.4mm

Adopt the effective depth (d) = 135mm

Loads:

Self weight of slab = (25 x 0.22) = 5.5 kN/m2

Imposed load = 3 kN/m2

Weight of flooring 50 mm thick = (0.05 x 24) = 1.2 kN/m2

31
Total working load = w = 9.7 kN/m2

Therefore design ultimate load = wu = (1.5 x 9.7) = 14.55 kN/m2

Ultimate design moments

The moment coefficients for (Ly/Lx) = (6.3/5.4) =1.16

Short span moment coefficients:

e) ve moment coefficient = x = 0.048


f) +ve moment coefficient = x = 0.036

Long span moment coefficients:

e) ve moment coefficient = y = 0.037


f) +ve moment coefficient= y = 0.028

Mux (-ve) = (x wu Lx2) = (0.048 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 20.36 kN-m

Mux (+ve) = (x wu Lx2) = (0.036 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 15.27 kN-m

Muy (-ve) = (y wu Lx2) = (0.037 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 15.69 kN-m

Muy (+ve) = (y wu Lx2) = (0.028 x 14.55 x 5.42) = 11.88 kN-m

Vu = 0.5 wu Lx = 0.5 x 14.55 x 5.4 = 39.3 kN

Check for depth:

Mu, lim = 0.138 fck b d2

d = (20.36 x 106) / (0.138 x 20 x 1000) = 85.88mm < 135mm

Hence the effective depth selected is sufficient to resist the design ultimate
moment

Ast, min = (0.12% b d) = 0.0012 x 1000 x 153 = 183.6 mm2

Reinforcements along short and long span directions

The area of reinforcement is calculated using the relation,

Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d {1- Ast f y/ b d fck}

Spacing of the selected bars are computed using the relation,


32
Spacing = S = (Area of 1 bar/ total area) x1000, such that Ast (provided) Ast
(min)

In addition, the spacing should be the least Of three times the effective depth
or 300 mm. using 10 mm diameter bars for long span, d = 135 mm & for short
span, d = 125 mm.

The detail of reinforcements provided in the two-way slab is compiled in the


table below:

Location Ast (required) Spacing of 10 mm


bars
5) Short span
a) ve B.M(top of supports) 490 mm2 160 mm c/c
2
b) +ve B.M(centre of span) 360 mm 215 mm c/c
Long span
c) ve B.M (top of supports) 340 mm2 230 mm c/c
d) +ve B.M(centre of span) 254 mm2 305 mm c/c

Torsion Reinforcement at corners

Area of torsional steel in each 4 layers = (0.75 x 360) = 270 mm2

Distance over which the torsion reinforcement is provided = (1/5 short span) =
(0.2 x 5400) = 1080 mm. Provide 6 mm diameter bars at 75 mm c/c for a
length of 1080 mm at all 4 corners in 4 layers

(Same Design for other slabs having same area and end conditions)

Design of slab: S4 (One-way Slab)

Size of slab = 5.4 m x 2.1 m

Edge conditions = one edges discontinuous

Materials used = M-20 grade of concrete and Fe-415 HYSD bars

33
Depth of slab: 6 inch = 152.4mm

Adopt the effective depth (d) = 135mm

Effective span: The least of

i) (Clear span + eff depth ) = 2.1 + 0.135 = 2.235


ii) (Center to center supports) = 2.1+0.23 = 2.33

Loads:

Self weight of slab = (25 x 0.22) = 5.5 kN/m2

Imposed load = 3 kN/m2

Weight of flooring 50 mm thick = (0.05 x 24) = 1.2 kN/m2

Total working load = w = 9.7 kN/m2

Therefore design ultimate load = wu = (1.5 x 9.7) = 14.55kN/m2

Ultimate moments and shear forces,

Mu = (0.125wuL2) = (0.125x14.55x2.2352) =9.09 kN-m

Vu = (0.5wuL) = (0.5 x 14.55 x2.235) = 16.25 KN

Limiting moment of resistance

Mu, lim = 0.138 fck b d2

=(0.138x20x1000x 135 2) = 50 KN-m

Mu < Mu, lim. Section is under reinforced.

Tension Reinforcements

Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d {1- Ast f y/ b d fck}

9.09x106 =( 0.87x415xAst135) {1- Ast 415/1000x135x20}

Solving Ast = 192 mm2 > Ast, min = 160 mm2

Using 10 mm diameter of bars, the spacing of the selected bars are computed
using the relation,

34
Spacing = S = (Area of 1 bar/ total area) x1000 such that Ast(provided)
Ast(min)

S = (1000x78.5 / 193 ) = 400mm

Adopt spacing of 400 with alternative bars are bent up at supports

Distribution bars

Ast = 0.12 percent = (0.12x1000x155) = 186mm2

Providing 8mm bars at 270 c/c

Check for shear stress

tv = (vu / bxd) = (16.25x103/1000x135) = 0.120 N/mm2

pt = (100Ast / bxd ) =(100x192x0.5 / 1000x135) = 0.142

Permissible shear stress slab (as IS- 456 ) is calculated as

ktc = 0.36 N/mm2> tv

Hence slab is safe.

Check for deflection control

(L/d)max = (L/d)basic x kt x kc x kf

For pt = s(100x192 / 1000x135) = 0.33 percent ,kc = 1, kf = 1.

(L/d)max = ( 26x1.4x1x1) = 36.4

(L/d) provided = 13.8

Hence deflection criteria is satisfied

Design of slab: S5 (One-way Slab)

Size of slab = 5.4 m x 2.1 m

Edge conditions = No one edges discontinuous

Materials used = M-20 grade of concrete and Fe-415 HYSD bars

Depth of slab: 6 inch = 152.4mm


35
Adopt the effective depth (d) = 135mm

Effective span: The least of

(Clear span + eff. depth) = 2.1 + 0.135 = 2.235

(Center to center supports) = 2.1+0.23 = 2.33

Loads:

Self weight of slab = (25 x 0.22) = 5.5 kN/m2

Imposed load = 3 kN/m2

Weight of flooring 50 mm thick = (0.05 x 24) = 1.2 kN/m2

Total working load = w = 9.7 kN/m2

Therefore design ultimate load = wu = (1.5 x 9.7) = 14.55kN/m2

Ultimate moments and shear forces,

Mu = (0.125wuL2) = (0.125x14.55x2.2352) = 9.09 kN-m

Vu = (0.5wuL) = (0.5 x 14.55 x2.235) = 16.25 KN

Limiting moment of resistance

Mu, lim = 0.138 fck b d2

= (0.138x20x1000x 1352) = 50 KN-m

Mu < Mu, lim. Section is under reinforced.

Tension Reinforcements

Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d {1- Ast f y/ b d fck}

9.09x106 = ( 0.87x415xAst135) {1- Ast 415/1000x135x20}

Solving Ast = 192 mm2 > Ast, min = 160 mm2

Using 10 mm diameter of bars, the spacing of the selected bars are computed
using the relation,

Spacing = S = (Area of 1 bar/ total area) x1000 such that Ast(provided)


Ast(min)
36
S = (1000x78.5 / 193 ) = 400mm

Adopt spacing of 400 with alternative bars are bent up at supports

Distribution bars

Ast = 0.12 percent = (0.12x1000x155) = 186mm2

Providing 8mm bars at 270 c/c

Check for shear stress

tv = (vu / bxd) = (16.25x103/1000x135) = 0.120 N/mm2

pt = (100Ast / bxd ) =(100x192x0.5 / 1000x135) = 0.142

Permissible shear stress slab (as IS- 456 ) is calculated as

ktc = 0.36 N/mm2> tv

Hence slab is safe.

Check for deflection control

(L/d)max = (L/d)basic x kt x kc x kf

For pt = s (100x192 / 1000x135) = 0.33 percent, kc = 1, kf = 1.

(L/d)max = ( 26x1.4x1x1) = 36

(L/d) provided = 13.7

Hence deflection criteria is satisfied.

37
CHAPTER 5
Design of Beams

38
DESIGN OF BEAM B1: 350mm x 450mm (Long beam)

Calculation of loads
Self weight of beam = 3.9 kN/m , length of beam = 6.1 m
Weight of the 9 wall above Beam = 0.15m x 3 x 20 = 9 KN/m
Area of load control of slab under beam = 9.18 m2
Weight of slab on beam = 9.18 x 0.1524 x 25 = 5.7 kN/m
Total weight = 18.6 KN/m
fck = 20 N/mm2 f y = 415 N/mm2
Assuming 25 mm effective cover, b = 350 mm, d = 425 mm
Fixed end moment at one end = -126.3 kN-m
Fixed end moment at another end = 158.1 kN-m
Design end moment at mid span =
= (1.5 x 18.6 x 6.12)/8 (18.6 x 6.12)/2
= 129.76 346.05 = -216.29 kNm
Location Mu (kNm) Mu/bd2 Pt (%) Area of
From SP-16 steel mm2
Ist Support -126.3 1.78 0.563 837
IInd Support 158.1 2.23 0.731 1087
Mid Span -216.29 3.05 0.955 1504

Design for shear reinforcement

Maximum shear force = 56.73 kN

Max steel percentage = 0.955 %


tc = 0.62 N/mm2 (I.S-456:2000)
Vus = Vu tc b d
= 56.73 0.62 x 0.35 x 0.45 = 56.63 kN
Shear resisted by stirrups = 56.63 kN
Vus / d = 56.63/425 = 0.13 , Provide 2L-8mm shear stirrups
Provide 2L-8mm dia bars @ 75 mm c/c

39
DESIGN OF BEAM B2: 350mm x 450mm (short beam)

Calculation of loads
Self weight of beam = 3.9 kN/m , length of beam = 2.8 m
Weight of the 9 wall above Beam = 0.15m x 3 x 20 = 9 KN/m
Area of load control of slab under beam = 9.18 m2
Weight of slab on beam = 9.18 x 0.1524 x 25 = 5.7 kN/m
Total weight = 18.6 KN/m
fck = 20 N/mm2 f y = 415 N/mm2
Assuming 25 mm effective cover, b = 350 mm, d = 425 mm
Fixed end moment at one end = -112.7 kN-m
Fixed end moment at another end = 128.6 kN-m
Design end moment at mid span =
= (1.5 x 18.6 x 2.82)/8 (18.6 x 2.82)/2
= 27.34 72.91 = -45.57 kNm
Location Mu (kNm) Mu/bd2 Pt (%) Area of
From SP-16 steel mm2
Ist Support -112.7 1.59 0.493 777
IInd Support 128.6 1.81 0.564 889
Mid Span -45.57 0.64 0.186 293

Design for shear reinforcement

Maximum shear force = 26.04 kN

Max steel percentage = 0.56 %


tc = 0.5 N/mm2 (I.S-456:2000)
Vus = Vu tc b d
= 26.04 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.45 = 25.96 kN
Shear resisted by stirrups = 25.96 kN
Vus / d = 25.96/425 = 0.06, Provide 2L-8mm shear stirrups
Provide 2L-8mm dia bars @ 80 mm c/c

40
DESIGN OF BEAM B3: 350mm x 450mm (intermediate beam)

Calculation of loads
Self weight of beam = 3.9 kN/m , length of beam = 5.4m
Weight of the 9 wall above Beam = 0.15m x 3 x 20 = 9 KN/m
Area of load control of slab under beam = 7.29 m2
Weight of slab on beam = 7.29 x 0.1524 x 25 = 5.14 kN/m
Total weight = 18.04 KN/m
fck = 20 N/mm2 f y = 415 N/mm2
Assuming 25 mm effective cover, b = 350 mm, d = 425 mm
Fixed end moment at one end = -112.7 kN-m
Fixed end moment at another end = 128.6 kN-m
Design end moment at mid span =
= (1.5 x 18.04 x 5.42)/8 (18.04 x 5.42)/2
= 98.63 263.02 = -164.39 kNm
Location Mu (kNm) Mu/bd2 Pt (%) Area of
From SP-16 steel mm2
Ist Support -112.7 1.59 0.493 777
IInd Support 128.6 1.81 0.564 889
Mid Span -164.39 2.31 0.758 1194

Design for shear reinforcement

Maximum shear force = 48.71 kN

Max steel percentage = 0.758 %


tc = 0.57 N/mm2 (I.S-456:2000)
Vus = Vu tc b d
= 48.71 0.57 x 0.35 x 0.45 = 48.62 kN
Shear resisted by stirrups = 48.62 kN
Vus / d = 48.62/425 = 0.11, Provide 2L-8mm shear stirrups
Provide 2L-8mm dia bars @ 80 mm c/c

41
DESIGN OF BEAM B4: 350mm x 450mm

Calculation of loads
Self weight of beam = 3.9 kN/m , length of beam = 6.1m
Weight of the 9 wall above Beam = 0.15m x 3 x 20 = 9 KN/m
Area of load control of slab under beam = 18.38 m2
Weight of slab on beam = 18.36 x 0.1524 x 25 = 11.46 kN/m
Total weight = 24.36 KN/m
fck = 20 N/mm2 f y = 415 N/mm2
Assuming 25 mm effective cover, b = 350 mm, d = 425 mm
Fixed end moment at one end = -126.3 kN-m
Fixed end moment at another end = 158.1 kN-m
Design end moment at mid span =
= (1.5 x 24.36 x 6.12)/8 (24.36 x 6.12)/2
= 169.95 453.21 = -283.26 kNm
Location Mu (kNm) Mu/bd2 Pt (%) Area of
From SP-16 steel mm2
Ist Support -126.3 1.78 0.493 777
IInd Support 158.1 2.23 0.564 889
Mid Span -283.26 3.99 0.955 1504

Design for shear reinforcement

Maximum shear force = 453.21 kN

Max steel percentage = 0.955 %


tc = 0.62 N/mm2 (I.S-456:2000)
Vus = Vu tc b d
= 453.21 0.62 x 0.35 x 0.45 = 453.11 kN
Shear resisted by stirrups = 453.11 kN
Vus / d = 453.11/425 = 1.06, Provide 2L-8mm shear stirrups.
Provide 2L-8mm dia bars @ 80 mm c/c

42
DESIGN OF BEAM B5: 350mm x 450mm

Calculation of loads
Self weight of beam = 3.9 kN/m , length of beam = 6.1m
Weight of the 9 wall above Beam = 0.15m x 3 x 20 = 9 KN/m
Area of load control of slab under beam = 18.38 m2
Weight of slab on beam = 18.36 x 0.1524 x 25 = 11.46 kN/m
Total weight = 24.36 KN/m
fck = 20 N/mm2 f y = 415 N/mm2
Assuming 25 mm effective cover, b = 350 mm, d = 425 mm
Fixed end moment at one end = -126.3 kN-m
Fixed end moment at another end = 158.1 kN-m
Design end moment at mid span =
= (1.5 x 24.36 x 6.12)/8 (24.36 x 6.12)/2
= 169.95 453.21 = -283.26 kNm
Location Mu (kNm) Mu/bd2 Pt (%) Area of
From SP-16 steel mm2
Ist Support -126.3 1.78 0.493 777
IInd Support 158.1 2.23 0.564 889
Mid Span -283.26 3.99 0.955 1504

Design for shear reinforcement

Maximum shear force = 453.21 kN

Max steel percentage = 0.955 %


tc = 0.62 N/mm2 (I.S-456:2000)
Vus = Vu tc b d
= 453.21 0.62 x 0.35 x 0.45 = 453.11 kN
Shear resisted by stirrups = 453.11 kN
Vus / d = 453.11/425 = 1.06 , Provide 2L-8mm shear stirrups
Provide 2L-8mm dia bars @ 80 mm c/c

43
DESIGN OF BEAM B6: 350mm x 450mm

Calculation of loads
Self weight of beam = 3.9 kN/m , length of beam = 5.4m
Weight of the 9 wall above Beam = 0.15m x 3 x 20 = 9 KN/m
Area of load control of slab under beam = 14.58 m2
Weight of slab on beam = 18.36 x 0.1524 x 25 = 10.287 kN/m
Total weight = 23.18 KN/m
fck = 20 N/mm2 f y = 415 N/mm2
Assuming 25 mm effective cover, b = 350 mm, d = 425 mm
Fixed end moment at one end = -126.3 kN-m
Fixed end moment at another end = 158.1 kN-m
Design end moment at mid span =
= (1.5 x 23.18 x 5.42)/8 (23.18 x 5.42)/2
= 187.76 337.96 = -150.20 kNm
Location Mu (kNm) Mu/bd2 Pt (%) Area of
From SP-16 steel mm2
Ist Support -126.3 1.78 0.493 777
IInd Support 158.1 2.23 0.564 889
Mid Span -150.20 2.12 0.685 1079

Design for shear reinforcement

Maximum shear force = 62.58 kN

Max steel percentage = 0.685 %


tc = 0.53 N/mm2 (I.S-456:2000)
Vus = Vu tc b d
= 62.58 0.53 x 0.35 x 0.45 = 62.49 kN
Shear resisted by stirrups = 62.49 kN
Vus / d = 62.49/425 = 0.14, Provide 2L-8mm shear stirrups
Provide 2L-8mm dia bars @ 80 mm c/c

44
3-D model of Building

3-storey frame in Staad Pro

45
Shear Diagram of beam B1

Deflection profile for beam b1

Reinforcement details for Beam B1 in Staad

46
CHAPTER 6
Design of Columns

47
LOADS
1) Floor height = 10 ft = 3.048 m
2) Weight of 6 thick slab (0.1524m) = 25 x 0.1524 = 3.8 kN/m2
3) Weight of flooring 50 mm thick = 24 x 0.05 = 1.2 KN/m2
Total D.L = 5.0kN/m2
4) Imposed floor loads for class rooms and lecture rooms = 3 KN/m2
5) Self weight of column (350 mm x 350 mm) of 10 m height
= 0.352x10x25 = 30.6 kN
2
6) Loads from roof (truss) = 1kN/m
7) Load of 9 thick wall(228.6mm) for 10m height
= 0.2286x10x20 = 45.72kN/m
8) For each floor height of 3.048m, loads of 9 wall on the beam
= 0.2286x3.048x20 = 13.93kN/m
9) Wind loads: Design wind pressure is Px = 0.6Vx2
Where Px = design wind pressure in N/mm2 at a height Z and
Vx = design wind velocity in m/s at a height Z
Column A1
Area under column = 2.7 m x 3.16 m = 8.53 m2
Total dead weight(weight of slab, flooring, finishes) = 8.53 x 5 = 42.65 kN
For three strorey building, total dead load carried = 42.65 x 3 =128 kN
Weight of 9 thick wall = 45.72(3.16+2.7-0.35) = 251.9 kN
Self weight of column (350mm x 350mm) of 10m height = 0.35 2 x 10 x 25 =
30.6 kN
Total dead load = 128+251.9+30.6 =410.5 kN
Live load = 3 x 8.53 x 3 = 76.7 kN
Load from Roof = 1 x 8.5 = 8.5 kN
Grand total: 410.5+76.7+8.53 = 495.73 kN
Loading is same for column A4
Column A2
Area of load = 2.7 x 4.36 = 11.7m2
Dead load(weight of slab, flooring, finishes) =11.7 x 5 = 58.5 kN
48
For three storey building, DL = 58.5 x 3 = 175.5 kN
Weight of 9 thick wall = 45.72(4.36+2.7-0.35) = 306.78 kN
Self weight of column (350mm x 350mm) of 10m height = 0.35 2 x 10 x 25 =
30.6 kN
Total D.L = 175.5+306.78+30.6 = 512.88 kN
L.L = 3 x 11.7 x 3 = 105.3 kN
Load from roof = 1 x 11.7 = 11.7 kN
Grand total: 629.88 kN
Loading is similar for the column A3
Column B1
Area of load control under column B1 = 5.4 x 3.16 = 17.06m2
Dead load(weight of slab, flooring, finishes) =17.06 x 5 = 85.3 kN
For three storey building, DL = 85.3 x 3 = 256 kN
Weight of 9 thick wall = 45.72(5.4+3.16-0.35) = 375.36 kN
Self weight of column (350mm x 350mm) of 10m height = 0.35 2 x 10 x 25 =
30.6 kN
Total D.L = 256+375.36+3.6 = 747.26 kN
L.L = 3 x 17.06 x 3 = 153 kN
Load from roof = 1 x 17.06 = 17.06 kN
Grand total: 832.02 kN
Loading is similar for the column B4,C1,C4,D1,D4,E1,E4,F1,F4,G1,G4,H1,H4
Column B2:
Area of load control under column B2 = 5.4 x 4.36 = 23.5m2
Dead load(weight of slab, flooring, finishes) =23.5 x 5 = 117.5 kN
For three storey building, DL = 117.5 x 3 = 352.5 kN
Weight of 9 thick wall = 45.72(5.4+4.36) = 446.2 kN
Self weight of column (350mm x 350mm) of 10m height =
0.352 x 10 x 25 = 30.6 kN
49
Total D.L = 256+375.36+3.6 = 747.26 kN
L.L = 3 x 23.5 x 3 = 211.5 kN
Load from roof = 1 x 23.5 = 23.5 kN
Grand total: 1064.3 kN
Loading is similar for the column B3,C2,C3,E2,D1,D2,E3,F2,F3,G2,G3,H2,H3
Column J1
Area of load control under column J1 = 3.16 x 1.25 = 3.95 m2
Dead load(weight of slab, flooring, finishes) =3.95 x 5 = 19.75 kN
For three storey building, DL = 19.75 x 3 = 59.25 kN
Weight of 9 thick wall = 45.72(1.25+3.16-0.35) = 185.62 kN
Self weight of column (350mm x 350mm) of 10m height = 0.35 2 x 10 x 25 =
30.6 kN
Total D.L = 59.25+185.62+30.6= 275.47 kN
L.L = 3 x 3.95 x 3 = 35.55 kN
Load from roof = 1 x 3.95 = 3.95 kN
Grand total: 314.97 kN
Loading is similar for the column J4
Column J2
Area of load control under column J2 = 1.25 x 4.36 = 5.45 m2
Dead load(weight of slab, flooring, finishes) =5.45 x 5 = 27.25 kN
For three storey building, DL = 27.75 x 3 = 83.25 kN
Weight of 9 thick wall = 45.72(4.36+1.25-0.35) = 240.48 kN
Self weight of column (350mm x 350mm) of 10m height = 0.35 2 x 10 x 25 =
30.6 kN
Total D.L = 83.45+240.48+30.6= 354.53 kN
L.L = 3 x 5.45 x 3 = 49.05 kN
Load from roof = 1 x 5.45 = 5.45 kN
Grand total: 409.03 kN
50
Loading is similar for the column J3
Column I2
Area of load control under column I2 = 3.95 x 4.36 = 17.22 m2
Dead load(weight of slab, flooring, finishes) = 17.22 x 5 = 86.1 kN
For three storey building, DL = 86.1 x 3 = 258.3 kN
Weight of 9 thick wall = 45.72(4.36+3.95) = 379.93 kN
Self weight of column (350mm x 350mm) of 10m height = 0.35 2 x 10 x 25 =
30.6 kN
Total D.L = 258.3+379.93+30.6= 668.83 kN
L.L = 3 x 17.22 x 3 = 154.98 kN
Load from roof = 1 x 17.22 = 17.22 kN
Grand total: 841.03 kN
Loading is similar for the column I3
Column I1
Area of load control under column I2 = 3.325 x 3.05 = 10.14 m2
Dead load(weight of slab, flooring, finishes) = 10.14 x 5 x 0.1524 = 7.72 kN
For three storey building, DL = 7.72 x 3 = 23.18 kN
Weight of 9 thick wall = 45.72(3.325+3.05) = 291.46 kN
Self weight of column (350mm x 350mm) of 10m height = 0.35 2 x 10 x 25 =
30.6 kN
Total D.L = 152.1+291.46+30.6= 345.24 kN
L.L = 3 x 10.14 x 3 = 91.26 kN
Load from roof = 1 x 10.14 = 10.14 kN
Grand total: 575.56 kN, Loading is similar for the column I4

51
Bending Shear Profile for Column C1

Deflection profile for Column C1

Reinforcement details for column C1

52
Chapter 7
Design of footing

53
Design of footing 1 (F1)
1.) Data
Axial load of column=p= 496KN
Size of column = 350 x 350 mm2
Use M20 & fe-415HYSD bars
2.) Size of footing;
Load on column = 496KN
Wt of footing & backfill at 10%= 49.6
Total load = 545.6KN
Area of footing = (545.6/200)
= 2.728m2
Size of footing =L=B = 2.728 = 1.651m
Adopt 1.7 by 1.7m square footing.
Net soil pressure at ultimate loads with a load factor of 1.5 is given by
Qu (496x1.5/1.7x1.7) = 257KN/m2
=
0.26 N/mm2
3.) One way shear.
The critical section is at a distance d from the column face .
Factored shear force = Vu1 = (0.26x1700)(1000-d)
=442(1000-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforcement in the footing pt = 0.25 percent for
M20 grade concrete
Now from IS-456 code permissible shear stress as =tc =0.36 N/mm2
One way shear resistance
Vc1 =(tcx1700xd). = (612d) N
Vu1 < Vc1
442(1000-d) < 612d .
d > 420 mm
54
4.) Two way shear,
Assuming the effective depth of slab 430mm and computing the two way
shear resistance at critical section (d/2) from face of column,
We have the relation
Vc2 = 0.26[17002-(350+d)2]
=597246 N
Two way shear resistance is calculated as
Vc2= ksx tc[4(350+d)d]
Where ks=1, tc=0.25 = 1.118 N/mm2
=1x1.118[1400d+4d2]
Vu2 < vc2 ,
597246 < (1565.2d + 4.472d2).
Solving, d > 230.18 mm
Hence, one way shear is more critical,
Adopt eff depth =d = 425mm, and overall depth = 450mm.
5.) Design of reinforcements.
Ultimate moment at col face is computed as
Mu=(0.5xbxs.p) =(260x0.675x0.5)
=87.75 KNm/m
(Mu / bd2) = (87.75x106/103x4252)
=0.4858
Refer table 2 SP-16, and interpolate the percentage of reinforcement as pt
=0.140 which is less than 0.25 percent assumed for one- way shear
Therefore, Ast= (ptbd/100) =(0.25x1000x425/100)
=1062.5mm2/m
Using 20mm dia bars,
Spacing of bars is S = (1000x314/1063)
=295.39mm c/c
55
Adopt 20mm dia bars at 290mm centres in both directions

Design of footing 2 (F2)


1. Data
Axial load of column=p= 630KN
Size of column = 350 x 350 mm2
Use M20 & fe-415HYSD bars
2.) Size of footing;
Load on column = 630KN
Wt of footing & backfill at 10%= 63
Total load = 693KN
Area of footing = (693/200)
= 3.465m2
Size of footing =L=B = 3.465 = 1.86m
Adopt 1.9 by 1.9m square footing.
Net soil pressure at ultimate loads with a load factor of 1.5 is given by
Qu (630x1.5/1.9x1.9) = 261.77KN/m2
=
0.26 N/mm2
3. One way shear.
The critical section is at a distance d from the column face .
Factored shear force = Vu1 = (0.26x1900)(1000-d)
=498(1000-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforcement in the footing pt = 0.25 percent for
M20 grade concrete
Now from IS-456 code permissible shear stress as =tc =0.36 N/mm2
One way shear resistance
Vc1 =(tcx1900xd). = (684d) N
Vu1 < Vc1
56
498(1000-d) < 684d .
d > 421 mm
4. Two way shear,
Assuming the effective depth of slab 430mm and computing the two way
shear resistance at critical section (d/2) from face of column,
We have the relation
Vc2 = 0.26[19002-(350+d)2]
=790079.46N
Two way shear resistance is calculated as
Vc2= ksx tc[4(350+d)d]
Where ks=1, tc=0.25 = 1.118 N/mm2
=1x1.118[1400d+4d2]
Vu2 < vc2 ,
790079.46 < (1565.2d + 4.472d2).
Solving, d > 280.3 mm
Hence, one way shear is more critical,
Adopt eff depth =d = 425mm, and overall depth = 450mm.
5. Design of reinforcements.
Ultimate moment at col face is computed as
Mu=(0.5xbxs.p) =(0.5x0.75x260)
=97.5 KNm/m
(Mu / bd2) = (97.5x106/103x4252)
=0.539
Refer table 2 SP-16, and interpolate the percentage of reinforcement as pt
=0.155 which is less than 0.25 percent assumed for one- way shear
Therefore, Ast= (ptbd/100) =(0.25x1000x425/100)
=1062.5mm2/m
Using 20mm dia bars,
57
Spacing of bars is S = (1000x314/1063)
=295.39mm c/c
Adopt 20mm dia bars at 290mm centres in both directions
Design of footing 3 (F3)
1. Data
Axial load of column=p=833KN
Size of column = 350 x 350 mm2
Use M20 & fe-415HYSD bars
2.) Size of footing;
Load on column = 833KN
Wt of footing & backfill at 10%= 83.3
Total load = 916.3KN
Area of footing = (916.3/200)
= 4.58m2
Size of footing =L=B = 4.58 = 2.14m
Adopt 2.2 by 2.2 m square footing.
Net soil pressure at ultimate loads with a load factor of 1.5 is given by
Qu (833x1.5/2.2x2.2) = 258.16KN/m2
=
0.26 N/mm2
3. One way shear.
The critical section is at a distance d from the column face .
Factored shear force = Vu1 = (0.26x2200)(1000-d)
=572(1000-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforcement in the footing pt = 0.25 percent for
M20 grade concrete
Now from IS-456 code permissible shear stress as =tc =0.36 N/mm2
One way shear resistance
Vc1 =(tcx2200xd). = (792d) N
58
Vu1 < Vc1
572(1000-d) < 792 d .
d > 420 mm
4. Two way shear,
Assuming the effective depth of slab 430mm and computing the two way
shear resistance at critical section (d/2) from face of column,
We have the relation
Vc2 = 0.26[22002-(350+d)2]
=1104246 N
Two way shear resistance is calculated as
Vc2= ksx tc[4(350+d)d]
Where ks=1, tc=0.25 = 1.118 N/mm2
=1x1.118[1400d+4d2]
Vu2 < vc2 ,
1104246< (1565.2d + 4.472d2).
Solving, d >315.82 mm
Hence, one way shear is more critical,
Adopt eff depth =d = 425mm, and overall depth = 450mm.
5. Design of reinforcements.
Ultimate moment at col face is computed as
Mu=(0.5xbxs.p) =(0.5x0.925x260)
=120.25 KNm/m
(Mu / bd2) = (120.25x106/103x4252)
=0.67
Refer table 2 SP-16, and interpolate the percentage of reinforcement as pt
=0.188 which is less than 0.25 percent assumed for one- way shear
Therefore, Ast= (ptbd/100) =(0.25x1000x425/100)
=1062.5mm2/m
59
Using 20mm dia bars,
Spacing of bars is S = (1000x314/1063)
=295.39mm c/c
Adopt 20mm dia bars at 290mm centres in both directions
Design of footing 4 (F4)
1. Data
Axial load of column=p=1065KN
Size of column = 350 x 350 mm2
Use M20 & fe-415HYSD bars
2.) Size of footing;
Load on column = 1065KN
Wt of footing & backfill at 10%=106.5
Total load =1171. KN
Area of footing = (1171.5/200)
= 5.86m2
Size of footing =L=B = 5.86 = 2.42m
Adopt 2.5 by 2.5m square footing.
Net soil pressure at ultimate loads with a load factor of 1.5 is given by
Qu (1065x1.5/2.5x2.5) = 255.6KN/m2
=
0.26 N/mm2
3. One way shear.
The critical section is at a distance d from the column face .
Factored shear force = Vu1 = (0.26x2500)(1000-d)
=650(1000-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforcement in the footing pt = 0.25 percent for
M20 grade concrete
Now from IS-456 code permissible shear stress as =tc =0.36 N/mm2
One way shear resistance
60
Vc1 =(tcx2500xd). = (900d) N
Vu1 < Vc1
650(1000-d) < 900d .
d > 420 mm
4. Two way shear,
Assuming the effective depth of slab 420mm and computing the two way
shear resistance at critical section (d/2) from face of column,
We have the relation
Vc2 = 0.26[25002-(350+d)2]
=1470846 N
Two way shear resistance is calculated as
Vc2= ksx tc[4(350+d)d]
Where ks=1, tc=0.25 = 1.118 N/mm2
=1x1.118[1400d+4d2]
Vu2 < vc2 ,
1470846 < (1565.2d + 4.472d2).
Solving, d > 425 mm
Hence, one way shear is more critical,
Adopt eff depth =d = 425mm, and overall depth = 450mm.
5. Design of reinforcements.
Ultimate moment at col face is computed as
Mu=(0.5xbxs.p) =(0.5x1.075x260)
=139.75 KNm/m
(Mu / bd2) = (140x106/103x4252)
=0.78
Refer table 2 SP-16, and interpolate the percentage of reinforcement as pt
=0.224 which is less than 0.25 percent assumed for one- way shear
Therefore, Ast= (ptbd/100) =(0.25x1000x425/100)
61
=1062.5mm2/m
Using 20mm dia bars,
Spacing of bars is S = (1000x314/1063)
=295.39mm c/c
Adopt 20mm dia bars at 290mm centres in both directions
Design of footing 5 (F5)
1. Data
Axial load of column=p= 315KN
Size of column = 350 x 350 mm2
Use M20 & fe-415HYSD bars
2.) Size of footing;
Load on column = 315KN
Wt of footing & backfill at 10%= 31.5
Total load = 346.5KN
Area of footing = (346.5/200)
= 1.73m2
Size of footing =L=B = 1.73 = 1.316m
Adopt 1.3 by 1.3m square footing.
Net soil pressure at ultimate loads with a load factor of 1.5 is given by
Qu (315x1.5/1.3x1.3) = 279.58KN/m2
=
0.28 N/mm2
3. One way shear.
The critical section is at a distance d from the column face
Factored shear force = Vu1 = (0.28x1300)(1000-d)
=364(1000-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforcement in the footing pt = 0.25 percent for
M20 grade concrete
Now from IS-456 code permissible shear stress as =tc =0.36 N/mm2
62
One way shear resistance
Vc1 =(tcx1300xd). = (468d) N
Vu1 < Vc1
364(1000-d) < 468d .
d > 437.5 mm
4. Two way shear,
Assuming the effective depth of slab 438mm and computing the two way
shear resistance at critical section (d/2) from face of column,
We have the relation
Vc2 = 0.28[13002-(350+d)2]
=299335.65 N
Two way shear resistance is calculated as
Vc2= ksx tc[4(350+d)d]
Where ks=1, tc=0.25 = 1.118 N/mm2
=1x1.118[1400d+4d2]
Vu2 < vc2 ,
299335.65 < (1565.2d + 4.472d2).
Solving, d > 138 mm
Hence, one way shear is more critical,
Adopt eff depth =d = 440mm, and overall depth = 465mm.
5. Design of reinforcements.
Ultimate moment at col face is computed as
Mu=(0.5xbxs.p) =(0.5x0.475x280)
=66.5 KNm/m
(Mu / bd2) = (66.5x106/103x4252)
=0.368
Refer table 2 SP-16, and interpolate the percentage of reinforcement as pt
=0.102 which is less than 0.25 percent assumed for one- way shear
63
Therefore, Ast= (ptbd/100) =(0.25x1000x425/100)
=1062.5mm2/m
Using 20mm dia bars,
Spacing of bars is S = (1000x314/1063)
=295.39mm c/c
Adopt 20mm dia bars at 290mm centres in both directions.
Design of footing 6 (F6)
1. Data
Axial load of column=p= 410KN
Size of column = 350 x 350 mm2
Use M20 & fe-415HYSD bars
2.) Size of footing;
Load on column = 410KN
Wt of footing & backfill at 10%= 41
Total load = 451kN
Area of footing = (451/200)
= 2.25m2
Size of footing =L=B = 2.25 = 1.501m
Adopt 1.5 by 1.5m square footing.
Net soil pressure at ultimate loads with a load factor of 1.5 is given by
Qu (410x1.5/1.5x1.5) = 273.33KN/m2
=
0.27 N/mm2
3. One way shear.
The critical section is at a distance d from the column face .
Factored shear force = Vu1 = (0.26x1500)(1000-d)
=390(1000-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforcement in the footing pt = 0.25 percent for
M20 grade concrete
64
Now from IS-456 code permissible shear stress as =tc =0.36 N/mm2
One way shear resistance
Vc1 =(tcx1500xd). = (540d) N
Vu1 < Vc1
390(1000-d) < 540d .
d > 295.45 mm
4. Two way shear,
Assuming the effective depth of slab 300mm and computing the two way
shear resistance at critical section (d/2) from face of column,
We have the relation
Vc2 = 0.27[15002-(350+d)2]
=493425 N
Two way shear resistance is calculated as
Vc2= ksx tc[4(350+d)d]
Where ks=1, tc=0.25 = 1.118 N/mm2
=1x1.118[1400d+4d2]
Vu2 < vc2 ,
493425 < (1565.2d + 4.472d2).
Solving, d > 200.44 mm
Hence, one way shear is more critical,
Adopt eff depth =d = 200mm, and overall depth = 225mm.
5. Design of reinforcements.
Ultimate moment at col face is computed as
Mu=(0.5xbxs.p) =(273x0.575x0.5)
=78.48 KNm/m
(Mu / bd2) = (78.48x106/103x4252)
=1.55

65
Refer table 2 SP-16, and interpolate the percentage of reinforcement as pt
=0.477 which is greater than 0.25 percent assumed for one- way shear
Therefore, Ast= (ptbd/100) =(0.477x1000x200/100)
=954 mm2/m
Using 16mm dia bars,
Spacing of bars is S = (1000x154/954)
=161.42mm c/c
Adopt 16 mm dia bars at 160mm centres in both directions

Design of footing 7 (F7)


1. Data
Axial load of column=p= 842 KN
Size of column = 350 x 350 mm2
Use M20 & fe-415HYSD bars
2.) Size of footing;
Load on column = 842 KN
Wt of footing & backfill at 10%= 84.2
Total load = 926.2KN
Area of footing = (926.2/200)
= 4.631m2
Size of footing =L=B = 4.631 = 2.151m
Adopt 2.1 by 2.1m square footing.
Net soil pressure at ultimate loads with a load factor of 1.5 is given by
Qu (842x1.5/2.1x2.1) = 286.39KN/m2
=
0.286 N/mm2
3. One way shear.
The critical section is at a distance d from the column face .
( refer fig 7)
66
Factored shear force = Vu1 = (0.286x2100)(1000-d)
=600(1000-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforcement in the footing pt = 0.25 percent for
M20 grade concrete
Now from IS-456 code permissible shear stress as =tc =0.36 N/mm2
One way shear resistance
Vc1 =(tcx2100xd). = (756d) N
Vu1 < Vc1
600(1000-d) < 756d .
d > 442 mm
4. Two way shear,
Assuming the effective depth of slab 442mm and computing the two way
shear resistance at critical section (d/2) from face of column,
We have the relation
Vc2 = 0.286[21002-(350+d)2]
=1081862.5 N
Two way shear resistance is calculated as
Vc2= ksx tc[4(350+d)d]
Where ks=1, tc=0.25 = 1.118 N/mm2
=1x1.118[1400d+4d2]
Vu2 < vc2 ,
1081862.5 < (1565.2d + 4.472d2).
Solving, d > 347 mm
Hence, one way shear is more critical,
Adopt eff depth =d = 445mm, and overall depth = 470mm.
5. Design of reinforcements.
67
Ultimate moment at col face is computed as
Mu=(0.5xbxs.p) =(286x0.675x0.5)
=96.52 KNm/m
(Mu / bd2) = (96.52x106/103x4252)
=0.53
Refer table 2 SP-16, and interpolate the percentage of reinforcement as pt
=0.152 which is less than 0.25 percent assumed for one- way shear
Therefore, Ast= (ptbd/100) =(0.25x1000x445/100)
=1112.5mm2/m
Using 20mm dia bars,
Spacing of bars is S = (1000x314/1113)
=282.12mm c/c
Adopt 20mm dia bars at 280mm centres in both directions
Design of footing 8 (F8)
1. Data
Axial load of colum,P = 576KN
Size of column = 350 x 350 mm2
Use M20 & fe-415HYSD bars
2.) Size of footing;
Load on column = 576KN
Wt of footing & backfill at 10%= 57.6
Total load = 633.6KN
Area of footing = (633.6/200)
= 3.168m2
Size of footing =L=B = 3.168 = 1.779m
Adopt 1.8 by 1.8m square footing.
Net soil pressure at ultimate loads with a load factor of 1.5 is given by
Qu (576x1.5/1.8x1.8) = 266.6KN/m2
68
=
0.266N/mm2
3. One way shear.
The critical section is at a distance d from the column face .
Factored shear force = Vu1 = (0.266x1800) (1000-d)
=478.8(1000-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforcement in the footing pt = 0.25 percent for
M20 grade concrete
Now from IS-456 code permissible shear stress as =tc =0.36 N/mm2
One way shear resistance
Vc1 =(tcx1800xd). = (648d) N
Vu1 < Vc1
479(1000-d) < 648d .
d > 425 mm
4. Two way shear,
Assuming the effective depth of slab 430mm and computing the two way
shear resistance at critical section (d/2) from face of column,
We have the relation
Vc2 = 0.266[18002-(350+d)2]
=702073.75 N
Two way shear resistance is calculated as
Vc2= ksx tc[4(350+d)d]
Where ks=1, tc=0.25 = 1.118 N/mm2
=1x1.118[1400d+4d2]
Vu2 < vc2 ,
702073.7 < (1565.2d + 4.472d2).
Solving, d > 258.15mm
Hence, one way shear is more critical,
Adopt eff depth =d = 425mm, and overall depth = 450mm.
69
5. Design of reinforcements.
Ultimate moment at col face is computed as
Mu = (0.5xbxs.p) = (266x0.725x0.5) = 96.42 KNm/m
(Mu / bd2) = (96.42x106/103x4252) =0.533
Refer table 2 SP-16, and interpolate the percentage of reinforcement as pt
=0.152 which is less than 0.25 percent assumed for one- way shear
Therefore, Ast= (ptbd/100) =(0.25x1000x425/100) =1062.5mm2/m
Adopt 20mm dia bars at 290mm centres in both directions.

Column Total Footing Footing Depth of


Loading(KN) size (m2) footing (mm)
A1, A4 496 F1 1.7x1.7 450

A2, A3 630 F2 1.9x1.9 425

B1,B4,C1,C4,D1,D4 833 F3 2.2x2.2 425


E1,E4,F1,F4,G1,G4
H1,H4
B2,B3,C2,C3,D2,D3 1034 F4 2.5x2.5 425
E2,E3,F2,F3,G2,G3
J1, J4 315 F5 1.3x1.3 465

J2, J3 375 F6 1.5x1.5 225

I2, I3 842 F7 2.1x2.1 470

I1, I4 576 F8 1.8x1.8 450

70
CHAPTER 8
Design of Stairs

71
Design of Stair
Dimensions of Stair = 3.6 m x 6.1 m
Height of the floor is 10ft = 3.04 m
Live load on the stair = 2 kN/m2
Since as per the architectural drawing stair has two flights therefore the height
of each flight is 1.52 m
Let the Risers provided = 10, therefore the height of each riser = 152mm
Number of Treads 10 -1 = 9
Let the width of stairs be 1600 mm
Let the treads of steps be 270 mm
Design of flight AB:
Let the bearing of flight be 150 mm
Effective horizontal span = 3+1.6 + (0.15/2) = 4.675 m
Let the thickness of waist be 220 mm
Loads:
D.L of 220 mm waist = 25 x 220 = 5500 N/m2
Ceiling finish (12.5 mm) = 24 x 12.5 = 300 N/m2
Corresponding load per sq meter on plan = (R2+T2)/T x 5500 =
= (1522+2702)/270 x 5500 = 6300 N/m2
Hence the actual load per sq meter of the plan area will consist of waist and
ceiling finish = 6300 N/m2
D.L of steps (152/2 mm average) = 76 x 25 = 1900 N/m2
Top finish (12.5 mm) = 12.5 x 24 = 300 N/m2
Live load = 2000 N/m2 Therefore total load = 10500 N/m2 = 10.5 kN/m2
Maximum B.M per meter width of stairs, M = (10.5 x 4.6752)/8 = 27.4kN/m2
Ultimate bending moment per meter width of stairs, Mu = 1.5 x 27.4
= 41.1 kN/m2
0.138fckbd2 = 0.138 x 20 x 1000 d2 = 41.1 x 103, thus d = 122 mm
Providing 10 mm diameter bars, effective cover = 20 mm
72
Overall depth required is 122 + 20 = 142 mm
Provide an overall depth of 220 mm
Therefore effective depth = deff = 220 20 = 180 mm
Mu/bd2 = (41.1 x 106)/ (1000 x 2002) = 1.03

( . . ) /
Percentage of steel, pt = 50 { /
} = 0.47%
Ast = 0.47/100(1000 x 200) = 940 mm2
Spacing of 10 mm diameter bars = (79 x 1000)/ 940 = 84 mm c/c
Provide 10 mm bars @ 84 mm c/c
Distribution steel = 0.12/100(1000 x 200) = 240 mm2
Spacing of 8 mm bars = (50 x 1000)/240 = 208 mm c/c
Provide 8mm bars @ 208 mm c/c

73
References

1) S. Ramamrutham, Design Of Reinforced Concrete Structures


Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company, 2012
2) Vazirani & Ratwani, Concrete Structures New Delhi. Khanna
Publishers.1990.
3) Sayal & Goel. Reinforced Concrete Structures, New Delhi.
S.Chand, Publication.2004.
4) Allan_Williams, Structural Analysis In Theory And Practice
5) B. Taranath, Reinforced Concrete Design Of Tall Buildings (CRC,
2010)
6) IS 456-2000, Code For Plain And Reinforced Concrete
7) SP-16, Design Aids For Reinforced Concrete

74

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