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10

CBSE
TERM-2

MATHEMATICS
(As per the latest CBSE Syllabus)

R Chandra
Former Principal
DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL
Taoru (Haryana)

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Note from the Publisher

FULL MARKS MATHEMATICS-10 has been thoroughly revised in view of the latest
Syllabus and Examination Specifications issued by CBSE.

As per the new modifications, Value-Based Questions carrying 3-5 marks have been
added in the curriculum. An Open-Text Based Assessment shall also be conducted by
the CBSE Board and its marks shall be added in the final examination.

Hence, the revised edition of the book has been divided into two parts. Part-A contains the
solved NCERT Exercises along with additional solved questions whereas Part-B contains
Value-Based Questions selected from the NCERT Textbook. We have also added Exemplar
Problems selected from the book Exemplar Problems Mathematics-10 published by
NCERT which is very helpful for the students in understanding the subject perfectly.

As the book has been divided in two volumes for different TermsSA-I and
SA-II, it lightens the burden of books for the students. It provides the students an
opportunity to have a clear and concentrated view of the Task they have to learn during
two different Terms. Complete CBSE Syllabus for each Term has been given in the
beginning of the course content of the Term-I and II respectively. It helps the students
not to get confused.

The book, therefore, is an up-to-date, dependable and learner-friendly resource. The


support website www.fullmarks.org is an added benefit for the users where one can get
much more and also an opportunity to share ones academic complexities.
SYLLABUS

SECOND TERM Marks: 90


Units Marks
II. Algebra (Contd.) 23
III. Geometry (Contd.) 17
IV. Trigonometry (Contd.) 08
V. Probability 08
VI. Coordinate Geometry 11
VII. Mensuration 23
Total 90

UNIT II: ALGEBRA (Contd.)


3. Quadratic Equations (15 Periods)
Standard form of a quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0, (a 0). Solution of the quadratic
2

equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic
formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots.
Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to be
incorporated.
4. Arithmetic Progressions (08 Periods)
Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the n term and sum of the first
th

n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.


UNIT III: GEOMETRY (Contd.)
2. Circles (08 Periods)
Tangent to a circle at a point.
1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point
of contact.
2. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to circle are equal.
3. Constructions (08 Periods)
1. Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally)
2. Tangent to a circle from a point outside it.
3. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.
UNIT IV: TRIGONOMETRY (Contd.)
3. Heights and Distances (08 Periods)
Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more
than two right triangles. Angles of elevation/depression should be only 30, 45, 60.
UNIT V: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
2. Probability (10 Periods)
Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on single events (not using set notation).
UNIT VI: COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1. Lines (In two-dimensions) (14 Periods)
Review: Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance between two
points. Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle.
UNIT VII: MENSURATION
1. Areas Related to Circles (12 Periods)
Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas
and perimeter/circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of
a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60, 90 and 120 only. Plane figures
involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.)
2. Surface Areas and Volumes (12 Periods)
(i) Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids,
spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone.
(ii) Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other
mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken.)

OTBA will appear only in SA-II for 10 marks, from statistic UnitVII. The unit will be tested on OTBA only.
QUESTION PAPER DESIGN

Very Short Short Long


Short Answer-I Answer-II Answer
Answer (SA) (SA) (LA) Total %
S. No. Typology of Questions
(VSA) Marks Weightage

1 Mark 2 Marks 3 Marks 4 Marks


1. REMEMBERING
(Knowledge based- Simple
recall questions, to know
specificfacts, terms, 1 2 2 3 23 26%
concepts, principles, or
theories, Identify, define, or
recite, information)
2. UNDERSTANDING-
(Comprehension- to be
familiar with meaning and
to understand conceptually, 2 1 1 4 23 26%
interpret, compare, contrast,
explain, paraphrase, or
interpret information)

3. APPLICATION
(Use abstract information
in concrete situation, to
apply knowledge to new
1 2 3 2 22 24%
situations. Use given
content to interpret a
situation, provide an
example, or solve a problem)
4. HIGH ORDER THINKING
SKILLS
(Analysis & Synthesis-
Classify, compare,
contrast or differentiate
1 4 14 16%
between different pieces of
information. Organize and/
or integrate unique pieces of
information from a variety of
sources)
5. CREATING, EVALUATION
AND MULTI-DISCIPLINARY
(Generating new ideas,
product or ways of viewing
things, Appraise, judge, 2* 8 8%
and/or justify the value
or worth of a decision or
outcome, or to predict
outcomes based on values)
TOTAL 41=4 62=12 103=30 114=44 90 100%

* One of the LA (4 marks) will be to assess the values inherent in the texts.
CONTENTS

II. ALGEBRA (Contd.)


4. Quadratic Equations.............................................................................................................. 9
5. Arithmetic Progressions........................................................................................................ 73

III. GEOMETRY (Contd.)


10. Circles....................................................................................................................................... 148
11. Constructions.......................................................................................................................... 176

IV. TRIGONOMETRY (Contd.)


9. Some Applications of Trigonometry................................................................................... 197

V. STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY


15. Probability............................................................................................................................... 227

VI. COORDINATE GEOMETRY


7. Coordinate Geometry............................................................................................................ 257

VII. MENSURATION
12. Areas Related to Circles........................................................................................................ 303
13. Surface Areas and Volumes................................................................................................. 334

Value Based Questions (Solved).......................................................................................... 373


SYLLABUS
CLASS-X

Second Term Marks: 90

Units Marks
II. Algebra (Contd.) 23
III. Geometry (Contd.) 17
IV. Trigonometry (Contd.) 08
V. Probability 08
VI. Coordinate Geometry 11
VII. Mensuration 23

TOTAL 90

DIVISION OF CHAPTERS
Sl. Nos. and Names of Chapters in NCERT Book
4. Quadratic Equations
5. Arithmetic Progressions
10. Circles
11. Constructions
9. Some Applications of Trigonometry
15. Probability
7. Coordinate Geometry
12. Areas Related to Circles
13. Surface Areas and Volumes
Term2

4
[Unit II: Algebra (Contd.)]

Quadratic Equations

Facts that Matter


z Quadratic Equations
An equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a, b, c are real numbers, and a 0, is called
a quadratic equation in the variable x.
Examples:
x2 3x + 4 = 0
3
2y 2 + y2 = 0
2
2x2 149 = 0
z Roots of a Quadratic Equation:
A value x = is said to be a root of ax2 + bx + c = 0 if it satisfies the equation.
Example: 2 is a root of 3x2 x 10 = 0 because 3(2)2 2 10 = 0.
A quadratic equation has at most two roots (zeroes). Either it has no zero, or two zeroes.
We can solve a quadratic equation by factorisation.
Example: Solve 6x2 x 2 = 0
6x2 + 3x 4x 2 = 0
3x(2x + 1) 2(2x + 1) = 0
(3x 2) (2x + 1) = 0
3x 2 = 0 or 2x + 1 = 0
2 1
x = or x=
3 2
These are the two roots of the equation.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 4.1
Q. 1. Check whether the following are quadratic equations:
(i) (x + 1)2 = 2(x 3) (ii) x2 2x = (2) (3 x)
(iii) (x 2) (x + 1) = (x 1) (x + 3) (iv) (x 3) (2x + 1) = x(x + 5)

9
(v) (2x 1) (x 3) = (x + 5) (x 1) (vi) x2 + 3x + 1 = (x 2)2
(vii) (x + 2)3 = 2x(x2 1) (viii) x3 4x2 x + 1 = (x 2)3
Sol. (i) (x + 1)2 = 2(x 3)
We have:
(x + 1)2 = 2 (x 3)
x2 + 2x + 1 = 2x 6
x2 + 2x + 1 2x + 6 = 0
x2 + 7 = 0
Since x2 + 7 is a quadratic polynomial
(x + 1)2 = 2(x 3) is a quadratic equation.
(ii) x2 2x = (
2) (3 x)
We have:
x2 2x = ( 2) (3 x)
x2 2x = 6 + 2x
x2 2x 2x + 6 = 0
x2 4x + 6 = 0
Since x2 4x + 6 is a quadratic polynomial
x2 2x = (2) (3 x) is a quadratic equation.
(iii) (x 2) (x + 1) = (x 1) (x + 3)
We have:
(x 2) (x + 1) = (x 1) (x + 3)
x2 x 2 = x2 + 2x 3
x2 x 2 x2 2x + 3 = 0
3x + 1 = 0
Since 3x + 1 is a linear polynomial
(x 2) (x + 1) = (x 1) (x + 3) is not quadratic equation.
(iv) (x 3) (2x + 1) = x(x + 5)
We have:
(x 3) (2x + 1) = x (x + 5)
2x2 + x 6x 3 = x2 + 5x
2x2 5x 3 x2 5x = 0
x2 + 10x 3 = 0
Since x2 + 10x 3 is a quadratic polynomial
(x 3) (2x + 1) = x(x + 5) is a quadratic equation.
(v) (2x 1) (x 3) = (x + 5) (x 1)
We have:
(2x 1) (x 3) = (x + 5) (x 1)

10 MathematicsX
2x2 6x x + 3 = x2 x + 5x 5
2 2
2x x 6x x + x 5x + 3 + 5 = 0
x2 11x + 8 = 0
2
Since x 11x + 8 is a quadratic polynomial
(2x 1) (x 3) = (x + 5) (x 1) is a quadratic equation.
(vi) x2 + 3x + 1 = (x 2)2
We have:
x2 + 3x + 1 = (x 2)2
x2 + 3x + 1 = x2 4x + 4
x + 3x + 1 x2 + 4x 4 = 0
2

7x 3 = 0
Since 7x 3 is a linear polynomial.
x2 + 3x + 1 = (x 2)2 is not a quadratic equation.
(vii) (x + 2)3 = 2x(x2 1)
We have:
(x + 2)3 = 2x(x2 1)
x + 3x (2) + 3x(2)2 + (2)3 = 2x3 2x
3 2

x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8 = 2x3 2x


x + 6x + 12x + 8 2x3 + 2x = 0
3 2

x3 + 6x2 + 14x + 8 = 0
Since x + 6x2 + 14x + 8 is a polynomial of degree 3
3

(x + 2)3 = 2x(x2 1) is not a quadratic equation.


(viii) x3 4x2 x + 1 = (x 2)3
We have:
x3 4x2 x + 1 = (x 2)3
x3 4x2 x + 1 = x3 + 3x2( 2) + 3x( 2)2 + ( 2)3
x3 4x2 x + 1 = x3 6x2 + 12x 8
x3 4x2 x 1 x3 + 6x2 12x + 8 = 0
2x2 13x + 9 = 0
Since 2x2 13x + 9 is a quadratic polynomial
x3 4x2 x + 1 = (x 2)3 is a quadratic equation.
Q. 2. Represent the following situations in the form of quadratic equations:
(i) The area of a rectangular plot is 528 m2. The length of the plot (in metres) is one more than
twice its breadth. We need to find the length and breadth of the plot.
(ii) The product of two consecutive positive integers is 306. We need to find the integers.
(iii) Rohans mother is 26 years older than him. The product of their ages (in years) 3 years from
now will be 360. We would like to find Rohans present age.
(iv) A train travels a distance of 480 km at a uniform speed. If the speed had been 8 km/h less,
then it would have taken 3 hours more to cover the same distance. We need to find the speed
of the train.
Sol. (i) Let the breadth = x metres
Length = 2 (Breadth) + 1

Quadratic Equations 11
Length = (2x + 1) metres
Since Length Breadth = Area
(2x + 1) x = 528
2x2 + x = 528
2x2 + x 528 = 0
Thus, the required quadratic equation is
2x2 + x 528 = 0
(ii) Let the two consecutive numbers be x and (x + 1).
QProduct of the numbers = 306
x (x + 1) = 306
x2 + x = 306
x2 + x 306 = 0
Thus, the required equdratic equation is
x2 + x 306 = 0
(iii) Let the present age = x
Mothers age = (x + 26) years
After 3 years
His age = (x + 3) years
Mothers age = [(x + 26) + 3] years
= (x + 29) years
According to the condition,
LMProduct of their agesOP = 360
Nafter 3 years Q
(x + 3) (x + 29) = 360
x2 + 29x + 3x + 87 = 360
x2 + 29x + 3x + 87 360 = 0
x2 + 32x 273 = 0
Thus, the required quadratic equation is
x2 + 32x 273 = 0
(iv) Let the speed of the train = u km/hr
Distance covered = 480 km
Time taken = Distance Speed
= (480 u) hours
480
= hours
u
In second case,
Speed = (u 8) km/hour
Distance 480
= hours
Time taken =
speed u8b g
12 MathematicsX
According to the condition,
480 480
= 3
u8 u
480u 480(u 8) = 3u(u 8)
480u 480u + 3840 = 3u2 24u
3840 3u2 + 24u = 0
1280 u2 + 8u = 0
1280 + u2 8u = 0
u2 8u 1280 = 0
Thus, the required quadratic equation is
u2 8u 1280 = 0

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 4.2
Q. 1. Find the roots of the following quadratic equations by factorisation:
(i) x2 3x 10 = 0 (ii) 2x2 + x 6 = 0
1
(iii) 2x 2 + 7x + 5 2 = 0 (iv) 2x 2 x + = 0
8
(v) 100x2 20x + 1 = 0
Sol. (i) x2 3x 10 = 0
We have:
x2 3x 10 = 0
x2 5x + 2x 10 = 0
x (x 5) + 2 (x 5) = 0
(x 5) (x + 2) = 0
Either x 5 = 0 x = 5
or x+2 = 0 x=2
Thus, the required roots are x = 5 and x = 2.
(ii) 2x2 + x 6 = 0
We have:
2x2 + x 6 = 0
2
2x + 4x 3x 6 = 0
2x(x + 2) 3 (x + 2) = 0
(x + 2) (2x 3) = 0
Either x + 2 = 0 x = 2
3
or 2x 3 = 0 x=
2
3
Thus, the required roots are x = 2 and x = .
2
(iii) 2x 2 + 7 x + 5 2 = 0
We have:
2x2 + 7x + 5 2 = 0
2 x 2 + 2x + 5 x + 5 2 = 0

Quadratic Equations 13
2 x2 + e j
2 2 x + 5x + 5 2 = 0

2x x + 2 + 5 x + 2 = 0

ex + 2 je 2x + 5 j = 0

Either x+ 2 = 0 x = 2
5
or 2x + 5 = 0 x =
2
5
Thus, the required roots are x = 2 and x = .
2
1
(iv) 2x2 x + = 0
8
We have:
1
2x2 x + = 0
8
16x2 8x + 1 = 0
16x2 4x 4x + 1 = 0
4x(4x 1) 1(4x 1) = 0
(4x 1) (4x 1) = 0
1 1
x = and x =
4 4
1 1
Thus, the required roots are x = and x = .
4 4
(v) 100x2 20x + 1 = 0
We have:
100x2 20x + 1 = 0
2
100x 10x 10x + 1 = 0
10x (10x 1) 1 (10x 1) = 0
(10x 1) (10x 1) = 0
(10x 1) = 0 and (10x 1) = 0
1 1
x = and x =
10 10
1 1
Thus, the required roots are x = and x = .
10 10
Q. 2. Solve the problems given in Example 1.
Sol. (i) We have:
x2 45x + 324 = 0 Q ( 9) ( 36) = 324 and
2
x 9x 36x + 324 = 0 ( 9) + ( 36) = 45
x(x 9) 36(x 9) = 0
(x 9) (x 36) = 0
Either x 9 = 0 x = 9
or x 36 = 0 x = 36
Thus, x = 9 and x = 36

14 MathematicsX
(ii) We have:
x2 55x + 750 = 0
x2 30x 25x + 750 = 0 Q ( 30) ( 25) = 750 and
x (x 30) 25 (x 30) = 0 ( 30) + ( 25) = 55
(x 30) (x 25) = 0
Either x 30 = 0 x = 30
or x 25 = 0 x = 25
Thus, x = 30 and x = 25.
Q. 3. Find two numbers whose sum is 27 and product is 182.
Sol. Here, sum of the numbers is 27.
Let one of the numbers be x.
Other number = 27 x
According to the condition,
Product of the numbers = 182
x (27 x) = 182
27x x2 = 182
x2 + 27x 182 = 0
x2 27x + 182 = 0
x2 13x 14x + 182 = 0 Q 27 = ( 13) + ( 14) and
x (x 13) 14 (x 13) = 0 ( 13) ( 14) = 182
(x 13) (x 14) = 0
Either x 13 = 0 x = 13
or x 14 = 0 x = 14
Thus, the required numbers are 13 and 14.
Q. 4. Find two consecutive positive integers, sum of whose squares is 365.
Sol. Let the two consecutive positive integers be x and (x + 1).
Since the sum of the squares of the numbers = 365
x2 + (x + 1)2 = 365
x + [x2 + 2x + 1] = 365
2

x2 + x2 + 2x + 1 = 365
2
2x + 2x + 1 365 = 0
2x2 + 2x 364 = 0
x2 + x 182 = 0
x2 + 14x 13x 182 = 0 Q + 14 13 = 1 and
x (x + 14) 13 (x + 14) = 0 14 ( 13) = 182
(x + 14) (x 13) = 0
Either x + 14 = 0 x = 14
or x 13 = 0 x = 13
Since x has to be a positive integer
x = 13
x + 1 = 13 + 1 = 14
Thus, the required consecutive positive integers are 13 and 14.

Quadratic Equations 15
Q. 5. The altitude of a right triangle is 7 cm less than its base. If the hypotenuse is 13 cm, find the other
two sides.
Sol. Let the base of the given right triangle be x cm.
Its height = (x 7) cm
Q Hypotenuse= aBasef + bHeightg
2 2

13 = x + bx 7g
2 2

Squaring both sides, we get


169 = x2 + (x 7)2
169 = x2 + x2 14x + 49
2
2x 14x + 49 169 = 0
2x2 14x 120 = 0
x2 7x 60 = 0 Q ( 12) 5 = 60
2
x 12x + 5x 60 = 0 and ( 12) + 5 = 7
x (x 12) + 5 (x 12) = 0
(x 12) (x + 5) = 0
Either x 12 = 0 x = 12
or x+5 = 0 x=5
But the side of triangle can never be negative,
x = 12
Length of the base = 12 cm
Length of the height = (12 7) cm = 5 cm
Thus, the required base = 12 cm and height = 5 cm.
Q. 6. A cottage industry produces a certain number of pottery articles in a day. It was observed on a
particular day that the cost of production of each article (in rupees) was 3 more than twice the
number of articles produced on that day. If the total cost of production on that day was ` 90, find
the number of articles produced and the cost of each article.
Sol. Let the number of articles produced in a day = x
Cost of production of each article = ` (2x + 3)
According to the condition,
Total cost = 90
x (2x + 3) = 90
2x2 + 3x = 90
2x2 + 3x 90 = 0
2
2x 12x + 15x 90 = 0
2x (x 6) + 15 (x 6) = 0
(x 6) (2x + 15) = 0
Either x 6 = 0 x = 6
15
or 2x + 15 = 0 x =
2
But the number of articles cannot be negative.
15
x = is not required
2
16 MathematicsX
x = 6
Cost of each article = ` (2 6 + 3) = ` 15
Thus, the required number of articles produced is 6 and the cost of each article is ` 15.
z Solving a quadratic equation by completing the square:
Example: Solve x2 + 4x 5 = 0.
x2 + 4x 5 = 0
2
x + (2) (2) (1) x 5 = 0
x2 + (2) (2) (1) x + (2)2 (2)2 5 = 0
(x + 2)2 9 = 0
(x + 2)2 = 9
x +2 = 3
x = 32 or x = 3 2
x = 1 or x = 5
z Steps involved in solving ax2 + bx + c = 0
1. Divide the equation by a:
b c
x2 + x+ = 0
a a
b b FG IJ
b FG IJ FG b IJ
2 2
2. Write
a
as 2
2a H K
(1), and c as
2a H K H 2a K + c.

3. Therefore, the equation becomes:

x2 + 2
FG b IJ a1f + FG b IJ FG b IJ 2 2

H 2 a K H 2a K H 2a K +c = 0

Here, the first three terms are a perfect square.

FG b IJ 2 LMFG b IJ 2 OP
x+
H 2a K
MNH 2a K
c = 0
PQ
b
4. Now this can be solved easily to first find the value of x + and then x.
2a
z Quadratic Formula:
The roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0 are also given simply by the quadratic formula:
- b b 2 - 4 ac
x = 2a

-b b 2 - 4 ac
i.e., x = +
2a 2a

-b b 2 - 4 ac
or x = -
2a 2a
The term b2 4ac is said to be the discriminant D.
(i) If D > 0, roots exist and they are distinct.
(ii) If D = 0, the two roots are equal and real.

(iii) If D < 0, b 2 4 ac does not exist, so there are no real roots.

Quadratic Equations 17
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
EXERCISE 4.3
Q. 1. Find the roots of the following quadratic equations, if they exist, by the method of completing the
square:
(i) 2x2 7x + 3 = 0 (ii) 2x2 + x 4 = 0
(iii) 4x 2 + 4 3x + 3 = 0 (iv) 2x2 + x + 4 = 0
Sol. (i) 2x2 7x + 3 = 0
Dividing throughout by the co-efficient of x2, we get
7 3
x2 x+ = 0
2 2
RSx 1 FG 7 IJ UV FG 7 IJ + 3
2 2

T 2 H 2KW H 4K 2 = 0


RSx 7 UV 49 + 3
2
= 0
T 4 W 16 2

RSx 7 UV 49 + 24
2
= 0
T 4 W 16 16

RSx 7 UV 25
2
= 0
T 4 W 16
RSx 7 UV 2
25 FG 5 IJ 2

T 4W =
16
=
H 4K
7 5
x =
4 4
Case I:
5
When is +ve, then
4
7 5 5 7
x = x= +
4 4 4 4

12
x= = 3
4
Case II:
5
When is ve, then
4
7 5 5 7
x = + x=
4 4 4 4
2 1
x= =
4 2
Thus, required roots are
1
x = 3 and x =
2
18 MathematicsX
(ii) 2x2 + x 4 = 0
We have:
2x2 + x 4 = 0
Dividing throughout by 2,
x
x2 + 2 = 0
2
RSx + 1 1 UV FG 1 IJ 2
2 2

T 2 2W H 4K = 0

FG x + 1 IJ 1 2
2

H 4 K 16 = 0

FG x + 1 IJ 33
2

H 4 K 16 = 0

FG x + 1 IJ 2
33 F 33 I 2


H 4K =
16
= GH 4 JK
FG x + 1 IJ 33

H 4K =
4
Case I:
33
When is positive, then
4
1 33 33 1
x+ = x=
4 4 4 4
33 1
x=
4
Case II:
33
When is negative, then
4
1 33 33 1
x+ = x=
4 4 4 4
33 1
x=
4
Thus, the required roots are
33 1 33 1
x = and x=
4 4
(iii) 4x2 + 4 3 x + 3 = 0
Dividing throughout by 4, we have:
3
x2 + 3 x + = 0
4

Quadratic Equations 19
LMx + FG 1 3 IJ OP FG 1 3 IJ
2 2
3

N H 2 KQ H 2 K +
4
= 0


LMx + 3 OP 3 + 3 = 0
2

MN 2 PQ 4 4

LMx + 3 OP = 0 2

MN 2 PQ
Fx + 3 I Fx + 3 I = 0
GH 2 JK GH 2 JK
3 3
x = and x =
2 2
(iv) 2x2 + x + 4 = 0
Dividing throughout by 2, we have:
x
x2 + +2 = 0
2
LMx + 1 OP FG 1 IJ + 2
2 2

N 4Q H 4K = 0


LMx + 1 OP 1 + 2 2
= 0
N 4 Q 16

LMx + 1 OP + 31 2
= 0
N 4 Q 16

LMx + 1 OP
31
2
=
N 4Q
16
But the square of a number cannot be negative.

x+LM 1 OP 2
cannot be a real value.
N 4 Q
So, no real roots exist.
There is no real value of x satisfying the given equation.
Q. 2. Find the roots of the following quadratic equations, using the quadratic formula:
(i) 2x2 7x + 3 = 0
(ii) 2x2 + x 4 = 0
(iii) 4x2 + 4 3 x + 3 = 0
(iv) 2x2 + x + 4 = 0
Sol. (i) 2x2 7x + 3 = 0
Comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 2
b = 7
c = 3

20 MathematicsX
b2 4ac = ( 7)2 4 (2) (3)
= 49 24 = 25 0
2
Since b 4ac > 0
The given equation has real roots. The roots are given by

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a
b g
7 25
2 a2f
x =

75
=
4
Taking +ve sign,
7+5 12
x = = = 3
4 4
Taking ve sign,
75 2 1
x = = =
4 4 2
Thus, the roots of the given equation are
1
x = 3 and x =
2
(ii) 2x2 + x 4 = 0
Comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0 we have:
a = 2
b = 1
c = 4
b 4ac = (1)2 4 (2) ( 4)
2

= 1 + 32
= 33 > 0
Since b2 4ac > 0
The given equation has equal roots. The roots are given by

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a
1 33 1 33
=
x =
2 2af 4
Taking +ve sign,
1 + 33
x =
4
Taking ve sign,
1 33
x =
4
Quadratic Equations 21
Thus, the required roots are:
1 + 33 1 33
x = and x=
4 4
(iii) 4x2 + 4 3 x + 3 = 0
Comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 4
b = 4 3
c = 3

b2 4ac = e4 3 j 2
a fa f
4 4 3
= [16 3] 48
= 48 48 = 0
2
Since b 4ac = 0
The given equation has real roots, which are given by:

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a
4 3 0
x =
2 4af
4 3 0 3 0
= =
8 2
3 3
x = and x =
2 2
(iv) 2x2 + x + 4 = 0
Comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 2
b = 1
c = 4
b 4ac = (1)2 4 (2) (4)
2

= 1 32 = 31 < 0
2
Since b 4ac is less than 0, therefore the given equation does not have real roots.
Q. 3. Find the roots of the following equations:
1 1 1 11
(i) x = 3, x 0 (ii) = , x 4, 7 [CBSE 2012]
x x + 4 x 7 30
1
Sol. (i) x = 3, x 0
x
Here, we have:
1
x = 3
x
x2 1 = 3x

22 MathematicsX
x2 3x 1 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 1
b = 3
c = 1
b2 4ac = ( 3)2 4 (1) ( 1)
= 9 + 4 = 13 > 0

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a
b g
3 13
2 a1f
x =

3 13
=
2
Now, taking +ve sign,
3 + 13
x =
2
Taking ve sign,
3 13
x =
2
Thus, the required roots of the given equation are:
3 + 13 3 13
x = and x =
2 2
1 1 11
(ii) = ; x 4, 7
x+4 x7 30
We have:
1 1 11
=
x+4 x7 30

(x 7) (x + 4) =
11
30
b
x+4 x7gb g
11 2
x7x4 = (x 3x 28)
30
11 30 = 11 (x2 3x 28)
30 = x2 3x 28
2
x 3x 28 + 30 = 0
x2 3x + 2 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 1
b = 3
c = 2
Quadratic Equations 23
b2 4ac = ( 3)2 4 (1) (2)
= 98=1>0
The quadratic equation (1) has real roots, which are given by:

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a
b g
3 1
2 a1f
x =

31
=
2
Taking +ve sign, we have:
3+1 4
x = = =2
2 2
Taking ve sign, we have:
31
x = =1
2
Thus, the roots of the given equation are:
x = 2 and x = 1.
1
Q. 4. The sum of the reciprocals of Rehmans ages, (in years) 3 years ago and 5 years from now is .
3
Find his present age.
Sol. Let the present age of Rehman = x
3 years ago Rehmans age = (x 3) years
5 years later Rehmans age = (x + 5) years
Now, according to the condition,
1 1 1
+ =
x3 x+5 3


b x + 5g + b x 3g 1
bx 3gbx + 5g =
3
3 [x + 5 + x 3] = (x 3) (x + 5)
3 [2x + 2] = x2 + 2x 15
6x + 6 = x2 + 2x 15
2
x + 2x 6x 15 6 = 0
x2 4x 21 = 0 ...(1)
Now, comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 1
b = 4
c = 21
b 4ac = ( 4)2 4 (1) ( 21)
2

= 16 + 84
= 100
24 MathematicsX
-b b 2 - 4 ac
Since, x =
2a

- ( - 4 ) 100
x =
2 (1)

4 10
=
2
Taking positive sign, we have:

4 + 10 14
x = = = 7
2 2
Taking negative sign, we have:
4 10 6
x = = = 3
2 2
Since age cannot be negative,
x 3 x=7
So, the present age of Rehman = 7 years.
Q. 5. In a class test, the sum of Shefalis marks in Mathematics and English is 30. Had she got 2 marks
more in Mathematics and 3 marks less in English, the product of their marks would have been
210? Find her marks in the two subjects. [CBSE 2012]
Sol. Let, Shefalis marks in Mathematics = x
Marks in English = (30 x) [Q Sum of their marks in Eng. and Maths = 30]
Now, according to the condition,
(x + 2) [(30 x) 3] = 210
(x + 2) (30 x 3) = 210
(x + 2) (x + 27) = 210
x2 + 25x + 54 = 210
x2 + 25x + 54 210 = 0
x2 + 25x 156 = 0
x2 25x + 156 = 0 ...(1)
Now, comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 1
b = 25
c = 156
b2 4ac = (25)2 4(1) (156)
= 625 624 = 1

b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a

Quadratic Equations 25
x =
b g
25 1
2 a1f
25 1
x =
2
Taking +ve sign, we have
25 + 1 26
x = = = 13
2 2
Taking ve sign, we get
25 1 24
x = = = 12
2 2
When x = 13, then 30 13 = 17
When x = 12, then 30 12 = 18
Thus, marks in Maths = 13, marks in English = 17
marks in Maths = 12, marks in English = 18
Q. 6. The diagonal of a rectangular field is 60 metres more than the shorter side. If the longer side is
30 metres more than the shorter side, find the sides of the field.
Sol. Let the shorter side (i.e., breadth) = x metres.
The longer side (length) = (x + 30) metres.
In a rectangle,

diagonal = abreadthf + blengthg


2 2

x + b x + 30g
2 2
x + 60 =

x + 60 = x 2 + x 2 + 60 x + 900
(x + 60)2 = 2x2 + 60x + 900
x + 120x + 3600 = 2x2 + 60x + 900
2

2x2 x2 + 60x 120x + 900 3600 = 0


x2 60x 2700 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 1
b = 60
c = 2700
b 4ac = ( 60)2 4 (1) ( 2700)
2

b2 4ac = 3600 + 10800


b2 4ac = 14400

b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a

x =
b g
60 14400
af
2 1

26 MathematicsX
60 120
x =
2
Taking +ve sign, we get
60 + 120 180
x = = = 90
2 2
Taking ve sign,
60 120 60
x = = = 30
2 2
Since breadth cannot be negative,
x 30 x = 90
x + 30 = 90 + 30 = 120
Thus, the shorter side = 90 m
The longer side = 120 m.
Q. 7. The difference of squares of two numbers is 180. The square of the smaller number is 8 times the
larger number. Find the two numbers.
Sol. Let the larger number be x.
Since,
(smaller number)2 = 8 (larger number)
(smaller number)2 = 8x
smaller number = 8x
Now, according to the condition,

x2 e 8x j 2
= 180
x2
8x = 180
2
x 8x 180 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 1
b = 8
c = 180
b 4ac = ( 8)2 4 (1) ( 180)
2

= 64 + 720 = 784

b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a
b g
8 784
x =
af
2 1
8 28
x = Q 784 = 28
2
Taking +ve sign, we get
8 + 28 36
x = = = 18
2 2
Quadratic Equations 27
Taking ve sign, we get
8 28 20
x = = = 10
2 2
But x = 10 is not admissible,
The smaller number = 18
8 18 = 144 = 12
Thus, the larger number = 12 or 12
Thus, the two numbers are:
18 and 12 or 18 and 12
Q. 8. A train travels 360 km at a uniform speed. If the speed had been 5 km/h more, it would have taken
1 hour less for the same journey. Find the speed of the train. [NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Let the uniform speed of the train be x km/hr.
Distance
Since, time taken by the train =
Speed
360
hr time =
x
When speed is 5 km/hr more then time is 1 hour less.
360 360
= 1
x+5 x

360 360
= 1
x+5 x

360
LM 1 1 OP = 1
Nx + 5 xQ
1 1 1
=
x+5 x 360


x x+5 b g 1
b
x x+5 g =
360

x x5 =
b
1 x+5 x g
360
5 360 = 1 (x2 + 5x)
5 360 = x2 5x Q 360 5 = 1800
2
x + 5x 1800 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with
ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 1
b = 5
c = 1800

28 MathematicsX
b2 4ac = (5)2 4 (1) ( 1800)
= 25 + 7200
= 7225
-b b 2 - 4 ac
Since x =
2a

5 7225
x =
af
2 1
5 85
x =
2 1af Q 7225 = 85

Taking +ve sign, we get:


5 + 85 80
x = = = 40
2 2
Taking ve sign, we get
5 85 90
x = = = 45
2 2
Since, the speed of a vehicle cannot be negative,
x 45
Thus, x = 40 speed of the train = 40 km/hr.
3
Q. 9. Two water taps together can fill a tank in 9 hours. The tap of larger diameter takes 10 hours
8
less than the smaller one to fill the tank separately. Find the time in which each tap can separately
fill the tank.
Sol. Let the smaller tap fills the tank in x hours.
The larger tap fills the tank (x 10) hours.
1
Time to fill the tank by smaller tap = hours.
x
1
Time to fill the tank by larger tap = hours.
x 10
1 1 x 10 + x
Since, the tank filled by the two taps together in 1 hour = + =
x x 10 b
x x 10 g
2 x 10
=
x 2 10 x
Now, according to the condition,
F
75 2 x 10 I 3 75
GH
8 x 2 10 x JK = 1 Q 9
8
=
8

75 b2 x 10g
= 1
8 e x 10 xj
2

Quadratic Equations 29
150 x 750
= 1
8 x 2 80 x
8x2 80x = 150x 750
8x2 80x 150x = 750
8x2 230x + 750 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 8
b = 230
c = 750
2
b 4ac = (230)2 4 (8) (750)
= 52900 24000
= 28900

b b 2 4 ac
Since x =
2a

x =
b g
230 28900
2 8 af
230 170
x = Q 28900 = 170
16
Taking, the +ve sign, we get
230 + 170 400
x = = = 25
16 16
Taking the ve sign, we get
230 170 60 15
x = = =
16 16 4

15 15 25
For x = , (x 10) = 10 =
4 4 4
which is not possible, [ Time cannot be negative]
x = 25
x 10 = 25 10 = 15
Thus, time to fill the tank by the smaller tap alone = 25 hours and larger tap
alone = 15 hours.
Q. 10. An express train takes 1 hour less than a passenger train to travel 132 km between Mysore and
Bangalore (without taking into consideration the time they stop at intermediate stations). If the
average speed of the express train is 11 km/h more than that of the passenger train, find the
average speed of the two trains.
Sol. Let the average speed of the passenger train be x km/hr
Average speed of the express train = (x + 11) km/hr
Total distance covered = 132 km

30 MathematicsX
Distance
Also, Time =
Speed

132
Time taken by the passenger train = hour
x

132
Time taken by the express train = hour
x + 11
According to the condition, we get
132 FG 132 IJ 1
x + 11
=
HxK
132 132
= 1
x + 11 x

132
LM 1 1 OP = 1
N x + 11 x Q
132 M
L x x 11 OP

MN x bx + 11g PQ = 1

132 M
L 11 OP = 1
MN x + 11x PQ
2

11 (132) = 1 (x2 + 11x)


1452 = 1 (x2 + 11x)
x2 + 11x 1452 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0,
a = 1
b = 11
c = 1452
b2 4ac = (11)2 4 (1) (1452)
b2 4ac = 121 + 5808 = 5929

b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a

11 5929 11 77
=
=
af
2 1 2
Q 5929 = 77

Taking +ve sign, we get


11 + 77 66
x = = = 33
2 2

Quadratic Equations 31
Taking ve sign, we get
11 77 88
x = = = 44
2 2
But average speed cannot be negative
x 44
x = 33
Average speed of the passenger train = 33 km/hr
Average speed of the express train = (x + 11) km/hr
= (33 + 11) km/hr
= 44 km/hr
Q. 11. Sum of the areas of two squares is 468 m2. If the difference of their perimeters is 24 m, find the
sides of the two squares.
Sol. Let the side of the smaller square be x m.
Perimeter of the smaller square = 4x m.
Perimeter of the larger square = (4x + 24) m
Perimeter
Side of the larger square =
4

=
4 x + 24
m =
4 x+6b g
m = x+6 m b g
4 4
Area of the smaller square = (side)2 = (x)2 m2
Area of the larger square = (x + 6)2 m2
According to the condition,
x2 + (x + 6)2 = 468
x2 + x2 + 12x + 36 = 468
2x2 + 12x 432 = 0
x2 + 6x 216 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 1
b = 6
c = 216
b 4ac = (6)2 4 (1) ( 216)
2

= 36 + 864 = 900

b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a

6 900
x =
af
2 1

6 30
x =
2

32 MathematicsX
Taking +ve sign, we have:

6 + 30 24
x = = = 12
2 2
Taking ve sign, we get

6 30 36
x = = = 18
2 2
But the length of a square cannot be negative
x = 12
Length of the smaller square = 12 m
Thus, the length of the larger square = x + 6
= 12 + 6
= 18 m

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 4.4
Q. 1. Find the nature of the roots of the following quadratic equations. If the real roots exist, find them:

(i) 2x2 3x + 5 = 0 (ii) 3x 2 4 3 x + 4 = 0


(iii) 2x2 6x + 3 = 0
Sol. (i) 2x2 3x + 5 = 0
Comparing the given quadratic equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 2
b = 3
c = 5
The discriminant = b2 4ac
= ( 3)2 4 (2) (5)
= 9 40
= 31 < 0
Since b2 4ac is negative.
The given quadratic equation has no real roots.
(ii) 3x2 4 3 x + 4 = 0
Comparing the given quadratic equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 3
b = 4 3
c = 4
b2 4ac = 4 3
2
a fa f
4 3 4
= (16 3) 48
= 48 48 = 0
Quadratic Equations 33
Thus, the given quadratic equation has two real roots which are equal. Here, the
roots are:
b b
and
2a 2a

i.e.,
e
4 3 j and
e
4 3 j
23 23
4 3 4 3
and Q 3 = 3 3
2 3 3 2 3 3
2 2
and
3 3
2 2
Thus, x = and x =
3 3
2
(iii) 2x 6x + 3 = 0
Comparing it with the general quadratic equation, we have:
a = 2
b = 6
c = 3
b 4ac = ( 6)2 4 (2) (3)
2

= 36 24
= 12 > 0
The given quadratic equation has two real and distinct roots, which are given by

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a

x =
b g
6 12
22

62 3
=
4
3 3
=
2
Thus, the roots are:
3+ 3 3 3
x = and x =
2 2
Q. 2. Find the values of k for each of the following quadratic equations, so that they have two equal roots:
(i) 2x2 + kx + 3 = 0 (ii) kx (x 2) + 6 = 0
Sol. (i) 2x2 + kx + 3 = 0
Comparing the given quadratic equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 2
b = k
c = 3

34 MathematicsX
b2 4ac = ( k)2 4 (2) (3)
= k2 24
Q For a quadratic equation to have equal roots,
b2 4ac = 0
k2 24 = 0 k = 24
k = 2 6
Thus, the required values of k are
2 6 and 2 6
(ii) kx (x 2) + 6 = 0
Comparing kx (x 2) + 6 = 0 i.e., kx2 2kx + 6 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = k
b = 2k
c = 6
b 4ac = ( 2k)2 4 (k) (6)
2

= 4k2 24k
Since, the roots are real and equal,
b2 4ac = 0
4k2 24k = 0
4k (k 6) = 0
4k = 0 or k 6 = 0
k = 0 or k = 6
But k cannot be 0, otherwise, the given equation is no more quadratic. Thus, the
required value of k = 6.
Q. 3. Is it possible to design a rectangular mango grove whose length is twice its breadth, and the area
is 800 m? If so, find its length and breadth.
Sol. Let the breadth be x metres.
Length = 2x metres
Now, Area = Length Breadth
= 2x x metre2
= 2x2 sq. metre.
According to the given condition,
2x 2 = 800
800
x2 = = 400
2
x = 400 = 20
Therefore, x = 20 and x = 20
But x = 20 is possible (Q breadth cannot be negative).
x = 20
2x = 2 20 = 40
Thus, length = 40 m and breadth = 20 m
Quadratic Equations 35
Q. 4. Is the following situation possible? If so, determine their present ages.
The sum of the ages of two friends is 20 years. Four years ago, the product of their ages in years
was 48.
Sol. Let the age of one friend = x years
The age of the other friend = (20 x) years [Q Sum of their ages is 20 years]
Four years ago
Age of one friend = (x 4) years
Age of the other friend = (20 x 4) years
= (16 x) years
According to the condition,
(x 4) (16 x) = 48
16x 64 x2 4x = 48
x2 20x 64 48 = 0
x2 20x 112 = 0
x2 + 20x + 112 = 0 ...(1)
Here, a = 1, b = 20 and c = 112
b2 4ac = (20)2 4 (1) (112)
= 400 448
= 48 < 0
Since b2 4ac is less than 0.
The quadratic equation (1) has no real roots.
Thus, the given equation is not possible.
Q. 5. Is it possible to design a rectangular park of perimeter 80 m and area 400 m2? If so, find its length
and breadth.
Sol. Let the breadth of the rectangle be x metres.
Since, the parimetre of the rectangle = 80 m.
2 [Length + Breadth] = 80
2 [Length + x] = 80
80
Length + x = = 40
2
Length = (40 x) metres
Area of the rectangle = Length breadth
= (40 x) x sq. m
= 40x x2
Now, according to the given condition,
Area of the rectangle = 400 m2
40x x2 = 400
2
x + 40x 400 = 0
x2 40x + 400 = 0 ...(1)

36 MathematicsX
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 1
b = 40
c = 400
b2 4ac = ( 40)2 4 (1) (400)
= 1600 1600 = 0
Thus, the equation (1) has two equal and real roots.
b b
Q x = and x =
2a 2a

breadth =
b g
40
=
40
= 20
2 1 af 2
Breadth, x = 20 m
Length = (40 x) = (40 20) m = 20 m.

MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED

I. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. If the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are equal then show that b2 = 4ac.
Sol. For equal roots, we have
b2 4ac = 0
b2 = 4ac
Q. 2. Find the value of k for which the quadratic equation kx2 5x + k = 0 have real roots.
Sol. Comparing kx2 5x + k = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = k
b = 5
c = k
b2 4ac = ( 5)2 4 (k) (k)
= 25 4k2
For equal roots, b2 4ac = 0
25 4k2 = 0
4k 2 = 25
25
k2 =
4

25 5
k = =
4 2
Q. 3. If 4 is a root of the quadratic equation x2 + px 4 = 0 and x2 + px + k = 0 has equal roots,
find the value of k.
Sol. Q (4) is a root of x2 + px 4 = 0

Quadratic Equations 37
( 4)2 + p ( 4) = 0
16 4p 4 = 0
4p = 12 or p = 3
Now, x2 + px + k = 0
x2 + 3x + k = 0 [ Q p = 3]
Now, a = 1, b = 3 and c = + k
b2 4ac = (3)2 4 (1) (k)
= 9 4k
For equal roots, b2 4ac = 0
9 4k = 0 4k = 9
9
k =
4
Q. 4. If one root of the quadratic equation 2x2 3x + p = 0 is 3, find the other root of the quadratic
equation. Also find the value of p.
Sol. We have:
2x2 3x + p = 0 ...(1)
a = 2, b = 3 and c = p
b
Since, the sum of the roots =
a

=
3b g =
3
2 2
Q One of the roots = 3

3 3
The other root = 3 =
2 2
Now, substituting x = 3 in (1), we get
2 (3)2 3 (3) + p = 0
18 9 + p = 0
9+p = 0 p=9
Q. 5. If one of the roots of x2 + px 4 = 0 is 4 then find the product of its roots and the value of p.
Sol. If 4 is a root of the quadratic equation,
x2 + px 4 = 0
2
( 4) + ( 4) (p) 4 = 0
16 4p 4 = 0
12 4p = 0 p = 3
c
Now, in ax2 + bx + c = 0, the product of the roots =
a
Product of the roots in x2 px 4 = 0
4
= = 4
1
38 MathematicsX
Q. 6. For what value of k, does the given equation have real and equal roots?
(k + 1) x2 2 (k 1) x + 1 = 0.
Sol. Comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = k+1
b = 2 (k 1)
c = 1
For equal roots, b2 4ac = 0
[ 2 (k 1)]2 4 (k + 1) (1) = 0
4 (k 1)2 4 (k + 1) = 0
4 (k2 + 1 2k) 4k 4 = 0
4k2 + 4 8k 4k 4 = 0
4k2 12k = 0
4k (k 3) = 0
k = 0 or k = 3
Q. 7. Using quadratic formula, solve the following quadratic equation for x:
x2 2ax + (a2 b2) = 0
Sol. Comparing x2 2ax + (a2 b2) = 0, with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 1, b = 2a, c = a2 b2

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a

x =
b g b 2ag 4 a1f ea
2a
2 2
b2 j
2 a1f

2a 4 a 2 4 a 2 + 4b 2
=
2

2a 4b 2 2a 2b
= = =ab
2 2
x = (a + b) or x = (a b)
Q. 8. If one of the roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + kx 6 = 0 is 2, find the value of k. Also find
the other root.
Sol. Given equation:
2x2 + kx 6 = 0
one root = 2
Substituting x = 2 in 2x2 + kx 6 = 0
We have:
2 (2)2 + k (2) 6 = 0
8 + 2k 6 = 0
2k + 2 = 0 k=1
2x2 + kx 6 = 0 2x2 x 6 = 0

Quadratic Equations 39
b 1
Sum of the roots = =
a 2
1
other root = 2
2
3
=
2
Q. 9. Determine the value of k for which the quadratic equation 4x2 4kx + 1 = 0 has equal roots.
Sol. We have:
4x2 4kx + 1 = 0
Comparing with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have
a = 4, b = 4k and c = 1
b2 4ac = ( 4k)2 4 (4k) (1)
= 16k2 16
For equal roots
b2 4ac = 0
16k2 16 = 0
16k 2 = 16 k2 = 1
k = 1
Q. 10. For what value of k, does the quadratic equation x2 kx + 4 = 0 have equal roots?
Sol. Comparing x2 kx + 4 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 1
b = k
c = 4
b 4ac = ( k)2 4 (1) (4) = k2 16
2

For equal roots,


b2 4ac = 0
k2 16 = 0
k 2 = 16
k = 4
Q. 11. What is the nature of roots of the quadratic equation 4x2 12x + 9 = 0?
Sol. Comparing 4x2 12x + 9 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0 we get
a = 4
b = 12
c = 9
b 4ac = ( 12)2 4 (4) (9)
2

= 144 144 = 0
Since 2
b 4ac = 0
The roots are real and equal.
Q. 12. Write the value of k for which the quadratic equation x2 kx + 9 = 0 has equal roots.
(AI CBSE 2009 C)

40 MathematicsX
Sol. Comparing x2 kx + 9 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 1
b = k
c = 9
b 4ac = ( k)2 4 (1) (9)
2

= k2 36
For equal roots,
b2 4ac = 0
k2 36 = 0 k2 = 36
k = 6
Q. 13. For what value of k are the roots of the quadratic equation 3x2 + 2kx + 27 = 0 real and equal?
(CBSE 2008 C)
2 2
Sol. Comparing 3x + 2 kx + 27 = 0 with ax + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 3
b = 2k
c = 27
b2 4ac = (2k)2 4 (3) (27)
= 4k2 (12 27)
For the roots to be real and equal
b2 4ac = 0
4k2 (12 17) = 0
4k 2 = 12 27
12 27
k2 = = 81
4
k = 9
Q. 14. For what value of k are the roots of the quadratic equation kx2 + 4x + 1 = 0 equal and real?
(CBSE 2008 C)
2 2
Sol. Comparing kx + 4x + 1 = 0, with ax + bx + c = 0, we get
a = k
b = 4
c = 1
2
b 4ac = (4)2 4 (k) (1)
= 16 4k
For equal and real roots, we have
b2 4ac = 0
16 4k = 0
4k = 16
16
k = = 4
4
Q. 15. For what value of k does (k 12) x2 + 2 (k 12) x + 2 = 0 have equal roots?
(AI CBSE 2008 C)

Quadratic Equations 41
Sol. Comparing (k 12) x2 + 2 (k 12) x + 2 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = (k 12)
b = 2 (k 12)
c = 2
b2 4ac = [2 (k 12)]2 4 (k 12) (2)
= 4 (k 12)2 8 (k 12)
= 4 (k 12) [k 12 2]
= 4 (k 12) (k 14)
For equal roots,
b2 4ac = 0
4 (k 12) [k 14] = 0
Either 4 (k 12) = 0 k = 12
or k 14 = 0 k = 14
But k = 12 makes k 12 = 0 which is not required
k 12
k = 14
Q. 16. For what value of k does the equation 9x2 + 3kx + 4 = 0 has equal roots?
(AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Comparing 9x2 + 3kx + 4 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 9
b = 3k
c = 4
b2 4ac = (3k)2 4 (9) (4)
= 9k2 144
For equal roots,
b2 4ac = 0
9k2 144 = 0
9k 2 = 144
144
k2 = = 16
9
k = 4

II. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Solve 2x2 5x + 3 = 0.
Sol. We have:
2x2 5x + 3 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0,
a = 2
b = 5
c = 3
b 4ac = ( 5)2 4 (2) (3)
2

= 25 24 = 1

42 MathematicsX
b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a

x =
b g
5 1
2 a2f
51
=
4
Taking, + ve sign,
5+1 6 3
x = = =
4 4 2
Taking, ve sign,
51 4
x = = = 1
4 4
Thus, the required roots are
3
x = and x = 1
2
Q. 2. Solve the following quadratic equation:
2x2 + 4x 8 = 0
Sol. We have:
2x2 + 4x 8 = 0
Dividing by 2, we get
x2 + 2x 4 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0,
a = 1,
b = 2
c = 4
b 4ac = (2)2 4 (1) ( 4)
2

= 4 + 16 = 20

b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a
2 20
x =
af
2 1

22 5
x =
2

2 1 5
x = = 1 5
2
Taking +ve sign, we get

x = e 1 + 5 j
Quadratic Equations 43
Taking ve sign we get,

x = e 1 5 j
e j
Thus, the required roots are x = 1 + 5 and x = 1 5 . e j
x+1 x2
Q. 3. Solve: + = 3. [CBSE 2012]
x1 x+2
Sol. We have,
x+1 x2
+ = 3
x1 x+2


bx + 2gbx + 1g + bx 2gbx 1g = 3
bx 1gbx + 2g

e x + 2 x + x + 2j + e x x 2 x + 2j
2 2

= 3
x2 x + 2x 2


ex 2
j e
+ 3x + 2 + x2 3x + 2 j = 3
2
x +x2
x2 + 3x + 2 + x2 3x + 2 = 3 (x2 + x 2)
2x2 + 4 = 3x2 + 3x 6
3x + 3x 6 2x2 4
2 = 0
x2 + 3x 10 = 0
x2 + 5x 2x 10 = 0
x (x + 5) 2 (x + 5) = 0
(x + 5) (x 2) = 0
Either x+5 = 0 x=5
or x2 = 0 x=2
Thus, the required roots are
x = 5 and x = 2
Q. 4. Solve (using quadratic formula):
x2 + 5x + 5 = 0
Sol. We have:
x2 + 5x + 5 = 0
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 1
b = 5
c = 5
b 4ac = (5)2 4 (1) (5)
2

= 25 20 = 5

44 MathematicsX
b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a
5 5
x =
af
2 1
5 5
x =
2
Taking +ve sign, we have:
5+ 5
x =
2
Taking ve sign, we have:
5 5
x =
2
Thus, the required roots are:
5+ 5 5 5
x = and x =
2 2
Q. 5. Solve for x: 36x2 12ax + (a2 b2) = 0.
Sol. We have:
36x2 12ax + (a2 b2) = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with Ax2 + Bx + C = 0, we have:
A = 36
B = 12a
C = (a2 b2)
B2 4AC = [ 12a]2 4 (36) [a2 b2]
= 144 a2 144 (a2 b2)
= 144 a2 144 a2 + 144 b2
= 144 b2
B B 2 4 AC
Since, x =
2A

x =
b g
12a 144 b 2
2 a 36f
12a 12b
x =
72
Taking +ve sign, we have:
12a + 12b
x =
72

x =
12
72
a+b =
1
6
a+b b g
Taking ve sign, we get
12a 12b
x =
72
Quadratic Equations 45
x =
12
72
b g
ab =
1
6
abb g
Thus, the required roots are:
1 1
x = (a + b) and x = (a b)
6 6
Q. 6. Find the roots of the quadratic equation 2 x 2 - 5x - 2 = 0, using the quadratic formula.
[NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Comparing the given equation with the general equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have
a=2

b = - 5 b 2 - 4 ac = ( - 5)2 - 4 2 ( -2)
c = -2
= 5 + 16
= 21
Now, using the quadratic formula, we have:

- b b 2 - 4 ac
x =
2a
-( - 5) 21
x =
2( -2)
5 21
=
4
Taking the, positive sign, we get
5 + 21
x =
4
Taking the negative sign, we get
5 - 21
x =
4
5 + 21 5 - 21
Thus, x = and
4 4
Q. 7. Solve: 16x2 8a2 x + (a4 b4) = 0 for x.
Sol. We have:
16x2 8a2 x + a4 b4 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 16
b = 8a2
c = (a4 b4)
b2 4ac = [ 8a2]2 4 (16) (a4 b4)
= 64 a4 64 (a4 b4)
= 64 a4 64 a4 + 64 b4
= 64 b4
46 MathematicsX
b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a


e j
8a 2 64 b 4
x =
a f
2 16

8a 2 8b 2
x =
32

8 a2 b2 a2 b2
x = =
32 4
Now, taking +ve sign, we get
a2 + b2
x =
4
Taking ve sign, we get
a2 b2
x =
4
Thus, the required roots are:
a2 + b 2 a2 b 2
x = and x =
4 4
2 2 2
Q. 8. Solve for x: 9x 6ax + a b = 0.
Sol. We have:
9x2 6ax + (a2 b2) = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 9, b = 6a and c = (a2 b2)
b2 4ac = ( 6a)2 4 (9) (a2 b2)
= 36a2 36 (a2 b2)
= 36a2 36a2 + 36b2
= 36b2 = (6b)2

b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a

b g a6bf
6a
2

2 a9f
x =

6a 6b
x =
18
6 ab ab
x = =
18 3
Taking the +ve sign, we get

Quadratic Equations 47
a+b
x =
3
Taking the ve sign, we get
ab
x =
3
The required roots are:
a+b ab
x = and x=
3 3
Q. 9. Evaluate 20 + 20 + 20 + ...

Sol. Let 20 + 20 + 20 ... = x


The given expression can be written as

x = 20 + ( )
20 + 20 ...

or x = 20 + x
squaring both side, we have

( )
2
x2 = 20 + x
x 2 = 20 + x
2
x2 x 20 = 0, where x = -b b - 4 ac
2a
Here : a = 1, b = 1 and c = 20
-( -1) ( -1)2 - 4 1 ( -20)
x =
2(1)

= 1 1 + 80 = 1 81 = 1 9
2 2 2
Since the given expression is positive,
Rejecting the negative sign, we have:
x = 1 + 9 = 10 = 5
2 2
Thus, 20 + 20 + 20 + ... = 5
Q. 10. Using quadratic formula, solve the following quadratic equation for x:
x2 4ax + 4a2 b2 = 0
Sol. Comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 1
b = 4a
c = 4a2 b2
b 4ac = [ (4a)]2 4 (1) [4a2 b2]
2

= 16a2 4 (4a2 b2)


= 16a2 16a2 + 4b2
= 4b2 = (2b)2

48 MathematicsX
b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a
b g a2bf
4a
2

2 a1f
x =

4 a 2b
x =
2
2
x = 2a b = 2a b
2
Taking the +ve sign, x = 2a + b
Taking the ve sign, x = 2a b
Thus, the required roots are:
x = 2a + b and x = 2a b
Q. 11. Using quadratic formula, solve the following quadratic equation for x:
x2 2ax + (a2 b2) = 0
Sol. Comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 1, b = 2a and c = (a2 b2)
b 4ac = ( 2a)2 4 (1) (a2 b2)
2

= 4a2 4 (a2 b2)


= 4a2 4a2 + 4b2 = 4b2
b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a


b g
2a 4b 2
2 a1f
x =

2a 2b
x =
2
2
x = ab = ab
2
Taking the +ve sign, we get
x = a+b
Taking the ve sign, we get
x = ab
Thus, the required roots are:
x = a + b and x = a b
Q. 12. Find the roots of the equation:
1 1 11 1 9
+ = ; x 3, , (CBSE 2009 C)
x + 3 2x 1 7x + 9 2 7
Sol. We have:
1 1 11
+ =
x + 3 2x 1 7x + 9
2x 1 + x + 3 11
=
b gb
x + 3 2x 1 g 7x + 9

Quadratic Equations 49
3x + 2 11
2 =
2x x + 6x 3 7x + 9


b3x + 2gb7 x + 9g = 11
2x2 + 5x 3
(3x + 2) (7x + 9) = 11 (2x2 + 5x 3)
2
21x + 27x + 14x + 18 = 22x2 + 55x 33
21x2 + 41x + 18 = 22x2 + 55x 33
2
(21 22) x + (41 55)x + (18 + 33) = 0
x2 + ( 14x) + (51) = 0
x2 + 14x 51 = 0
2
x + 17x 3x 51 = 0
x (x + 17) 3 (x + 17) = 0
(x + 17) (x 3) = 0
Either x + 17 = 0 x = 17
or x3 = 0 x=3
Thus, the required roots of the given equation are:
3 and 17
Q. 13. Find the roots of the equation:
1 1 4
= ; x 0, 3 (CBSE 2009 C)
x x3 3
Sol. We have:
1 1 4
=
x x3 3


b x 3g x =
4
x b x 3g 3
33 = 4 (x2 3x)
9 = 4x2 12x
4x2 12x + 9 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1), with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 4
b = 12
c = 9
b2 4ac = ( 12)2 4 (4) (9)
= 144 144 = 0
Now, the roots are:
b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a


b g
12 0
2 a4 f
x =

12 3
x = =
8 2
3 3
Thus, the roots are: and
2 2
50 MathematicsX
Q. 14. Find the roots of the equation:
1 1 8 5
+ = ; x 0, 2, (CBSE 2008 C)
x2 x 2x + 5 2
Sol. We have:
1 1 8
+ =
x2 x 2x + 5
x+x2 8
=
b
x x2 g
2x + 5
2x 2 8
2 =
x 2x 2x + 5
(2x 2) (2x + 5) = 8 (x2 2x)
4x2 + 10x 4x 10 = 8x2 16x
4x2 + 22x 10 = 0
2x2 11x + 5 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 2
b = 11
c = 5
b 4ac = ( 11)2 4 (2) (5)
2

= 121 40 = 81
Now, the roots are given by
b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a

x =
b g
11 81
2 a2f
11 9
=
4
Taking the +ve sign,
11 + 9 20
x = = = 5
4 4
Taking the ve sign,
11 9 2 1
x = = =
4 4 2
1
Thus, the required roots are: 5 and .
2
Q. 15. Find the roots of the following equation:
1 1 11
= ; x = 4, 7 (CBSE 2012)
x+4 x 7 30
Sol. We have:
1 1 11
=
x+4 x7 30

Quadratic Equations 51

bx 7g bx + 4g 11
bx + 4gbx 7g =
30
x7x4 11
2 =
x 3 x 28 30
11 30 = 11 (x2 3x 28)
30 = x2 3x 28
2
x 3x 28 + 30 = 0
x2 3x + 2 = 0
2
x 2x x + 2 = 0
x (x 2) 1 (x 2) = 0
(x 1) (x 2) = 0
Either x1 = 0 x=1
or x2 = 0 x=2
Thus, the required roots are: 1 and 2.
2a 2b
Q. 16. If and are roots of the equation x2 1 = 0, form an equation whose roots areand .
b a
Sol. Q and are roots of x2 1 = 0 and x2 1 = 0 can be written as x2 + 0x 1= 0 where
a = 1, b = 0 and c = 1.
-b 0
Sum of roots = =0
=
a 1
+ = 0
c -1
Also, product of roots == = 1
a 1
= 1

Now, the roots of the new equation are 2a and 2b


b a
2 a 2b
Sum of the roots of the new equation = +
b a
2 2 2 2
= 2a + 2b = 2(a + b )
ab ab
2
= 2[(a + b ) - 2ab ]
ab
(0)2 - 2( -1) Q a+b = 0
= 2
( -1) and ab = ( -1)
0 + 2
= 2
( -1)
= 2 (2) = 4
2 a 2b ab
Product of the roots of the new equation = =4 =4
b a ab
52 MathematicsX
Since, a quadratic equation is given by
Sum of the Product
x2 - x+ =0
roots of the roots
The required quadratic equation is
x2 (4) x + 4 = 0
or x2 + 4x + 4 = 0
Remember
2 + 2 + 2 = ( + )2
2 + 2 = ( + )2 2

III. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. A two-digit number is 5 times the sum of its digits and is also equal to 5 more than twice the
product of its digits. Find the number.
Sol. Let the tens digit = x
And the ones digit = y
The number = 10x + y
According to the conditions,
10x + y = 5 (x + y) ...(1)
10x + y = 2xy + 5 ...(2)
From (1), we have
10x + y = 5x + 5y
10x + y 5x 5y = 0
5x 4y = 0
5
5x = 4y or y = x
4
5
Substituting y = x in (2), we get
4
5x 5x 2
10 x + = +5
4 2
40x + 5x = 10x2 + 20 [Multiplying both sides by 4]
45x = 10x2 + 20
10x2 45x 20 = 0
2x2 9x 4 = 0
2x2 8x x + 4 = 0
2x (x 4) 1 (x 4) = 0
(x 4) (2x 1) = 0
Either x4 = 0 x=4
1
or 2x 1 = 0 x=
2
But a digit cannot be a fraction,
x = 4 The tens digit = 4

Quadratic Equations 53
54
Now, the ones digit y = = 5
4
x = 4 and y = 5
The required number = 10 4 + 5
= 40 + 5 = 45
Q. 2. The denominator is one more than twice the numerator. If the sum of the fraction and its reciprocal
16
is 2 , find the fraction.
21
Sol. Let the numerator be x
Denominator = (2x + 1)
x
Fraction =
2x + 1

2x + 1
Reciprocal of the fraction =
x
According to the condition,
x 2x + 1 16
+ = 2
2x + 1 x 21


b gb g
x x + 2x + 1 2x + 1 58
x b2 x + 1g
=
21

x + b2 x + 1g
2 2
58
=
2x2 + x 21
x2 + 4 x2 + 4 x + 1 58
=
2x 2 + x 21
5x 2 + 4 x + 1 58
2 =
2x + x 21
21 (5x2 + 4x + 1) = 58 (2x2 + x)
105x2 + 84x + 21 = 116x2 + 58x
105x2 116x2 + 84x 58x + 21 = 0
11x2 + 26x + 21 = 0
11x2 26x 21 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = 11
b = 26
c = 21
b2 4ac = ( 26)2 4 11 ( 21)
= 676 + 924 = 1600

b b 2 4 ac
Since, x =
2a
54 MathematicsX
b g
26 1600
2 a11f
x =

26 40
x =
22
Taking the +ve sign,
26 + 40 66
x = = = 3
22 22
Taking the ve sign,
26 40 14 7
x = = =
22 22 11
7
But the numerator cannot be
11
x = 3 The numerator = 3
Denominator = 2 (3) + 1 = 7
3
Thus, the required fraction =
7
10
Q. 3. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is . Find the number.
3
Sol. Let the required number = x
1
Its reciprocal =
x
According to the condition, we have:

The number +
LMReciprocal of OP =
10
Nthe number Q 3
1 10
x+ =
x 3
x2 + 1 10
=
x 3
3 (x2 + 1) = 10x
3x2 + 3 10x = 0
3x2 10x + 3 = 0
3x2 9x x + 3 = 0
3x (x 3) 1 (x 3) = 0
(x 3) (3x 1) = 0
Either x3 = 0 x=3
1
or 3x 1 = 0 x=
3
1
Thus, the required number is 3 or .
3

Quadratic Equations 55
Q. 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 3 10 cm. If the smaller side is tripled and the longer side
doubled, new hypotenuse will be 9 5 cm. How long are the sides of the triangle?
Sol. Let the smaller side = x

Longer side = bHypotenuseg bsmaller sideg


2 2

= e3 10 j x2 2

= 9 10 x 2

= 90 x 2
According to the condition, we have
[3 (Smaller side)]2 + [2 (Longer side)]2 = [New Hypotenuse]2

a f + LMN2 e90 x j OPQ


2
2 2 2
3 x = 9 5
9x2 + 4 (90 x2) = 81 5
9x2 + 360 4x2 = 405
5x 2 = 405 360
5x 2 = 45
45
x2 = = 9
5
x = 9 = 3
But x = 3 is not required, because the side of a triangle cannot be negative.
x = 3 Smaller side = 3 cm
Longer side = 90 3 2
= 90 9
= 81 = 9 cm
Thus, the required sides of the triangle are 3 cm and 9 cm.
Q. 5. A motor-boat goes 10 km upstream and returns back to the starting point in 55 minutes. If the
speed of the motor boat in still water is 22 km/hr, find the speed of the current.
Sol. Let the speed of the current = x km/hr
The speed downstream = (22 + x) km/hr
The speed upstream = (22 x) km/hr
Distance
Since, Time =
Speed
F 10 I hrs
Time for going 10 km downstream = GH 22 + x JK
Time for returning back 10 km upstream = G
F 10 I hours
H 22 x JK
According to the condition,

56 MathematicsX
10 10 55
+ =
22 + x 22 x 60

10
LM 1 + 1 OP =
11
[Q 55 minutes =
55
hours]
N 22 + x 22 x Q 12 60
L 22 + x + 22 x OP
10 12 M

NM b22 + xgb22 xg QP = 11

120 M
L 44 OP = 11
MN 484 x PQ
2

11 (484 x2) = 120 44


5324 11x2 = 5280
11x 2 = 5324 5280 = 44
44
x2 = = 4
11
x = 2
But speed of the current cannot be negative,
x = 2
Speed of current = 2 km/hr
Q. 6. A motor boat whose speed in still water is 5 km/hr, takes 1 hour more to go 12 km upstream than
to return downstream to the same spot. Find the speed of the stream. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Let the speed of the stream be x km/hr
Downstream speed of the motor boat = (x + 5) km/hr
12
Time taken to go 12 km upstream = hours
5x
12
Time taken to return 12 km downstream = hours
5+x
According to the condition
12 12
= 1
5x 5+x
12 (5 + x) 12 (5 x) = 1 (5 x) (5 + x)
60 + 12x 60 + 12x = 25 x2
24x = 25 x2
2
x + 24x 25 = 0
2
x + 25x x 25 = 0
x (x + 25) 1 (x + 25) = 0
(x 1) (x 25) = 0
Either x 1 = 0 x = 1
or x + 25 = 0 x = 25
But x = 25 is not admissible, because the speed of the stream cannot be negative.
x = 1
speed of the stream = 1 km/hr.

Quadratic Equations 57
Q. 7. Sum of the areas of two squares is 260 m2. If the difference of their perimeters is 24 m, then find
the sides of the two squares. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Let the side of one of the squares be x metres
Perimeter of square-I = 4 x metres = 4x metres
Perimeter of square-II = (24 + 4x) metres
1
Side of the square-II = (24 + 4x) metres = (6 + x) metres
4
Now, according to the condition, we have:
x2 + (6 + x)2 = 260
x2 + 36 + x2 + 12x 260 = 0
2x2 + 12x 224 = 0
x2 + 6x 112 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get,
a = 1
b = 6
c = 112
b2 4ac = (6)2 4 (1) ( 112)
= 36 + 448 = 484

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a
6 484
x =
af
2 1
6 22
=
2
Taking +ve sign, we have
6 + 22 16
x = = = 8
2 2
Taking ve sign, we have
6 22 28
x = = = 14
2 2
But x = 14 is not required, as the length of a side cannot be negative.
x = 8
Side of square-I = 8 m
Side of square-II = 6 + 8 m = 14 m.
Q. 8. The age of a father is twice the square of the age his son. Eight years hence, the age of the father
will be 4 years more than three times the age of his son. Find their present ages.
(AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Let the present of son be x years.
Fathers present age = 2x2 years
8 years hence:
Age of son = (x + 8) years
Age of father = (2x2 + 8) years

58 MathematicsX
According to the condition:
(2x2 + 8) = 3 (x + 8) + 4
2x2 + 8 3x 24 4 = 0
2x2 3x + 8 28 = 0
2x2 3x 20 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 2
b = 3
c = 20
b2 4ac = ( 3)2 4 (2) ( 20)
= 9 + 160 = 169
b b 2 4 ac
Now, x =
2a
b g
3 169 3 13
x =
af
2 2
=
4
Taking +ve sign,
3 + 13 16
x = = = 4
4 4
Taking ve sign,
3 13 10 5
x = = =
4 4 2
5
But x = is not required, as the age cannot be negative.
2
x = 4
Present age of son = 4 years
Present age of father = 2 42 = 32 years.
Q. 9. The diagonal of a rectangular field is 60 m more than the shorter side. If the longer side is 30
metres more than the shorter side, find the sides of the field. (CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. See Q-6 of Textbook Exercise 4.3.
Q. 10. A motor boat whose speed in still water is 16 km/h, takes 2 hours more to go 60 km upstream
than to return to the same spot. Find the speed of the stream. (CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Let the speed of the stream = x km/hr
For the motor boat, we have:
Downstream speed = (16 + x) km/hr
Upstream speed = (16 x) km/hr
For going 60 km:
60
Downstream = hours
16 + x
60
Upstream = hours
16 x
According to the condition:
60 60
= 2
16 x 16 + x
Quadratic Equations 59
60 (16 + x) 60 (16 x) = 2 (16 x) (16 + x)
960 + 60x 960 + 60x = 2 (256 x2)
2x2 + 120x = 2 256 2x2
x2 + 60x = 256
x2 + 60x 250 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0,
a = 1
b = 60
c = 256
b2 4ac = (60)2 4 (1) ( 256)
= 3600 + 1024 = 4624
b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a
60 4624
x =
2 1 af
60 68
x =
2
Taking +ve sign,
60 + 68 8
x = = = 4
2 2
Taking ve sign,
60 68 128
x = = = 64
2 2
Since, the speed of a stream cannot be negative,
x = 64 is not admissible
x = 4
speed of the stream = 4 km/hr.
Q. 11. A train travels 288 km at a uniform speed. If the speed had been 4 km/hr more, it would have
taken 1 hour less for the same journey. Find the speed of the train. (CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Let the speed of the train be x km/hr
Total distance travelled = 288 km
288
Time taken = hours
x
In the other case,
Speed of the train = (x + 4) km/hr
288
Time taken = hours
x+4
According to the condition,
288 288
= 1
x x+4


b g
288 x + 4 288 x
b
x x+4 g = 1

60 MathematicsX
288x + 1152 288x = 1 (x) (x + 4)
288x + 1152 288x = x2 + 4x
1152 = x2 + 4x
2
x + 4x 1152 = 0 ...(1)
Comparing (1) with ax2 + bx + c = 0,
a = 1
b = 4
c = 1152
b2 4ac = (4)2 4 (1) ( 1152)
= 16 + 4608

b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a


af
4 4608
=
4 68
x =
2 1af 2
Taking +ve sign,
4 + 68 64
x = = = 32
2 2
Taking ve sign,
4 68 72
x = = = 36
2 2
Q speed cannot be negative,
x 36
x = 32
speed of the train = 32 km/hr.
Q. 12. A train travels at a certain average speed for a distance of 63 km and then travels a distance of
72 km at an average speed of 6 km/hr more than its original speed of. If takes 3 hours to complete
the total journey, what is its original average speed? [NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Let the original average speed = x km/hr
72
Time taken to cover 72 km = hours
x+6
63
Time taken to cover 63 km = hours
x
Since, total time = 3 hours
72 63
+ = 3
x+6 x
1 72 63 Q HCF of 72
+ = 1 3
9 x + 6 x 9 and 63 is 9
8 7 1
+ =
x+6 x 3
8x + 7( x + 6) 1
=
x( x + 6) 3
Quadratic Equations 61
x 2 + 6x
8x + 7x + 42 =
3
x 2 + 6x
15x + 42 =
3
3[15x + 42] = x2 + 6x
45x + 126 x2 6x = 0
x2 39x 126 = 0
2
x 42x + 3x 126 = 0
x(x 42) + 3(x 42) = 0
(x + 3) (x 42) = 0
Either x+3 = 0 x =3
or x 42 = 0 x = 42
Since, speed cannot be negative,
x = 3 is not desired.
Thus, the original speed of the train is 42 km/hr.
Q. 13. If 5 is a root of the quadratic equation 2x2 + px 15 = 0 and the quadratic equation
p (x2 + x) + k = 0 has equal roots, then find the values of p and k. (AI CBSE 2009)
Sol. Since 5 is a root of 2x2 + px 15 = 0,
Substituting x = 5 in the given equation, we get
2 ( 5)2 + p ( 5) 15 = 0
2 (25) + ( 5p) 15 = 0
50 5p 15 = 0
5p + 35 = 0
5p = 35
35
p = = 7
5
Now, comparing the another quadratic equation p (x2 + x) + k = 0, i.e., px2 + px + k = 0
with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we have:
a = p
b = p
c = k
b2 4ac = p2 4 (p) (k)
= p2 4pk
2
Since p (x x) + k = 0 has equal roots,
p2 4pk = 0
2
(7) 4 (7) k = 0 |Q p = 7
49 28k = 0
49 7
k = =
28 4
Thus, the required values of
7
p = 7 and k = .
4

62 MathematicsX
Q. 14. In a class test, the sum of Gagans marks in Mathematics and English is 45. If he had 1 more
mark in Mathematics and 1 less in English, the product of marks would have been 500. Find the
original marks obtained by Gagan in Mathematics and English separately. (AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Let Gagans marks in maths = x
and Marks in English = (45 x)
According to the condition,
(x + 1) (45 x + 1) = 500
(x + 1) (44 x) = 500
44x x2 + 44 x = 500
x2 + 44x 456 x = 0
x2 43x + 456 = 0
x2 19x 24x + 456 = 0 Q 24 19 = 45
x (x 19) 24 (x 19) = 0 43 = ( 24) + ( 19)
(x 19) (x 24) = 0
Either x 19 = 0 x = 19
or x 24 = 0 x = 24
When x = 19, then 45 19 = 26
When x = 24, then 45 24 = 21
Gagans marks in Maths = 19 and in English = 26
Or
Gagans marks in Maths = 24 and in English = 21.
Q. 15. The sum of areas of two squares is 640 m2. If the difference of their perimeters is 64 m, find the
sides of two squares. (CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Let the side of square I be x metres.
Perimeter of square I = 4x metres
Perimeter of square II = (64 + 4x) m
1
Side of square II = (64 + 4x) m
4
= (16 + x) m
Now Area of square I = x x = x2
Area of square II = (16 + x) (16 + x) = (16 + x)2
= 256 + x2 + 32x
According to the condition,
LMArea of OP + LMArea of theOP = 640
Nsquare IQ Nsquare II Q
x2 + [256 + x2 + 32x] = 640
x2 + x2 + 32x + 256 640 = 0
2x2 + 32x 384 = 0
x2 + 16x 192 = 0
x2 + 24x 8x 192 = 0 Q 24 8 = 16
x (x + 24) 8 (x + 24) = 0 and 24 8 = 192

Quadratic Equations 63
(x + 24) (x 8) = 0
Either x + 24 = 0 x = 24
or x8 = 0 x=+8
Q side of a square cannot be negative,
Rejecting x = 24, we have x = 8
Side of smaller square = 8 m
Side of larger square = 8 + 16 m = 24 m.
Q. 16. In a class test, the sum of Kamals marks in Mathematics and English is 40. Had he got 3 marks
more in Mathematics and 4 marks less in English, the product of his marks would have been 360.
Find his marks in two subjects separately. (CBSE 2012)
Sol. Let Kamals marks in Maths = x
His marks in English = (40 x)
According to the condition,
(x + 3) [40 x 4] = 360
(x + 3) (36 x) = 360
36x x2 + 108 3x 360 = 0
x2 + 33x 252 = 0
x2 33x + 252 = 0
2 Q ( 21) ( 12) = 252
x 21x 12x + 252 = 0
( 21) + ( 12) = 33
x (x 21) 12 (x 21) = 0
(x 21) (x 12) = 0
Either (x 21) = 0 x = 21
or (x 12) = 0 x = 12
For x = 21, Marks of Kamal
in Maths = 21
in English = 40 21 = 19
For x = 12, Marks of Kamal
in Maths = 12
in English = 40 12 = 28.
Q. 17. Find the value of p for which the quadratic equation 4x2 + px + 3 = 0 has equal roots.
(Al CBSE 2014)

Hint:
For equal roots, b2 4ac = 0
p2 4(4) (3) = 0 or p2 48 = 0 p = 48 = 4 3

Q. 18. Solve the quadratic equation 2x2 + ax a2 = 0 [Al CBSE (Delhi) 2014]
Sol. 2x2 + ax a2 = 0
2x + 2ax ax a2 = 0
2
splitting ax into
2x[x + a] a[x + a] = 0
2ax and ax
(x + a) (2x a) = 0
a
x = a or x =
2

64 MathematicsX
IV. HOTS QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Had Ravita scored 10 more marks in her Mathematics test out of 30 marks, 9 times these marks
would have been the square of her actual marks. How many marks did she get in the test?
[NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Let actual marks be x
9 [ Actual marks + 10] = [Square of actual marks]
or 9 (x + 10) = x 2
9x + 90 = x 2
x2 9x 90 = 0
2
x 15x + 6x 90 = 0
x(x 15) + 6(x 15) = 0
(x + 6) (x 15) = 0
Either x+6 = 0 x =6
or x 15 = 0 x = 15
But marks cannot be less than 0.
x = 6 is not desired.
Thus, Ravita got 15 marks in her Mathematics test.
Q. 2. A motor boat whose speed is 18 km/h in still water takes 1 hour more to go 24 km upstream than
to return downstream to the same spot. Find the speed of the stream. (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Let the speed of the stream = x km/hr
speed of the motor boat:
upstream = (18 x) km/hr
downstream = (18 + x) km/hr
Time taken by the motor boat in going:
24 Distance
24 km downstream = hours Q Time = Speed
18 + x
20
24 km upstream = hours
18 x
According to the condition:
24 24
= 1
18 x 18 + x
24 (18 + x) 2 (18 x) = 1 (18 x) (18 + x)
24 [18 + x 18 + x] = 182 x2
24 [2x] = 324 x2
48x = 324 x2
2
x + 48x 324 = 0
x2 + 54x 6x 324 = 0
x (x + 54) 6 (x + 54) = 0
(x 6) (x + 54) = 0
Either x6 = 0 x=6
or x + 54 = 0 x = 54
But speed cannot be negative
Rejecting x = 54, we have
x = 6 Speed of the boat = 6 km/hr.

Quadratic Equations 65
Q. 3. In a class test, the sum of marks obtained by P in Mathematics and Science is 28. Had he got 3 more
marks in Mathematics and 4 marks less in Science, the product of marks obtained in the two
subjects would have been 180? Find the marks obtained in two subjects separately. (CBSE 2008)
Sol. Let marks obtained by P in Maths be x.
His marks in Science = (28 x)
According to the condition,
(x + 3) (28 x 4) = 180
(x + 3) ( x + 24) = 180
24x x2 + 72 3x = 180
x2 + 21x + 72 180 = 0
x2 + 21x 108 = 0
x2 21x + 108 = 0
2
x 12x 9x + 108 = 0
x (x 12x) 9(x 12) = 0
(x 9) (x 12) = 0
(x 9) (x 12) = 0
Either x9 = 0 x=9
or x 12 = 0 x = 12
When x = 9 then 28 x = 28 9 = 19
When x = 12 then 28 x = 28 12 = 16
Thus Ps marks in Maths = 9 and Science = 19
Or
Ps marks in Maths = 12 and Science = 16.
Q. 4. Solve for x:
3x 2 - 2 2x - 2 3 = 0 [CBSE (Foreign) 2014]

Hint:
3 x 2 2 2 x 2 3 = 0 , we have

a = 3 , b = ( -2 2 ) and c = ( -2 3 )
2
b2 4ac = ( -2 2 ) - 4 ( 3 )( -2 3 ) = 32

b b 2 - 4ac
Using Quadratic formula, x =
2a
we get, x = 6
Q. 5. Solve for x :
x2 + 5 5 x 70 = 0

Hint:
a = 1, b = 5 5 and c = 70

(5 5)
2
b2 4ac = 4 (1) (70) = 9 5
Now use quad. formula to get x = 2 5 , 7 x

66 MathematicsX
Q. 6. At t minutes past 2 pm, the time needed by the minute hand of a clock to show 3 pm was found to
t2
be 3 minutes less than minutes. Find t.
4
Sol. For a minute-hand time needed to show 2 pm to 3 pm is 60 minutes.
It has already covered t minutes.
Time required by the minute-hand to reach to 12 (at 3 pm) = (60 t) minutes.
t2
3 =(60 t)
4
t2
+ t 63 = 0
4
t2+ 4t 252 = 0
Solving, we get, t = 14 or 18
But t = 18 is not desirable (being negative)
Thus, t = 14 minutes.
Q. 7. A train, travelling at a uniform speed for 360 km, would have taken 48 minutes less to travel the
same distance if its speed were 5 km/hr more. Find the original speed of the train.
[NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Let the original speed be x km/hr
360
Original time taken = hours
x
New speed = (x + 5) km/hr
360
New time = km / hr
x+5
According to the condition,
360 360 48
= +
x x + 5 60
x +5 x 4
360 =
x( x + 5) 5
5 4
360 2 = x2 + 5x 2250 = 0
x + 5x 5
Solving for x, we get x = 50 or 45
Speed cannot be negative
Rejecting x = 50, we have x = 45
Thus, the original speed of the train = 45 km/hr.
Q. 8. If the roots of the equation (b - c)x2 + (c a)x + (a b) = 0 are equal, then prove that 2b = a + c
Hint: For equal roots D =0
Here, D = (c a)2 4(b c) ( a b)
(c a)2 4(b c)(a b) =0
c2 + a2 + 4b2 2ac 4ab + 4ac 4bc = 0
(c + a 2b)2 =0
(c + a 2b) =0 c + a = 2b (Hence Proved)

Quadratic Equations 67
Q. 9. If the roots of the equations

ax2 + 2bx + c = 0 and bx2 2 ac x + b = 0


are simultanously real then prove that b2 = 4ac
Hint: Let D1 and D2 be the discriminants
D1 0 and D2 b2
4b2 4ac 0 and 4ac 4b2 0
b2 ac and ac b2
b2 = ac
Q. 10. If the roots of the equation
(c2 ab)x2 2(a2 bc)x + b2 ac = 0 are equal, then prove that
either a = 0 or a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc
Hint: D = b2 4ac
= [2(a2 bc)]2 4 (a2 ab) (b2 ac)
= 4a (a3 + b3 + c3 3abc)
For equal roots, D= 0
4a (a3 + b3 + c3 3abc) = 0
a = 0 or a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc

TEST YOUR SKILLS


1. A natural number, when increased by 12, equals 160 times its reciprocal. Find the number.
[NCERT Exemplar]
Hint: Let the natural number be x
160
x + 12 =
x
x(x + 12) = 160
x2 + 12x 160 = 0

2. By increasing the list price of a book by ` 10, a person can buy 10 books less for
` 1200. Find the original list price of the book. (CBSE 2007)
3. The hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is 1 cm more than twice the shortest side. If the
third side is 2 cm less than the hypotenuse, find the sides of the triangle. (CBSE 2007)
4. A passenger train takes 2 hours less for a journey of 300 km, if its speed is increased by
5 km/hr from its usual speed. Find its usual speed. (CBSE 2006, 2007)
5. The numerator of a fraction is one less than its denominator. If three is added to each of
3
the numerator and denominator, the fraction is increased by . Find the fraction.
28
(AI CBSE 2007)
6. The difference of squares of two natural numbers is 45. The square of the smaller number
is four times the larger number. Find the numbers. (AI CBSE 2007)
7. Solve: x 2 + 5 5x - 70 [NCERT Exemplar]

68 MathematicsX
8. A train travels a distance of 300 km at a uniform speed. If the speed of the train is
increased by 5 km an hour, the journey would have taken two hours less. Find the original
speed of the train. (CBSE 2006)
9. The speed of a boat in still water is 11 km/hr. It can go 12 km upstream and returns
downstream to the original point in 2 hours 45 minutes. Find the speed of the stream.
(AI CBSE 2006)
10. Determine the value of k for which the quadratic equation 4x2 3kx + 1 = 0 has equal
roots. (CBSE 2006 C)
11. Using quadratic formula, solve the following equation for x:
ab x2 + (b2 ac) x bc = 0 (AI CBSE 2006 C)
12. The sum of the numerator and the denominator of a fraction is 12. If the denominator is
1
increased by 3, the fraction becomes . Find the fraction. (AI CBSE 2006 C)
2
13. Rewrite the following as a quadratic equation in x and then solve for x:
4 5 3
3 = ; x 0, (AI CBSE 2006 C)
x 2x + 3 2
14. A two digit number is such that the product of its digits is 18. When 63 is subtracted from
the number, the digits interchange their places. Find the number. (AI CBSE 2006 C)
15. A train covers a distance of 90 km at a uniform speed. Had the speed been 15 km/hr more,
it would have taken 30 minutes less for the journey. Find the original speed of the train.
(AI CBSE 2006 C)
16. Solve for x:
x+1 x2
+ = 3; (x 1, 2) (CBSE 2012)
x1 x+2
17. Using quadratic formula, solve the following for x:
9x2 3 (a2 + b2) x + a2 b2 = 0 (CBSE 2012)
18. Find the equation whose roots are reciprocal of the roots of
3x2 5x + 7 = 0
19. A number consists of two digits whose product is 18. When 27 is subtracted from the
number, the digits change their places. Find the number. (AI CBSE 2005 C)
20. A number consisting of two digits is seven times the sum of its digits. When 27 is
subtracted from the number, the digits are reversed. Find the number. (AI CBSE 2005 C)
21. The sum of the squares of two consecutive odd numbers is 394. Find the nimbers.
[CBSE (Foreign) 2014]
Hint:
Let the two consecutive odd numbers be x and x + 2.
x2 + (x + 2)2 = 394
x + x2 + 4x + 4 = 394
2

2x2 + 4x 390 = 0
x2 + 2x 195 = 0
x2 + 15x 13x 195 = 0 or x(x + 15) 13(x + 15) = 0
x = 13 or x = 15
For x = 13, x + 2 = 13 + 2 = 15
Thus, the required numbers are 13 and 15.
Quadratic Equations 69
22. An aeroplane left 30 minutes later than its scheduled time and in order to reach its
destination 1500 km away in time, it has to increase its speed by 250 km/hr from its usual
speed. Determine its usual speed. (AI CBSE 2005 C)
23. Using quadratic formula, solve for x:
9x2 3 (a + b) x + ab = 0 (CBSE 2012)
24. Find the number which exceeds its positive square root by 20.
1
25. The sum of two numbers is 15 and the sum of their reciprocals is . Find the numbers.
3
(CBSE 2005)
26. A two digit number is such that the product of its digits is 14. If 45 is added to the number,
the digits interchange their places. Find the number. (AI CBSE 2005)
27. A two digit number is such that the product of its digits is 20. If 9 is added to the number,
the digits interchange their places. Find the number. (AI CBSE 2005)
28. A two digit number is such that the product of its digits is 15. If 8 is added to the number,
the digits interchange their places. Find the number. (AI CBSE 2005)
29. Solve for x:
x1 x3 1
+ = 3 ; (x 2, 4) (AI CBSE 2005)
x2 x4 3
30. Solve for x:
ab x2 + (b2 ac) x bc = 0 (AI CBSE 2005)
1
31. The sum of two numbers is 18. The sum of their reciprocals is . Find the numbers.
4
(AI CBSE 2005)
1
32. The sum of two numbers is 16, and the sum of their reciprocals is . Find the numbers.
3
(AI CBSE 2005)
1 1 3
33. The sum of two numbers a and b is 15, and sum of their reciprocals and is .
a b 10
Find the numbers a and b. (CBSE 2005)
34. Solve for x:
1 1 1 1
= + + ; a 0, b 0, x 0 (CBSE 2012)
a+b+x a b x
35. Find the roots of the following quadratic equation:
2 2 3
x x = 0 (CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
5 5
Hint:

2 2 3
x x = 0 2x2 5x 3 = 0
5 5
(2x + 1) (x 3) = 0
1
x = and x = 3
2

70 MathematicsX
36. Find the roots of the equation:

1 1 3
+ = 1; x ,5 (CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
2x 3 x 5 2
37. A natural number when subtracted from 28, becomes equal to 160 times its reciprocal.
Find the number. (CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
38. Find two consecutive odd positive integers, sum of whose squares is 290.
(CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
39. Find the values of k for which the quadratic equation (CBSE Delhi 2014)
(k + 4) x2 + (k + 1) x + 1 = 0 has equal roots. Also find these roots.

Hint:
From (k + 4)x2 + (k + 1)x + 1 = 0, we get
a = (k + 4), b = (k + 1) and c = 1
b2 4ac = (k + 1)2 4 (k + 4) (1)
= k2 2k 15
For equal roots, b2 4ac = 0
k2 2k 15 = 0
k = 5 or k = 3
For k = 5, we have (k + 4)x2 + (k + 1) x + 1 = 0
9x2 + 6x + 1 = 0

1 1
Solving for x, we get x = ,
3 3
For k = 3, we have
x2 2x + 1 = 0
solving it, we get x = 1, x = 1

40. Solve for x :

16 15
1 = ; x 0, 1. (AI CBSE 2014)
x x+1

Hint:

16 15 16 15
1 = =1
x x+1 x x+1
or 16(x + 1) 15(x) = x(x + 1) x2 = 16
x = 4

41. Solve for x :

x 2 x 4 10
+ = ; x 3, 5 (AI CBSE 2014)
x3 x5 3

Quadratic Equations 71
Hint:
x2 x4 ( x 5 )( x 2) + ( x 4 )( x - 3)
L.H.S. = + (By cross multiplication)
x3 x 5 ( x 3)( x 5 )
2x 2 14x + 22

x 2 8x + 15
2x 2 14x + 22 10
= or 3[2x2 14x + 22] = 10[x2 8x + 15]
x 2 8x + 15 3
7
On simplification, we get 2x2 19x + 42 = 0 x =
2

ANSWERS
Test Your Skills
1. 8 2. ` 30 3. 8 cm, 15 cm, 17 cm 4. 25 km/hr
3
5. 6. 9 and 6 7. 7 5; 2 5 8. 25 km/hr
4
4 4 c b 5
9. 5 km/hr 10. k or k 11. x , x 12.
3 3 b a 7
13. 2, 1 14. 92 15. 45 km/hr 16. x = 5, 2
2 2
a b
17. , 18. 7x2 5x + 3 = 0 19. 63 20. 63
3 3
a b
21. 14 22. 750 km/h 23. x , 24. x = 16
3 3
25. 5, 10 26. 27 27. 45 28. 35
29. 5 , 5 30. x = b 31. 6, 12 32. 12, 14
2
1
33. a = 5 or 10, b = 10 or 5 34. x = a 35. x = ,3
2
3 2
36. 4 37. 8 38. 11 and 13
2

72 MathematicsX
5 Arithmetic Progressions

Facts that Matter


z Sequence
When some numbers are arranged in a definite order, according to a definite rule, they are said
to form a sequence.
The number occurring at the 1st place is called the 1st term, denoted by T1.
The number occurring at the nth place is called the nth term, denoted by Tn.
Example: Let us consider a rule
Tn = 3n + 1
Putting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ..... we get
T1 = 3 (1) + 1 = 4
T2 = 3 (2) + 1 = 7
T3 = 3 (3) + 1 = 10
T4 = 3 (4) + 1 = 13
T5 = 3 (5) + 1 = 16
...... ...... ......
...... ...... ......
...... ...... ......
The numbers 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, ..... ..... form a sequence.
The pattern followed by its terms is:
To start with 4 and add 3 to each term to get the next term.
z Finite Sequence
A sequence containing definite number of terms is called a finite sequence.
z Infinite Sequence
A sequence containing infinite number of terms is called an infinite sequence.
z Progressions
The sequences in which each term (other than the first and the last) is related to its succeeding
term by a fixed rule, are called progressions.
NOTE:
There are three types of progressions:
I. Arithmetic Progressions (A.P.)
II. Geometric Progressions (G.P.)
III. Harmonic Progressions (H.P.)
But, here we shall learn about arithmetic progression.
73
z Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
An arithmetic progression is a list of numbers in which each term is obtained by adding a fixed
number to the preceding term except the first term.
The fixed number is called the common difference, which can be positive, negative or zero.
The common difference of an A.P. can be obtained by subtracting any term from its following
term.
Generally the first term is denoted by a and the common difference is denoted by d.
z If three numbers a, b, c are in order, then (b a) = common difference = (c d)
z When certain number of terms of an A.P. are required, then we select the terms in the following
manner:
Number of Terms Terms Common difference
3 a d, a, a + d d
4 a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d 2d
5 a 2d, a d, a, a + d, a + 2d d
6 a 5d, a 3d, a 3, a + d, a + 3 d, a + 5d 2d

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 5.1
Q. 1. In which of the following situations, does the list of numbers involved make an arithmetic
progression, and why?
(i) The taxi fare after each km when the fare is ` 15 for the first km and ` 8 for each additional
km.
1
(ii) The amount of air present in a cylinder when a vacuum pump removes of the air
4
remaining in the cylinder at a time.
(iii) The cost of digging a well after every metre of digging, when it costs ` 150 for the first
metre and rises by ` 50 for each subsequent metre.
(iv) The amount of money in the account every year, when ` 10,000 is deposited at compound
interest at 8% per annum.
Sol. (i) Let us consider,
The first term (T1) = Fare for the first km = ` 15 since, the taxi fare beyond the first
km is ` 8 for each additional km. T1 = 15
Fare for 2 km = ` 15 + 1 ` 8 T2 = a + 8 [where a = 15]
Fare for 3 km = ` 15 + 2 ` 8 T3 = a + 16
Fare for 4 km = ` 15 + 3 ` 8 T4 = a + 24
Fare for 5 km = ` 15 + 4 ` 8 T5 = a + 32
M
Fare for n km = ` 15 + (n 1) 8 Tn = a + (n 1) 8
We see that above terms form an A.P.
(ii) Let the amount of air in the cylinder = x
1
Air removed in 1st stroke = x
4
74 MathematicsX
1 3x
Air left after 1st stroke = x x =
4 4
3 x 1 3x FG IJ
3x 3 x 9
Air left after 2nd stroke =
4

4 4 H K
=
4

16
=
16
x

9 1 9 FG IJ
9x 9x 27 x
Air left after 3rd stroke =
16
x
4 16 H
x =
16 64K =
64
27 1 27 x FG IJ
27 x 27 91x
Air left after 4th stroke =
64
x
4 64
=
H 64 K
256
=
256
Thus, the terms are:
3x 9 27 91x
x, , x, x,
4 16 64 256
3x x
Here, x =
4 4
9 3x 3x
x =
16 4 16
FG IJ
x FG
3x IJ
Since
H K
4

H 16 K
The above terms are not in A.P.
(iii) Here, The cost of digging for 1st metre = ` 150
The cost of digging for first 2 metres = ` 150 + ` 50 = ` 200
The cost of digging for first 3 metres = ` 150 + (` 50) 2 = ` 250
The cost of digging for first 4 metres = ` 150 + (` 50) 3 = ` 300
The terms are: 150, 200, 250, 300, ...
Since, 200 150 = 50
And 250 200 = 50
(200 150) = (250 200)
The above terms form an A.P.
FG 8 IJ 1
(iv) The amount at the end of 1st year = 10000 1 +
H 100 K
FG 8 IJ 2

H 100 K
The amount at the end of 2nd year = 10000 1 +

F 8 IJ
The amount at the end of 3rd year = 10000 G 1 +
3

H 100 K
F 8 IJ
The amount at the end of 4th year = 10000 G 1 +
4

H 100 K
M
The terms are
LM10000 FG 1 + 8 IJ OP , LM10000 FG 1 + 8 IJ OP , LM10000 FG 1 + 8 IJ
2 3 OP , .....
[10000],
N H 100 K Q MN H 100 K PQ MN H 100 K PQ
Obviously,
LM10000 FG 1 + 8 IJ OP 10000 LM10000 FG 1 + 8 IJ OP L10000 FG 1 + 8 IJ O
2

N H 100 K Q MN H 100 K PQ MN H 100 K PQ


The above terms are not in A.P.
Arithmetic Progressions 75
Q. 2. Write first four terms of the AP, when the first term a and the common difference d are given as
follows:
(i) a = 10, d = 10 (ii) a = 2, d = 0
1
(iii) a = 4, d = 3 (iv) a = 1, d =
2
(v) a = 1.25, d = 0.25
Sol. (i) Tn = a + (n 1) d
For a = 10 and d = 10, we have:
T1 = 10 + (1 1) 10 = 10 + 0 = 10
T2 = 10 + (2 1) 10 = 10 + 10 = 20
T3 = 10 + (3 1) 10 = 10 + 20 = 30
T4 = 10 + (4 1) 10 = 10 + 30 = 40
Thus, the first four terms of A.P. are:
10, 20, 30, 40.
(ii) Tn = a + (n 1) d
For a = 2 and d = 0, we have:
T1 = 2 + (1 1) 0 = 2 + 0 = 2
T2 = 2 + (2 1) 0 = 2 + 0 = 2
T3 = 2 + (3 1) 0 = 2 + 0 = 2
T4 = 2 + (4 1) 0 = 2 + 0 = 2
The first four terms are:
2, 2, 2, 2.
(iii) Tn = a + (n 1) d
For a = 4 and d = 3, we have:
T1 = 4 + (1 1) ( 3) = 4 + 0 = 4
T2 = 4 + (2 1) ( 3) = 4 + ( 3) = 1
T3 = 4 + (3 1) ( 3) = 4 + ( 6) = 2
T4 = 4 + (4 1) ( 3) = 4 + ( 9) = 5
Thus, the first four terms are:
4, 1, 2, 5.
(iv) Tn = a + (n 1) d
1
For a = 1 and d = , we get
2
1
T1 = 1 + (1 1) =1+0=1
2
1 1 1
T2 = 1 + (2 1) =1+ =
2 2 2
1
T3 = 1 + (3 1) =1+1=0
2
1 3 1
T4 = 1 + (4 1) = 1+ =
2 2 2
The first four terms are:
1 1
1, , 0, .
2 2

76 MathematicsX
(v) Tn = a + (n 1) d
For a = 1.25 and d = 0.25, we get
T1 = 1.25 + (1 1) ( 0.25) = 1.25 + 0 = 1.25
T2 = 1.25 + (2 1) ( 0.25) = 1.25 + ( 0.25) = 1.50
T3 = 1.25 + (3 1) ( 0.25) = 1.25 + ( 0.50) = 1.75
T4 = 1.25 + (4 1) ( 0.25) = 1.25 + ( 0.75) = 2.0
Thus, the four terms are:
1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.0
Q. 3. For the following APs, write the first term and the common difference:
(i) 3, 1, 1, 3, ... (ii) 5, 1, 3, 7, ...
1 5 9 13
(iii) , , , , ... (iv) 0.6, 1.7, 2.8, 3.9, ...
3 3 3 3
Sol. (i) We have: 3, 1, 1, 3, .....
T1 = 3 a = 3
T2 = 1
T3 = 1
T4 = 3
T2 T1 = 1 3 = 2
T4 T3 = 3 ( 1) = 3 + 2 = 2
UV d=2
Thus, a = 3 and d = 2 W
(ii) We have: 5, 1, 3, 7, .....
U|
T1 = 5 a = 5
|V
T2 = 1 d = T2 T1 = 1 ( 5) = 1 + 5 = 4
T3 = 3 ||
d= 1+5=4
UV
T4 = 7 W T4 T3 = 7 3 = 4 d = 4
Thus, a = 5 and d = 4 W
1 5 9 13
(iii) We have: , , , , .....
3 3 3 3
1 1
T1 = a=
3 3
5 5 1 4
T2 = d = T2 T1 = =
3 3 3 3
T3 =
9 U| 13 9 4
13
13 V|
d = T4 T3 =
3

3
=
3
T4 =
1
3 W 4
Thus, a = and d =
3 3
(iv) We have: 0.6, 1.7, 2.8, 3.9, .....
T1 = 0.6 a = 0.6
T2 = 1.7 d = T2 T1 = 1.7 0.6 = 1.1
T3 = 2.8
T4 = 3.9 d = T4 T3 = 3.9 2.8 = 1.1
Thus, a = 0.6 and d = 1.1

Arithmetic Progressions 77
Q. 4. Which of the following are APs? If they form an AP, find the common difference d and write three
more terms.
5 7
(i) 2, 4, 8, 16, ... (ii) 2, , 3, , ...
2 2
(iii) 1.2, 3.2, 5.2, 7.2, ... (iv) 10, 6, 2, 2, ...
(v) 3, 3 + 2 , 3 + 2 2 , 3 + 3 2 , ... (vi) 0.2, 0.22, 0.222, 0.2222, ...
1 1 1 1
(vii) 0, 4, 8, 12, ... (viii) , , , , ...
2 2 2 2
(ix) 1, 3, 9, 27, ... (x) a, 2a, 3a, 4a, ...
(xi) a, a2, a3, a4, ... (xii) 2 , 8 , 18 , 32 , ...
(xiii) 3 , 6 , 9 , 12 , ... (xiv) 12, 32, 52, 72, ...
2 2 2
(xv) 1 , 5 , 7 , 73, ...
Sol. (i) We have: 2, 4, 8, 16, .....
T1 = 2 UV T2 T1 = 4 2 = 2
T2 = 4 W
T3 = 8
T4 = 16
UV T4 T3 = 16 8 = 8
Since 2 8
T2 T1 T4 T3
W
The given numbers do not form an A.P.
5 7
(ii) We have: 2, , 3, , .....
2 2
5 7
T1 = 2, T2 = , T3 = 3, T4 =
2 2
5 1
T2 T1 = 2 =
2 2
5 1
T3 T2 = 3 =
2 2
7 1
T4 T3 = 3 =
2 2
1 1
T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = d=
2 2
The given numbers form an A.P.
1 7 1
T5 = T4 + = + = 4
2 2 2
1 1 9
T6 = T5 + = 4+ =
2 2 2
1 9 1
T7 = T6 + = + = 5
2 2 2
1 9
Thus, d = and T5 = 4, T6 = and T7 = 5
2 2
(iii) We have: 1.2, 3.2, 5.2, 7.2, .....
T1 = 1.2, T2 = 3.2, T3 = 5.2, T4 = 7.2

78 MathematicsX
T2 T1 = 3.2 + 1.2 = 2
T3 T2 = 5.2 + 3.2 = 2
T4 T3 = 7.2 + 5.2 = 2
T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = 2 d = 2
The given numbers form an A.P.
Such that d = 2.
Now, T5 = T4 + ( 2) = 7.2 + ( 2) = 9.2
T6 = T5 + ( 2) = 9.2 + ( 2) = 11.2
T7 = T6 + ( 2) = 11.2 + ( 2) = 13.2
Thus, d = 2 and T5 = 9.2, T6 = 11.2 and T7 = 13.2
(iv) We have: 10, 6, 2, 2, .....
T1 = 10, T2 = 6, T3 = 2, T4 = 2
T2 T1 = 6 + 10 = 4
T3 T2 = 2 + 6 = 4
T4 T3 = 2 + 2 = 4
T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = 4 d = 4
The given numbers form an A.P.
Now, T 5 = T4 + 4 = 2 + 4 = 6
T6 = T5 + 4 = 6 + 4 = 10
T7 = T6 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14
Thus, d = 4 and T5 = 6, T6 = 10, T7 = 14
(v) We have:
3, 3+ 2 , 3+2 2 , 3 + 3 2 , .....
T1 = 3, T2 = 3 + 2 , T3 = 3 + 2 2 , T4 = 3 + 3 2

T2 T1 = 3 + 2 3 = 2

T3 T2 = 3 + 2 2 3 2 = 2

T4 T3 = 3 + 3 2 3 2 2 = 2

T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = 2 d= 2
The given numbers form an A.P.
Now, T5 = T4 + 2

= 3+3 2 + 2 = 3+4 2

T6 = T5 + 2

= 3+4 2 + 2 = 3+5 2

T7 = T6 + 2

= 3+5 2 + 2 = 3+6 2

Thus, d = 2 and T5 = 3 + 4 2 , T6 = 3 + 5 2 , T7 = 3 + 6 2 .
Arithmetic Progressions 79
(vi) We have: 0.2, 0.22, 0.222, 0.2222, .....
T1 = 0.2 UV T2 T1 = 0.22 0.2 = 0.02
T2 = 0.22 W
T3 = 0.222 UV
T4 T3 = 0.2222 0.222 = 0.0002.
T4 = 0.2222 W
Since,
T2 T1 T4 T3
The given numbers do not form an A.P.
(vii) We have: 0, 4, 8, 12, .....
T1 = 0, T2 = 4, T3 = 8, T4 = 12
T2 T1 = 4 0 = 4
T3 T2 = 8 + 4 = 4
T4 T3 = 12 + 8 = 4
T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = 4 d = 4
The given numbers form an A.P.
Now, T5 = T4 + ( 4) = 12 + ( 4) = 16
T6 = T5 + ( 4) = 16 + ( 4) = 20
T7 = T6 + ( 4) = 20 + ( 4) = 24
Thus, d = 4 and T5 = 16, T6 = 20, T7 = 24
(viii) We have:
1 1 1 1
, , , , .....
2 2 2 2
1
T 1 = T2 = T3 = T4 =
2
T2 T1 = 0
T3 T2 = 0
T4 T3 = 0
T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = 0 d = 0
The given number form an A.P.
1 1
Now, T5 = + 0 =
2 2
1 1
T6 = + 0 =
2 2
1 1
T7 = + 0 =
2 2
1 1 1
Thus, d = 0 and T5 = , T6 = , T7 =
2 2 2
(ix) We have: 1, 3, 9, 27, .....
Here, T1 = 1 UV T2 T1 = 3 1 = 2
T2 = 3 W
T3 = 9 UV T4 T3 = 27 9 = 18
T4 = 27 W
T2 T1 T4 T3
The given numbers do not form an A.P.
80 MathematicsX
(x) We have: a, 2a, 3a, 4a, .....
T1 = a, T2 = 2a, T3 = 3a, T4 = 4a
T2 T1 = 2a a = a
T3 T2 = 3a 2a = a
T4 T3 = 4a 3a = a
T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = a d=a
The numbers form an A.P.
Now, T5 = T4 + a = 4a + a = 5a
T6 = T5 + a = 5a + a = 6a
T7 = T6 + a = 6a + a = 7a
Thus, d = a and T5 = 5a, T6 = 6a, T7 = 7a
(xi) We have: a, a2, a3, a4, .....
T1 = a UV T2 T1 = a2 a = a [a 1]
T2 = a2 W
T3 = a3 UV T4 T3 = a4 a3 = a3 [a 1]

Since,
T4 = a 4 W
T2 T1 T4 T3
The given terms are not in A.P.
(xii) We have: 2, 8, 18 , 32 , .....
T1 = 2 , T2 = 8 , T3 = 18 , T4 = 32
T2 T1 = 8 2 = 2 2 2 = 2
T3 T2 = 18 8 = 3 2 2 2 = 2
T4 T3 = 32 18 = 4 2 3 2 = 2
T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = 2 d= 2
The given numbers form an A.P.
Now, T5 = 4 2 + 2 = 5 2 = 50
T6 = 5 2 + 2 = 6 2 = 72
T7 = 6 2 + 2 = 7 2 = 98
Thus, d = 2 and T5 = 50 , T6 = 72 , T7 = 98
(xiii) We have: 3, 6 , 9, 12 , .....
T1 = 3 UV T2 T1 = 6 3 = 3 e j
2 1
T2 = 6 W
and T3 = UV
9 T4 T3 = 12 9 = 2 3 3 = e
3 2 3 j
T4 = 12 W
T2 T1 T T
4 3
The given terms do not form an A.P.

Arithmetic Progressions 81
(xiv) We have: 12, 32, 52, 72, .....
T 1 = 12 = 1 UV T2 T1 = 9 1 = 8
T 2 = 32 = 9 W
T 3 = 52 = 25 U
T 4 = 72 = 49 W
V T4 T3 = 49 25 = 24

T2 T1 T4 T3
The given terms do not form an A.P.
(xv) We have: 12, 52, 72, 73, .....
T1 = 12 = 1, T2 = 52 = 25, T3 = 72 = 49, T4 = 73
T2 T1 = 25 1 = 24
T3 - T2 = 49 25 = 24
T4 - T3 = 73 49 = 24
T2 T1 = T3 T2 = T4 T3 = 24 d = 24
The numbers form an A.P.
Now, T5 = T4 + 24 = 73 + 24 = 97
T6 = T5 + 24 = 97 + 24 = 121
T7 = T6 + 24 = 121 + 24 = 145
Thus, d = 24 and T5 = 97, T6 = 121, T7 = 145
z nth Term of an A.P.
The nth term Tn of the A.P. with first term a and common difference d is given by
Tn = a + (n 1) d
Tn is also called the general term of the A.P. If there are m terms in the A.P., then Tm
represents the last term which is generally denoted by l.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 5.2
Q. 1. Fill in the blanks in the following table, given that a is the first term, d the common difference
and an the nth term of the A.P.:

a d n an

(i) 7 3 8
(ii) 18 10 0
(iii) 3 18 5
(iv) 18.9 2.5 3.6
(v) 3.5 0 105

Sol. (i) an = a + (n 1) d
a 8 = 7 + (8 1) 3
= 7+73
= 7 + 21
a 8 = 28
82 MathematicsX
(ii) an = a + (n 1) d
a 10 = 18 + (10 1) d
0 = 18 + 9d
18
9d = 18 d= = 2
9
d = 2
(iii) an = a + (n 1) d
5 = a + (18 1) ( 3)
5 = a + 17 ( 3)
5 = a 51
a = 5 + 51 = 46
Thus, a = 46
(iv) an = a + (n 1) d
3.6 = 18.9 + (n 1) 2.5
(n 1) 2.5 = 3.6 + 18.9
(n 1) 2.5 = 22.5
22.5
n1 = = 9
2.5
n = 9 + 1 = 10
Thus, n = 10
(v) an = a + (n 1) d
an = 3.5 + (105 1) 0
an = 3.5 + 104 0
an = 3.5 + 0 = 3.5
Thus, an = 3.5
Q. 2. Choose the correct choice in the following and justify:
(i) 30th term of the A.P.: 10, 7, 4, ...., is
(A) 97 (B) 77 (C) 77 (D) 87
1
(ii) 11th term of the A.P.: 3, , 2 , ...., is
2
1
(A) 28 (B) 22 (C) 38 (D) 48
2
Sol. (i) Here, a = 10, n = 30
Tn = a + (n 1) d and d = 7 10 = 3
T30 = 10 + (30 1) ( 3)
T30 = 10 + 29 ( 3)
T30 = 10 87 = 77
Thus, the correct choice is (C) 77.

Arithmetic Progressions 83
(ii) Here, a = 3, n = 11 and d =
1
2
b g 1
3 = +3 =
2
5
2
Tn = a + (n 1) d
5
T11 = 3 + (11 1)
2
T11 = 3 + 25 = 22
Thus, the correct choice is (B) 22.
Q. 3. In the following A.Ps., find the missing terms in the boxes:

(i) 2, , 26

(ii) , 13, ,3

1
(iii) 5, , , 9
2

(iv) 4, , , , ,6

(v) , 38, , , , 22
Sol. (i) Here, a = 2, T3 = 26
Let common difference = d
Tn = a + (n 1) d
T3 = 2 + (3 1) d
26 = 2 + 2d
2d = 26 2 = 24
24
d = = 12
2
The missing term = a + d

= 2 + 12 = 14
(ii) Let the first term = a and common difference = d
Here, T2 = 13 and T4 = 3
T2 = a + d = 13
T4 = a + 3d = 3
T4 T2 = (a + 3d) (a + d) = 3 13
2d = 10
10
= 5
d =
2
Now, a + d = 13 a + ( 5) = 13
a = 13 + 5 = 18
Thus, missing terms are a and a + 2d or 18 and 18 + ( 10) = 8
i.e., T1 = 18 and T3 = 8

84 MathematicsX
1
(iii) Here, a = 5 and T4 = 9
2
since, T4 = a + 3d
1
9 = 5 + 3d
2
1 1
3d = 9 5 = 4
2 2
1 9 1 3
d = 4 3 = =
2 2 3 2
The missing terms are:
3 1
T2 = a + d = 5 + = 6
2 2
FG 3 IJ
T3 = a + 2d = 5 + 2
H 2K = 8

(iv) Here, a = 4 and T6 = 6


Tn = a + (n 1) d
T6 = 4 + (6 1) d
6 = 4 + 5d
5d = 6 + 4 = 10
d = 10 5 = 2
T2 = a+d=4+2=2
T3 = a + 2d = 4 + 2 (2) = 0
T4 = a + 3d = 4 + 3 (2) = 2
T5 = a + 4d = 4 + 4 (2) = 4

The missing terms are 2 , 0 , 2 , 4

(v) Here, T2 = 38 and T6 = 22


T2 = a + d = 38
T6 = a + 5d = 22
T6 T2 = a + 5d (a + d) = 22 38
4d = 60
60
d = = 15
4
a+d = 38 a + ( 15) = 38
a = 38 + 15 = 53
Now, T3 = a + 2d = 53 + 2 ( 15) = 53 30 = 23
T4 = a + 3d = 53 + 3 ( 15) = 53 45 = 8
T5 = a + 4d = 53 + 4 ( 15) = 53 60 = 7

Thus, the missing terms are 53 , 23 , 8 , 7

Arithmetic Progressions 85
Q. 4. Which term of the A.P.: 3, 8, 13, 18, ..., is 78?
Sol. Let the nth term = 78
Here, a = 3, T1 = 3 and T2 = 8
d = T2 T1 = 8 3 = 5
Now, Tn = a + (n 1) d
78 = 3 + (n 1) 5
78 3 = (n 1) 5
75 = (n 1) 5
(n 1) = 75 5 = 15
n = 15 + 1 = 16
Thus, 78 is the 16th term of the given A.P.
Q. 5. Find the number of terms in each of the following A.Ps.:
1
(i) 7, 13, 19, ..., 205 (ii) 18, 15 , 13, ..., 47
2
Sol. (i) Here, a = 7
d = 13 7 = 6
Let the number of terms be n
Tn = 205
Now, Tn = a + (n 1) d
7 + (n 1) 6 = 205
(n 1) 6 = 205 7 = 198
198
n1 = = 33
6
n = 33 + 1 = 34
Thus, the required number of terms is 34.
(ii) Here, a = 18
1 1
d = 15 18 = 2
2 2
Let the nth term = 47
Tn = a + (n 1) d
FG 2 1 IJ
47 = 18 + (n 1)
H 2K
FG 5 IJ
47 18 = (n 1)
H2K
= (n 1) G
F 5 IJ
65
H2K
F 2 IJ
= 65 G
n1
H5K
n 1 = ( 13) ( 2) = 26
n = 26 + 1 = 27
Thus, the required number of terms is 27.

86 MathematicsX
Q. 6. Check whether 150 is a term of the A.P.: 11, 8, 5, 2 ...
Sol. For the given A.P., we have
a = 11
d = 8 11 = 3
Let 150 is the nth term of the given A.P.
Tn = a + (n 1) d
150 = 11 + (n 1) ( 3)
150 11 = (n 1) ( 3)
161 = (n 1) ( 3)
161 161
n1 = =
3 3
161 164 2
n = +1 = = 54
3 3 3
But n should be a positive integer.
Thus, 150 is not a term of the given A.P.
Q. 7. Find the 31st term of an A.P. whose 11th term is 38 and the 16th term is 73.
Sol. Here, T31 = ?
T11 = 38
T16 = 73
If the first term = a and the common difference = d.
Then,
a + (11 1) d = 38
a + 10 d = 38 ...(1)
and a + (16 1) d = 73
a + 15d = 73 ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we get
(a + 15d) (a + 10 d) = 73 38
5d = 35
35
d = = 7
5
From (1),
a + 10 (7) = 38
a + 70 = 38
a = 38 70 = 32
T31 = 32 + (31 1) 7
T31 = 32 + 30 7
T31 = 32 + 210
T31 = 178
Thus, the 31st term is 178.

Arithmetic Progressions 87
Q. 8. An A.P. consists of 50 terms of which 3rd term is 12 and the last term is 106. Find the 29th term.
Sol. Here, n = 50
T3 = 12
Tn = 106 T50 = 106
If first term = a and the common difference = d
T3 = a + 2d = 12 ...(1)
T50 = a + 49d = 106 ...(2)
T50 T3 a + 49d (a + 2d) = 106 12
47d = 94
94
d = = 2
47
From (1), we have
a + 2d = 12 a + 2 (2) = 12
a = 12 4 = 8
Now, T29 = a + (29 1) d
= 8 + (28) 2
= 8 + 56 = 64
Thus, the 29th term is 64.
Q. 9. If the 3rd and the 9th terms of an A.P. are 4 and 8 respectively, which term of this A.P. is zero ?
Sol. Here, T3 = 4 and T9 = 8
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d
T3 = a + 2d = 4 ...(1)
T9 = a + 8d = 8 ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2) we get
(a + 8d) (a + 2d) = 8 4
6d = 12
12
d = = 2
6
Now, from (1), we have:
a + 2d = 4
a + 2 ( 2) = 4
a4 = 4
a = 4+4=8
Let the nth term of the A.P. be 0.
Tn = a + (n 1) d = 0
8 + (n 1) ( 2) = 0
(n 1) 2 = 8
8
n1 = = 4
2
n = 4+1=5
Thus, the 5th term of the A.P. is 0.

88 MathematicsX
Q. 10. The 17th term of an A.P. exceeds its 10th term by 7. Find the common difference.
Sol. Let a be the first term and d be the common difference of the given A.P.
Now, using Tn = a + (n 1) d
T17 = a + 16d
T10 = a + 9d
According to the condition,
Tn + 7 = T17
(a + 9d) + 7 = a + 16d
a + 9d a 16d = 7
7d = 7 d = 1
Thus, the common difference is 1.
Q. 11. Which term of the A.P.: 3, 15, 27, 39, ... will be 132 more than its 54th term?
Sol. Here, a = 3
d = 15 3 = 12
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we get
T54 = a + 53d
= 3 + 53 12
= 3 + 636 = 639
Let an be 132 more than its 54th term.
an = T54 + 132
an = 639 + 132 = 771
Now an = a + (n 1) d = 771
3 + (n 1) 12 = 771
(n 1) 12 = 771 3 = 768
768
(n 1) = = 64
12
n = 64 + 1 = 65
Thus, 132 more than 54th term is the 65th term.
Q. 12. Two A.Ps. have the same common difference. The difference between their 100th terms is 100, what
is the difference between their 1000th terms?
Sol. Let for the 1st A.P., the first term = a
T100 = a + 99d
And for the 2nd A.P., the first term = a
= a + 99d
T100
According to the condition, we have:
T100 T100
= 100
a + 99d (a + 99d) = 100
a a = 100
Let, T1000 T1000
= x
a + 999d (a + 999d) = x
a a = x x = 100
The difference between the 1000th terms is 100.
Arithmetic Progressions 89
Q. 13. How many three-digit numbers are divisible by 7?
Ans. The first three digit number divisible by 7 is 105.
The last such three digit number is 994.
The A.P. is 105, 112, 119, ....., 994
Here, a = 105 and d = 7
Let n be the required number of terms.
Tn = a + (n 1) d
994 = 105 + (n 1) 7
(n 1) 7 = 994 105 = 889
889
(n 1) = = 127
7
n = 127 + 1 = 128
Thus, 128 numbers of 3-digit are divisible by 7.
Q. 14. How many multiples of 4 lie between 10 and 250?
Sol. The first multiple of 4 beyond 10 is 12.
The multiple of 4 just below 250 is 248.
The A.P. is given by:
12, 16, 20, ....., 248
Here, a = 12 and d = 4
Let the number of terms = n
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we get
Tn = 12 + (n 1) 4
248 = 12 + (n 1) 4
(n 1) 4 = 248 12 = 236
236
n1 = = 59
4
n = 59 + 1 = 60
Thus, the required number of terms = 60.
Q. 15. For what value of n, are the nth terms of two A.Ps.: 63, 65, 67, ... and 3, 10, 17, ... equal?
Sol. For the 1st A.P.
a = 63 and d = 65 63 = 2
Tn = a + (n 1) d
Tn = 63 + (n 1) 2
For the 2nd A.P.
a = 3 and d = 10 3 = 7
Tn = a + (n 1) d
Tn = 3 + (n 1) 7
Now, according to the condition,
3 + (n 1) 7 = 63 + (n 1) 2
(n 1) 7 (n 1) 2 = 63 3
90 MathematicsX
7n 7 2n + 2 = 60
5n 5 = 60
5n = 60 + 5 = 65
65
n = = 13
5
Thus, the 13th terms of the two given A.Ps. are equal.
Q. 16. Determine the A.P. whose third term is 16 and the 7th term exceeds the 5th term by 12.
Sol. Let the first term = a and the common difference = d.
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:
T3 = a + 2d
a + 2d = 16 ...(1)
And T7 = a + 6d, T5 = a + 4d
According to the condition,
T7 T5 = 12
(a + 6d) (a + 4d) = 12
a + 6d a 4d = 12
2d = 12
12
d = = 6 ...(2)
2
Now, from (1) and (2), we have:
a + 2 (6) = 16
a + 12 = 16
a = 16 12 = 4
The required A.P. is
4, [4 + 6], [4 + 2 (6)], [4 + 3 (6)], .....
or 4, 10, 16, 22, .....
Q. 17. Find the 20th term from the last term of the A.P.: 3, 8, 13, ..., 253.
Sol. We have, the last term l = 253
Here, d = 8 3 = 5
Since, the nth term before the last term is given by l (n 1) d,
We have
20th term from the end = l (20 1) 5
= 253 19 5
= 253 95 = 158
Q. 18. The sum of the 4th and 8th terms of an A.P. is 24 and the sum of the 6th and 10th terms is 44.
Find the first three terms of the A.P.
Sol. Let the first term = a
And the common difference = d
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d,
T4 + T8 = 24
(a + 3d) + (a + 7d) = 24
Arithmetic Progressions 91
2a + 10d = 24
a + 5d = 12 ...(1)
And T6 + T10 = 44
(a + 5d) + (a + 9d) = 44
2a + 14d = 44
a + 7d = 22 ...(2)
Now, subtracting (1) from (2), we get
(a + 7d) (a + 5d) = 22 12
2d = 10
10
d = = 5
2
From (1), a + 5 5 = 12
a + 25 = 12
a = 12 25 = 13
Now, the first three terms of the A.P. are given by:
a, (a + d), (a + 2d)
or 13, ( 13 + 5), [ 13 + 2 (5)]
or 13, 8, 3
Q. 19. Subba Rao started work in 1995 at an annual salary of ` 5000 and received an increment of
` 200 each year. In which year did his income reach ` 7000?
Sol. Here, a = ` 5000 and d = ` 200
Say, in the nth year he gets ` 7000.
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we get
7000 = 5000 + (n 1) 200
(n 1) 200 = 7000 5000 = 2000
2000
n1 = = 10
200
n = 10 + 1 = 11
Thus, his income becomes ` 7000 in 11 years.
Q. 20. Ramkali saved ` 5 in the first week of a year and then increased weekly savings by ` 1.75. If in
the nth week, her weekly savings become ` 20.75, find n.
Sol. Here, a = ` 5 and d = ` 1.75
In the nth week her savings become ` 20.75.
Tn = ` 20.75
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
20.75 = 5 + (n 1) (1.75)
(n 1) 1.75 = 20.75 5
(n 1) 1.75 = 15.75
15.75
n1 = = 9
1.75
n = 9 + 1 = 10
Thus, the required number of years = 10.

92 MathematicsX
z Sum of First n Terms of an A.P.
(i) If the first term of an A.P. is a and the common difference is d then the sum of
its first n terms is given by:
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
(ii) If the last term of the A.P. is l then
n
Sn = (a + l)
2
Remember,
The sum of first n positive integers is given by:

Sn =
b
n n+1 g
2

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 5.3
Q. 1. Find the sum of the following A.Ps.:
(i) 2, 7, 12, ..., to 10 terms. (ii) 37, 33, 29, ..., to 12 terms.
1 1 1
(iii) 0.6, 1.7, 2.8, ..., to 100 terms. (iv) , , , ..., to 11 terms.
15 12 10
Sol. (i) Here, a = 2
d = 72=5
n = 10
n
Since, Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
10
S10 = [2 2 + (10 1) 5]
2
S10 = 5 [4 + 9 5]
S10 = 5 [49] = 245
Thus, the sum of first 10 terms is 245.
(ii) We have:
a = 37
d = 33 ( 37) = 4
n = 12
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
12
S12 = [2 ( 37) + (12 1) 4]
2
= 6 [ 74 + 11 4]
= 6 [ 74 + 44]
= 6 [ 30] = 180
Thus, sum of first 12 terms = 180.
Arithmetic Progressions 93
(iii) Here, a = 0.6
d = 1.7 0.6 = 1.1
n = 100
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
100
S100 = [2 (0.6) + (100 1) 1.1]
2
= 50 [1.2 + 99 1.1]
= 50 [1.2 + 108.9]
= 50 [110.1]
= 5505
Thus, the required sum of first 100 terms is 5505.
1
(iv) Here, a =
15
1 1 1
d = =
12 15 60
n = 11
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
11 LMFG 2 1 IJ + b11 1g 1 OP
S11 =
2 NH 15 K 60 Q
11 L 2 F 1 IO
M + G 10 J P
=
2 N 15 H 60 K Q
11 L 2 1O
= M
2 N 15 6 Q
+ P

11 L 4 + 5 O
2 MN 30 PQ
=

11 9 99 33
= = =
2 30 60 20
33
Thus, the required sum of first 11 terms = .
20
Q. 2. Find the sums given below:
1
(i) 7 + 10 + 14 + ... + 84
2
(ii) 34 + 32 + 30 + ... + 10
(iii) 5 + ( 8) + ( 11) + ... + ( 230)
Sol. (i) Here, a = 7
1 1 7
d = 10 7 = 3 =
2 2 2
l = 84
94 MathematicsX
Let n be the number of terms
Tn = a + (n 1) d
7
84 = 7 + (n 1)
2
7
(n 1) = 84 7 = 77
2
2
n 1 = 77 = 22
7
n = 22 + 1 = 23

Now, Sn =
n
2
b g
a+l

S23 =
23
2
b g
7 + 84

23 2093 1
= 91 = = 1046
2 2 2
1
Thus, the required sum = 1046 .
2
(ii) Here, a = 34
d = 32 34 = 2
l = 10
Let the number of terms be n
Tn = 10
Now Tn = a + (n 1) d
10 = 34 + (n 1) ( 2)
(n 1) ( 2) = 10 34 = 24
24
n1 = = 12
2
n = 13
n
Now, Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
13
S13 = [2 34 + (13 1) ( 2)]
2
13
= [68 + 12 ( 2)]
2
13
= [68 24]
2
13
= 44
2
= 13 22 = 286
OR
n
S13 = (a + l)
2
13
= (34 + 10)
2
13
= 44 = 13 22 = 286
2
Thus, the required sum is 286.

Arithmetic Progressions 95
(iii) Here, a = 5
d = 8 ( 5) = 3
l = 230
Let n be the number of terms.
Tn = 230
230 = 5 + (n 1) ( 3)
(n 1) ( 3) = 230 + 5 = 225
225
n1 = = 75
3
n = 75 + 1 = 76
76
Now, S76 = [( 5) + ( 230)]
2
= 38 ( 235)
= 8930
The required sum = 8930.
Q. 3. In an A.P.:
(i) given a = 5, d = 3, an = 50, find n and Sn.
(ii) given a = 7, a13 = 35, find d and S13.
(iii) given a12 = 37, d = 3, find a and S12.
(iv) given a3 = 15, S10 = 125, find d and a10.
(v) given d = 5, S9 = 75, find a and a9.
(vi) given a = 2, d = 8, Sn = 90, find n and an.
(vii) given a = 8, an = 62, Sn = 210, find n and d.
(viii) given an = 4, d = 2, Sn = 14, find n and a.
(ix) given a = 3, n = 8, S = 192, find d.
(x) given l = 28, S = 144, and there are total 9 terms. Find a.
Sol. (i) Here, a = 5, d = 3 and an = 50 = l
an = a + (n 1) d
50 = 5 + (n 1) 3
50 5 = (n 1) 3
(n 1) 3 = 45
45
(n 1) = = 15
3
n = 15 + 1 = 16
n
Now Sn = (a + l)
2
16
= (5 + 50)
2
= 8 (55) = 440
Thus, n = 16 and Sn = 440
96 MathematicsX
(ii) Here, a = 7 and a13 = 35 = l
an = a + (n 1) d
35 = 7 + (13 1) d
35 7 = 12d
28 = 12d
28 7
d = =
12 3
Now, using
n
Sn = (a + l)
2
13
S13 = (7 + 35)
2
13
= 42
2
= 13 21 = 273
7
Sn = 273 and d =
3
(iii) Here, a 12 = 37 = l and d = 3
Let the first term of the A.P. be a.
Now a 12 = a + (12 1) d
37 = a + 11d
37 = a + 11 3
37 = a + 33
a = 37 33 = 4
n
Now, Sn = (a + l)
2

12
S12 = (4 + 37)
2
S12 = 6 (41) = 246
Thus, a = 4 and S12 = 246
(iv) Here, a3 = 15 = l
S10 = 125
Let first term of the A.P. be a and the common difference = d
a3 = a + 2d
a + 2d = 15 ...(1)
n
Again Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
10
S10 = [2a + (10 1) d]
2
125 = 5 [2a + 9d]

Arithmetic Progressions 97
125
2a + 9d = = 25
5
2a + 9d = 25 ...(2)
Multiplying (1) by 2 and subtracting (2) from it, we get
2 [a + 2d = 15] [2a + 9d = 25]
2a + 4d 2a 9d = 30 25
5d = 5
5
d = = 1
5
From (1), a + 2 ( 1) = 15 a = 15 + 2 a = 17
Now, a10 = a + (10 1) d
= 17 + 9 ( 1)
= 17 9 = 8
Thus, d = 1 and a10 = 8
(v) Here, d = 5, S9 = 75
Let the first term of the A.P. is a.
9
S9 = [2a + (9 1) 5]
2
9
75 = [2a + 40]
2
2
75 = 2a + 40
9
50
= 2a + 40
3
50 70
2a = 40 =
3 3
70 1 35
a = =
3 2 3
Now, a 9 = a + (9 1) d
35
=
3
b
+ 85 g
35
= + 40
3
35 + 120 85
= =
3 3
35 85
Thus, a = and a9 =
3 3
(vi) Here, a = 2, d = 8 and Sn = 90
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
98 MathematicsX
n
90 = [2 2 + (n 1) 8]
2
90 2 = 4n + n (n 1) 8
180 = 4n + 8n2 8n
180 = 8n2 4n
45 = 2n2 n
2n2 n 45 = 0
2n2 10n + 9n 45 = 0
2n (n 5) + 9 (n 5) = 0
(2n + 9) (n 5) = 0
9
Either 2n + 9 = 0 n =
2
or n5 = 0 n=5
9
But n = is not required.
2
n = 5
Now, an = a + (n 1) d
a 5 = 2 + (5 1) 8
= 2 + 32 = 34
Thus, n = 5 and a5 = 34.
(vii) Here, a = 8, an = 62 = l and Sn = 210
Let the common difference = d
Now, Sn = 210
n
210 = (a + l)
2
n n
210 = (8 + 62) = 70 = 35n
2 2
210
n = = 6
35
Again an = a + (n 1) d
62 = 8 + (6 1) d
62 8 = 5d
54
54 = 5d d =
5
54
Thus, n = 6 and d = .
5
(viii) Here, an = 4, d = 2 and Sn = 14
Let the first term be a.
an = 4
a + (n 1) 2 = 4

Arithmetic Progressions 99
a + 2n 2 = 4
a = 4 2n + 2
a = 6 2n ...(1)
Also Sn = 14
n
(a + l) = 14
2
n
(a + 4) = 14
2
n (a + 4) = 28 ...(2)
Substituting the value of a from (1) into (2),
n [6 2n + 4] = 28
n [10 2n] = 28
2n [5 n] = 28
n (5 n) = 14 [Dividing throughout by 2]
5n n2 + 14 = 0
n2 5n 14 = 0
n2 7n + 2n 14 = 0
n (n 7) + 2 (n 7) = 0
(n 7) (n + 2) = 0
Either n7 = 0 n=7
or n+2 = 0 n=2
But n cannot be negative,
n = 7
Now, from (1), we have
a = 627 a=8
Thus, a = 8 and n = 7
(ix) Here, a = 3, n = 8 and Sn = 192
Let the common difference = d.
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
8
192 = [2 (3) + (8 1) d]
2
192 = 4 [6 + 7d]
192 = 24 + 28d
28d = 192 24 = 168
168
d = = 6
28
Thus, d = 6.
(x) Here, l = 28 and S9 = 144
Let the first term be a.

100 MathematicsX
n
Then Sn = (a + l)
2
9
S9 = (a + 28)
2
9
144 = (a + 28)
2
2
a + 28 = 144 = 16 2 = 32
9
a = 32 28 = 4
Thus, a = 4.
Q. 4. How many terms of the A.P.: 9, 17, 25, ... must be taken to give a sum of 636?
Sol. Here, a = 9
d = 17 9 = 8
Sn = 636
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1) d] = 636
2
n
[(2 9) + (n 1) 8] = 636
2
n [18 + (n 1) 8] = 1272
n (8n + 10) = 1272
8n2 + 10n 1272 = 0
4n2 + 5n 636 = 0
2
4n + 53n 48n 636 = 0
n (4n + 53) 12 (4n + 53) = 0
53
(n 12) (4n + 53) = 0 n = 12 and n=
4
53
Rejecting n = , we have n = 12.
4
Q. 5. The first term of an A.P. is 5, the last term is 45 and the sum is 400. Find the number of terms
and the common difference.
Sol. Here, a = 5
l = 45 = Tn
Sn = 400
Tn = a + (n 1) d
45 = 5 + (n 1) d
(n 1) d = 45 5
(n 1) d = 40 ...(1)
n
Also Sn = (a + l)
2
n
400 = (5 + 45)
2
Arithmetic Progressions 101
400 2 = n 50
400 2
n = = 16
50
From (1), we get
(16 1) d = 40
15d = 40
40 8
d = =
15 3
Q. 6. The first and the last terms of an A.P. are 17 and 350 respectively. If the common difference is
9, how many terms are there and what is their sum?
Sol. We have,
First term a = 17
Last term l = 350 = Tn
Common difference d = 9
Let the number of terms be n
Tn = a + (n 1) d
350 = 17 + (n 1) 9
(n 1) 9 = 350 17 = 333
333
n1 = = 37
9
n = 37 + 1 = 38
n
Since, Sn = (a + l)
2
38
S38 = (17 + 350)
2
= 19 (367) = 6973
Thus, n = 38 and Sn = 6973
Q. 7. Find the sum of first 22 terms of an A.P. in which d = 7 and 22nd term is 149.
Sol. Here, n = 22, T22 = 149 = l
d = 7
Let the first term of the A.P. be a.
Tn = a + (n 1) d
Tn = a + (22 1) 7
a + 21 7 = 149
a + 147 = 149
a = 149 147 = 2
n
Now, S22 = [a + l]
2
22
S22 = [2 + 149]
2
= 11 [151] = 1661
Thus S22 = 1661
102 MathematicsX
Q. 8. Find the sum of first 51 terms of an A.P. whose second and third terms are 14 and 18 respectively.
Sol. Here, n = 51, T2 = 14 and T3 = 18
Let the first term of the A.P. be a and the common difference is d.
We have:
T2 = a + d a + d = 14 ...(1)
T3 = a + 2d a + 2d = 18 ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from 2, we get
a + 2d a d = 18 14
d = 14
From (1), we get
a + d = 14 a + 4 = 14
a = 14 4 = 10
n
Now, Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
51
S51 = [(2 10) + (51 1) 4]
2
51
= [20 + 200]
2
51
= 220
2
= 51 110 = 5610
Thus, the sum of 51 terms is 5610.
Q. 9. If the sum of first 7 terms of an A.P. is 49 and that of 17 terms is 289, find the sum of first n
terms.
Sol. Here, we have:
S7 = 49 and S17 = 289
Let the first term of the A.P. be a and d be the common difference, then
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2

7
S7 = [2a + (7 1) d] = 49
2
7 (2a + 6d) = 2 49 = 98
98
2a + 6d = = 14
7
2 [a + 3d] = 14
14
a + 3d = = 7
2
a + 3d = 7 ...(1)
17
Also, S17 = [2a + (17 1) d] = 289
2
Arithmetic Progressions 103
17
(2a + 16d) = 289
2
289
a + 8d = = 17
17
a + 8d = 17 ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we have:
a + 8d a 3d = 17 7
5d = 10
10
d = =2
5
Now, from (1), we have
a + 3 (2) = 7
a = 76=1
n
Now, Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
n
= [2 1 + (n 1) 2]
2
n
= [2 + 2n 2]
2
n
= 2n
2
= n n = n2
Thus, the required sum of n terms = n2.
Q. 10. Show that a1, a2, ..., an, ... form an A.P. where an is defined as below:
(i) an = 3 + 4n (ii) an = 9 5n
Also find the sum of the first 15 terms in each case.
Sol. (i) Here, an = 3 + 4n
Putting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ..... n, we get:
a 1 = 3 + 4 (1) = 7
a 2 = 3 + 4 (2) = 11
a 3 = 3 + 4 (3) = 15
a 4 = 3 + 4 (4) = 19
..... ..... .....
an = 3 + 4n
The A.P. in which a = 7 and d = 11 7 = 4 is:
7, 11, 15, 19, ....., (3 + 4n).
15
Now S15 = [(2 7) + (15 1) 4]
2
15
= [14 + (14 4)]
2
104 MathematicsX
15
= [14 + 56]
2
15
= 70
2
= 15 35 = 525
(ii) Here, an = 9 5n
Putting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ....., n, we get
a 1 = 9 5 (1) = 4
a 2 = 9 5 (2) = 1
a 3 = 9 5 (3) = 6
a 4 = 9 5 (4) = 11
..... .....
The A.P. is:
4, 1, 6, 11, ..... 9 5 (n) [having first term as 4 and d = 1 4 = 5]
15
S15 = [(2 4) + (15 1) ( 5)]
2
15
= [8 + 14 ( 5)]
2
15
= [8 70]
2

=
15
2
b g
62

= 15 ( 31) = 465.
Q. 11. If the sum of the first n terms of an A.P. is 4n n2, what is the first term (that is S1)? What is
the sum of first two terms? What is the second term? Similarly, find the 3rd, the 10th and the
nth terms.
Sol. We have:
Sn = 4n n2
S1 = 4 (1) (1)2
= 4 1 = 3 First term = 3
S2 = 4 (2) (2)2
= 8 4 = 4 Sum of first two terms = 4
Second term (S2 S1) = 4 3 = 1
S3 = 4 (3) (3)2
= 12 9 = 3 Sum of first 3 terms = 3
Third term (S3 S2) = 3 4 = 1
S9 = 4 (9) (9)2
= 36 81 = 45
S10 = 4 (10) (10)2
= 40 100 = 60
Tenth term = S10 S9 = [ 60] [ 45] = 15

Arithmetic Progressions 105


Now, Sn = 4 (n) (n)2 = 4n n2
Also Sn 1 = 4 (n 1) (n 1)2
= 4n 4 [n2 2n + 1]
= 4n 4 n2 + 2n 1
= 6n n2 5
nth term = Sn Sn 1
= [4n n2] [6n n2 5]
= 4n n2 6n + n2 + 5 = 5 2n
Thus, S1 = 3 and a1 = 3
S2 = 4 and a2 = 1
S3 = 3 and a3 = 1
a 10 = 15 and an = 5 2n
Q. 12. Find the sum of the first 40 positive integers divisible by 6.
Sol. The first 40 positive integers divisible by 6 are:
6, 12, 18, ....., (6 40).
And, these numbers are in A.P. such that
a = 6
d = 12 6 = 6 and an = 6 40 = 240 = l
40
S40 = [(2 6) + (40 1) 6]
2
= 20 [12 + 39 6]
= 20 [12 + 234]
= 20 246 = 4920
OR
n
Sn = [a + l]
2
40
S40 = [6 + 240]
2
= 20 246 = 4920
Thus, the sum of first 40 multiples of 6 is 4920.
Q. 13. Find the sum of the first 15 multiples of 8.
Sol. The first 15 multiples of 8 are:
8, (8 2), (8 3), (8 4), ....., (8 15)
or 8, 16, 24, 32, ....., 120.
These numbers are in A.P., where
a = 8 and l = 120
15
S15 = [a + l]
2
15
= [8 + 120]
2
15
= 128
2
= 15 64 = 960
Thus, the sum of first positive 15 multiples of 8 is 960.

106 MathematicsX
Q. 14. Find the sum of the odd numbers between 0 and 50.
Sol. Odd numbers between 0 and 50 are:
1, 3, 5, 7, ....., 49
These numbers are in A.P. such that
a = 1 and l = 49
Here, d = 3 1 = 2
Tn = a + (n 1) d
49 = 1 + (n 1) 2
49 1 = (n 1) 2
48
(n 1) = = 24
2
n = 24 + 1 = 25
25
Now, S25 = 1 + 49
2
25
= 50
2
= 25 25 = 625
Thus, the sum of odd numbers between 0 and 50 is 625.
Q. 15. A contract on construction job specifies a penalty for delay of completion beyond a certain date
as follows: ` 200 for the first day, ` 250 for the second day, ` 300 for the third day, etc., the
penalty for each succeeding day being ` 50 more than for the preceding day. How much money
the contractor has to pay as penalty, if he has delayed the work by 30 days? (CBSE 2012)
Sol. Here, penalty for delay on
1st day = ` 200
2nd day = ` 250
3rd day = ` 300
...............
...............
Now, 200, 250, 300, ..... are in A.P. such that
a = 200, d = 250 200 = 50
S30 is given by

30 LM
using Sn =
n
a f OPQ
2a + n 1 d
S30 =
2
[2 (200) + (30 1) 50]
N 2
= 15 [400 + 29 50]
= 15 [400 + 1450]
= 15 1850 = 27,750
Thus, penalty for the delay for 30 days is ` 27,750.
Q. 16. A sum of ` 700 is to be used to give seven cash prizes to students of a school for their overall
academic performace. If each prize is ` 20 less than its preceding prize, find the value of each
of the prizes. (CBSE 2012)

Arithmetic Progressions 107


Sol. Sum of all the prizes = ` 700
Let the first prize = a
2nd prize = (a 20)
3rd prize = (a 40)
4th prize = (a 60)
........................................
Thus, we have, first term = a
Common difference = 20
Number of prizes, n = 7
Sum of 7 terms Sn = 700
n
Since, Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
7
700 = [2 (a) + (7 1) ( 20)]
2
7
700 = [2a + (6 20)]
2
2
700 = 2a 120
7
200 = 2a 120
2a = 200 + 120 = 320
320
a = = 160
2
Thus, the values of the seven prizes are:
` 160, ` (160 20), ` (160 40), ` (160 60), ` (160 80), ` (160 100) and
` (160 120)
` 160, ` 140, ` 120, ` 100, ` 80, ` 60 and ` 40.
Q. 17. In a school, students thought of planting trees in and around the school to reduce air pollution.
It was decided that the number of trees that each section of each class will plant, will be the same
as the class, in which they are studying, e.g., a section of Class I will plant 1 tree, a section of
Class II will plant 2 trees and so on till Class XII. There are three sections of each class. How many
trees will be planted by the students? (CBSE 2012)
Sol. Number of classes = 12
Each class has 3 sections.
Number of plants planted by class I = 1 3 = 3
Number of plants planted by class II = 2 3 = 6
Number of plants planted by class III = 3 3 = 9
Number of plants planted by class IV = 4 3 = 12
.......................................................................................................
Number of plants planted by class XII = 12 3 = 36
The numbers 3, 6, 9, 12, ..........., 36 are in A.P.
Here, a = 3 and d = 6 3 = 3

108 MathematicsX
Number of classes = 12
i.e., n = 12
Sum of the n terms of the above A.P., is given by
12 LMusing S =
n
a f OPQ
2a + n 1 d
S12 =
2
[2 (3) + (12 1) 3]
N n
2
= 6 [6 + 11 3]
= 6 [6 + 33]
= 6 39 = 234
Thus, the total number of trees = 234.
Q. 18. A spiral is made up of successive semi-circles, with centres alternately at A and B, starting with
centre at A, of radii 0.5 cm, 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm, ..... as shown in figure. What is the total
22
length of such a spiral made up of thirteen consecutive semi-circles? (Take = )
7
l3

l1

A B

l2

l4
[Hint: Length of successive semi-circles is l1, l2, l3, l4, ... with centres at A, B, A, B, ..., respectively.]
Sol. Length of a semi-circle = semi-circumference
1
= (2 r)
2
= r
l 1 = r1 = 0.5 cm = 1 0.5 cm
l 2 = r2 = 1.0 cm = 2 0.5 cm
l 3 = r3 = 1.5 cm = 3 0.5 cm
l 4 = r4 = 2.0 cm = 4 0.5 cm
...... ............... ......................
l 13 = r13 cm = 6.5 cm = 13 0.5 cm
Now, length of the spiral
= l1 + l2 + l3 + l4 + ..... + l13
= 0.5 [1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ..... + 13] cm ...(1)
1, 2, 3, 4, ....., 13 are in A.P. such that
a = 1 and l = 13
13 n
S13 = 1 + 13 [using Sn = (a + l)]
2 2

Arithmetic Progressions 109


13
= 14
2
= 13 7 = 91
From (1), we have:
Total length of the spiral
= 1.5 [91] cm
5 22
91 cm
LMQ = 22 OP
=
10 7 N 7 Q
1 22
= 91 cm
2 7
= 11 13 cm = 143 cm.
Q. 19. 200 logs are stacked in the following manner: 20 logs in the bottom row, 19 in the next row, 18
in the row next to it and so on (see figure). In how many rows are the 200 logs placed and how
many logs are in the top row?

Sol. We have:
The number of logs:
1st row = 20
2nd row = 19
3rd row = 18
obviously, the numbers
20, 19, 18, ....., are in A.P. such that
a = 20
d = 19 20 = 1
Let the numbers of rows be n.
Sn = 200
n
Now, using, Sn = [2a + (n 1) d], we get
2
n
Sn = [2 (20) + (n 1) ( 1)]
2
n
200 = [40 (n 1)]
2
2 200 = n 40 n (n 1)
400 = 40n n2 + n
n2 41n + 400 = 0
2
n 16n 25n + 400 = 0
n (n 16) 25 (n 16) = 0
(n 16) (n 25) = 0
110 MathematicsX
Either
n 16 = 0 n = 16
or n 25 = 0 n = 25
Tn = 0 a + (n 1) d = 0 20 + (n 1) ( 1) = 0
n 1 = 20 n = 21
i.e., 21st term becomes 0
n = 25 is not required.
Thus, n = 16
Number of rows = 16
Now, T16 = a + (16 1) d
= 20 + 15 ( 1)
= 20 15 = 5
Number of logs in the 16th (top) row is 15.
Q. 20. In a potato race, a bucket is placed at the starting point, which is 5 m from the first potato, and
the other potatoes are placed 3 m apart in a straight line. There are ten potatoes in the line
(see figure).

A competitor starts from the bucket, picks up the nearest potato, runs back with it, drops it in the
bucket, runs back to pick up the next potato, runs to the bucket to drop it in, and she continues
in the same way until all the potatoes are in the bucket. What is the total distance the competitor
has to run?
[Hint: To pick up the first potato and the second potato, the total distance (in metres) run by a
competitor is 2 5 + 2 (5 + 3)]
Sol. Here, number of potatoes = 10
The up-down distance of the bucket:
From the 1st potato = [5 m] 2 = 10 m
From the 2nd potato = [(5 + 3) m] 2 = 16 m
From the 3rd potato = [(5 + 3 + 3) m] 2 = 22 m
From the 4th potato = [(5 + 3 + 3 + 3) m] 2 = 28 m
.................................. ...........................
10, 16, 22, 28, ..... are in A.P. such that
a = 10 and d = 16 10 = 6
n
Using Sn = [2a + (n 1) d], we have:
2
10
S10 = [2 (10) + (10 1) 6]
2
= 5 [20 + 9 6]

Arithmetic Progressions 111


= 5 [20 + 54]
= 5 [74]
= 5 74 = 370
Thus, the sum of above distances = 370 m.
The competitor has to run a total distance of 370 m.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 5.4
Q. 1. Which term of the A.P.: 121, 117, 113, ..., is its first negative term?
[Hint: Find n for an < 0] (CBSE 2012)
Sol. We have the A.P. having a = 121 and d = 117 121 = 4
an = a + (n 1) d
= 121 + (n 1) ( 4)
= 121 4n + 4
= 125 4n
For the first negative term, we have
an < 0
(125 4n) < 0
125 < 4n
125
< n
4
1
31 < n
4
1
or n > 31
4
Thus, the first negative term is 32nd term.
Q. 2. The sum of the third and the seventh terms of an A.P. is 6 and their product is 8. Find the sum
of first sixteen terms of the A.P..
Sol. Here, T3 + T7 = 6 and T3 T7 = 8
Let the first term = a and the common difference = d
T3 = a + 2d and T7 = a + 6d
T3 + T7 = 6
(a + 2d) + (a + 6d) = 6
2a + 8d = 6
a + 4d = 3 ...(1)
Again T3 T7 = 8
(a + 2d) (a + 6d) = 8
(a + 4d 2d) (a + 4d + 2d) = 8
[(a + 4d) 2d] [(a + 4d) + 2d] = 8
[(3) 2d] [(3) + 2d] = 8 [From (1)]
32 (2d)2 = 8
9 4d2 = 8

112 MathematicsX
4d2 = 8 9 = 1
1 1
d2 = =
4 4
1
d =
2
1
When d = .
2
From (1), we have:
FG 1 IJ
a+4
H 2K = 3

a + 2 = 3 or a = 3 2 = 1
n
Now, Using Sn = [2a + (n 1) d], we get
2
16 LM a f b
2 1 + 16 1 g OPQ
1
S16 =
2 N 2

=
L 15 O
8 M2 + P
N 2Q
= 16 + 60 = 76
i.e., the sum of first 16 terms = 76
1
When d = .
2
From (1), we have:
FG 1 IJ
a+4
H 2K = 3

a2 = 3 a = 5
Again, the sum of first sixteen terms
16 LM a f b g FG IJ OP
1
S16 =
2 N H KQ
2 5 + 16 1
2
L F 15 IJ OP
8 M10 + G
=
N H 2 KQ
25 cm

= 80 60 = 20
i.e., the sum of first 16 terms = 20
Q. 3. A ladder has rungs 25 cm apart (see figure). The rungs
decrease uniformly in length from 45 cm at the bottom to 25
1m
1 2
2
cm at the top. If the top and the bottom rungs are 2 m
2
apart, what is the length of the wood required for the rungs?
250
[Hint: Number of rungs = + 1]
25 25 cm
Sol. Total distance between bottom to top rungs
45 cm
1
= 2 m
2
Arithmetic Progressions 113
5
= 100 cm
2
= 250 m
Distance between two consecutive rungs = 25 cm
250
Number of rungs = + 1 = 10 + 1 = 11
25
Length of the 1st rung (bottom rung) = 45 cm
Length of the 11th rung (top rung) = 25 cm
Let the length of each successive rung decrease by x cm
Total length of the rungs
= 45 cm + (45 x) cm + (45 2x) cm + ..... + 25 cm
Here, the numbers 45, (45 x), (45 2x), ....., 25 are in an A.P. such that
First term a = 45
Last term l = 25
Number of terms n = 11
n
Using, Sn = [a + l], we have
2
11
S11 = [45 + 25]
2
11
S11 = 70
2
S11 = 11 35 = 385
Total length of 11 rungs = 385 cm
i.e., Length of wood required for the rungs is 385 cm.
Q. 4. The houses of a row are numbered consecutively from 1 to 49. Show that there is a value of x such
that the sum of the numbers of the houses preceding the house numbered x is equal to the sum
of the numbers of the houses following it. Find this value of x.
[Hint: Sx 1 = S49 Sx]
Sol. We have, the following consecutive numbers on the houses of a row ;
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ....., 49.
These numbers are in an A.P., such that
a = 1
d = 21=1
n = 49
Let one of the houses be numbered as x
Number of houses preceding it = x 1
Number of houses following it = 49 x
Now, the sum of the house-numbers preceding x is given by:
n
Using Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
x1
Sx 1 = [2 (1) + (x 1 1) 1]
2

114 MathematicsX
x1
= [2 + x 2]
2
x1
= x
2

=
x x1 b g
2
x2 x
=
2 2
The houses beyond x are numbered as
(x + 1), (x + 2), (x + 3), ....., 49
For these house numbers (which are in an A.P.),
First term (a) = x + 1
Last term (l) = 49
n
Using Sn = [a + l], we have
2
49 x
S49 x = [(x + 1) + 49]
2
49 x
= x + 50
2
49 x x 2
=
2

2
b g
+ 49 25 25 x

FG 49x 25xIJ x + b49 25g


2
=
H2 K 2
2
x x
= + b 49 25g
2 2
According to the question,
[Sum of house numbers preceding x] = [Sum of house numbers following x]
i.e., Sx 1 = S49 x
x2 x x x2

2

2
=
2

2
+ 49 25b g
Fx 2
x2 I
x x
GH 2 +
2 JK
+
2 2
= (49 25)

2x2
= (49 25)
2
x 2 = (49 25)
x = 49 25
x = (7 5) = 35
But x cannot be taken as ve
x = 35

Arithmetic Progressions 115


Q. 5. A small terrace at a football ground comprises of 15 steps each of which is 50 m long and built
of solid concrete.
1 1
Each step has a rise of m and a tread of m . (see Fig.). Calculate the total volume of concrete
4 2
required to build the terrace.
1 1
[Hint: Volume of concrete required to build the first step = 50 m 3 ]
4 2

1m
2

m
50
1m
4
Sol. For 1st step:
1 1
Length = 50 m, Breadth = m , Height = m
2 4
Volume of concrete required to build the 1st step
= Volume of the cuboidal step
= Length Breadth height
1 1
= 50 m 3
2 4
25
= 1 m3
4
For 2nd step:
1 FG IJ 1 1 1
Length = 50 m, Breadth =
2 H K
m , Height = +
4 4
m = 2 m
4
Volume of concrete required to build the 2nd step
1 1
= 50 2 m 3
2 4
25
= 2 m3
4
For 3rd step:
1 FG IJ
1 1 1 1
Length = 50 m, Breadth =
2 H
m , Height =
K+ +
4 4 4
m = 3 m
4
Volume of concrete required to build the 3rd step
1 1
= 50 3 m 3
2 4
25
= 3 m3
4
........... ........... ........... ........... ...........
Thus, the volumes (in m3) of concrete required to build the various steps are:
116 MathematicsX
FG 25 1IJ , FG 25 2IJ , FG 25 3IJ , ..... .....
H4 K H4 K H4 K
obviously, these numbers form an A.P. such that
25
a =
4

25 25 25
d = =
2 4 4
Here, total number of steps n = 15
Total volume of concrete required to build 15 steps is given by the sum of their individual
volumes.
n
Using, Sn = [2 (a) + (n 1) d], we have:
2

15 LM FG IJ b g
25 25
m3
OP
S15 =
2
2
NH K
4
+ 15 1
4 Q
15 L 25 25 O
2 MN 2
= + 14 P m 3
4Q
15 L 25 175 O
2 MN 2 2 PQ
3
= + m

15 200 3
= m
2 2
= 15 50 m3 = 750 m3
Thus, the required volume of concrete is 750 m3.

MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED


I. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. If the numbers x 2, 4x 1 and 5x + 2 are in A.P. Find the value of x.
[NCERT Exemplar Problem, (CBSE Sample Paper 2011)]
Sol. x 2, 4x 1 and 5x + 2 are in A.P.
(4x 1) (x 2) = (5x + 2) (4x 1)
3x + 1 = x + 3
2x = 2 x = 1
Q. 2. Which term of the A.P. 4, 9, 14, ..... is 109?
Sol. Let 109 is the nth term,
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:
109 = 4 + (n 1) 5 [ a = 4 and d = 9 4 = 5]

Arithmetic Progressions 117


109 4 105
n1 = = = 21
5 5
n = 21 + 1 = 22
Thus, the 22nd term is 109.
Q. 3. If a, (a 2) and 3a are in A.P. then what is the value of a?
Sol. a, (a 2) and 3a are in A.P.
(a 2) a = 3a (a 2)
a 2 a = 3a a + 2
2 = 2a + 2
2a = 2 2 = 4
4
a = = 2
2
Thus, the required value of a is 2.
Q. 4. How many terms are there in the A.P.?
7, 10, 13, ....., 151
Sol. Here, a = 7, d = 10 7 = 3
Let there are n-terms.
Tn = a + (n 1) d
T51 = 7 + (n 1) 3
151 7
= n1
3
144
= n 1 n = 48 + 1 = 49
3
i.e., n = 49
Q. 5. Which term of the A.P. 72, 63, 54, ..... is 0?
Sol. Here, a = 72
d = 63 72 = 9
Let nth term of this A.P. be 0
Tn = a + (n 1) d
72 + (n 1) ( 9) = 0
72
(n 1) = = 8
9
n = 8+1=9
Thus the 9th term of the A.P. is 0.
Q. 6. The first term of an A.P. is 6 and its common difference is 2. Find its 18th term.
Sol. Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:
T18 = 6 + (18 1) ( 2)
= 6 + 17 ( 2)
= 6 34 = 28
Thus, the 18th term is 28.
Q. 7. The 4th term of an A.P. is 14 and its 12th term 70. What is its first term?
Sol. Let the first term = a
If d is the common difference,
Then T4 = a + 3d = 14 ...(1)
And T12 = a + 11d = 70 ...(2)
118 MathematicsX
Subtracting (1) from (2),
a + 11d a 3d = 70 14
56
8d = 56 d= = 7
8
From (1), a + 3 (7) = 14
a + 21 = 14
a = 14 21 = ( 7)
Thus, the first term is 7.
Q. 8. Which term of A.P. 5, 2, 1, 4 ..... is 40?
Sol. Here, a = 5
d = 25=3
Let nth term be 40
Tn = a + (n 1) d
40 = 5 + (n 1) ( 3)
40 5 45
n1 = = = 15
3 3
n = 15 + 1 = 16
i.e., The 16th term of the A.P. is 40.
Q. 9. What is the sum of all the natural numbers from 1 to 100?
Sol. We have:
1, 2, 3, 4, ....., 100 are in an A.P. such that
a = 1 and l = 100
n
Sn = [a + l]
2
100
S100 = [1 + 100] = 50 101 = 5050.
2
Q. 10. For an A.P., the 8th term is 17 and the 14th term is 29. Find its common difference.
Sol. Let the common difference = d and first term = a
T8 = a + 7d = 17 ...(1)
T14 = a + 13d = 29 ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we have:
a + 13d a 7d = 29 17
6d = 12
12
d = = 2
6
The required common difference = 2.
Q. 11. If the first and last terms of an A.P. are 10 and 10. How many terms are there? Given that
d = 1.
Sol. Let the required number of terms is n and
1st term a = 10
nth term Tn = 10
Let common difference be d then using,
Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:

Arithmetic Progressions 119


10 = 10 + (n 1) ( 1)
10 = 10 n + 1
n + 1 = 10 10 = 20
n = 20 1 = 21
n = 21
Q. 12. The nth term of an A.P. is (3n 2) find its first term.
Sol. Tn = 3n 2
T1 = 3 (1) 2 = 3 2 = 1
First term = 1
Q. 13. The nth term of an A.P. is (2n 3) find the common difference.
Sol. Here, Tn = 2n 3
T1 = 2 (1) 3 = 1
T2 = 2 (2) 3 = 1
d = T2 T1 = 1 ( 1) = 2
Thus the common difference is 2.
Q. 14. If the nth term of an A.P. is (7n 5). Find its 100th term.
Sol. Here, Tn = 7n 5
T1 = 7 (1) 5 = 2
T2 = 7 (2) 5 = 9
a = 2
and d = T2 T1
= 92=7
Now T100 = 2 + (100 1) 7 [using Tn = a + (n 1) d]
= 2 + 99 7
= 2 + 693 = 695.
Q. 15. Find the sum of first 12 terms of the A.P. 5, 8, 11, 14, ...... .
Sol. Here, a = 5
d = 85=3
n = 12
n
Using Sn = [2 (a) + (n 1) d]
2
12
we have: S12 = [2 (5) + (12 1) 3]
2
= 6 [10 + 33]
= 6 43 = 258
Q. 16. Write the common difference of an A.P. whose nth term is 3n + 5. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Tn = 3n + 5
T1 = 3 (1) + 5 = 8
T2 = 3 (2) + 5 = 11
d = T2 T1
= 11 8 = 3
Thus, the common difference = 3.

120 MathematicsX
Q. 17. Write the value of x for which x + 2, 2x, 2x + 3 are three consecutive terms of an A.P.
(CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Here, T1 = x + 2
T2 = 2x
T3 = 2x + 3
For an A.P., we have:
2x (x + 2) = 2x + 3 2x
2x x 2 = 2x + 3 2x
x2 = 3
x = 3+2=5
Thus, x = 5
Q. 18. What is the common difference of an A.P. whose nth term is 3 + 5n? (CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Tn = 3 + 5n
T1 = 3 + 5 (1) = 8
And T2 = 3 + 5 (2) = 13
d = T2 T1
d = 13 8 = 5
Thus, common difference = 5.
Q. 19. For what value of k, are the numbers x, (2x + k) and (3x + 6) three consecutive terms of an A.P.?
(AI CBSE 2009)
Sol. Here, T1 = x, T2 = (2x + k) and T3 = (3x + 6)
For an A.P., we have
T2 T1 = T3 T2
i.e., 2x + k x = 3x + 6 (2x + k)
x + k = 3x + 6 2x k
x+k = x+6k
k+k = x+6x
2k = 6
6
k = = 3
2
4
Q. 20. If , a, 2 are three consecutive terms of an A.P., then find the value of a? (AI CBSE 2009)
5
4
Sol. Here, T1 =
5
T2 = a
T3 = 2
For an A.P.,
T2 T1 = T3 T2
4
a = 2a
5
4
a + a = 2+
5
14
2a =
5
Arithmetic Progressions 121
14 1 7
a = =
5 2 5
7
Thus, a =
5
Q. 21. For what value of p are 2p 1, 7 and 3p three consecutive terms of an A.P.? (CBSE 2009)
Sol. Here, T1 = 2p 1
T2 = 7
T3 = 3p
For an A.P., we have:
T2 T1 = T3 T2
7 (2p 1) = 3p 7
7 2p + 1 = 3p 7
2p 3p = 7 1 7
5p = 15
15
p = = 3
5
Thus, p = 3
Q. 22. For what value of p are 2p + 1, 13 and 5p 3 three consecutive terms of an A.P.?
(CBSE 2009)
Sol. Here, T1 = 2p + 1
T2 = 13
T3 = 5p 3
For an A.P., we have:
T2 T1 = T3 T2
13 (2p + 1) = 5p 3 13
13 2p 1 = 5p 16
2p + 12 = 5p 16
2p 5p = 16 12 = 28
7p = 28
28 28
p = = = 4
7 7
p = 4
Q. 23. The nth term of an A.P. is 7 4n. Find its common difference. (CBSE 2008)
Sol. Tn = 7 4n
T1 = 7 4 (1) = 3
T2 = 7 4 (2) = 1
d = T2 T1
= ( 1) 3 = 4
Thus, common difference = 4
Q. 24. The nth term of an A.P. is 6n + 2. Find the common difference. (CBSE 2008)
Sol. Here, Tn = 6n + 2
T1 = 6 (1) + 2 = 8
T2 = 6 (2) + 2 = 14
d = T2 T1 = 14 8 = 6
Common difference = 6.

122 MathematicsX
Q. 25. Write the next term of the A.P. 8, 18 , 32 , ..... (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Here, T1 = 8 = 42 = 2 2
T2 = 18 = 92 = 3 2
T3 = 32 = 16 2 = 4 2

a = 2 2
Now, d = T2 T1
= 3 2 2 2 = b
2 32 = g 2
T4 = a + 3d

= 2 2+3 e 2j
= 2 2 +3 2

= b g
2 2 + 3 = 5 2 or 50

Thus, the next term of the A.P. is 5 2 or 50 .


Q. 26. The first term of an A.P. is p and its common difference is q. Find the 10th term.
(AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Here, a = p and d = q
Tn = a + (n 1) d
T10 = p + (10 1) q
= p + 9q
Thus, the 10th term is p + 9q.
Q. 27. Find the next term of the A.P. 2, 8, 18 ..... (CBSE 2008 C)

Sol. Here, T1 = 2 a= 2
T2 = 8 = 2 2

T3 = 18 = 3 2
Now, d = T2 T1
= 2 2 2

= 2
Now, using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
T4 = a + 3d
= 2+3 e 2j
= 2 1+3 = 4 2

= 16 2 = 32

Thus, the next term = 32 .


Arithmetic Progressions 123
Q. 28. Which term of the A.P.:
21, 18, 15, ..... is zero? (CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Here, a = 21
d = 18 21 = 3
Since Tn = a + (n 1) d
0 = 21 + (n 1) ( 3)
3 (n 1) = 21
21
(n 1) = = 7
3
n = 7+1=8
Thus, the 8th term of this A.P. will be 0.
Q. 29. Which term of the A.P.:
14, 11, 8, ..... is 1? (AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Here, a = 14
d = 11 14 = 3
Let the nth term be ( 1)
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we get
1 = 11 + (n 1) ( 3)
1 14 = 3 (n 1)
15 = 3 (n 1)
15
n1 = = 5
3
n = 5+1=6
Thus, 1 is the 6th term of the A.P.
Q. 30. The value of the middlemost term (s) of the AP : 11, 7, 3, ...49.
[NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Q a = 11, an = 49 and d = (7) (11) = 4
an = a + (n 1)d
49 = 11 + (n 1) 4 n = 16
Since, n is an even number
There will be two middle terms, which are:
16 16
th and + 1 th
2 2
or 8th and 9th
Now, a 8 = a + (8 1)d
= 11 + 7 4 = 17
a 9 = a + (9 1)d
= 11 + 8 4 = 21
Thus, the values of the two middlemost terms are : 17 and 21.

124 MathematicsX
II. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Note : For an A.P. with the 1st term and common difference a and d respectively, we have :
(a) nth term from the end = (m n +1)th term from the beginning, where m is the number
of terms in the A.P.
nth term from the end = (a) + (m n)d
(b) If l is the last term of the A.P., then
nth term from the end is the nth term of an A.P. whose first term is l and common
difference is d
nth term from the end = l + (n 1) (d)

Q. 1. If 9th term of an A.P. is zero, prove that its 29th term is double of its 19th term.
[NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Let a be the first term and d be the common difference.
Now, Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
T9 = a + 8d a + 8d = 0 ...(1) [ T9 = 0 Given]
T19 = a + 18d = (a + 8d) + 10d = (0) + 10d = 10d ...(2) [ a + 8d = 0]
T29 = a + 28d
= (a + 8d) + 20d
= 0 + 20d = 20d [ a + 8d = 0]
= 2 (10d) = 2 (T19) [ T19 = 10d]
T29 = 2 (T19)
Thus, the 29th term of the A.P. is double of its 19th term.
Q. 2. If Tn = 3 + 4n then find the A.P. and hence find the sum of its first 15 terms.
Sol. Let the first term be a and the common difference be d.
Tn = a + (n 1) d
T1 = a + (1 1) d = a + 0 d = a
T2 = a + (2 1) d = a + d
But it is given that
Tn = 3 + 4n
T1 = 3 + 4 (1) = 7
First term, a = 7
Also, T2 = a + d = 3 + 4 (2) = 11
d = T2 T1 = 11 7 = 4
n
Now, using Sn = [2a + (n 1) d], we get
2
15
S15 = [2 (7) + (15 1) 4]
2
15
= [14 + 14 4]
2
15
= 70
2
= 15 35 = 525
Thus, the sum of first 15 terms = 525.

Arithmetic Progressions 125


Q. 3. Which term of the A.P.:
3, 15, 27, 39, ..... will be 120 more than its 53rd term?
Sol. The given A.P. is:
3, 15, 27, 39, .....
a = 3
d = 15 3 = 12
Using, Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:
T53 = 3 + (53 1) 12
= 3 + (52 12)
= 3 + 624 = 627
Now, T53 + 120 = 627 + 120 = 747.
Let the required term be Tn
Tn = 747
or a + (n 1) d = 747
3 + (n 1) 12 = 747
(n 1) 12 = 747 3 = 744
744
n1 = = 62
12
n = 62 + 1 = 63
Thus, the 63rd term of the given A.P. is 120 more than its 53rd term.
Q. 4. Find the 31st term of an A.P. whose 10th term is 31 and the 15th term is 66.
Sol. Let the first term is a and the common difference is d.
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:
T10 = a + 9d
31 = a + 9d ...(1)
Also T15 = a + 14d
66 = a + 14d ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we have:
a + 14d a 9d = 66 31
5d = 35
35
d = = 7
5
From (1), a + 9d = 31
a + 9 (7) = 31
a + 63 = 31
a = 31 63
a = 32
Now, T31 = a + 30d
= 32 + 30 (7)
= 32 + 210 = 178
Thus, the 31st term of the given A.P. is 178.
Q. 5. If the 8th term of an A.P. is 37 and the 15th term is 15 more than the 12th term, find the A.P.
Hence find the sum of the first 15 terms of the A.P.
Sol. Let the 1st term = a
126 MathematicsX
And the common difference = d
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d
T8 = a + 7d
37 = a + 7d ...(1)
Also T15 = a + 14d
And T12 = a + 11d
According to the question,
T15 = T12 + 15
a + 14d = a + 11d + 15
a a + 14d 11d = 15
15
3d = 15 d= = 5
3
From (1), we have:
a + 7 (5) = 37
a + 35 = 37
a = 37 35 = 2
Since an, A.P. is given by :
a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, ....
The required A.P. is given by 2, 2 + 5, 2 + 2(5),...
2, 7, 12, ...
n
Now, using Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
15
S15 = [2 (2) + 14 5]
2
15
= [4 + 70]
2
15
= 74 = 15 37 = 555.
2
Q. 6. The 5th and 15th terms of an A.P. are 13 and 17 respectively. Find the sum of first 21 terms
of the A.P.
Sol. Let a be the first term and d be the common difference.
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:
T15 = a + 14d = 17 ...(1)
T5 = a + 4d = 13 ...(2)
Subtracting (2) from (1), we have:
(T15 T5) = 17 13 = 30
a + 14d a 4d = 30
10d = 30 d = 3
Substituting d = 3 in (2), we get
a + 4d = 13
a + 4 ( 3) = 13
a + ( 12) = 13
a = 13 + 12 = 25
Arithmetic Progressions 127
n
Now using Sn = [2a + (n 1) d] we have:
2
21
S21 = [2 (25) + (21 1) ( 3)]
2
21
= [50 + ( 60)]
2
21
= 10
2
= 21 ( 5) = 105
Thus, the sum of first fifteen terms = 105.
Q. 7. The 1st and the last term of an A.P. are 17 and 350 respectively. If the common difference is 9
how many terms are there in the A.P.? What is their sum?
Sol. Here, first term, a = 17
Last term Tn = 350 = l
Common difference (d) = 9.
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:
350 = 17 + (n 1) 9
350 17
n1 =
9
333
= = 37
9
n = 37 + 1 = 38
Thus, there are 38 terms.
n
Now, using, Sn = [a + l], we have
2
38
S38 = [17 + 350]
2
= 19 [367] = 6973
Thus, the required sum of 38 terms = 6973.
Q. 8. If the sum of first 7 terms of an A.P. is 49 and that of first 17 terms is 289, find the sum of n
terms. (CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Let the first term = a and the common difference = d.
n
Using Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
7
S7 = [2a + 6d] = 49
2
7
2 a + 3d = 49
2
7 [a + 3d] = 49
49
a + 3d = = 7
7
i.e., a + 3d = 7 ...(1)
17
Also S17 = [2a + 16d] = 289
2
128 MathematicsX
17
2 [a + 8d] = 289
2
17 [a + 8d] = 289
289
a + 8d = = 17
17
a + 8d = 17 ...(2)
Subtracting (2) from (1), we have:
a + 8d a 3d = 17 7
5d = 10 d = 2
From (1), we have
a + 3 (2) = 7
a + 6 =7 a =76=1
n
Now, Sn = [2a + (n 1) d]
2
n
= [2 1 + (n 1) 2]
2
n
= [2 + 2n 2]
2
n
= 2n
2
Thus, the sum of n terms is n2.
Q. 9. The first and last term of an A.P. are 4 and 81 respectively. If the common difference is 7, how
many terms are there in the A.P. and what is their sum?
Sol. Here, first term = 4 a = 4 and d = 7.
Last term, l = 81 Tn = 81
Tn = a + (n 1) d
81 = 4 + (n 1) 7
81 4 = (n 1) 7
77
77 = (n 1) 7 n = + 1 = 11 + 1 = 12
7
There are 12 terms.
Now, using
n
Sn = (a + l)
2
12
S12 = (4 + 81)
2
S12 = 6 85 = 510
The sum of 12 terms of the A.P. is 510.
Q. 10. The angles of a quadrilateral are in A.P. whose common difference is 15. Find the angles.
Sol. Let one of the angles = a
The angles are in an A.P.
The angles are:
a, (a + d), (a + 2d) and (a + 3d)
d = 15 [Given]
Arithmetic Progressions 129
The angles are:
a, (a + 15), [a + 2 (15)] and [a + 3 (15)]
i.e., a, (a + 15), (a + 30) and (a + 45).
The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360.
a + (a + 15) + (a + 30) + (a + 45) = 360
4a + 90 = 360
4a = 360 90 = 270
270 1
a = = 67
4 2
The four angles are:

67
1 FG 1 IJ FG
o
1 IJ o
, 67 + 15 , 67 + 30 , and 67 1 + 45 FG
IJ
2 H 2 K H 2 K H 2 K
1 1 1 1
or 67 , 82 , 97 , and 112 .
2 2 2 2
Q. 11. The angles of a triangle are in AP. The greatest angle is twice the least. Find all the angles of the
triangle. [NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Let a, b, c are the angles of the triangle, such that
c = 2a ...(1)
Since a, b, c are in A.P.
a+c
Then b = ...(2)
2
From (1) and (2), we get
a + 2a
a, , 2 a are the three angles of the triangle.
2
a + 2a
a+ + 2 a = 180
2
2a + a + 2a + 4a = 360
9a = 360
a = 360 = 40
9
The smallest angle = 40
The greatest angle = 2a = 2 40 = 80
a + c 40 + 80
The third angle = = = 60
2 2
Thus the angles of the triangle are : 40, 60, 80.
Q. 12. Find the middle term of the A.P. 10, 7, 4, ....., 62. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Here, a = 10
d = 7 10 = 3
Tn = ( 62)
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
62 = 10 + (n 1) ( 3)
62 10 72
n1 = = = 24
3 3

130 MathematicsX
n = 24 + 1 = 25
Number of terms = 25
FG n + 1IJ th term
Middle term =
H 2 K
25 + 1
= th term
2
= 13th term
Now T13 = 10 + 12d
= 10 + 12 ( 3)
= 10 36 = 26
Thus, the middle term = 26.
Q. 13. Find the sum of all three digit numbers which are divisible by 7. (CBSE 2012)
Sol. The three digit numbers which are divisible by 7 are:
105, 112, 119, ....., 994.
It is an A.P. such that
a = 105
d = 112 105 = 7
Tn = 994 = l
Tn = a + (n 1) d
994 = 105 + (n 1) 7
994 105 889
n1 = = = 127
7 7
n = 127 + 1 = 128
n
Now, using Sn = [a + l]
2
128
We have S128 = [105 + 994]
2
= 64 [1099]
= 70336
Thus, the required sum = 70336.
Q. 14. Find the sum of all the three digit numbers which are divisible by 9. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. All the three digit numbers divisible by 9 are:
117, 126, ....., 999 and they form an A.P.
Here, a = 108
d = 117 108 = 9
Tn = 999 = l
Now, using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
999 = 108 + (n 1) (9)
999 108 = (n 1) 9
891 = (n 1) 9
891
n1 = = 99
9
n = 99 + 1 = 100
Now, the sum of n term of an A.P. is given
Arithmetic Progressions 131
n
Sn = [a + l]
2
100
S100 = [108 + 999]
2
= 50 [1107]
= 55350
Thus, the required sum is 55350.
Q. 15. Find the sum of all the three digit numbers which are divisible by 11. (CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. All the three digit numbers divisible by 11 are 110, 121, 132, ....., 990.
Here, a = 110
d = 121 110 = 11
Tn = 990
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
990 = 110 + (n 1) 11
990 110
n1 = = 80
11
n = 80 + 1 = 81
n
Now, using Sn = [a + l], we have
2
81
S81 = [110 + 990]
2
81
= 1100
2
= 81 550 = 44550
Thus, the required sum = 44550.
Q. 16. The sum of first six terms of an AP is 42. The ratio of 10th term to its 30th term is 1 : 3. Calculate
the first term and 13th term of A.P.
6
Sol. Q S6 =
2
{2 a + (6 - 1)d} = 42
6a + 15d = 42 ...(1)
Also, (a10) : (a30) = 1 : 3
a + 9d 1
or =
a + 29d 3
3(a + 9d) = a + 29d
3a + 27d = a + 27d
2a = 2d
a = d ...(2)
From (1) 6d + 15d = 42 d =2
From (2) a = d d =2
Now, a 13 = a + 12d
= 2 + 12 2 = 26
Q. 17. If Sn the sum of n terms of an A.P. is given by Sn = 3n2 4n, find the nth term.
(CBSE 2012)
Sol. We have:
Sn 1 = 3 (n 1)2 4 (n 1)
132 MathematicsX
= 3 (n2 2n + 1) 4n + 4
= 3n2 6n + 3 4n + 4
= 3n2 10n + 7
nth term = Sn Sn 1
= 3n2 4n [3n2 10n + 7]
= 3n2 4n 3n2 + 10n 7
= 6n 7.
Q. 18. The sum of 4th and 8th terms of an A.P. is 24, and the sum of 6th and 10th terms is 44. Find
the A.P. (CBSE 2009)
Sol. Let, the first term = a
Common difference be = d
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
T4 = a + 3d
T6 = a + 5d
T8 = a + 7d
T10 = a + 9d
T4 + T8 = 24
(a + 3d) + (a + 7d) = 24
2a + 10d = 24
a + 5d = 12 [Dividing by 2] ...(1)
Also T6 + T10 = 44
(a + 5d) + (a + 9d) = 44
2a + 14d = 44
a + 7d = 22 [Dividing by 2] ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we have:
(a + 7d) (a + 5d) = 22 12
2d = 10 d=5
From (1), a + 5 (5) = 12
a = 12 25 = 13
Since, the A.P. is given by:
a, a + d, a + 2d, .....
We have the required A.P. as:
13, ( 13 + 5), [ 13 + 2 (5)], .....
or 13, 8, 3, .....
Q. 19. If Sn, the sum of first n terms of an A.P. is given by
Sn = 5n2 + 3n
Then find the nth term. (CBSE 2009)
Sol. Sn = 5n2 + 3n
Sn 1 = 5 (n 1)2 + 3 (n 1)
= 5 (n2 2n + 1) + 3 (n 1)
Arithmetic Progressions 133
= 5n2 10n + 5 + 3n 3
= 5n2 7n + 2
Now, nth term = Sn Sn 1
The required nth term
= [5n2 + 3n] [5n2 7n + 2]
= 10n 2.
Q. 20. The sum of 5th and 9th terms of an A.P. is 72 and the sum of 7th and 12th term of 97. Find
the A.P. (CBSE 2009)
Sol. Let a be the 1st term and d be the common difference of the A.P.
Now, using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
T5 = a + 4d
T7 = a + 6d
T9 = a + 8d
T12 = a + 11d
T5 + T9 = 72
a + 4d + a + 8d = 72
2a + 12d = 72
a + 6d = 36 [Dividing by 2] ...(1)
Also T7 + T12 = a + 6d + a + 11d = 97
36 + a + 11d = 97 [From (1)]
a + 11d = 97 36
a + 11d = 61 ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we get
a + 11d a 6d = 61 36
5d = 25
25
d =
5
From (1), we have
a + 11 (5) = 61
a + 55 = 61
a = 61 55 = 6
Now, an A.P. is given by
a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, .....
The required A.P. is:
6, (6 + 5), [6 + 2 (5)], [6 + 3 (5)], .....
or 6, 11, 16, 24, .....
Q. 21. In an A.P. the sum of its first ten terms is 150 and the sum of its next term is 550. Find the
A.P.
Sol. Let the first term = a
And the common difference = d
10
S10 =
2
[2 a + (10 - 1)d ] = 150

134 MathematicsX
10a + 45d = 150
2a + 9d = 30 ...(1)
Q The sum of next 10 terms (i.e. S20 S10) = 550
20

2
[2 a + (20 - 1)d ] - (-150) = 550

20a + 190d + 150 = 550


2a + 19d + 15 = 55
2a + 19d = 55 15
2a + 19d = 70 ...(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we get
2a + 19d = 70
2a + 9d = 30
+
-40
10d = 40 d= = -4
10
6
From (1), 2(a) + 9(4) = 30 or a = =3
2
Thus, AP is a, a + d, a + 2d ...
or 3, [3 + (4)], [3 + 2(4)], ...
or 3, 1, 5, ...
Q. 22. Which term of the A.P. 3, 15, 27, 39, ..... will be 120 more than its 21st term?
(AI CBSE 2009)
Sol. Let the 1st term is a and common difference = d
a = 3 and d = 15 3 = 12
Now, using Tn = a + (n 1) d
T21 = 3 + (21 1) 12
= 3 + 20 12
= 3 + 240 = 243
Let the required term be the nth term.
nth term = 120 + 21st term
= 120 + 243 = 363
Now Tn = a + (n 1) d
363 = 3 + (n 1) 12
363 3 = (n 1) 12
360
n1 = = 30
12
n = 30 + 1 = 31
Thus the required term is the 31st term of the A.P.
Q. 23. Which term of the A.P. 4, 12, 20, 28, ..... will be 120 more than its 21st term?
(AI CBSE 2009)

Arithmetic Progressions 135


Sol. Here, a = 4
d = 12 4 = 8
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d
T21 = 4 + (21 1) 8
= 4 + 20 8 = 164
The required nth term = T21 + 120
nth term = 164 + 120 = 284
284 = a + (n 1) d
284 = 4 + (n 1) 8
284 4 = (n 1) 8
280
n1 = = 35
8
n = 35 + 1 = 36
Thus, the required term is the 36th term of the A.P.
Q. 24. The sum of n terms of an A.P. is 5n2 3n. Find the A.P. Hence find its 10th term.
(CBSE 2008)
Sol. We have:
Sn = 5n2 3n
S1 = 5 (1)2 3 (1) = 2
First term T1 = (a) = 2
S2 = 5 (2)2 3 (2) = 20 6 = 14
Second term T2 = 14 2 = 12
Now the common difference = T2 T1
d = 12 2 = 10
An A.P. is given by
a, (a + d), (a + 2d) .....
The required A.P. is:
2, (2 + 10), [2 + 2 (10)], .....
2, 12, 22, .....
Now, using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
T10 = 2 + (10 1) 10
= 2 + 9 10
= 2 + 90 = 92.
Q. 25. Find the 10th term from the end of the A.P.:
8, 10, 12, ....., 126 (CBSE 2008)
Sol. Here, a = 8
d = 10 8 = 2
Tn = 126
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d
126 = 8 + (n 1) 2
126 8
n1 = = 59
2
n = 59 + 1 = 60

136 MathematicsX
l = 60
Now 10th term from the end is given by
l (10 1) = 60 9 = 51
Now, T51 = a + 50d
= 8 + 50 2
= 8 + 100 = 108
Thus, the 10th term from the end is 108.
Q. 26. The sum of n terms of an A.P. is 3n2 + 5n. Find the A.P. Hence, find its 16th term.
(CBSE 2012)
Sol. We have,
Sn = 3n2 + 5n
S1 = 3 (1)2 + 5 (1)
= 3+5=8
T1 = 8 a = 8
S2 = 3 (2)2 + 5 (2)
= 12 + 10 = 22
T2 = 22 8 = 14
Now d = T2 T1 = 14 8 = 6
An A.P. is given by,
a, (a + d), (a + 2d), .....
The required A.P. is:
8, (8 + 6), [8 + 2 (6)], .....
8, 14, 20, .....
Now, using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we hve
T16 = a + 15d
= 8 + 15 6 = 98
Thus, the 16th term of the A.P. is 98.
Q. 27. The sum of 4th and 8th terms of an A.P. is 24 and the sum of 6th and 10th terms is 44. Find
the first three terms of the A.P. (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Let the first term be a and the common difference be d.
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have
T4 = a + 3d, T6 = a + 5d
T8 = a + 7d and T10 = a + 9d
Since T4 + T8 = 24
a + 3d + a + 7d = 24
2a + 10d = 24 a + 5d = 12 ...(1)
Also, T6 + T10 = 44
a + 5d + a + 9d = 44
2a + 14d = 44 a + 7d = 22 ...(2)
Subtracting (2) from (1), we get,
a + 7d a 5d = 22 12
2d = 10 d = 5

Arithmetic Progressions 137


Now from (1),
a + 5 (5) = 12
a + 25 = 12 a = 13
First term (T1) = a + 0 = 13
Second term (T2) = a+d
= 13 + 5 = 8
Third term T3 = a + 2d
= 13 + 10 = 3
Q. 28. In an A.P., the first term is 8, nth term is 33 and sum of first n terms is 123. Find n and d, the
common difference. (AI CBSE 2009)
Sol. Here,
First term T1 = 8 a = 8
nth term Tn = 33 = l
Sn = 123 [Given]
n
Using, Sn = [a + l], we have
2
n
Sn = [8 + 33]
2
n
123 = 41
2
123 2
n = = 6
41
Now, T6 = 33
a + 5d = 33
8 + 5d = 33
5d = 33 8 = 25
25
d = = 5
5
Thus, n = 6 and d = 5.
Q. 29. For what value of n are the nth terms of two A.P.s 63, 65, 67, ..... and 3, 10, 17, ..... equal?
[NCERT Exemplar (AI CBSE 2009)]
Sol. For the 1st A.P.
a = 63
d = 65 63 = 2
Tn = a + (n 1) d Tn = 63 + (n 1) 2
For the 2nd A.P.
a = 3
d = 10 3 = 7
Tn = a + (n 1) d Tn = 3 + (n 1) 7
[Tn of 1st A.P.] = [Tn of 2nd A.P.]
63 + (n 1) 2 = 3 + (n 1) 7

138 MathematicsX
63 3 + (n 1) 2 (n 1) 7
=
60 + (n 1) 2 (n 1) 7 0=
60 + (n 1) [2 7] 0=
60 + (n 1) ( 5) 0=
60
(n 1) = = 12
5
n = 12 + 1 = 13
Thus, the required value of n is 13.
Q. 30. If m times the mth term of an A.P. is equal to n times the nth term, find the (m + n)th term of
the A.P. [(AI CBSE 2008), (CBSE 2012)]
Sol. Let the first term (T1) = a and the common difference be d.
nth term = a + (n 1) d
And mth term = a + (m 1) d
Also, (m + n)th term = a + (m + n 1) d ...(1)
m (mth term) = n (nth term)
m [a + (m 1) d] = n [a + (n 1) d]
ma + m (m 1) d = na + n (n 1) d
ma + (m2 m) d na (n2 n) d = 0
ma - na + (m2 m) d (n2 n) d = 0
a [m n] + [m2 m n2 + n] d = 0
a [m n] + [(m2 n2) (m n)] d = 0
a [m n] + [(m + n) (m n) (m n)] d = 0
a [m n] + (m n) [m + n 1] d = 0
Dividing throughout by (m n), we have:
a + [m + n 1] d = 0
a + [(m + n) 1] d = 0 ...(2)
(m + n) th term = 0 [From (1) and (2)]
Q. 31. In an A.P., the first term is 25, nth term is 17 and sum of first n terms is 60. Find n and d,
the common difference. (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Here, the first term a = 25
And the nth term = 17 = l
Using Tn = a + (n 1) d, we have:
17 = 25 + (n 1) d
(n 1) d = 17 25 = 42

(n 1) d = 42 = d =
LM 42 OP ...(1)
Nn 1 Q
n
Also, Sn = [a + l]
2
n
60 = [25 + ( 17)]
2
n
60 = 8
2
60
60 = 4n n = = 15
4
Arithmetic Progressions 139
From (1), we have
42 42
d = = = 3
15 1 14
Thus, n = 15 and d = 3
Q. 32. In an A.P., the first term is 22, nth term is 11 and sum of first n terms is 66. Find n and d,
the common difference. (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. We have
1st term (T1) = 22 a = 22
Last term (Tn) = 11 l = 11
n
Using, Sn = [a + l], we have:
2
n
66 = [22 + ( 11)]
2
66 2 = n [11]
66 2
n = = 12
11
Again using
Tn = a + (n 1) d
We have:
T12 = 22 + (12 1) d
11 = 22 + 11d [ nth term = 11]
11d = 22 11 = 33
33
d = = 3
11
Thus, n = 12 and d = 3

III. HOTS QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Find the 6th term of the A.P. :


2m + 1 2m 1 2m 3
, , , ....
m m m
2m + 1 2m 1
Sol. Here, a1 = , a2 =
m m
d = a2 a1
2m 1 2 m + 1 2 m 1 2m 1
= =
m m m
( 2 )
=
m
Now, an = a + (n 1)d
2m + 1 2
an = + (n 1)
m m
140 MathematicsX
2m + 1 2n 2
= + 1
m m m
2m + 1 2n 2
= +
m m m
2m + 1 2 n + 2
=
m
2 m 2n + 3
=
m
2m 2 n + 3
Thus, the nth term is
m
Again, we have
2 m 2n + 3
an =
m
2m 2(6) + 3 2 m 12 + 3
a6 = =
m m
2m 9
=
m
2 m 9
i.e., the 6th term is
m
Q. 2. If the numbers a, b, c, d and e form an A.P., then find the value of a 4b + 6c 4d + e
Sol. We have the first term of A.P. as a.
Let D be the common difference of the given A.P.,
Then :
b = a + D, c = a + 2D, d= a + 3D and e = a + 4D
Q 2nd term = a + common difference
rd
3 term = a + 2 common difference etc.
a 4b + 6c 4d + e
= a 4(a + D ) + 6 (a + 2D) 4 (a + 3D) + (a + 4D)
= a 4a + 6a 4a + a 4D + 12D 12D + 4D
= 8a 8a + 16D 16D = 0
Thus, a 4b + 6c 4d + e = 0

an + 1 + b n + 1
Q. 3. If is the arithmetic mean between a and b, then, find the value of n.
an + b n
1
Sol. Note : A.M., between a and b = (a + b)
2
We know that :
a+b
A.M. between a and b =
2
It is given that,
an+ 1 + bn+ 1
is the A.M. between a and b
an + b n

Arithmetic Progressions 141


an + 1 + b n + 1 a + b
=
an + b n 2
By cross multiplication, we get :

2 a
n+1
+ b n + 1 = an + b n [ a + b ]
2an + 1 + 2bn + 1= an + 1 + abn + anb + bn + 1
2an + 1 an + 1 + 2bn + 1 bn + 1= abn + anb
an + 1 + bn + 1 = abn +anb
an+1 anb = abn bn+1
an[ab] = bn[a b]
an (a b)
=
bn (a b) = 1
0
an an
= n Q x0 = 1
bn b
n =0

1 1 1
Q. 4. If pth term of an A.P. is and qth term , prove that the sum of the first pq terms is pq + 1 .
q p 2

1 1
Hint: pth term = a + (p 1)d = ...(1)
q q
1 1
qth term = a + (q 1)d = p ...(2)
p
1 1
Solving (1) and (2), d = pq and q = pq

n
Using Sn =
2
[ 2 a + (n 1)d ] , we get :
pq 2 1 1
Spq = 2 pq + ( pq 1) pq Spq = 2 ( pq + 1)

1 1 1
Q. 5. If , , are in A.P., prove that a2, b2, c2 are also in A.P.
b+c c + a a+b

1 1 1 1
Hint: =
c+a b+c a+b c+a
[ using the fact, that in an A.P.
(2nd term 1st term) = (3rd term 2nd term)]

Q. 6. Solve the equation :


1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + ... + x = 287 [NCERT Exemplar]

142 MathematicsX
Sol. Since, 4 - 1 = 3

7 - 4 = 3 1, 4, 7, 10, ..., x form an A.P.
10 - 7 = 3
a = 1, d=3 and an = x
an = a + (n 1)d
x = 1 + (n 1) 3 or x = 3n 2
n
Also, (a + l)
Sn =
2
n
287 = (1 + x )
2
2(287) = n[1 + (3n 2)]
574 = n[3n 1]
3n2 n 574 = 0
Solving the above quadratic equation, we get
-( -1) 1 + 4 3 574 1 6888
n = =
6 6
1 83 -41
or n = n = 14 or
6 3
But, negative n is not desirable.
n = 14
x = 3n 2
Now, x = 3(14) 2 = 42 2 = 40
Thus, x = 40
Q. 7. Find three numbers in A.P. whose sum is 21 and their product is 231.
Sol. Let the three numbers in A.P. are:
a d, a, a+d
(a d) + a + (a + d) = 21
a d + a + a + d = 21
or 3a = 21 a=7
Also, (a d) a (a + d) = 231
(7 d) 7 (7 + d) = 231
(7 d) (7 + d) 7 = 231
231
72 d2 = = 33
7
49 d2 = 33
or d 2 = 49 33 = 16
d = 4
Now, when d = 4, then three numbers in AP are : (7 4), 7, (7 + 4) i.e. 3, 7, 11.
When d = 4, then three numbers in AP are : [7 (4)], 7, [7 + (4)]
or 11, 7, 3

Arithmetic Progressions 143


TEST YOUR SKILLS
1. Find the value of p if the numbers x, 2x + p, 3x + p are three successive terms of the AP.
2. Find p and q such that: 2p, 2p + q, p + 4q, 35 are in AP
3. Find a, b and c such that the following numbers are in A.P. :
a, 7, b, 23, c [NCERT Exemplar]

Hint:
7 a = b7 a + b = 14
23 b = b 7 2b = 30 b = 15
23 b = c 23 c + b = 46 c = 46 b
= 46 15
= 31
And a = 14 b = 14 15 = 1

4. Determine k so that k2 + 4k + 8, 2k2 + 3k + 6, 3k2 + 4k + 4 are three consecutive terms of


an AP. [NCERT Exemplar]
4 12
5. If , a, are three consecutive terms of an AP, find the value of a.
5 5

11
6. For what value of p, are (2p 1), 7 and p three consecutive terms of an AP?
2
7. If (x + 2), 2x, (2x + 4) are three consecutive terms of an AP, find the value of x.
(CBSE 2012)
8. For what value of p are (2p 1), 13 and (5p 10) are three consecutive terms of an A.P.?
9. Find the 10th term from the end of the A.P. 4, 9, 14, ... 254.
10. Find the 6th term of the AP 54, 51, 48...
11. Find the 8th term from the end of the AP : 7, 10, 13, ..., 184.
12. Find the 16th term of the AP 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, ...
13. Find the 12th term of the AP:
14, 9, 4, 1, 6, ...
14. Find the middle term of the AP :
20, 16, ..., 180
15. Find the 6th term from the end of the A.P.
17, 14, 11, ..., (40)
16. Find the middle term of the AP :
10, 7, 4, ..., (62)

144 MathematicsX
17. Which term of the AP : 24, 21, 18, 13, ... is the first negative term?

Hint: The first negative term will be the term immediately less than 0. i.e. Tn < 0.
Here , a = 24
[a + (n 1)d] < 0 d = (21 - 24) = -3
3n > 27 n>9 n = 10

18. The 6th term of an AP is 10 and its 10th term is 26. Determine the 15th term of the A.P.
19. For what value of n are the nth terms of the following two APs the same:
13, 19, 25, ... and 69, 68, 67, ....
20. The 8th term of an AP is zero. Prove that its 38th term is triple its 18th term.
Hint:
T8 = 0 a + 7d = 0 a = 7d
T38 = a + 37d = 7d + 37d = 30d
Also, T18 = a + 17d = 7d + 17d = 10d
30d = 3 (10d) T38 = 3 T18
21. For what value of n, the nth terms of the following two APs are equal?
23, 25, 27, 29, ... and 17, 10, 3, 4, ... [NCERT Exemplar]
22. Which term of the AP : 5, 15, 25, ... will be 130 more than 31st term?
Hint: Let an be the required term
i.e. an be 130 more than a31
an a31 = 130

23. Which term of the AP : 3, 15, 27, 39, ... will be 130 120 more than its 64th term?
24. The 9th term of an AP is 499 and its 499th term is 9. Which of its term is equal to zero.
25. Determine A.P. whose fourth term is 18 and the difference of the ninth term from fifteenth
term is 30.
26. How many natural numbers are there between 200 and 500 which are divisible by 7?

Hint: 200 ... 203 ... 497 ... 500

Divisible by 7

a = 203, d = 7 and an = 497


a + (n 1) d = an 203 + (n 1) 7 = 497

27. How many multiples of 7 are there between 100 and 300?
28. Find the value of the middle term of the following A.P. : 11, 7, 3, ..., 49.
29. Find the value of the middle term of the following A.P. : 6, 2, 2, ..., 58.
30. How many two digit numbers are divisible by 3?
Hint: Here, a = 12, d = 3 and an = 99

Arithmetic Progressions 145


31. If the 9th term of an AP is zero, show that 29th term is double the 19th term.

Also, a + (9 - 1)d = 0
a29 a + ( 29 - 1)d a + 8d = 0
Hint: a19 = a + (19 - 1)d = 2
a = -8d
a + 28d
=2
a + 18d
-8d + 28d
=2
-8d + 18d
20d
=2 20d = 20d
10d
a29 = a19
32. If in an AP, the sum of its first ten terms is 80 and the sum of its next ten terms is 280.
Find the AP.
33. If in an A.P.
an = 20 and Sn = 399
then find n
Hint: an = a + (n 1)d (n 1)d = 19
n
Sn = [2a + (n - 1)d ] = 399
2
n
= [2(1) + 19] = 399 n = 38
2
34. Find the sum of all natural numbers from 1 to 100.
35. The first and last terms of an AP are 4 and 81 respectively. If the common difference is
7, how many terms are there in the A.P. and what is their sum?
36. How many terms of A.P.
a, 17, 25, ...
must be taken to get a sum of 450?
37. Find the sum of first hundred even natural numbers which are multiples of 5.
38. Find the sum of the first 30 positive integers divisible by 6.
39. Find the sum of those integers from 1 to 500 which are multiples of 2 or 5.
[NCERT Exemplar]

Hint: Multiples of 2 are : 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, ..., 500.


Multiples of 5 are : 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, ..., 500.
Multiples of 2 as well as 5 : 10, 20, 30, 40, ..., 500.
The required sum

= Sum of multiplies of 2 + Sum of multiples of 5 - Multiples of 2 as well as 5

40. If the nth term of an A.P. is 2n + 1, find Sn of the A.P.

146 MathematicsX
41. An A.P. consists of 37 terms. The sum of the three middle most terms is 225 and the sum
of the last three terms is 429. Find the A.P. [NCERT Exemplar]
42. If Sn denotes the sum of n-terms of A.P. whose common differences is d and first term is
a find:
Sn 2Sn1 + Sn2 (CBSE 2012)
Hint: an = Sn Sn1

43. If the ratio of 11th term to 18th term of an A.P. is 2 : 3. Find the ratio of the 5th term
to the 21st term and also the ratio of the sum of the first five terms to the sum of first 21
terms. (CBSE 2012)
44. If in an A.P. the first term is 2, the last term is 29 and sum of the terms is 155. Find the
common difference of the A.P.
5n 2 3n
45. The sum of n terms of an A.P. is + . Find the 20th term.
2 2
46. If Sn denotes the sum of first n terms of an A.P., prove that
S30 = 3(S20 S10) [Al CBSE Foreign 2014]

ANSWERS
Test Your Skills
1. p=0 2. p = 10, q = 5 3. a = 1, b = 15, c = 31 4. k = 0
5. a = 8/5 6. p=2 7. x =6 8. p = 5
9. 209 10. 69 11. 163 12. 33
13. 41 14. 80 15. 25 16. 26
17. n = 10 18. 46 19. n=9 21. n = 9
22. 44th 23. 74th 24. 508 25. 3, 8, 13, 18, ...
26. 43 27. 28 28. 17; 21 29. 26
30. 30 32. 1, 1, 3, 5, 7... 33. 38
34. 5050 35. 12, 510 36. 10 37. 50500
38. 2790 39. 27250 40. n(n + 2) 41. 3, 7, 11, 15, ...
42. d 43. 1 : 3; 5 : 49 44. d =3 45. 99

Arithmetic Progressions 147


[Unit III: Geometry (Contd.)]

10 Circles

Facts that Matter


z Tangent to a Circle
A tangent to a circle is a line that touches the circle at only one point.

NOTE:
I. There is only one tangent at a point of the circle.
II. The tangent to a circle is a special case of the secant, when the two end points of its corresponding
chord coincide.

Theorem 1
The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius, through the point of contact.
[AI CBSE 2014] [CBSE 2011]
Proof: We have the centre O of the given circle and XY is the
tangent to the circle at a point P.
Let us take a point Q on XY other than P. Join OQ.
O
Obviously, Q lies outside the circle.
i.e., OQ > OP
Since, all the points on XY, except P lies outside the circle.
X P Q Y
i.e., OP is smaller than all the distance of the point O from XY.
i.e., OP is the smallest distance of O from XY.
i.e., OP XY

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 10.1
Q. 1. How many tangents can a circle have?
Sol. A circle can have an infinite number of tangents.
Q. 2. Fill in the blanks:
(i) A tangent to a circle intersects it in .......... point(s).
(ii) A line intersecting a circle in two points is called a .......... .
(iii) A circle can have .......... parallel tangents at the most.
(iv) The common point of a tangent to a circle and the circle is called .......... .
Sol. (i) exactly one (ii) secant (iii) two (iv) point of contact.
148
Q. 3. A tangent PQ at a point P of a circle of radius 5 cm meets a line through the centre O at a point
Q so that OQ = 12 cm. Length of PQ is:
(A) 12 cm (B) 13 cm

(C) 8.5 cm (D) 119 cm

Sol. Since PQ = OQ 2 OP 2

= 12 2 5 2

= 144 25

= 119
The option (D) is correct.
Q. 4. Draw a circle and two lines parallel to a given line such that one is a tangent and the other a secant
to the circle.
Sol. We have the required figure.
Here, l is the given line and a circle with centre O is drawn.

The line PT is drawn which is parallel to l and tangent to the circle.


Also, AB is drawn parallel to line l and is a secant to the circle.

z Number of Tangents from a Point on a Circle


I. There is no tangent to a circle passing through a point lying inside the circle.
II. There is one and only one tangent to a circle passing through a point lying on the circle.
III. There are exactly two tangents to a circle through a point lying outside the circle.
Theorem 2
The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal.
[NCERT Exemplar, (CBSE 2010, 2011, 2014, CBSE Foreign 2014)]
Given: We have a circle with centre O and a point P lying outside the circle. Two tangents PQ and
PR on the circle from P.
To Prove: PR = PQ
Construction: Join OP, OQ and OR
Proof: OQ is a radius and PQ is a tangent.
PQO = 90
Similarly, PRO = 90

Circles 149
Now, in right OQP and right ORP, we have:
OP = OP [Common]
R

P O

Q
OQ = OR [Radii of the same circle]
PQO = PRO [As Proved above]
OQP ORP [R.H.S.]
Their corresponding parts are equal.
PQ = PR

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 10.2
Q. 1. Choose the correct option:
From a point Q, the length of the tangent to a circle is 24 cm and the distance of Q from the centre
is 25 cm. The radius of the circle is
T
(A) 7 cm (B) 12 cm
m
(C) 15 cm (D) 24.5 cm 24 c
Sol. QT is a tangent to the circle at T and OT is
radius Q 25 cm O
Also, OQ = 25 cm and QT = 24 cm
Using Pythagoras theorem, we get
OQ2 = QT2 + OT2
OT2 = OQ2 QT2
= 252 242 = (25 24) (25 + 24)
= 1 49 = 49 = 72
OT = 7
Thus, the required radius is 7 cm.
The correct option is (A).
Q. 2. Choose the correct option:
T
In figure, if TP and TQ are the two tangents to a circle with centre P
O so that POQ = 110, then PTQ is equal to
(A) 60 (B) 70 110
(C) 80 (D) 90 Q
O
Sol. TQ and TP are tangents to a circle with centre O.
such that POQ = 110
OP PT and OQ QT
150 MathematicsX
OPT = 90 and OQT = 90
Now, in the quadrilateral TPOQ, we get
PTQ + 90 + 110 + 90 = 360
PTQ + 290 = 360
PTQ = 360 290 = 70
Thus, the correct option is (B).
Q. 3. Choose the correct option:
If tangents PA and PB from a point P to a circle with centre O are inclined to each other at angle
of 80, then POA is equal to
(A) 50 (B) 60 (C) 70 (D) 80
Sol. Since, O is the centre of the circle and two tangents from P to the circle are PA and PB.
OA AP and OB BP
OAP = OBP = 90 A
Now, in quadrilateral PAOB, we have:
APB + PAO + AOB + PBO = 360
80 + 90 + AOB + 90 = 360 P
260 + AOB = 360 O
AOB = 360 260
AOB = 100.
In rt OAP and rt OBP, we have B
OP = OP [Common]
OAP = OBP [Each = 90]
OA = OB [Radii of the same circle]
OAP OBP
Their corresponding parts are equal
POA = POB
1 1
POA = AOB = 100 = 50 .
2 2
Thus, the option (A) is correct.

Q. 4. Prove that the tangents drawn at the ends of a diameter of a circle are parallel.
[CBSE 2012, CBSE Foreign 2014]
Sol. In the figure, we have:
PQ is diameter of the given circle and O is its centre.
Let tangents AB and CD be drawn at the end points of the diameter PQ.
Since the tangent at a point to a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point.
PQ AB APQ = 90
C Q D

A P B
Circles 151
And PQ CD PQD = 90
APQ = PQD
But they form a pair of alternate angles.
AB y CD.

Q. 5. Prove that the perpendicular at the point of contact to the tangent to a circle passes through the centre.
Sol. In the figure, the centre of the circle is O and tangent AB touches the circle at P.
If possible, let PQ be perpendicular to AB such that it is not passing through O.
Join OP.
Since tangent at a point to a circle is perpendicular to the radius through that point,
AB OP i.e. OPB = 90 ...(1)
But by construction,
AB PQ QPB = 90 ...(2)
From (1) and (2),
QPB = OPB
which is possible only when O and Q coincide.
Thus, the perpendicular at the point of contact
to the tangent passes through the centre.

Q. 6. The length of a tangent from a point A at distance 5 cm from the centre of the circle is 4 cm. Find
the radius of the circle.
Sol. The tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
OTA = 90
T
Now, in the right OTA, we have:
OP2 = OT2 + PT2 4 cm

5 2 = OT2 + 42 A
OT2 = 52 42 5 cm
O
2
OT = (5 4) (5 + 4)
OT2 = 1 9 = 9 = 32
OT = 3
Thus, the radius of the circle is 3 cm.
Q. 7. Two concentric circles are of radii 5 cm and 3 cm. Find the length of the chord of the larger circle
which touches the smaller circle.
Sol. In the figure, O is the common centre, of the given
concentric circles.
AB is a chord of the bigger circle such that it is a
tangent to the smaller circle at P.
O
Since OP is the radius of the smaller circle through 5 cm 3 cm
P, the point of contact, A B
P
OP AB
APB = 90
Also, a radius perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord.

152 MathematicsX
1
OP bisects AB AP = AB
2
Now, in right APO,
OA2 = AP2 OP2
52 = AP2 32
AP2 = 52 32
AP2 = (5 3) (5 + 3) = 2 8
AP2 = 16 = (4)2
AP = 4 cm
1
AB = 4 AB = 2 4 = 8 cm
2
Hence, the required length of the chord AB is 8 cm.
Q. 8. A quadrilateral ABCD is drawn to circumscribe a circle (see figure). Prove that:
AB + CD = AD + BC [CBSE (Foreign) 2014, CBSE 2012] (AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Since the sides of quadrilateral ABCD, i.e., AB, BC, CD and DA
touch the circle at P, Q, R and S respectively, and the lengths of
two tangents to a circle from an external point are equal.
AP = AS
BP = BQ
DR = DS
CR = CQ
Adding them, we get
(AP + BP) + (CR + RD) = (BQ + QC) + (DS + SA)
AB + CD = BC + DA
which was to be proved.

Q. 9. In the figure, XY and XY are two parallel tangents to a circle with centre O and another tangent
AB with point of contact C intersecting XY at A and XY at B. Prove that AOB = 90.
X P Y
A

O
C

X Y
Q B
[CBSE 2012]
Sol. The tangents drawn to a circle from an external point are equal.
AP = AC
In PAO and AOC, we have:
AO = AO [Common]
OP = OC [Radii of the same circle]
AP = AC

Circles 153
PAO AOC [SSS Congruency]
PAO = CAO
PAC = 2 CAO ...(1)
Similarly CBQ = 2 CBO ...(2)
Again, we know that sum of internal angles on the same side of a transversal is 180.
PAC + CBQ = 180
2 CAO + 2 CBO = 180 [From (1) and (2)]
180
CAO + CBO = = 90 ...(3)
2
Also CAO + CBO + AOB = 180 [Sum of angles of a triangle]
90 + AOB = 180
AOB = 180 90
AOB = 90.
Q. 10. Prove that the angle between the two tangents drawn from an external point to a circle is
supplementary to the angle subtended by the line-segment joining the points of contact at the
centre.
Sol. Here, let PA and PB be two tangents drawn from an external point P to a circle
with centre O.
A

P B

Now, in right OAP and right OBP, we have


PA = PB [Tangents to circle from an external point P]
OA = OB [Radii of the same circle]
OP = OP [Common]
By SSS congruency,
OAP OBP
Their corresponding parts are equal.
OAA = OPB
And AOP = BOP
APB = 2 OPA and AOB = 2 AOP
But AOP = 90 OPA
2 AOP = 180 2 OPA
AOB = 180 APB
AOB + APB = 180.

154 MathematicsX
Q. 11. Prove that the parallelogram circumscribing a circle is a rhombus. (CBSE 2012, CBSE Delhi 2014)
Sol. We have ABCD, a parallelogram which circumscribes a
circle (i.e., its sides touch the circle) with centre O.
Since tangents to a circle from an external point are equal in length,
AP = AS
BP = BQ D

CR = CQ
DR = DS
S
Adding, we get
R
(AP + BP) + (CR + DR) = (AS + DS) + (BQ + CQ) A O
AB + CD = AD + BC C
P
But AB = CD [opposite sides of ABCD]
Q
and BC = AD
AB + CD = AD + BC 2 AB = 2 BC
AB = BC
Similarly AB = DA and DA = CD B
Thus, AB = BC = CD = AD
Hence ABCD is a rhombus.
A
Q. 12. A triangle ABC is drawn to circumscribe a circle of radius 4 cm
such that the segments BD and DC into which BC is divided
by the point of contact D are of lengths 8 cm and 6 cm
respectively (see figure). Find the sides AB and AC. E
F
[CBSE 2012] O
Sol. Here ABC subscribe the circle with centre O.
Also, radius = 4 cm C B
The sides BC, CA and AB touch the circle at D, E and 6 cm D 8 cm
F respectively.
BF = BD = 8 cm
CE = CD = 6 cm A
AF = AE = x cm (say) x cm
x cm
The sides of the triangle are:
14 cm, (x + 6) cm and (x + 8) cm
Perimeter of ABC
O 8 cm
= [14 + (x + 6) + (x + 8)] cm 6 cm

= [14 + 6 + 8 + 2x] cm
B
= 28 + 2x cm C
6 cm D 8 cm
Semi perimeter of ABC
1
S= [28 + 2x] cm = (14 + x) cm
2
S AB = (14 + x) (8 + x) = 6
S BC = (14 + x) (14) = x
S AC = (14 + x) (16 + x) = 8
Area of ABC = b gb gb
S S AB S BC S AC g = b14 + xga6faxfa8f cm 2

Circles 155
= b14 + xg 48x cm2 ...(1)
1
Now, ar ( OBC) = BC OD
2
1
= 14 4 [ OD = Radius]
2
= 28 cm2
1 1
ar ( OCA) = CA OE = (x + 6) 4
2 2
1
= 4 (x + 6) = (2x + 12) cm2
2
1 1
ar ( OAB) = AB OF = (x + 8) 4
2 2
= (2x + 16) cm2
ar ( ABC) = ar ( OBC) + ar ( OCA) + ar ( OAB)
= 28 cm2 + (2x + 12) cm2 + (2x + 16) cm2
= (28 + 12 + 16) + 4x cm2
= (56 + 4x) cm2 ...(2)
From (1) and (2), we have:
56 + 4x = b14 + xg 48x
4 [14 + x] = 4 b14 + x g 3 x

14 + x = b14 + xg 3x
Squaring both sides
(14 + x)2 = (14 + x) 3x
196 + x2 + 28x = 42x + 3x2
2x2 + 14x 196 = 0 x2 + 7x 98 = 0
(x 7) (x + 14) = 0
Either x 7 = 0 x = 7
or x + 14 = 0 x = (14)
But x = ( 14) is not required
x = 7 cm
Thus, AB = 8 + 7 = 15 cm
BC = 8 + 6 = 14 cm
CA = 6 + 7 = 13 cm.

Q. 13. Prove that opposite sides of a quadrilateral circumscribing a circle subtend supplementary angles
at the centre of the circle. [CBSE 2012]
Sol. We have a circle with centre O.
A quadrilateral ABCD is such that the sides AB, BC, CD and DA touch the circle at P, Q,
R and S respectively.
Let us join OP, OQ, OR and OS. We know that two tangents drawn from an external point
to a circle subtend equal angles at the centre.

156 MathematicsX
1 = 2
3 = 4
5 = 6 and 7 = 8 D

Also, the sum of all the angles around a point is 360.


1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 = 360
2 [1 + 8 + 5 + 4] = 360
(1 + 8 + 5 + 4) = 180 (1)
And 2 [2 + 3 + 6 + 7] = 360
S
(2 + 3) + (6 + 7) = 180 (2)
Since, 2 + 3 = AOB 8
O
6 + 7 = COD 1 7
R
A
1 + 8 = AOD 2 6
5
4 + 5 = BOC 3 4

From (1) and (2), we have: P C


AOD + BOC = 180 and B
Q

AOB + COD = 180

MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED


I. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. In the adjoining figure, PA and PB are tangents from P to a circle with centre C. If APB = 40
then find ACB.
Sol. Since a tangent to a circle is perpendicular
to the radius through the point of contact,
1 = 90 and 2 = 90
Now, in quadrilateral APBC, we have: A
1 + ACB + 2 + P = 360 1
90 + ACB + 90 + 40 = 360
C
ACB + 220 = 360 40 P

ACB = 360 220 2


= 140. B

Q. 2. In the given figure, PA and PB are tangents from P to a circle with centre O. If AOB = 130,
then find APB.
Sol. Since a tangent to a circle is
perpendicular to the radius through A
the point of contact, 1
1 = 2 = 90
O 130
Now, in quadrilateral AOBP, we have: P

1 + AOB + 2 + APB = 360


2
90 + 130 + 90 + APB = 360 B

Circles 157
310 + APB = 360
APB = 360 310 = 50
Thus, APB = 50.
Q. 3. In the given figure, PT is a tangent to a circle whose centre is O. If PT = 12 cm and PO = 13
cm then find the radius of the circle.
T
Sol. Since a tangent to a circle is perpendicular
to the radius through the point of contact, r
12 cm
OTP = 90 O
In rt OTP, using Pythagoras theorem, we get 13 c
m
OP2 = OT2 + PT2 P
2
13 = OT + 122 2

OT2 = 132 122 = (13 12) (13 + 12) = 1 25 = 25


OT2 = 5 2
OT = 5
Thus, radius (r) = 5 cm.
Q. 4. In the given figure, PT is a tangent to the circle and O is its centre. Find OP.
T

8 cm 15
cm

O
P

Sol. Since, a tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
OTP = 90
In right OTP, using Pythagoras theorem, we get
OP2 = OT2 + PT2
= 82 + 152 = 64 + 225 = 289 = 172
OP = 17 2 = 17 cm.
Q. 5. If O is the centre of the circle, then find the length of the tangent AB in the given figure.
A

6 cm

O B
10 cm

Sol. A tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
OAB = 90
Now, in right OAB, we have
OB2 = OA2 + AB2
10 2 = 62 + AB2
AB2 = 102 62 = (10 6) (10 + 6) = 4 16 = 64 = 82
AB = 82 = 8 .
158 MathematicsX
Q. 6. In the figure, PA is a tangent from an external point P to a circle with centre O. If POB = 115
then find APO. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
A

P O

B
Sol. Here, PA is a tangent and OA is radius. Also, a radius through the point of contact is
perpendicular to the tangent.
OA = PA
PAO = 90
In OAP, POB is an external angle,
APO + PAO = POB
APO + 90 = 115
APO = 115 90 = 25

Q. 7. In the following figure, PA and PB are tangents drawn from a point P to the circle with centre
O. If APB = 60, then what is AOB? (CBSE 2009 C)
A
P

Sol. The radius of the circle through the point of contact is perpendicular to the tangent.
OA AP and OB BP
PAO = PBO = 90
Now, in quadrilateral OAPB,
OAP + APB + PBO + AOB = 360
90 + 60 + 90 + AOB = 360
AOB + 240 = 360
AOB = 360 240 = 120

Q. 8. In the figure, CP and CQ are tangents to a circle with centre O. ARB is another tangent touching
the circle at R. If QC = 11 cm, BC = 7 cm then find, the length of BR. (CBSE 2009)
P
A

O R C

B
Q

Circles 159
Sol. Tangents drawn from an external point are equal,
BQ = BR ...(1)
And CQ = CP
Since, BC + BQ = QC
7 + BR = 11 [ BQ = BR]
BR = 11 7 = 4 cm.
Q. 9. In the figure, ABC is circumscribing a circle. Find the length of BC. (AI CBSE 2009)
A

4 cm
11
Q cm
R
3 cm

B P C
Sol. Since tangents drawn from an external point to the circle are equal,
AR = AQ = 4 cm ...(1)
BR = BP = 3 cm ...(2)
PC = QC ...(3)
QC = AC AQ
= 11 4 = 7 cm [From (1)]
BC = BP + PC [From (3)]
= 3 + QC
= (3 + 7) cm = 10 cm
Q. 10. In the figure, if ATO = 40, find AOB. [AI CBSE 2008]
A

O
T

B
Sol. Since the tangent is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact,
1 = 4 = 90
Also, OA = OB [Radii of the same circle]
OT = OT [Common]
OAT OBT [RHS congruency]
3 = 2

A
4

O 3
40
2 5
T

1
B

160 MathematicsX
Now, in OAT,
3 + 4 + 5 = 180
3 + 90 + 40 = 180
3 = 180 90 40 = 50
AOB = 50 + 50 = 100.

Q. 11. From a point P, the length of the tangent to a circle is 15 cm and distance of P from the centre
of the circle is 17 cm, then what is the radius of the circle? [CBSE 2008 C]

A
15 c
m
r
P
O 17 cm

Sol. Since radius is perpendicular to the tangent through the point of contact,
OA AP
OAP = 90
In rt OAP, we have:
OA2 + AP2 = OP2
r2 + (15)2 = (17)2
r2 = 172 152 = (17 15) (17 + 15) = 2 32 = 64
r = 64 = 8
Thus, radius = 8 cm.
Q. 12. The two tangents from an external point P to a circle with centre O are PA and PB. If
APB = 70, then what is the value of AOB? (AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Since tangent is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
1 = 2 = 90
In quadrilateral OABP,
AOB + 1 + 2 + APB = 360
AOB + 90 + 90 + 70 = 360

A
1

O 70 P

2
B

AOB + 250 = 360


AOB = 360 250 = 110
Circles 161
II. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Prove that the tangents drawn at the ends of a chord of a circle make equal angles with the chord.
[NCERT Exemplar]
M
Sol.

1
L C
O
2

N
Let NM be a chord of a circle with centre C.
Let the tangents at M and N meet at O.
Q OM is a tangent at M
\ OMC = 90 ...(1)
Similarly ONC = 90 ...(2)
Since, CM = CN [Radii of the same circle]
\ In D CMN, 1 = 2
From (1) and (2), we have
OMC 1 = ONC 2
OML = ONL
Thus, tangents make equal angles with the chord.
Q. 2. Two concentric circles have a common centre O. The chord AB to
the bigger circle touches the smaller circle at P. If OP = 3 cm and
AB = 8 cm then find the radius of the bigger circle.
Sol. AB touches the smaller circle at P.
O
OP AB OPA = 90
Now, AB is a chord of the bigger circle.
Since, the perpendicular from the centre to a chord, bisects A B
P
the chord,
P is the mid-point of AB
8
AP = = 4 cm
2
In right APO, we have
AO2 = OP2 + AP2
AO2 = 32 + 42
AO2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 52

AO = 5 2 = 5 cm Q
Thus, the radius of the bigger circle is 5 cm.
Q. 3. In the given figure, O is the centre of the circle and
PQ is a tangent to it. If its circumference is 12
O
cm, then find the length of the tangent.
Sol. Circumference of the circle = 12 cm
10
2 r = 12 cm
[ r is the radius of the circle] P

162 MathematicsX
12
r = = 6 cm
2
Radius of the circle = 6 cm = OQ
Since a tangent to circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact,
OQP = 90
Now, in rt OQP, we have:
OQ2 + QP2 = OP2
62 + QP2 = 10 2
QP2 = 102 62 = (10 6) (10 + 6) = 4 16 = 64 = 82
QP = 82 = 8
Thus, the length of the tangent is 8 cm.
Q. 4. Given two concentric circles of radii 10 cm and 6 cm. Find the
length of the chord of the larger circle which touches the other A
circle.
Sol. The chord AB touches the inner circle at P.
AB is tangent to the inner circle. 6m
O P
OP AB
[ O is the centre and OP is radius
through the point of contact P] 10 m

OPB = 90.
Now, in right OPB, we have: B

OP2 + PB2 = OB2


62 + PB2 = 10 2
PB2 = 102 62 = (10 6) (10 + 6)
PB2 = 4 16
PB2 = 64 = 82
PB = 8 2 = 8 cm
The radius perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord.
P is the mid-point of AB
AB = 2 PB = 2 8 = 16 cm.
Q. 5. Two tangents TP and TQ are drawn to a circle with centre O from an external point T. Prove that
PTQ = 2 OPQ. (CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
P

O T

Q
Sol. Tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
In quadrilateral. OPTQ,
OPT + OQT + POQ + PTQ = 360
or 90 + 90 + POQ + PTQ = 360
POQ + PTQ = 360 90 90 = 180 ...(1)
In OPQ, 1 + 2 + POQ = 180 ...(2)
Circles 163
Since OP = OQ [Radii of the same circle]
1 = 2 [Angles opposite to equal sides]
OPT = 90 = OQT
From (2), we have
1 + 1 + POQ = 180
2 1 + POQ = 180 ...(3)
From (1) and (3), we have
2 1 + POQ = POQ + PTQ
2 1 = PTQ
2 OPQ = PTQ.
Q. 6. In the figure, the incircle of ABC touches the sides BC, CA and AB at D, E and F respectively.
If AB = AC, prove that BD = CD.
Sol. Since the lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal,
We have AF = AE
A
BF = BD
CD = CE
Adding them, we get F E

(AF + BF) + CD = (AE + CE) + BD


AB + CD = AC + BD
But AB = AC B D C (Given)
CD = BD.
Q. 7. A circle is touching the side BC of a D ABC at P and touching AB and AC produced at Q and
R. Prove that:
1
AQ = (Perimeter of D ABC) [NCERT Exemplar CBSE 2011, 2012]
2
Sol. Since, the two tangents drawn to a circle from an
external point are equal. A

\ AQ = AR ...(1)
Similarly,
BQ = BP ...(2) P
B C
and CR = CP ...(3) Q R
Now, Perimeter of D ABC O

= AB + BC + AC
= AB + (BP + PC) + AC
= AB + (BQ + CR) + AC [From (2) and (3)]
= (AB + BQ) + (CR + AC)
= AQ + AR
= AQ + AQ [From (1)]
= 2AQ
1
AQ = (Perimeter D ABC)
2
164 MathematicsX
Q. 8. In two concentric circles, a chord of the larger circle touches the smaller circle. If the length of this
chord is 8 cm and the diameter of the smaller circle is 6 cm, then find the diameter of the larger
circle. (CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Let the common centre be O. Let AB be the chord of
the larger circle.
C
AB = 8 cm
And CD is the diameter of the smaller circle i.e.,
CD = 6 cm O
1
OD = (6) = 3 cm
2 A
D
B
Join OA. D is the point of contact. 8 cm
OD AB
D is the mid point of AB
AD = 4 cm
Now, in right ADO, we have:
AO2 = AD2 + OD2
= 42 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 52
AO = 5 cm
2AO = 2(5 cm) = 10 cm
The diameter of the bigger circle is 10 cm.
Q. 9. In the following figure, PA and PB are two tangents drawn to a circle with centre O, from an
external point P such that PA = 5 cm and APB = 60. Find the length of chord AB.
(CBSE 2009 C)
A
5 cm

P 60 O

B
Sol. Since the tangents to a circle from an external point are equal,
PA = PB = 5 cm
In PAB, we have
PAB = PBA [ PA = PB]
PAB + PBA + APB = 180
PAB + PAB + 60 = 180
2 PAB + 60 = 180
2 PAB = 180 60 = 120
PAB = 60
Each angle of PAB is 60.
PAB is an equilateral triangle.
PA = PB = AB = 5 cm
Thus, AB = 5 cm
Circles 165
Q. 10. In the following figure, AB is a chord of length 9.6 cm of a circle with centre O and radius 6 cm.

The tangents at A and B intersect at P. Find the length PA. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol.
A
x
6 cm

cm cm
4.8 4.8
y R O
P
6 cm

Join OB.
Let PA = x cm and PR = y cm
Since, OP is perpendicular bisector of AB
9.6
AR = BR = = 4.8 cm
2
Now, in rt OAR, we have:
OA2 = OR2 + AR2 [By Pythagoras theorem]
OR2 = OA2 AR2
= 62 (4.8)2 = (6 4.8) (6 + 4.8) = 1.2 10.8
= 12.96
OR = 3.6 cm.
Again, in right OAP,
OP2 = AP2 + OA2
OP2 = (AR2 + PR2) + OA2 [ AP2 = AR2 + PR2]
(y + 3.6)2 = (4.8)2 + y2 + 62
y2 + 12.96 + 7.2 y = 23.04 + y2 + 36
7.2 y = 46.08
46.08
y = = 6.4
7.2
PR = 6.4 cm
Now, AP2 = AP2 + PR2
= (4.8)2 + (6.4)2 = 23.04 + 40.96 = 64
AP = 64 = 8 cm

166 MathematicsX
Q. 11. Two tangents PA and PB are drawn to a circle with centre O from an external point P. Prove that
APB = 2OAB (CBSE 2009)
A
P

Sol. We have PA and PB, the tangents to the circle and O is the centre of the circle.
PA = PB
2 = 4 ...(1)

A
2
1
O
P 3
4
B

Since the tangent is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact,
OAP = 90
1 + 2 = 90 ...(2)
2 = 90 1
Now, in ABP, we have:
2 + 3 + 4 = 180
2 + 3 + 2 = 180 [From (1)]
2 + 3 = 180
2 (90 1) + 3 = 180 [From (2)]
180 2 1 + 3 = 180
2 1 = 3 3 = 21
APB = 2OAB

Q. 12. ABC is an isosceles triangle, in which AB = AC, circumscribed about a circle. Show that BC is
bisected at the point of contact. [CBSE 2012]
Sol. We know that the tangents to a circle from an external point are equal.
A
AD = AF
Similarly,
BD = BE
and CE = CF D F

Since AB = AC [Given]
AB AD = AC AD
AB AD = AC AF [ AD = AF]
B E C

Circles 167
BD = CF ...(1)
But BF = BD and CF = CE
From (1), we have:
BE = CE
Q. 13. If a, b, c are the sides of a right triangle where c is hypotenuse, prove that the radius r of the circle
a+b c
which touches the sides of the triangle is given by r = [(NCERT Exemplar)
2
(CBSE 2012)]
Sol. Here, a, b and c are the sides of rt D ABC A
Such that BC = a, CA = b and AB = c
Let the circle touches the sides BC, CA, AB at
D, E and F respectively.
= AE = AF and BD = BF c
F b
Also, CE = CD = r
r
\ AF = b r O r
E
BF = a r r

Now, AB = c (AF + BF) = (b r) + (a r) B


D
a C
c = b + a 2r
2r = a + b c
a+b c
r=
2
Q. 14. In a right ABC, right angled at B, BC = 5 cm and AB = 12 cm. The circle is touching the sides
of ABC. Find the radius of the circle. [CBSE 2014]
Sol. Let the circle with centre O and radius r touches AB, BC and AC at P, Q, R, respectively.
Now,
AR = AP
AP = AB BP = (12 r) cm
AR = (12 r)cm
Similarly, CR = (5 r)cm
Now, using Pythagoras theorem in rt ABC, we have
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
AC2 = 122 + 52
AC = 13 cm
But AC = AR + CR
= (12 r) + (5 r)
(12 r) + (5 r) = 13 cm
17 2r = 13 cm
2 r = 17 13 = 4 cm
4
r= = 2 cm
2
Thus, the radius of the circle is 2 cm.
168 MathematicsX
Q. 15. Prove that the parallelogram circumscribing a circle is a rhombus.
[CBSE 2012] (CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
Sol. Since ABCD is a ygm
AB = CD
and AD = BC
Tangents from an external point to a circle are equal, R
D C
AP = AS
BP = BQ
RC = QC S Q
DR = DS
(AP + PB) + (RC + DR) = (AS + DS) + (BQ + QC)
A B
AB + CD = AD + BC P

2 AB = 2 AD AB = AD
AB = AD = CD = BC
i.e., ABCD is a rhombus.
Q. 16. In the following figure, OP is equal to diameter of the circle. Prove that ABP is an equilateral
triangle. (AI CBSE 2008)
A

O P

B A
Sol. Since the tangent is perpendicular to
5
the radius through the point of
contact, C 2
OAP = 90 O 1 P
3
Let us join AB and AC. 4
In right OAP, OP is the hypotenuse
and C is the mid point of OP. B
[ OP is a diameter of the circle (given)]
CA = CP = CO = Radius of the circle.
OAC is an equilateral triangle.
Since all angles in an equilateral triangle are 60,
1 = 60
Now, in OAP, we have
1 + OAP + 2 = 180
60 + 90 + 2 = 180

Circles 169
2 = 180 90 60 = 30
Since PA and PB make equal angles with OP,
2 = 3 3 = 30
APB = 2 + 3 = 30 + 30 = 60
Again, PA = PB.
In ABP, 4 = 5 [Angles opposite to equal sides are equal]
Now, in ABP,
4 + 5 + APB = 180
4 + 4 + APB = 180
24 + 60 = 180
24 = 180 60 = 120
120
4 = = 60
2
Since, 4 = 60
5 = 60 ABP is an equilateral .
APB = 60
Q. 17. Prove that the angle between the two tangents to a circle drawn from an external point is
supplementary to the angle subtended by the line segment joining the points of contact at the centre.
(CBSE 2008 C)
Or
Two tangents PA and PB are drawn from an external point P to a circle with centre O. Prove that
AOBP is a cyclic quadrilateral. (CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
Sol.

We have tangents PA and PB to the circle from the external point P. Since a tangent to
a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact,
2 = 90 and 4 = 90
Now, in quadrilateral OAPB,
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 360
1 + 90 + 3 + 90 = 360
1 + 3 = 360 90 90 = 180
i.e., 1 and 3 are supplementary angles.
AOB and APB are supplementary
AOBP is a cyclic quadrilateral.
Q. 18. Out of two concentric circles, the radius of the outer circle is 5 cm and the chord AC of length
8 cm is a tangent to the inner circle. Find the radius of the inner circle.
[NCERT Exemplar, CBSE (Foreign) 2014]

170 MathematicsX
O
m
5c
A C
L

Sol. Let the given chord AC of the larger circle touch the smaller circle at L.
Q AC is a tangent at L to the smaller circle with centre O
\ OL ^ AC
Also AC is a chord of the bigger circle
1
\ AL = AC
2
[Q A perpendicular from centre to a chord of the circle, divides the
chord into two equal parts.]
But AC = 8 cm
1
\ AL = (8 cm) = 4 cm.
2
Now, in rt. DOAL,
OL2 = OA2 AL2
or OL2 = 52 42
= (5 + 4) (5 4)
= 91=9
OL = 9 = 3 cm
Thus, the radius of the inner circle is 3 cm.

TEST YOUR SKILLS


1. In the following figure, two circles touch each other externally at C. Prove that the common
tangent at C bisects the other two common tangents.
P
E
Q

C
A B

F M
L
2. In the figure, if AB = AC, prove that BE = CE. [CBSE 2006]
A

D F

B E C

Circles 171
3. A point P is 13 cm from the centre of the circle. The length of the tangent drawn from P
to the circle is 12 cm. Find the radius of the circle.
4. A circle is touching the side BC of ABC at P and touching AB and AC produced at Q
and R respectively.
1
Prove that: AQ = (Perimeter of ABC)
2
5. The incircle of ABC touches the sides BC, CA and AB at D, E and F respectively.
Show that: [CBSE 2012]
AF + BD + CD = AE + BF + CE
1
= (Perimeter of ABC)
2
A

F
E

B C
D
6. Show that the tangents drawn at the end points of a diameter of a circle are parallel.
7. In the figure PQ is a chord of a circle and PT is the tangent at P such that
QPT = 60, Find PRQ. [NCERT Exemplar]

Hint: Q

OPQ = OQP = 30 POQ = 120 O


1
Also, PRQ = reflex POQ R
2
T
P

8. In the figure, PQL and PRM are tangents to the circle with centre O at the points Q and
R, respectively and S is a point on the circle such that SQL = 50 and SRM = 60. Find
the measure of QSR. [NCERT Exemplar]

L
Q
50

S P
O

60
R
M

Hint:
OQS = 90 50 = 40 = OQQ
ORS = 90 60 = 30 = OSR
QSR = OSQ + OSR = 40 + 30

172 MathematicsX
9. PQ is a chord of length 8 cm of a circle of radius 5 cm. The tangents at P and Q intersect
at a point T. Find the length of TP.
P
T
5 cm
8
cm O

Q
A D
10. In the following figure, l and m are two parallel l
tangents to a circle with centre F. DE is the
tangent segment between the two parallel
tangents touching the circle at C. Show that DFE F C
= 90.

m
R E
11. In the figure, two circles with centres A and B and radii 5 cm and 3 cm touching each
other internally. If the perpendicular bisector of segment AB, meets the bigger circle at P
and Q, find the length of PQ.

12. Two tangents making an angle of 120 with each other, are drawn to a circle of radius
6 cm. Show that the length of each tangent is 2 3 cm.
13. In the figure BOA is a diameter of a circle and the tangent at a point P meets BA extended
at T. If PBO = 30, then find PTA.
P

30
B T
O A

Hint:
Q BPA = 90
\ PAB = 60 = OPA
Since, OP ^ PT APT = 30 and PTA = 60 30.

14. In the given figure, ABC is a right D right angled at B such that BC = 6 cm and
AB = 8 cm. Find the radius of the circle.

Circles 173
A

B
R C
15. If from an external point B of a circle with centre O, two tangents BC and BD are drawn
such that DBC = 120 , prove that BC + BD = BO i.e., BO = 2 BC
[NCERT Exemplar, CBSE 2014]

1
O B
2
C

Hint:
DOC = 180 120 = 60 [Q 1 = 2 = 90]
rt D OBD @ DOBC
BOC = BOD = 30
BD 1
In rt D OBD, = sin 30 =
OB 2
1
\ BD = OB
2
1
Similarly, BC = OB
2
16. In the figure, XP and XQ are two tangents to the circle with centre O, drawn from an
external point X. ARB is another tangent touching the circle at R. Prove that XA + AR
= XB + BR. [AI. CBSE (Foreign) 2014
Hint: P
A
AP = AR and BQ = BR
XP = XA + AP XA + AR [Q AP = AR O R x
XQ = XB + BQ XB + BR [Q BQ = BR
B
XP = XQ gives XA + AR = XB + BR Q

17. Prove that the line segment joining the points of contact of two parallel tangents of a circle,
passes through its centre. [CBSE (Delhi) 2014]
Hint:
Let PAQ and RBS be two parallel tangents to circle with centre O.
Join OA, OB and draw OCyPQ

174 MathematicsX
PAyCO
PAO + COA = 180 [co-interior angles]
90 + COA = 180 COA = 90
Similarly, COB = 90
COA + COB = 90 + 90 = 180. Hence, AOB is a st. line passing through O (centre
of the circle).
P A Q

O
C

R B S

18. In the figure, AB is a chord of length 16cm, of a circle of radius 10cm. The tangents at
A and B intersect at a point P. Find the length of PA. [AI. CBSE. 2010, 2014]

Hint:
AB = 16 cm AL = BL = 8 cm
In OLB, OB2 = LB2 + OL2 [By Pythagoras Theorem]

102 = 82 + OL2 OL = 100 64 = 36 = 6


Let PL = x and PB = y, So that OP = (x + 6)cm
In PLB and OBP, we have:
PB2 = PL2 + BL2 and OP2 = OB2 + PB2 A
32
Substituting x and y and simplifying, we get x = cm O L
3 P

1600
y2 = x2 + 64 y2 = y = 40 3 B
9
40
Thus, PA = cm.
3

ANSWERS
Test Your Skills
3. 5 cm 7. 120 8. 70 13. 30 14. 2 cm

Circles 175
11 Constructions

Facts that Matter


We know that:
I. To divide a line segment in a given ratio m : n, we divide this segment into (m + n) equal parts.
Then we take m parts on one side and n on the other.
II. The idea of dividing a line segment in any ratio is used in construction of a triangle similar
to a given triangle, whose sides are in a given ratio with the corresponding sides of the
given triangle.
III. The scale-factor means the ratio of the sides of the triangle to be constructed with the
corresponding sides of the given triangle.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 11.1
In each of the following, give the justification of the construction also:
Q. 1. Draw a line segment of length 7.6 cm and divide it in the ratio 5 : 8. Measure the two parts.
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw a line segment AB = 7.6 cm.
II. Draw a ray AX making an acute angle with AB.
III. Mark 13 (8 + 5) equal points on AX, and mark them as X1, X2, X3, ........, X13.
IV. Join point X13 and B.
V. From point X5, draw X5C y X13B, which meets AB at C.
Thus, C divides AB in the ratio 5 : 8
On measuring the two parts, we get:
AC = 4.7 cm and BC = 2.9 cm
X
X13
X12
X11
X10
X9
X8
X7
X6
X5
X4
X3
X2
X1

A C B
7.6 cm

176
Justification:
In ABX13 and ACX5, we have
CX5 y BX 13
AC AX5 5
= =
CB X5 X13 8
AC : CB = 5 : 8.
Q. 2. Construct a triangle of sides 4 cm, 5 cm and 6 cm and then a triangle similar to it whose sides
2
are of the corresponding sides of the first triangle. [CBSE 2012]
3
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw a ABC such that BC = 6
cm, AC = 5 cm and AB = 4 cm. A

II. Draw a ray BX making an acute


angle CBX. A

III. Mark three points X1, X2, X3 on 5 cm


BX such that BX1 = X1X2 = X2X3.
IV. Join X3 C. C
B C
V. Draw a line through X2 such that 6 cm

it is parallel to X3 C and meets


BC at C. X
1

VI. Draw a line through C parallel


X
to CA to intersect BA at A. 2

Thus, ABC is the required triangle. X


3

Justification: X
By construction, we have:
X3C y X2C
BX 2 BC
= [Using BPT]
X2X3 C C
BX 2 2
But =
X2X3 1
BC 2
=
C C 1
C C 1
=
BC 2
Adding, 1 to both sides, we get
C C 1
+1 = +1
BC 2
C C + BC 1+2
=
BC 2
Constructions 177
BC 3
=
BC 2
Now, in BCA and BCA
we have CA y C A
Using AA similarity, we have:
BCA ~ BCA


A B
=
A C
=
BC
.
LMeach equal to 2 OP
AB AC BC N 3Q
Q. 3. Construct a triangle with sides 5 cm, 6 cm and 7 cm and then another triangle whose sides are
7
of the corresponding sides of the first triangle.
5
Sol. Steps of construction: Z
A
I. Construct a ABC such that AB =
5 cm, BC = 7 cm and AC = 6 cm. A
II. Draw a ray BX such that CBX is
an acute angle.
III. Mark 7 points of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, 5 cm 6 cm
X6 and X7 on BX such that
BX1 = X1X2 = X2X3 = X3X4 = X4X5
= X5X6 = X6X7 B Y
7 cm C C
IV. Join X5 to C. X
1
V. Draw a line through X7 intersecting X
2
X
BC (produced) at C such that 3
X
4
X5 C y X7 C X
5
X
VI. Draw a line through C parallel to 6
X
7
CA to intersect BA (produced) at
A. Thus, ABC is the required
triangle. X

Justification:
By construction, we have
CA y CA
Using AA similarity, ABC ~ A BC
A B A C BC
= =
AB AC BC
Also X7C y X5C [By construction]
BC BX 5
BX7C ~ BX5C =
BC BX 7
BX 5 5 BC 5 BC 7
= = or =
BX 7 7 BC 7 BC 5
A B A C BC 7
= = = .
AB AC BC 5

178 MathematicsX
Q. 4. Construct an isosceles triangle whose base is 8 cm and altitude 4 cm and then another triangle
1
whose sides are 1 times the corresponding sides of the isosceles triangle.
2
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw BC = 8 cm
II. Draw the perpendicular A
bisector of BC which
intersects BC at D.
A
III. Mark a point A on the
above perpendicular such
that DA = 4 cm.
IV. Join AB and AC.
Thus, ABC is the required C
B
isosceles triangle. D C
X
V. Now, draw a ray BX such 1 X
2
that CBX is an acute X
3
angle. X
VI. On BX, mark three points
X1, X2 and X3 such that:
BX1 = X1X2 = X2X3
VII. Join X2 to C.
VIII. Draw a line through X3 parallel to X2 C and intersecting BC (extended) to C.
IX. Draw a line through C parallel to CA intersecting BA (extended) at A, thus,
ABC is the required triangle.
Justification:
We have CA y CA [By construction]
Using AA similarity, ABC ~ A BC
A B A C BC
= =
AB AC BC
Since, X3C y X2C [By construction]
BX3 C ~ BX2 C
BC BX 3
= [By BPT]
BC BX 2
BX 3 3
But =
BX 2 2
BC 3
=
BC 2
A B A C BC 3
Thus, = = = .
AB AC BC 2
Q. 5. Draw a triangle ABC with side BC = 6 cm, AB = 5 cm and ABC = 60. Then construct a triangle
3
whose sides are of the corresponding sides of the triangle ABC. [CBSE 2011, 2012]
4
Constructions 179
Sol. Steps of construction: A

I. Construct a ABC such that


BC = 6 cm, AB = 5 cm and A
ABC = 60.

m
5c
II. Draw a ray BX such that
CBX is an acute angle.
III. Mark four points X1, X2, X3 60
and X4 on BX such that B
6 cm C C
BX1 = X1X2 = X2X3 = X3X4 X
1
IV. Join X4C and draw X3C y X4C
X
such that C is on BC. 2

V. Also draw another line X


3
through C and parallel to CA
X
to intersect BA at A. 4

Thus, ABC is the required triangle. X

Justification:
By construction, we have:
X4C y X3C
BX 3 BC
= [By BPT]
BX 4 BC
BX 3 3
But = [By construction]
BX 4 4
BC 3
= ...(1)
BC 4
Now, we also have
CA y CA [By construction]
BC A ~ BCA [using AA similarity]
A B A C BC 3
= = = . [From (1)]
AB AC BC 4
Q. 6. Draw a triangle ABC with side BC = 7 cm, B = 45, A = 105. Then, construct a triangle
4
whose sides are times the corresponding sides of ABC.
3
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Construct a ABC such that BC = 7 cm, B = 45 and A = 105.
II. Draw a ray BX making an acute angle CBX with BC.
III. On BX, mark four points X1, X2, X3 and X4 such that
BX1 = X1X2 = X2X3 = X3X4.
IV. Join X3 to C.
V. Draw X4C y X3C such that C lies on BC (extended).
VI. Draw a line through C parallel to CA intersecting the extended line segment BA at
A.
180 MathematicsX
Y

A
10
5

45 30 C
B C
7 cm
X
1
X
2
X
3
X
4

X
Thus, A BC is the required triangle.
Justification:
By construction, we have:
CA y CA
ABC ~ ABC [AA similarity]
A B A C BC
= = ...(1)
AB AC BC
Also, by construction,
X4 C y X3 C
BX4C ~ BX3C
BC BX 4
=
BC BX 3
BX 4 4
But =
BX 3 3
BC 4
= ...(2)
BC 3
From (1) and (2), we have:
A B A C BC 4
= = = .
AB AC BC 3
Q. 7. Draw a right triangle in which the sides (other than hypotenuse) are of lengths 4 cm and 3 cm.
5
Then construct another triangle whose sides are times the corresponding sides of the given
3
triangle.
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Construct the right triangle ABC such that B = 90, BC = 4 cm and BA = 3 cm.
Constructions 181
II. Draw a ray BX such that an acute
angle CBX is formed.
III. Mark 5 points X1, X2, X3, X4 and X5 A
on BX such that
BX1 = X1X2 = X2X3 = X3X4 = X4X5.
IV. Join X3 to C. A
V. Draw a line through X5 parallel to

3 cm
X3 C, intersecting the extended line
segment BC at C.
VI. Draw another line through C
90
parallel to CA intersecting the B 4 cm C C
extended line segment BA at A. X1 X
2
X3 X
Thus, A BC is the required 4 X5
triangle.
Justification: X

By construction, we have:
CA y CA
ABC ~ A BC [By AA similartiy]
A B A C BC
= = ...(1)
AB AC BC
Also, X5C y X3C [By construction]
BX5 C ~ BX3 C
BC BX 5
=
BC BX 3
BX 5 5
But = ...(2)
BX 3 3
From (1) and (2) we get
A B A C BC 5
= = = .
AB AC BC 3

TANGENTS TO A CIRCLE

+ Remember:
I. If a point lies inside a circle, then there cannot be a tangent to the circle through this point.
II. If a point lies on the circle, then there is only one tangent to the circle at this point and it is
perpendicular to the radius through that point.
III. If the point lies outside the circle, there will be two tangents to the circle from this point.

NOTE:
(i) For drawing a tangent at a point of a circle, simply draw the radius through this point and draw
a line perpendicular to this radius through this point.
(ii) The two tangents to a circle from an external point are equal.

182 MathematicsX
Construction of tangents to a circle from a point outside it.
Steps of construction:
I. Let the centre of the circle be O
and P be a point outside the circle. A

II. Join O and P.


III. Bisect OP and let M be the mid
point of OP.
P O
IV. Taking M as centre and MP or M
MO as radius, draw a circle
intersecting the given circle at the
points A and B.
V. Join PA and PB. B

Thus, PA and PB are the required


two tangents.

NOTE:
In case, the centre of the circle is not known, then to locate its centre, we take any two non-parallel
chords and then find the point of intersection of their perpendicular bisectors.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 11.2
Q. 1. In each of the following, give also the justification of the construction:
Draw a circle of radius 6 cm. From a point 10 cm away from its centre, construct the pair of
tangents to the circle and measure their lengths.
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. With O as centre and radius 6 cm, draw a circle.
II. Take a point P at 10 cm away from the centre.
III. Join O and P. A

IV. Bisect OP at M.
V. Taking M as centre and MP or MO
as radius, draw a circle. O

VI. Let the new circle intersects the


M
given circle at A and B.
VII. Join PA and PB.
B
Thus, PA and PB are the required
P
two tangents.
By measurement, we have:
PA = PB = 9.6 cm.

Constructions 183
Justification:
Join OA and OB
Since PO is a diameter.
OAP = 90 = OBP [Angles in a semicircle]
Also, OA and OB are radii of the same circle.
PA and PB are tangents to the circle.
Q. 2. Construct a tangent to a circle of radius 4 cm from a point on the concentric circle of radius 6 cm
and measure its length. Also verify the measurement by actual calculation.
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Join PO and bisect it such that the mid
point of PO is represented by M.
II. Taking M as centre and OM or MP as A
radius, draw a circle such that this circle
intersects the circle (of radius 4 cm) at
A and B.
III. Join A and P. O
M
P
Thus, PA is the required tangent.
By measurement, we have:
PA = 4.5 cm
B
Justification:
Join OA such that
PAO = 90 [Angle in a semi-circle]
PA OA
OA is a radius of the inner circle.
PA has to be a tangent to the inner circle.
Q. 3. Draw a circle of radius 3 cm. Take two points P and Q on one of its extended diameters each at
a distance of 7 cm from its centre. Draw tangents to the circle from these two points P and Q.
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Join P and O.
II. Bisect PO such that M be its mid-point.

A C

O
P Q
M N

B D

184 MathematicsX
III. Taking M as centre and MO as radius, draw a circle. Let it intersect the given circle
at A and B.
IV. Join PA and PB.
Thus, PA and PB are the two required tangents from P.
V. Now, join O and Q.
VI. Bisect OQ such that N is its mid point.
VII. Taking N as centre and NO as radius, draw a circle. Let it intersect the given circle
at C and D.
VIII. Join QC and QD.
Thus, QC and QD are the required tangents to the given circle.
Justification:
Join OA such that OAP = 90 [Angle in a semi-circle]
PA OA PA is a tangent.
Similarly, PB OA PB is a tangent
Now, join OC such that QCO = 90 [Angle in a semi-circle]
QC OC QC is a tangent.
Similarly, QD OC QD is a tangent.
Q. 4. Draw a pair of tangents to a circle of radius 5 cm which are inclined to each other at an angle
of 60.
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. With centre O and radius = 5 A
cm, draw a circle. 90 60
C

II. Draw an angle AOB = 120.


III. Draw a perpendicular on OA at
A.
IV. Draw another perpendicular on
120

OB at B. O

V. Let the two perpendiculars meet


at C. 90

CA and CB are the two required B


tangents to the given circle
which are inclined to each other
at 60.
Justification:
In a quadrilateral OACB, using angle sum property, we have:
120 + 90 + 90 + ACB = 360
300 + ACB = 360
ACB = 360 - 300 = 60.

Q. 5. Draw a line segment AB of length 8 cm. Taking A as centre, draw a circle of radius 4 cm and
taking B as centre, draw another circle of radius 3 cm. Construct tangents to each circle from the
centre of the other circle. [CBSE 2012]
Constructions 185
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Bisect the line segment AB. Let its mid point be M.
II. With centre as M and MA (or MB) as radius, draw a circle such that it intersects the
circle with centre A at the points P and Q.
III. Join BP and BQ.
Thus, BP and BQ are the required two tangents from B to the circle with centre A.
IV. Let the circle with centre M, intersects the circle with centre B at R and S.
V. Join RA and SA.
Thus, RA and SA are the required two tangents from A to the circle with centre B.

P
R

A B
M

S
Q

Justification:
Let us join A and P.
APB = 90 [Angle in a semi circle]
BP AP
But AP is radius of the circle with centre A.
BP has to be a tangent to the circle with centre A.
Similarly, BQ has to be tangent to the circle with centre A.
Also, AR and AS have to be tangent to the circle with centre B.

Q. 6. Let ABC be a right triangle in which AB = 6 cm, BC = 8 cm and B = 90. BD is the


perpendicular from B on AC. The circle through B, C, D is drawn. Construct the tangents from
A to this circle. [CBSE 2012]
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Join AO (O is the centre of the circle passing through B, C and D.)
II. Bisect AO. Let M be the mid point of AO.
III. Taking M as centre and MA as radius, draw a circle intersecting the given circle at
B and E.
IV. Join AB and AE. Thus, AB and AE are the required two tangents to the given circle
from A.

186 MathematicsX
Justification
Join OE, then AEO = 90 [Angle being in a semi circle]
AE OE.
But OE is a radius of the given circle.
AE has to be a tangent to the circle.
Similarly, AB is also a tangent to the given circle.

D
E

C
B O

Q. 7. Draw a circle with the help of a bangle. Take a point outside the circle. Construct the pair of
tangents from this point to the circle. [CBSE 2012]
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw the given circle using
a bangle.
II. Take two non parallel chords
PQ and RS of this circle.
III. Draw the perpendicular
bisectors of PQ and RS such
that they intersect at O.
Therefore, O is the centre of
the given circle.
IV. Take a point P outside this
circle.
V. Join OP and bisect it. Let M
be the mid point of OP.
VI. Taking M as centre and OM
as radius, draw a circle. Let
it intersect the given circle at
A and B.
VII. Join PA and PB. Thus, PA and PB are the required two tangents.
Constructions 187
Justification:
Join OA and OB.
Since OAP = 90 [Angle in a semi-circle]
PA OA
Also OA is a radius.
PA has to be a tangent to the given circle.
Similarly, PB is also a tangent to the given circle.

MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED

I. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Draw a circle of diameter 6.4 cm. Then draw two tangents to the circle from a point P at a distance
6.4 cm from the centre of the circle. A

Sol. Steps of construction:


I. Draw a circle with centre O and radius
6.4
= cm or 3.2 cm.
2 P
M 3.2 cm
O
6.4 cm
II. Mark a point P outside the circle such
that OP = 6.4 cm.
III. Join OP.
IV. Bisect OP such that its mid point is at B
M.
V. With centre M and radius OM, draw a circle intersecting the given circle at A and B.
VI. Join PA and PB. Thus, PA and PB are the two tangents to the given circle.

Q. 2. Draw a circle of radius 3.4 cm. Draw two tangents to it inclined at an angle of 60 to each other:
[NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw a circle with centre O and radius
as 3.4 cm.
A
P
II. Draw two radii OA and OB such that 90 60
AOB = 120.
3.4 cm

III. Draw perpendiculars at A and B such


that these perpendiculars meet at P.
12
0

Obviously, APB = 60. O


[Using Angle sum property of a 90
quadrilateral] B

IV. Thus, PA and PB are the required


tangents to the given circle.

188 MathematicsX
Q. 3. Draw ABC in which AB = 3.8 cm, B = 60 and median AD = 3.6 cm. Draw another triangle
FG 4 IJ AB.
ABC similar to the first such that AB =
H 3K C

Sol. Steps of construction: Y

I. Draw AB = 3.8 cm. C

II. Construct ABY = 60.


III. With centre A and radius as 3.6 cm mark a ray
to intersect BY at D.
IV. With centre D and radius BD, mark an arc to D
intersect BY at C.
cm
V. Join CA. Thus, ABC is a triangle. 3.
6

VI. Draw a ray AX, such that BAX is an acute


60
angle. A
B
B
3.8 cm
VII. Mark 4 points X1, X2, X3 and X4 such that
X
AX1 = X1X2 = X2 X3 = X3 X4. 1

VIII. Join X3B. X


2

IX. Through X4 draw X4B y X3B X


3
X. Through B draw B C y BC where C lies on AC
X X
(produced). 4

Thus, CAB is the required triangle.


Q. 4. Draw an equiliateral triangle of height 3.6 cm. Draw another triangle similar to it such that its
2
side is of the side of the first.
3
Sol. Steps at construction:
I. Draw a line segment RS.
Z
II. Mark a point Y on it.
III. Through Y, draw YZ RS A

IV. Mark a point A on YZ such that


YA = 3.6 cm A
3.6 cm

V. At A draw YAB = 30 such that the


point B is on RS.
VI. With centre A and radius = AB, mark
a point C on RS. C
VII. Join AC. R B Y C S

VIII. Draw a ray BX such that CBX is an X


1
acute angle. X
2
IX. Mark three points X1, X2, X3 such that
X
AX1 = X1X2 = X2 X3. 3

X. Join X3 and C. X
XI. Through X2 draw X2C y X3C.
XII. Through C draw CA y CA.
Thus, ABC is the required triangle.
Constructions 189
Q. 5. Draw an isosceles ABC, in which AB = AC = 5.6 cm and ABC = 60. Draw another ABC
FG 2 IJ
similar to ABC such that AB = H 3K AB.

Sol. Steps of Construction:


I. Draw a ray BD.
II. Through B, draw another ray BE such that DBE = 60.
III. Cut off BA = 5.6 cm. E
IV. With A as centre and A
radius 6 cm, mark an arc
intersecting BD at C.
A
V. Join A and C to get ABC.
VI. Draw a ray BX such that 5.6 cm
5.6 cm

CBX is an acute angle.


VII. Mark three point X1, X2
and X3 such that
B
BX1 = X1X2 = X2X3. C C
D

VIII. Join X3 and C. X1

IX. Through X2 draw X2C y X3C X2


X3
X. Through C, draw CA y CA
Thus, A BC is the required
triangle. X

Q. 6. Construct an isosceles triangle whose base is 9 cm and altitude is 5 cm. Then construct another
3
triangle whose sides are of the corresponding sides of the first isosceles triangle.
4
(CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Steps of construction:
A
I. Construct a ABC such that
AB = AC, BC = 9 cm and
A
altitude AD = 5 cm.
II. Through B, draw a ray BX
such that CBX is an acute
angle.
III. Mark 4 equal points X1, X2,
X3 and X4 on BX. such that B C
C
BX1 = X1 X2 = X2 X3 = X3 X4
X
IV. Join X4 and C.
1

X
V. Through X3, draw X3C y X4C, 2

X
intersecting BC in C. 3

X
VI. Through C, draw CA y CA, 4

intersecting AB in A.
Thus, ABC is the required
triangle. X

190 MathematicsX
Q. 7. Draw a line segment AB of length 7 cm. Taking A as centre draw a circle of radius 3 cm and taking
B as centre, draw another circle of radius 2.5 cm. Construct tangents to each circle from the centre
of the other circle. [CBSE 2009 C.]
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw a line segment AB = 7 cm
II. With centre A and radius 3 cm, draw a circle.

R
P

M
A B
7 cm

Q
S

III. With centre B and radius 2.5 cm, draw another circle.
IV. Bisect AB and let M be the mid point of AB.
V. With centre M and radius AM, draw a circle intersecting the two circles in P,Q and
R,S.
VI. Join AP, AQ, BR and BS.
Thus, AP, AQ, BR and BS are required tangents.
Q. 8. Construct a ABC in which BC = 6.5 cm, C
AB = 4.5 cm and ABC = 60. Construct a
triangle similar to this triangle whose sides are
3
of the corresponding sides of the ABC. C
4
(CBSE 2009) 6.5 cm

Sol. Steps of construction:


I. Construct the ABC such that
AB = 4.5 cm, B = 60 and
BC = 6.5 cm. 60
II. Construct an acute angle BAX. A
B
4.5 cm B
III. Mark 4 points X1, X2, X3 and X4 on
AX such that AX 1 = X1X2 = X2X3 X
1
=X3X4. X
2
IV. Join X4 and B.
X
V. Draw X3 B y BC, meeting AC at C. 3

X
Thus, CAB is the required . 4

Constructions 191
Q. 9. Draw a right triangle in which sides (other than hypotenuse) are of lenghts 8 cm and 6 cm. Then
3
construct another triangle whose sides are times the corresponding sides of the first triangle.
4
(AI CBSE 2009)
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw a ABC such that AB = 8 cm, B = 90 and BC = 6 cm.
II. Construct an acute angle BAX.
III. Mark 4 points X1, X2, X3 and X4 on AX such that AX1 = X1X2, = X2X3 = X3X4.

A B
8 cm B
X1

X2

X3

X4

IV. Join X4 and B.


V. Draw X3B y X4B.
VI. Draw BC y BC.
Thus, ABC is the required rt .
Q. 10. Construct a ABC in which BC = 5 cm, CA = 6 cm and AB = 7 cm. Construct a ABC similar
7
to ABC, each of whose sides are times the corresponding sides of ABC.
5
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Construct ABC such that:
BC = 5 cm, CA = 6 cm and AB = 7 cm.
II. Draw a ray BX such that CBX is an acute angle.
III. Mark 7 points X1, X2, .............. X7 such that:
BX1 = X1X2, = X2X3 = X3X4 = X4X5 = X5X6 = X6X7
IV. Join X7 and C.
V. Draw a line through X5 parallel to X7 C to meet BC extended at C.
VI. Through C, draw a line parallel to CA to meet BA extended at A.

192 MathematicsX
A

m
6 cm

7c
C
B C
5 cm
X
1
X
2
X
3
X
4
X
5
X
6
X X
7

Thus, A BC is the required triangle.


Q. 11. Construct a triangle with sides 4 cm, 5 cm and 7 cm. Then construct a triangle similar to it whose
2
sides are of the corresponding sides of the given triangle. (AI CBSE 2008 C)
3
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Construct the ABC such that A

BC = 7 cm, CA = 5 cm and BA
= 4 cm. A

II. Draw a ray BX such that CBX


is an acute angle.
III. Mark three points X1, X2 and X3
B
on BX such that: C C

BX1 = X1 X2 = X2 X3
X
IV. Join X3 and C. 1

X
V. Draw X2C y X3C. 2

X
VI. Draw CA y CA 3

X
Thus, A BC is the required triangle.
Q. 12. Construct a ABC in which AB = 6.5 cm, B = 60 and BC = 5.5 cm. Also construct a triangle
3
ABC similar to ABC whose each side is times the corresponding side of the ABC.
2
(CBSE 2008)
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Construct a ABC such that AB = 6.5 cm, B = 60 and BC = 5.5 cm.
II. Draw a ray AX making an acute angle BAX.
III. Mark three points X1, X2, X3 on the ray AX such that
AX1 = X1 X2 = X2 X3
IV. Join X2 and B.
V. Draw X3B y X2B such that B is a point on extended AB.

Constructions 193
VI. Join B C y BC such that C is a point on AC (extended).
Thus, C AB is the required triangle.
C

5.5 cm

A B
B
6.5 cm

X
1
X
2
X
3

Q. 13. Draw a ABC with side BC = 6 cm, AB = 5 cm and ABC = 60. Construct ABC similar
3
to ABC such that sides of ABC are of the corresponding sides of ABC.
4
(AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Steps of construction: C

I. Construct the given ABC.


C
II. Draw a ray AX such that BAC is
6c

an acute angle.
m

III. Mark 4 points X1, X2, X3 and X4 on


AX such that
AX1 = X1 X2 = X2 X3 = X3 X4. A
5 cm 60
B
B
IV. Join X4 B.
X
V. Draw X3B y X4B 1
X
2
VI. Through B draw B C y BC. X
3
X
Thus, B AC is the required triangle. 4 X

Q. 14. Draw a circle of radius 3 cm. From a point P, 6 cm away from its centre, construct a pair of tangents
to the circle. Measure the lengths of the tangents. (AI CBSE F 2009)
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw the given circle such that its A
centre is at O and radius = 3 cm.
II. Mark a point P such that
OP = 6 cm.
M
III. Bisect OP. Let M be the mid point O P

of OP.
IV. Taking M as centre and OM as
radius draw a circle intersecting
B
the given circle at A and B.
194 MathematicsX
V. Join PA and PB.
Thus, PA and PB are the required tangents to the given circle.
Q. 15. Construct a triangle whose perimeter is 13.5 cm and the ratio of the three sides is 2 : 3 : 4.
(CBSE 2012)
Sol. Steps of construction:
I. Draw a line PQ = 13.5 cm
II. At P, draw a ray PR making a convenient acute angle QPR with PQ.
III. On PR mark (2 + 3 + 4), 9 points at equal distances.
IV. Join Q and the mark 9.
V. Through the points 2 and 5 draw lines R

2-A and 5-B parallel to 9-Q. Let these lines 9


8
meet PQ at A and B respectively. 7
6
VI. With A as centre and radius = AP, draw 5
4
an arc. 3
2
VII. With B as centre and radius = BQ, draw 1
another arc which intersects the arc of
P
step VI at C. A B Q
VIII. Join CA and CB.
ABC is the required triangle. C

TEST YOUR SKILLS


1. Draw a line AB = 12 cm and divide it in the ratio 3 : 5. Measure the two parts.
(CBSE 2007)
2. Draw a rt. ABC, in which B = 90, BC = 5 cm, AB = 4 cm. Then construct another
5
A BC whose sides are times the corresponding sides of ABC. (AI CBSE 2008)
3
2
3. Construct a triangle similar to a given ABC such that each of its sides is rd of the
3
corresponding side of the ABC. It is given that AB = 4 cm, BC = 5 cm and AC = 6 cm.
Also write the steps of construction. (CBSE 2012)
4
4. Construct a triangle similar to a given triangle ABC with its sides th of the corresponding
5
sides of ABC. Also, write the steps of construction. (AI CBSE 2006)
5. Draw a circle of radius 3 cm. Take a point at a distance of 5 cm from the centre of the
circle. Measure the length of each tangent. (CBSE 2006 C)
6. Divide a line segment of 7 cm internally in the ratio 2 : 3. (AI CBSE 2006 C)
7. Draw any triangle ABC. Construct another triangle ABC similar to the triangle ABC with
4
each side equal to th of the corresponding side of triangle ABC. (CBSE 2004)
5
8. Divide a line segment of length 6 cm internally in the ratio 3 : 2. (AI CBSE 2004)

Constructions 195
9. Divide a line segment of length AB = 6 cm into 2 : 3 internally. (AI CBSE 2004)
10. Draw a circle of radius 3.5 cm, from a point P outside the circle at a distance of 6 cm from
the centre of circle, draw two tangents to the circle. (AI CBSE 2005)
5
11. Construct a triangle similar to a given DABC with sides equal to of the corresponding
3
sides of DABC. (AI CBSE 2005)
12. Construct a DPQS such that PQ = 4.5 cm, PS = 4 cm and SQ = 5.4 cm. Construct another
triangle PQS similar to DPQS with side SQ = 7.2 cm. (CBSE 2005)
13. Construct a DABC in which AB = 6 cm, B = 60 and AC = 7 cm. Construct a D similar
4
to the DABC whose sides are of the corresponding sides. (AI CBSE 2005, CBSE 2012)
7
14. Draw a right triangle in which the sides (other than hypotenuse) are of lengths 4 cm and
3
3 cm. Then construct another triangle whose sides are times the corresponding sides
5
of the given triangle. [CBSE 2012]
15. Draw a right triangle ABC in which BC = 12 cm, AB = 5 cm and B = 90. Construct a
2
right D similar to it and of scale factor . (NCERT Exemplar)
3
16. Draw a right triangle in which the sides (other than hypotenuse) are of lengths 4 cm and
5
3 cm. Then construct a triangle similar to it and of scale factor .
3
17. Draw a triangle ABC with side BC = 7 cm, B = 45, A = 105. Then, construct a D whose
4
sides are times the corresponding sides of DABC. (CBSE 2011)
3
18. Construct a rhombus ABCD in which AB = 4 cm and ABC = 60. Divide it into two
triangles ABC and ADC. Construct the triangle ABC similar to DABC with the scale factor
2
. Draw a line segment CD parallel to CD, where D lies on AD. Is AB C D a rhombus?
3
Give reasons. (CBSE 2011, 2012)
19. Draw a circle of radius 1.5 cm. Take a point P outside it. Without using the centre, draw
two tangents to the circle from the point P. (CBSE 2011, 2012)
20. Draw a right triangle ABC in which AB = 6 cm, BC = 8 cm and B = 90. Draw BD
perpendicular from B on AC and draw a circle passing through the points B, C and D.
Construct tangents from A to this circle. [CBSE (Delhi) 2014]
21. Construct a triangle with sides are 5 cm, 5.5 cm and 6.5 cm. Now construct another triangle,
3
whose sides are times the corresponding sides of the given triangle. (AI CBSE 2014)
5
22. Construct a triangle ABC, in which AB = 5 cm, BC = 6cm and AC = 7cm. Then construct
3
another triangle whose sides are times the corresponding sides of ABC.
5
[AI CBSE (Foreign) 2014)

196 MathematicsX
[Unit IV: Trigonometry (Contd.)]

9
Some Applications of
Trigonometry

Facts that Matter


z Heights and Distances
1. Line of sight
A line drawn from the eye of the observer to the point in the object viewed by the observer
is called the line of sight.

ht
f Sig The point
eo viewed by
Lin the observer

90
B Object
Observer

2. Angle of elevation
The angle of elevation of the point ht
f Sig
viewed is the angle formed by the line eo
Lin
of sight with the horizontal when the
point being viewed is above the
horizontal-level. In the figure, AOB O q
is the angle of elevation. A
Observer Horizontal Level
3. Angle of depression
The angle of depression of the point viewed is the angle formed by the line of sight with the
horizontal level when the point being viewed is below the horizontal level. In the figure,
AOC is the angle of depression.
O
A
q Horizontal Level

observer Lin
eo
fS
igh
t

object
C

197
NOTE:
In case of an angle of elevation the observer has to raise his head to look at the object whereas
in case of an angle of depression he lowers his head to look at the point being viewed.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 9.1
Q. 1. A circus artist is climbing a 20 m long rope, which is tightly stretched and tied from the top of
a vertical pole to the ground. Find the height of the pole, if the angle made by the rope with the
ground level is 30 (see figure).
Sol. In the figure, let AC is the rope and AB is the pole. In right ABC, we have:
AB A
= sin 30
AC
1 20 m
But sin 30 =
2
AB 1
=
AC 2 30
AB 1 B C
= [ AC = 20 m]
20 2
1
AB = 20 = 10 m
2
Thus, the required height of the pole is 10 m.

Q. 2. A tree breaks due to storm and the broken part bends so that the top of the tree touches the ground
making an angle 30 with it. The distance between the foot of the tree to the point where the top
touches the ground is 8 m. Find the height of the tree. [CBSE 2012]
Sol. Let the original height of the tree = OP.
It is broken at A and its top is touching the ground at B.
Now, in right AOB, we have
P
AO
= tan 30
OB
1
But tan 30 =
3
AO 1 A
=
OB 3
AO 1 8
= AO =
8 3 3
AO
Also, = sec 30 30
OB
B 8m O
AB 2 28 16
= AB = =
8 3 3 3
Now, height of the tree
OP = OA + AP = OA + AB

198 MathematicsX
8 16
= + [ AB = AP]
3 3
24 24 3
= m = m = 8 3m
3 3 3
Q. 3. A contractor plans to install two slides for the children to play in a park. For the children below
the age of 5 years, she prefers to have a slide whose top is at a height of 1.5 m, and is inclined
at an angle of 30 to the ground, whereas for older children, she wants to have a steep slide at
a height of 3 m, and inclined at an angle of 60 to the ground. What should be the length of the
slide in each case?
Sol. In the figure, DE is the slide for younger children whereas AC is the slide for older
children.
In right ABC,
AB = 3 m
AC = length of the slide
AB
= sin 60
AC
3 3
=
AC 2
23
AC = = 2 3m
3
A

D
3m

1.5m

60
30
E
B C

Again in right BDE,


DE
= cosec 30 = 2
BD
DE
= 2
1.5
DE = 2 1.5 m
DE = 3 m
Thus, the lengths of slides are 3 m and 2 3 m .

Q. 4. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from a point on the ground, which is 30 m away from
the foot of the tower, is 30. Find the height of the tower.
Sol. In right ABC, AB = the height of the tower. The point C is 30 m away from
the foot of the tower,

Some Applications of Trigonometry 199


AC = 30 m B
AB
Now, = tan 30
AC
h 1 1
= [ tan 30 = ] h
30 3 3

30 30 3
h = = = 10 3
3 3 3 30
A
C 30 m
Thus, the required height of the tower is 10 3 m .

Q. 5. A kite is flying at a height of 60 m above the ground. The string attached to the kite is temporarily
tied to a point on the ground. The inclination of the string with the ground is 60. Find the
length of the string, assuming that there is no slack in the string.
Sol. Let in the right AOB,
OB = Length of the string
AB = 60 m = Height of the kite. B

OB 2
= cosec 60 =
AB 3
60 m
OB 2 2 60
= OB =
60 3 3

120 3 60 A
OB = = 40 3 O
3 3

Thus, length of the string is 40 3 m .

Q. 6. A 1.5 m tall boy is standing at some distance from a 30 m tall building. The angle of elevation
from his eyes to the top of the building increases from 30 to 60 as he walks towards the
building. Find the distance he walked towards the building.

30 m
B 30 C 60
D
1.5 m

x O

Sol. Here, OA is the building.


In right ABD,
AD 1
= tan 30 =
BD 3

200 MathematicsX
BD = AD 3 = 28.5 3 [ AD = 30 m 1.5 m
= 28.5 m]
Also, in right ACD,
AD
= tan 60 = 3
CD
AD 28.5
CD = =
3 3
28.5
Now, BC = BD CD = 28.5 3
3

BC = 28.5
LM 3 1 OP
N 3Q

= 28.5
LM 3 1 OP
N 3Q
2 3
= 28.5
3 3
28.5 2 3
=
3
= 9.5 2 3
= 19 3 m
Thus the distance walked by the man towards the building = 19 3 m.

Q. 7. From a point on the ground, the angles of elevation of the bottom and the top of a transmission
tower fixed at the top of a 20 m high building are 45 and 60 respectively. Find the height of
the tower. (CBSE 2010)
Sol. Let the height of the building be BC
BC = 20 m
And height of the tower be CD.
Let the point A be at a distance y metres from the top B of the building.
Now, in right ABC, D

BC
= tan 45 = 1
AB xm

20
y = 1 y = 20 m i.e., AB = 20 m. C

Now, in right ABD,


BD 20 m
= tan 60 = 3
AB
BD 45
= 3 60
20 A
B

Some Applications of Trigonometry 201


20 + x
= 3 20 + x = 20 3
20
x = 20 3 20 = 20 [ 3 1]
x = 20 [1.732 1]
x = 20 0.732 = 14.64
Thus, the height of the tower is 14.64 m.

Q. 8. A statue, 1.6 m tall, stands on the top of a pedestal. From a point on the ground, the angle of
elevation of the top of the statue is 60 and from the same point the angle of elevation of the top
of the pedestal is 45. Find the height of the pedestal. (CBSE 2012)
Sol. In the figure,
DC represents the statue.
BC represents the pedestal. D

Now in right ABC, we have


AB
= cot 45 = 1 1.6 m
BC
AB C
= 1 AB = h metres.
h
Now in right ABD, we get
h metra
BD
= tan 60 = 3 45
AB
60
A
BD = 3 AB = 3 h B

h + 1.6 = 3h
h + 1.6
= 3 h( 3 1) = 1.6
h
1.6 1.6 3 +1
h = =
3 1 3 1 3 +1
1.6
h = ( 3 + 1)
31
1.6
= 3 +1
2
= 0.8 ( 3 + 1) m
Thus, the height of the pedestal = 0.8 ( 3 + 1) m.

Q. 9. The angle of elevation of the top of a building from the foot of the tower is 30 and the angle of
elevation of the top of the tower from the foot of the building is 60. If the tower is 50 m high, find
the height of the building. (CBSE Delhi 2014)
Sol. In the figure, let height of the building = AB = h m
Let CD be the tower.

202 MathematicsX
CD = 50 m
Now, in right BAC,
AC
= cot 30 = 3
AB
D
AC
= 3 AC = h 3 ...(1)
h
Again, in right DCA,
B
DC 50 m
= tan 60
AC
hm
50 50
= 3 AC = ...(2)
AC 3 60 30
A C
From (1) and (2),
50
3h =
3

50 1 50
h = =
3 3 3

2
Thus, the height of the building = 16 m
3
Q. 10. Two poles of equal heights are standing opposite each other on either side of the road, which is
80 m wide. From a point between them on the road, the angles of elevation of the top of the poles
are 60 and 30 respectively. Find the height of the poles and the distances of the point from the
poles. (CBSE 2012)
Sol. Let AB and CD are the two poles such that:
AB = h metres
CD = h metres
B D

h h

60 30
A C
P
x metre (80x)m

80 m
Let P be the point on the road such that
AP = x m
CP = (80 x) m
Some Applications of Trigonometry 203
Now, in right APB, we have
AB
= tan 60
AP
h
= 3 h=x 3 ...(1)
x
Again in right CPD,
CD
= tan 30
CP
h 1
=
(80 x) 3
80 x
h = ...(2)
3
From (1) and (2), we get
80 x
3x =
3
3 3x = 80 x
3x = 80 x
3x + x = 80
4x = 80
80
x = = 20
4
80 x = 80 20 = 60
Now, from (1), we have:
h = 3 20 = 1.732 20
= 34.64
Thus, (i) The required point is 20 m away from the first pole and 60 m away from the
second pole.
(ii) Height of each pole = 34.64 m.

Q. 11. A TV tower stands vertically on a bank of a canal. From a point on the other bank directly opposite
the tower, the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 60. From another point 20 m away from
this point on the line joining this point to the foot of the tower, the angle of elevation of the top
of the tower is 30 (see figure). Find the height of the tower and the width of the canal.
Sol. Let the TV Tower be AB = h m. A
Let the point C be such that
BC = x and CD = 20 m.
Now, in right ABC, we have:
AB
= tan 60 30 60
BC D
C
h 20m B
= 3 h= 3x ...(1)
x
In right ABD, we have:

204 MathematicsX
AB
= tan 30
BD
h 1
=
x + 20 3
x + 20
h = ...(2)
3
From (1) and (2), we get
x + 20
3x = 3x = x + 20
3
3x x = 20
20
2x = 20 x= = 10 m
2
Now, from (1), we get
h = 3 10 = 1.732 10 = 17.32
Thus, the height of the tower = 17.32 m.
Also width of the river = 10 m.
Q. 12. From the top of a 7 m high building, the angle of elevation of the top of a cable tower is 60 and
the angle of depression of its foot is 45. Determine the height of the tower.
Sol. In the figure, let AB be the height of the tower.
D
AB = 7 metres.
Let CD be the cable tower.
hm
In right DAE, we have
DE
= tan 60 60
EA A E
h 45
= 3
x
h = 3.x ...(1)
7m
Again, in right ABC,
AB
= tan 45
BC
7
= 1 B xm C
x
x = 7 ...(2)
From (1) and (2),
h = 7 3 = DE
CD = CE + ED
= 7 + 7 3 = 7 (1 + 3 ) m
= 7 (1 + 1.732) m = 7 2.732 m = 19.124 m
Thus, the height of the cable tower is 19.124 m.
Q. 13. As observed from the top of a 75 m high lighthouse from the sea-level, the angles of depression
of two ships are 30 and 45. If one ship is exactly behind the other on the same side of the
lighthouse, find the distance between the two ships.

Some Applications of Trigonometry 205


B
45
30

75 m

30 45 A
D C
Sol. In the figure, let AB represent the light house.
AB = 75 m.
Let the two ships be C and D such that angles of depression from B are 45 and 30
respectively.
Now in right ABC, we have:
AB
= tan 45
AC
75
= 1 AC = 75 ...(1)
AC
Again, in right ABD, we have:
AB
= tan 30
AD
75 1
= AD = 75 3 ...(2)
AD 3
Since the distance between the two ships = CD
= AD AC
= 75 3 75 = 75 [ 3 1]
= 75 [1.732 1] = 75 0.732 = 54.9
Thus, the required distance between the ships = 54.9 m.

Q. 14. A 1.2 m tall girl spots a balloon moving with the wind in a horizontal line at a height of
88.2 m from the ground. The angle of elevation of the balloon from the eyes of the girl at any
instant is 60. After some time, the angle of elevation reduces to 30 (see figure). Find the distance
travelled by the balloon during the interval. (AI CBSE 2009)

88.2 m

60
30

206 MathematicsX
Sol. In the figure, let C be the position of the observer (the girl).
A and P are two positions of the balloon.
CD is the horizontal line from the eyes of the (observer) girl.
Here PD = AB = 88.2 m 1.2 m = 87 m
In right ABC, we have
AB
= tan 60
BC
87 87
= 3 BC = m
BC 3
A P

88.2 m

60
30 B
C D
1.2 m

In right PDC, we have


PD
= tan 30
CD
87 1
= CD = 87 3
CD 3
Now, BD = CD BC
87
= 87 3
3

= 87
LM 3
1OP = 87 FG 3 1 IJ 2 87
N 3Q H 3K =
3
m

2 87 3 2 87 3
= = = 2 29 3 m
3 3 3

= 58 3 m
Thus, the required distance between the two positions of the balloon = 58 3 m

Q. 15. A straight highway leads to the foot of a tower. A man standing at the top of the tower observes
a car at an angle of depression of 30, which is approaching the foot of the tower with a uniform
speed. Six seconds later, the angle of depression of the car is found to be 60. Find the time taken
by the car to reach the foot of the tower from this point. (CBSE 2009)
Sol. In the figure, let AB is the height of the tower and C and D be the two positions of the
car.

Some Applications of Trigonometry 207


B
30 60

30 60
C D A

In right ABD, we have:


AB
= tan 60
AD
AB
= 3 AB = 3 AD ...(1)
AD
In right ABC, we have:
AB
= tan 30
AC
AB 1 AC
= AB = ...(2)
AC 3 3
From (1) and (2)
AC
3 AD =
3

AC = 3 3 AD = 3 AD
Now CD = AC AD
= 3 AD AD = 2 AD
Since the distance 2 AD is covered in 6 seconds,
6
The distance AD will be covered in i.e., 3 seconds.
2
Thus, the time taken by the car to reach the tower from D is 3 seconds.

Q. 16. The angles of elevation of the top of a tower from two points at a distance of 4 m and 9 m from
the base of the tower and in the same straight line with it are complementary. Prove that the
height of the tower is 6 m.
Sol. Let the tower be represented by AB in the figure.
Let AB = h metres.
In right ABC, we have:
208 MathematicsX
AB B
= tan
AC
h
= tan ...(1)
9
h
In right ABD, we have:
AB
= tan (90 ) = cot

q

AD

90
q
h C D A
= cot ...(2) 4m
4 9m
Multiplying (1) and (2), we get
h h
= tan cot = 1 [ tan cot = 1]
9 4

h2
= 1 h2 = 36
36
h = 6m
h = 6m [ Height is positive only]
Thus, the height of the tower is 6 m.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 9.2

Q. 1. The angles of depression of the top and the bottom of a building 50 m high as observed from the
top of a tower are 30 and 60 respectively. Find the height of the tower and also the horizontal
distance between the building and the tower.
Sol. In the figure,

E
30
60
x

30 D
A

50 m 50m

60

B C

Some Applications of Trigonometry 209


Let AB = 50 m be the building.
Let CE be the tower such that CE = (50 + x) m
In right ADE, we have:
DE 1
= tan 30 =
AD 3
x 1
= AD x 3 or BC = x 3 ...(1)
AD 3
In right ACE, we have:
CE
= tan 60 = 3
BC
50 + x 50 + x
= 3 BC = ...(2)
BC 3
From (1) and (2), we get
50 + x
3x =
3
3 x 3 = 50 + x
3x x = 50 x = 25
Height of the tower = 50 + x
= 50 + 25
= 75 m
Now from (1), BC = 3 x
= 3 25 m
= 1.732 25 m
= 43.25 m
i.e., The horizontal distance between the building and the tower = 43.25 m.
Q. 2. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower as observed from a point on the ground is and
on moving a metres towards the tower, the angle of elevation is . Prove that the height of the
a tan tan
tower is .
tan tan
A
Sol. In the figure, let the tower be
represented by AB.
In right ABC, we have:
AB h
tan = =
BC x h
x tan = h
h
x = ...(1)
tan
Now, in right ABD, we have: a b
D
a C x B

210 MathematicsX
AB
= tan
BD
h
= tan
x+a
h = (x + a) tan
h = x tan + a tan
h h
h = tan + a tan [ x = from (1)]
tan tan

h tan + a tan . tan


h =
tan
h tan = h tan + a tan tan
h tan h tan = a tan tan
h (tan tan ) = a tan tan
a tan tan
h =
tan tan
D
Q. 3. A vertical tower stands on a horizontal plane and is
surmounted by a vertical flag staff of height 5 m. From
a point on the plane the angles of elevation of the bottom
and top of the flag staff are respectively 30 and 60. 5m
Find the height of the tower.
Sol. Let in the figure, BC be the tower such that
BC = y metres. C
CD be the flag staff such that
CD = 5 m
60 ym
BD = (y + 5) m.
In right ABC, we have:
30
A B
BC 1 xm
= tan 30 =
AB 3

y 1
= x= 3.y ...(1)
x 3
In right ABD, we have:
BD
= tan 60 = 3
AB
( y + 5)
= 3 y+5= 3x
x

y+5 = 3 ( 3 y) [x = 3 y from (1)]

Some Applications of Trigonometry 211


y + 5 = 3y
5
3y y = 5 y = = 2.5 m
2
The height of the tower = 2.5 m.

Q. 4. The length of the shadow of a tower standing on level plane is found to be 20 m longer when the
suns altitude is 30 than when it was 60. Find the height of the tower.
Sol. In the figure, let CD be the tower such that
CD = h metres
D
Also BC = x metres
In right BCD, we have:
CD
= tan 60 = 3
BC h
h h
= 3 x= ...(1)
x 3
In right ACD, we have: 30 60
A C
CD 1 20 m B x
= tan 30 =
AC 3
h 1
= 3 h = 20 + x
20 + x 3
h h
3 h = 20 + [From (1), x = ]
3 3
3 3 h = 20 3 + h

3h h = 20 3
20
2h = 20 3 3 = 10 3
h=
2
h = 10 1.732 = 17.32 m
Thus, the height of the tower = 17.32 m.
Q. 5. From the top of a hill 200 m high, the angles of depression of the top and bottom of a pillar are 30
and 60 respectively. Find the height of the pillar and its distance from the hill. [CBSE 2014]
Sol. In the figure, let AD is the hill such that A
30
AD = 200 m and CE is the pillar.
60
In right ADE, we have:
AD
= tan 60 = 3 30
DE C B
200 m
200
= 3
DE
200 200 3
DE = = 60
3 3 3 D
E
212 MathematicsX
3 200 1.73 200
DE = =
3 3
346
= = 115.33 m
3
Distance between pillar and hill = 115.33 m
200
Now, BC = DE = m [ DE = BC]
3
In right ABC, we have:
AB 1
= tan 30 =
BC 3
BC 200 1 200 200
AB = = = [ BC = ]
3 3 3 3 3
= 66.67 m
Height of the pillar
CE = AD AB [ CE = BD]
= 200 66.67 m
= 133.33 m
Q. 6. The angles of elevation of the top of a tower from two points on the ground at distances a and
b units from the base of the tower and in the same straight line with it are complementary. Prove
that the height of the tower is ab units.
Sol. In the figure, AB is the tower, such that:
A
AB = h
BD = b
BC = a
In right ABD, we have h

AB
= tan (90 )
BD q
q 90
h C B
= tan (90 ) D b
b a
h = b cot ...(1)
In right ABC, we have
AB
= tan
BC
h
= tan h = a tan ...(2)
a
Multiplying (1) and (2), we get
h h = b cot a tan
h2 = a b (cot tan )
h2 = ab [ cot tan = 1]

h = ab

Some Applications of Trigonometry 213


Q. 7. A pole 5 m high is fixed on the top of a tower. The angle of elevation of the top of the pole observed
from a point A on the ground is 60 and the angle of depression of the point A from the top
of the tower is 45. Find the height of the tower. [A.I. CBSE 2004]
Sol. In the figure, let BC be the tower and CD be the pole.
Let BC = x metres and AB = y metres
In right ABC, we get
BC D
= tan 45 = 1
AB
BC = AB y = x ... (1) 5m
In right ABD, we have:
BD C
= tan 60 = 3
AB
xm
x+5 60
= 3 45
y
A y B
y 3 = x+5

x 3 = x+5 [ x = y from (1)]

3xx = 5
( 3 1) x = 5

5 5 3 +1
x = =
3 1 3 1 3 +1

5 ( 3 + 1) 5 (1.732 + 1)
= =
31 2
5
= 2.732 m
2
= 5 1.366 m
= 6.83 m
Thus, the height of the tower = 6.83 m

MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED


I. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. A tower stands vertically on the ground. From a point on the ground which is 20 m away from
the foot of the tower, the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is found to be 60. Find the
height of the tower. (CBSE 2010)
Sol. In the figure, AB is the tower,
AB = h metres
In rt ABC, we have:

214 MathematicsX
BC
= tan 60
AC
h
= 3
20
| tan 60 = 3 and AB = 20 m
h = 20 3 metre
Thus, the height of the tower = 20 3 m.

Q. 2. The angle of depression of the top and the bottom of a 9 m high building from the top of a tower
are 30 and 60 respectively. Find the height of the tower and the distance between the building
and the tower.
C
30
60

30 E
A

9m 9m

60

B D

Sol. Let AB represents the building and CD be the tower.


AB = 9 m
In right BDC, we have:
CD
= tan 60 = 3
DB
CD = DB 3 ...(1)
In right AEC, we have:
CE 1
= tan 30 =
AE 3
CD 9 1
= AE = 3 CD 9 3
AE 3
BD = 3 (DB 3 ) 9 3
BD = 3 BD 9 3
2BD = 9 3
9 9 1.732
BD = 3 =
2 2
BD = 7.8 m

Some Applications of Trigonometry 215


From (1), we have,
9 27
CD = 3
3 = = 13.5
2 2
Thus, height of the tower = 13.5 m
Distance between the building and the tower = 7.8 m

II. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. A boy whose eye level is 1.3 m from the ground, spots a balloon moving with the wind in a
horizontal level at some height from the ground. The angle of elevation of the balloon from the
eyes of the boy at any instant is 60. After 2 seconds, the angle of elevation reduces to 30. If
the speed of the wind at that moment is 29 3 m/s, then find the height of the balloon from
ground. (CBSE 2009 C)
E D

60

H
A 30 G

1.3 m 1.3 m

B F C

Sol. Let E and D be the two positions of the balloon.


Let AB be the position of the boy.
AB = 1.3 m
HF = CG = 1.3 m

Also speed of the wind = 29 3 m/s


Distance covered by the balloon in 2 seconds

= ED = HG = 2 29 3 m

= 58 3 m
AG = AH + HG

= AH + 58 3 m ...(1)
Now, in right AEH, we have
EH
= tan 60 = 3
AH

216 MathematicsX
EH
EH = AH 3 AH = ...(2)
3
In right AGD, we have
DG 1
= tan 30 =
AG 3
DG 1
= [From (1)]
( AH + 58 3 ) 3

3 DG = AH + 58 3
EH
3 DG = + 58 3 [From (2)]
3
3 3 DG =EH + 58 3 3
3 DG =EH + 3 58
3 DG =EH + 174
3 DG EH =174
2 DG =174 [ DG = EH]
174
DG = = 87 m
2
CD = DG + GC = (87 + 1.3) m
= 88.3 m
Thus, the height of the balloon = 88.3 m.

Q. 2. A statue, 1.5 m tall stands on the top of a pedestal. From a point on the ground, the angle of
elevation of the top of the statue is 45 and from the same point the angle of elevation of the top
of the pedestal is 30. Find the height of the pedestal from the ground. (CBSE 2012, 2009-C)
Sol. Let AB be the pedestal and AB = h
Let C be the point on the ground such that D
BC = x metres.
In right ACB, we have: 1.5 m
AB
= tan 30
BC
h 1 A
=
x 3
45 hm
x = 3 h ...(1)
In right DCB, we have: 30
C
BD B
= tan 45 x
BC
BD
= 1
x
AB + AD
= 1
x

Some Applications of Trigonometry 217


h + 1.5
= 1
x
h + 1.5 = x
h + 1.5 = 3h [From (1)]
3 h h = 1.5
h ( 3 1) = 1.5
1.5 3 +1
h =
3 1 3 +1
1.5 ( 3 + 1) 1.5 ( 3 + 1)
h = = m
31 2
h = 0.75 ( 3 + 1) m
Thus, the height of the pedestal = 0.75 ( 3 + 1) m.
Q. 3. The angles of depression of the top and battom of an 8 m tall building from the top of a multi-
storeyed building are 30 and 45, respectively. Find the height of the multi-storeyed building
and the distance between the two buildings. (CBSE 2009)
Sol. Let the multistoreyed building be AB.
AB = q metres
AD = (q 8) m [ BD = 8 m]
Let EC be the small building.
Now, in right ABC, we have: A

AB 30
45
= tan 45 = 1
BC
AB = BC
q = p ...(1) (q8)m

In right ADE, we have: q metres

AD 1 E 30
= tan 30 = D
DE 3 p metres

8m
3 AD = DE
45
3 (q 8) = p C p metres B

3q8 3 = q [From (1)]

3qq = 8 3
q ( 3 1) = 8 3

8 3
q =
3 1

8 3 3 +1
q = m
3 1 3 +1

218 MathematicsX
8 3 ( 3 + 1) 8 3 ( 3 + 1)
= m= m
e 3j 2
12 2

= 4 (3 + 3 ) m = 4 (3 + 1.732) m
= 18.928 m
Since p = q
p = 18.928 m
Distance between the two buildings = 18.928 m
Height of the multi-storeyed building = 18.928 m.
Q. 4. From the top of a building 60 m high, the angles of depression of the top and bottom of a vertical
lamp post are observed to be 30 and 60 respectively. Find:
(i) The horizontal distance between the building and the lamp post.
(ii) The height of the lamp post. [Take 3 = 1.732] (CBSE 2012)
Sol. In the figure, let CE be the building and AB be the lamp post
CE = 60 m
In right BCE, we have:
E
CE 30
= tan 60 = 3 60
BC
60
= 3
BC
60 60 3
BC = = m A
30
3 3 3 D

60 3 60 m
BC = = 20 3 m
3
In right ADE, we have:
DE 1
= tan 30 =
AD 3
DE 1
= 60
20 3 3
B C
[ BC = AD = 20 3 m]
20 3
DE = = 20 m
3
Height of the lamp post = AB = CD
= CE DE
= 60 m 20 m
= 40 m.
Also, the distances between the lamp post and the building
= 20 3 m
= 20 1.732 m [ 3 = 1.732]
= 34.64 m

Some Applications of Trigonometry 219


Q. 5. The angle of elevation of a cloud from a point h meters above the surface of a lake is q and the
angle of depression of its reflection in the lake is f. Prove that the height of the clouds above the
tan f + tan q
lake is h . [NCERT Exemplar]
tan f tan q
Sol. Let P be the cloud and Q be its reflection in the lake. As shown in the figure, let A be the
point of observation such that AB = h
Let the height of the cloud above the lake = x
Let AL = d
PL PN LN
From rt DPLA, tan q = =
AL AL
xh
tan q = ...(1)
d
x+h
similarly, tan f = ...(2)
d
P


A L

h
d
B
N

tan f x + h
From (1) and (2), =
tan q x h

2x tan f + tan q tan f + tan q


or = tan f tan q x = h tan f tan q
2h
Q. 6. From a point 100 m above a lake, the angle of elevation of a stationary helicopter is 30 and the
angle of depression of reflection of the helicopter in the lake is 60. Find the height of the helicopter.
(AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. In the figure, A is the stationary helicopter and F is its reflection in the lake.
In right AED, we have:
AE
tan 30 =
DE
220 MathematicsX
1
But tan 30 =
3
AE 1
=
DE 3 A
x 100 1 (x100)
=
y 3 m
x metres
D 30 E
x 100 y
y = ...(1)
3 100 m 100 m
EF
In right DEF, tan 60 =
DE
EF
= 3 x metres
DE
x + 100
= 3
y
3 y = x + 100 F

But y = 3 (x 100)
3 3 (x 100) = x + 100
3 (x 100) = x + 100
3x 300 x = 100
2x = 100 + 300
2x = 400
400
x = = 200
2
Thus, the height of the stationary helicopter = 200 m.

Q. 7. The angle of elevation of an aeroplane from a point on the ground is 60. After a flight of 15
seconds, the angle of elevation changes to 30. If the aeroplane is flying at a constant height of
1500 3 m, find the speed of the aeroplane. (AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. In the figure, let E and C be the two locations of the aeroplane.
Height BC = ED
= 1500 3 m E C
In right ABC, we have:
BC 1
= tan 30 =
AB 3
1500 3 m

1500 3 1
=
AB 3
60
AB = 3 1500 3 m
= 3 1500 m = 4500 m 30
In right ADE, we have: A D B

Some Applications of Trigonometry 221


ED
= tan 60 = 3
AD
1500 3
= 3 [ ED = BC]
AD
1500 3
AD = = 1500 m
3
Since the distance travelled in 15 seconds = AB AD
= 4500 1500 = 3000 m
Distance
Since, Speed =
Time
3000
Speed of the aeroplane = m s = 200 m/s.
15
Q. 8. A spherical balloon of radius r subtends an angle q at the eye of the observer. If the angle of elevation
of its centre is f, find the heights of centre of the balloon. [NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. In the figure, let O be the centre of the balloon, and A be the eye of the observer. r be the
radius.
\ OP = r and PAQ = q
Also, OAB = f
Let the height of the centre of the balloon be h OB = h.
In DOAP, OPA = 90 Q
q r
sin = , where OA = s ...(1) O
2 s
h
From, DOAB, sin f = ...(2) r
s
Now, from (1) and (2), h
P
q q
h 2
q

sin f s h s h f
2

q = r = sr = r A
B
sin
2 s
sin f
h = r q
sin
2
1 q
q Q = cose c
h = r . sin f . cosec q 2
2 sin
2
Q. 9. As observered from the top of a light house, 100 m high above sea level, the angle of depression
of a ship sailing directly towards it, changes from 30 to 60. Determine the distances travelled
by the ship during the period of observation. [Use 3 = 1.732] (AI CBSE 2004)
Sol. Let A represents the position of the observer such that
AB = 100 m

222 MathematicsX
In right ABC, we have
AB
= tan 60
BC
100
= 3 3 BC = 100
BC
100 3 100 100 3
BC = = =
3 3 3 3 A
30
100 1.732 60
= = 57.73 m
3
In right ABD, we have:

100 m
AB 1
= tan 30 =
BD 3
100 1
= 30 60
BD 3 D C B
BD = 3 100 = 1.732 100
BD = 173.2 m
The distance travelled
CD = BD BC
= (173.2 57.73) m = 115.47 m
Q. 10. The angles of elevation and depression of the top and the bottom of a tower from the top of a
building, 60m high, are 30 and 60 respectively. Find the difference between the heights of the
building and the tower and the distance between them. (CBSE Delhi 2014)
Sol. Let AB is building = 60 m and DC is the tower
DE 1 D
In rt. AED, = tan 30 =
x 3
x = 3 DE ...(1)

Tower
AB
In rt. ABC, = tan 60 = 3
BC
30 x
60 60 A E
= 3 x= ...(2) 60
x 3
60m

Substituting the value of x from (2) in (1), we have :


60 60 B 60 C
3 DE = 3 DE = 3 3 = 20
Difference between the heights of building and tower = 20 m
Distance between the tower and building
= x = 3 20 = 1.732 20m = 34.64m

TEST YOUR SKILLS


1. A person standing on the bank of a river observes that the angle of elevation of the top
of a tower standing on the opposite bank is 60. When he moves 40 m away from the bank,
he finds the angle of elevation to be 30. Find the height of the tower and the width of
the river. [Use 3 = 1.732] [CBSE 2008]

Some Applications of Trigonometry 223


2. A straight highway leads to the foot of a tower. A man standing at top of the tower
observes a car at angle of depression of 30, which is approaching the foot of the tower
with a uniform speed. Six seconds later, the angle of depression of the car is found to be
60. Find the time taken by the car to reach the foot of the tower from this point.
[AI CBSE 2008]
3. An aeroplane, when 3000 m high, passes vertically above another aeroplane at an instant,
when the angle of elevation of the two aeroplanes from the same point on the ground are
60 and 45 respectively. Find the vertical distance between the aeroplanes.

[Use 3 = 1.732] [CBSE 2011, 2012 CBSE 2008 F]


4. The angle of elevation of an aeroplane from a point A on the ground is 60. After a flight
of 30 seconds, the angle of elevation changes to 30. If the plane is flying at a constant
height of 3600 3 m, find the speed, in km/hr, of the plane. [CBSE 2008 F]
5. The angle of elevation of a jet fighter from a point A on the ground is 60. After a flight
of 10 seconds, the angle of elevation changes to 30. If the jet is flying at a speed of
648 km/hr, find the constant height at which the jet is flying [Use 3 = 1.732]
[CBSE 2012] [AI CBSE 2008]
6. The angle of elevation of a jet fighter from a point A on the ground is 60. After a flight
of 10 seconds, the angle of elevation changes to 30. If the jet is flying at a speed of
432 km/hr, find the constant height at which the jet is flying [Use 3 = 1.732]
[CBSE 2012] [AI CBSE 2008]
7. The angle of elevation of a jet fighter from a point A on the ground is 60. After a flight
of 15 seconds, the angle of elevation changes to 30. If the jet is flying at a speed of
720 km/hr, find the constant height at which the jet is flying. [use 3 = 1.732]
[AI CBSE 2008, 2014] [CBSE 2012]
8. A statue 1.46 m tall standing on the top of a pedestal. From a point on the ground, the
angle of elevation of the top of the statue is 60 and from the same point, the angle of
elevation of the top of the pedestal is 45. Find the height of the pedestal. [Use 3 = 1.73]
[CBSE 2008, 2012]
9. From the top of a house, h metres high from the ground, the angles of elevation and
depression of the top and bottom of a tower on the other side of the street are and
respectively. Prove that the height of the tower is h (1 + tan cot ). [AI CBSE, 2006, 2007]
10. A window in a building is at a height of 10 m from the ground. The angle of depression
of a point P on the ground from the window is 30. The angle of elevation of the top of
the building from the point P is 60. Find the height of the building. [AI CBSE 2007]
11. A pole 5 m high is fixed on the top of a tower. The angle of elevation of the top of the
pole observed from a point A on the ground is 60 and the angle of depression of point
A from the top of the tower is 45. Find the height of the tower. [Take 3 = 1.732]
[AI CBSE 2004, 2007]
12. A boy standing on a horizontal plane finds a bird flying at a distance of 100 m from him
at an elevation of 30. A gril standing on the roof of 20 m high building finds the angle
of elevation of the same bird to be 45. Both the boy and the girl are on opposite sides
of the bird. Find the distance of bird from the girl. [CBSE 2007]
224 MathematicsX
13. The angle of elevation of the top of a hill at the foot of the tower is 60 and the angle of
elevation of the top of the tower from the foot of the hill is 30. If the tower is 50 m high,
find the height of the hill. [AI CBSE 2006 C]
14. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from a point on the same level as the foot of
the tower is 30. On advancing 150 metres towards the foot of the tower, the angle of
elevation becomes 60. Show that the height of the tower is 129.9 metres.
[Use 3 = 1.732] [CBSE 2006 C]
15. From a window 15 m high above the ground in a street, the angles of elevation and
depression of the top and foot of another house on the opposite side of the street are 30
and 45 respectively. Show that the height of the opposite house is 23.66 metres.

[Take 3 = 1.732] [CBSE 2006 C]


16. A man standing on the deck of a ship, which 10 m above the water level, observes the
angle of elevation of the top of a hill as 60 and the angle of depression of the base of
the hill as 30. Calculate the distance of the hill from the ship and the height of the hill.
[CBSE 2012] [AI CBSE 2006]
17. From a point A on a straight road the angle of elevation of the top of a vertical tower
situated on the roof of a vertical building on the sam road is . The angle of elevation of
the bottom of the tower from a point B on the road is again . The height of the building
is 50 m. If AB : BY is 2 : 5, where Y is the base of building, then show that the height of
the tower is 20 m.
18. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower 30 m high from the foot of another tower in
the same plane is 60 and the angle of elevation of the top of the second tower from the
foot of the first tower is 30. Find the distance between the two towers and also the height
of the other tower. [NCERT Exemplar]
19. An observer 1.5 m tall is 20.5 m away from a tower 22 m high. Determine the angle of
elevation of the top of the tower from the eye of the observer.
[NCERT Exemplar]
20. From a point on the ground the angles of elevation of the bottom and top of a transmission
tower fixed at the top of 20 m high building are 45 and 60. Find the height of the tower.
21. The angle of elevation of a cloud from a point 200 m, above a lake is 30 and the angle
of depression of the reflection of the cloud in the lake is 60. Find the height of the cloud.
[CBSE 2011, 2012]
22. A tree 12 m high is broken by the wind in such a way that its top touches the ground
and makes an angle of 60 with the ground. At what height from the bottom the tree is
broken by the wind? [CBSE 2011]
23. Two ships are there in the sea on either side of a lighthouse in such a way that the ships
and the lighthouse are in the same straight line. The angles of depression of two ships
as observed from the top of the lighthouse are 60 and 45. If the height of the lighthouse
is 200m, find the distance between the two ships. [Use 3 = 1.732] [CBSE 2014]

Hint:
In rt AMP, we have:
PM 200
= tan 60 = 3
AM x

Some Applications of Trigonometry 225


200 P
x= ...(1)
3 45 60
In rt BMP, we have :

Lighthouse
PM 200
= tan 45 y = 1 200 m
BM
y = 200 ...(2) 60 A
B 45
Solving (1) and (2), Ship-II M Ship-I
y x
we get required distance (x + y ) = 315.4 m

24. Two ships are approaching a ligh house from opposite directions. The angles of depression
of the two ships from the top of the light house are 30 and 45. If the distance between
the two ships is 100 m, find the height of the light house. [Use 3 = 1.732]
[AI. CBSE (Foreign) 2014]
25. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower at a distance of 120m from a point A on the
ground is 45. If the angle of elevation of the top of a flagstaff fixed at the top of the tower,
at A is 60, then find the height of the flagstaff. [Use 3 = 1.73] [AI. CBSE 2014]

ANSWERS
TEST YOUR SKILLS
1. 34.64 m; 20 m 2. 3 seconds 3. 1268 m 4. 864 km/h 5. 1558.8 m
6. 1039.2 m 7. 2598 m 8. 2 m 10. 30 m 11. 6.82 m 12. 30 2 m
13. 150 m 15. 23.6 m 16. 40 m; 10 2 m 18. 10 3 m , 10 m
19. 45 20. 20 ( 3 1) m 21. 400 m 22. 5.569 m. 23. 315.4 m
24. 36.6 m 25. 87.6 m

226 MathematicsX
[Unit V: Statistics and Probability]

15 Probability

Facts that Matter


z We know that experimental (or empirical) probabilities of events are based on the results of
actual experiments.
z If we perform the same experiment for different number of times, we get different data giving
different probability.
Number of trials in which event happened
z P(E) =
Total number of trials
where, P(E) is the experimental (or empirical probability).
Remember:
(i) The experimental or empirical probability of an event is based on what has actually happened
whereas the theoretical probability of the event tries to predict what will happen on the basis of certain
assumptions.
(ii) An experiment in which all possible outcomes are known in advance and the exact outcome of
specific event cannot be predicted in advance, is called a random experiment. The word random
means all outcomes have equal chances of occurrence.
(iii) Performing a random experiment is trial.
(iv) Die is a solid cube having six faces marked as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 respectively. Plural of die is dice.
(v) Events are said to be equally likely, if under the given condition, we cannot prefer one event to
another event.
(vi) Favourable outcomes are those which result in occurrence of an event in question.
(vii) A pack of playing cards consists of four suits: Spades (z), Hearts (y), Diamond (x) and Clubs (w).
Each suit has 13 cards ( total cards 52).
Kings, Queens and Jacks are called Face-cards.
( There are 12-face cards in a pack)
(viii) If we toss a coin, two outcomes are possible : Head or Tail.
(ix) Probability of an impossible event = 0.
(x) Probability of a sure event = 1.
(xi) Probability of a possible event can be between 0 and 1.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 15.1

Q. 1. Complete the following statements:


(i) Probability of an event E + Probability of the event not E = .................. .
(ii) The probability of an event that cannot happen is ............... . Such an event is called
................ .

227
(iii) The probability of an event that is certain to happen is .............. . Such an event is called
................ .
(iv) The sum of the probabilities of all the elementary events of an experiment is .............. .
(v) The probability of an event is greater than or equal to .................. and less than or equal to
................ .
Sol. (i) Probability of an event E + Probability of the event not E = 1.
(ii) The probability of an event that cannot happen is 0. Such an event is called
impossible event.
(iii) The probability of an event that is certain to happen is 1. Such an event is called
sure or certain event.
(iv) The sum of the probabilities of all the elementary events of an experiment is 1.
(v) The probability of an event is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1.
Q. 2. Which of the following experiments have equally likely outcomes? Explain.
(i) A driver attempts to start a car. The car starts or does not start.
(ii) A player attempts to shoot a basketball. She/he shoots or misses the shot.
(iii) A trial is made to answer a true-false question. The answer is right or wrong.
(iv) A baby is born. It is a boy or a girl.
Sol. (i) Since, the car may or may not start, thus the outcomes are not equally likely.
(ii) The player may shoot or miss the shot.
The outcomes are not equally likely.
(iii) In advance it is known that the answer is to be either right or wrong.
The outcomes right or wrong are equally likely to occur.
(iv) In advance it is known the newly born baby has to be either a boy or a girl.
The outcomes either a boy or a girl are equally likely to occur.
Q. 3. Why is tossing a coin considered to be a fair way of deciding which team should get the ball at
the beginning of a football game?
Sol. Since on tossing a coin, the outcomes head and tail are equally likely, the result of
tossing a coin is completely unpredictable and so it is a fair way.
Q. 4. Which of the following cannot be the probability of an event?
2
(A) (B) 1.5 (C) 15% (D) 0.7
3
Sol. Since, the probability of an event cannot be negative,
(B) 1.5 cannot be the probability of an event.
Q. 5. If P(E) = 0.05, what is the probability of not E?
Sol. P(E) + P(not E) = 1
0.05 + P(not E) = 1 P(not E) = 1 0.05
= 0.95
Thus, probability of not E = 0.95.
Q. 6. A bag contains lemon flavoured candies only. Malini takes out one candy without looking into
the bag. What is the probability that she takes out
(i) an orange flavoured candy?
(ii) a lemon flavoured candy?
Sol. (i) Since, there are lemon flavoured candies only in the bag,
Taking out any orange flavoured candy is not possible.
Probability of taking out an orange flavoured candy = 0.
(ii) Also, probability of taking out a lemon flavoured candy = 1.
Q. 7. It is given that in a group of 3 students, the probability of 2 students not having the same birthday
is 0.992. What is the probability that the 2 students have the same birthday?
228 MathematicsX
Sol. Let the probability of 2 students having same birthday = P(SB)
And the probability of 2 students not having the same birthday = P(nSB)
P(nSB) + P(nSB) = 1
P(SB) + 0.992 = 1
P(SB) = 1 0.992 = 0.008
So, the required probability of 2 boys having the same birthday = 0.008.
Q. 8. A bag contains 3 red balls and 5 black balls. A ball is drawn at random frm the bag. What is the
probability that the ball drawn is (i) red? (ii) not red? (CBSE 2012)
Sol. Total number of balls = 3 + 5 = 8
Number of all possible outcomes = 8
(i) For red balls:
There are 3 red balls.
Number of favourable outcomes = 3
Number of favourable outcomes
PRed =
Number of all possible outcomes
3
=
8
(ii) For not red balls:
Probability of the ball drawn which is not red
3 83 5
= 1 = = .
8 8 8
Q. 9. A box contains 5 red marbles, 8 white marbles and 4 green marbles. One marble is taken out of
the box at random. What is the probability that the marble taken out will be (i) red? and
(ii) white? (iii) not green?
Sol. Total number of marbles = 5 + 8 + 4 = 17
(i) For red marbles:
Number of red marbles = 5
Number of favourable outcomes = 5
5
Probability of red marbles, P(red) =
17
(ii) For white balls:
Number of white balls = 8
Probability of white balls,
8
P(white) =
17
(iii) For not green balls:
Number of white balls = 4
Number of not green balls = 17 4 = 13
i.e., Favourable outcomes = 13
Probability of ball not green
13
P(not green) =
17
OR
Number of green marbles = 4
Number of not green balls = 17 4 = 13
Favourable outcomes = 13
13
P(not green) =
17

Probability 229
Q. 10. A piggy bank contains hundred 50p coins, fifty Re 1 coins, twenty ` 2 coins and ten ` 5 coins.
If it is equally likely that one of the coins will fall out when the bank is turned upside down, what
is the probability that the coin (i) will be a 50p coin? and (ii) will not be ` 5 coin?
Sol. Number of:
50 p coins = 100
Re 1 coins = 50
` 2 coins = 20
` 5 coins = 10
Total number of coins = 100 + 50 + 20 + 5 = 180
(i) For a 50 p coin:
Favourable events = 100
100 5
P(50 p) = =
180 9
(ii) For not a ` 5 coin:
Number of ` 5 coins = 10
Number of not ` 5 coins = 180 10 = 170
Favourable outcomes = 170
170 17
P(not 5 rupee coin) = = .
180 18
Q. 11. Gopi buys a fish from a shop for his aquarium. The shopkeeper
takes out one fish at random from a tank containing 5 male
fish and 8 female fish (see Fig.). What is the probability that
the fish taken out is a male fish?
Sol. Number of:
Male fishes = 5
Female fishes = 8
Total number of fishes = 5 + 8 = 13
Total number of outcomes = 13
For a male fish:
Number of favourable outcomes = 5
5
P(male fish) = .
13
Q. 12. A game of chance consists of spinning an arrow which comes to rest pointing at one of the numbers
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (see figure), and these are equally likely outcomes. What
is the probability that it will point at 8 1
(i) 8? (ii) an odd number? 7 2
(iii) a number greater than 2? (iv) a number less than 9?
Sol. Total numbers marked = 8 6 3
(i) When pointer points at 8: 5 4
Total number of outcomes = 8
Number of favourable outcomes = 1
No. of favourable outcomes
P(8) =
Total number of possible outcomes
1
=
8
(ii) When pointer points at an odd number:
Number of odd numbers from 1 to 8 = 4 [ Odd numbers are 1, 3, 5 and 7]

230 MathematicsX
Number of favourable outcomes = 4
Number of favourable outcomes 4 1
P(odd) = = =
Total number of possible outcomes 8 2
(iii) When pointer points at a number greater than 2:
Number of numbers greater than 2 = 6
[ The numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are greater than 2]
Number of favourable outcomes = 6
Number of favourable outcomes
P(greater than 2) =
Total number of possible outcomes
6 3
= = .
8 4
(iv) When pointer points a number less than 9:
Number of numbers less than 9 = 8
[ The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are less than 9]
Number of favourable outcome = 8
Favourable outcomes
P(greater than 9) =
Total possible outcomes
8
= = 1.
8
Q. 13. A die is thrown once. Find the probability of getting:
(i) a prime number; (ii) a number lying between 2 and 6; (iii) an odd number.
Sol. Since, numbers on a die are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Number of total outcomes = 6
(i) For prime numbers:
Since 2, 3, and 5 are prime number,
Favourable outcomes = 3
Number of favourable outcomes
P(prime) =
Total number of possible outcomes
3 1
= = .
6 2
(ii) For a number lying between 2 and 6:
Since the numbers between 2 and 6 are 3, 4 and 5
Favourable outcomes = 3
Favourable outcomes
Required probability =
Total number of possible outcomes
3 1
= =
6 2
(iii) For an odd number:
Since 1, 3 and 5 are odd numbers.
Favourable outcomes = 3
3 1
Required probability = = .
6 2

Probability 231
Q. 14. One card is drawn from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. Find the probability of getting:
(i) a king of red colour (ii) a face card (iii) a red face card
(iv) the jack of hearts (v) a spade (vi) the queen of diamonds
Sol. Number of cards in deck = 52
Total number of possible outcomes = 52
(i) For a king of red colour:
Number of red colour kings = 2 [ Kings of diamond and heart are red]
Number of favourable outcomes = 2
2 1
E(red king) = = .
52 26
(ii) For a face card:
4 kings, 4 queens and 4 jacks are face cards
Number of face cards = 12
Number of favourable outcomes = 12
12 3
P(face) = =
52 13
(iii) For a red face card:
Since, cards of diamond and heart are red
There are [2 kings, 2 queens, 2 jacks] 6 cards are red
Favourable outcomes = 6
6 3
P(red face) = =
52 26
(iv) For a jack of hearts:
Since, there is only 1 jack of hearts.
Number of favourable outcomes = 1
Number of favourable outcomes
P(Jack of hearts) =
All possible outcomes
1
=
52
(v) For a spade:
There are 13 spades in a pack of 52 cards:
Favourable outcomes are 13.
Number of favourable outcomes
P(spade) =
Total number of possible outcomes
13 1
= =
52 4
(vi) For the queen of diamonds:
There is only one queen of diamond.
Number of favourable outcomes.
Number of favourable outcomes
P(queen of diamonds) =
Total number of possible outcomes
1
= .
52
Q. 15. Five cardsthe ten, jack, queen, king and ace of diamonds, are well-shuffled with their face
downwards. One card is then picked up at random.
(i) What is the probability that the card is the queen?
232 MathematicsX
(ii) If the queen is drawn and put aside, what is the probability that the second card picked up
is (a) an ace? and (b) a queen?
Sol. We have five cards.
All possible outcomes = 5
(i) For a queen:
Number of queens = 1
Number of favourable outcomes
P(queen) =
Total number of possible outcomes
1
=
5
(ii) The queen is drawn and put aside,
Only 5 1 = 4 cards are left,
All possible outcomes = 4
(a) For an ace:
There is only one ace
Number favourable outcomes = 1
Number of favourable outcomes
P(an ace) =
Total possible outcomes
1
=
4
(b) For a queen:
Since, the only queen has already been put aside.
Number of possible outcomes = 0
Number of favourable outcomes
P(a queen) =
Number of possible outcomes
0
= = 0.
4
Q. 16. 12 defective pens are accidentally mixed with 132 good ones. It is not possible to just look at a
pen and tell whether or not it is defective. One pen is taken out at random from this lot. Determine
the probability that the pen taken out is a good one.
Sol. We have
Number of good pens = 132
Number of defective pens = 12
Total number of pens = 132 + 12 = 144
For good pens:
There are 132 good pens
Number of favourable outcomes = 132
Number of favourable outcomes
P(good pens) =
Total possible outcomes
132 11
= = .
144 12
Q. 17. (i) A lot of 20 bulbs contain 4 defective ones. One bulb is drawn at random from the lot. What
is the probability that this bulb is defective?
(ii) Suppose the bulb drawn in (i) is not defective and is not replaced. Now one bulb is drawn at
random from the rest. What is the probability that this bulb is not defective?

Probability 233
Sol. Since, there are 20 bulbs in the lot.
Total number of possible outcomes = 20
(i) Number defective bulbs = 4
i.e., Favourable outcomes = 4
Number of favourable outcomes
P(defective bulb) =
Total number of outcomes
4 1
= =
20 5
(ii) The bulb drawn above is not included in the lot.
Remaining number of bulbs = 20 1 = 19.
Total number of possible outcomes = 19.
Number of bulbs which are not defective = 19 4 = 15
Favourable number of outcomes = 15
Number of favourable outcomes
P(not defective bulb) =
Total number of possible outcomes
15
= .
19
Q. 18. A box contains 90 discs which are numbered from 1 to 90. If one disc is drawn at random from
the box, find the probability that it bears (i) a two-digit number, (ii) a perfect square number and
(iii) a number divisible by 5.
Sol. We have:
Total number of discs = 90
Total number of possible outcomes = 90
(i) For a two-digit number:
Since the two-digit numbers are 10, 11, 12, ....., 90.
Number of two-digit numbers = 90 9 = 81
[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 are 1-digit numbers]
Number of favourable outcomes = 81
Number of favourable outcomes
P(two-digit number) =
Total number of possible outcomes
81 9
= =
90 10
(ii) For a perfect square:
Perfect squares from 1 to 90 are 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, and 81
Number of perfect numbers = 9
Number of favourable outcomes = 9
Number of favourable outcomes
P(perfect number) =
Total number of possible outcomes
9 1
= =
90 10
(iii) For a number divisible by 5:
Numbers divisible by 5 [from 1 to 90] are: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60,
65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90
i.e. There are 18 number (1 to 90) which are divisible by 5.
Number of favourable outcomes = 18
Number of favourable outcomes
P(Divisible by 5) =
All possible outcomes
18 1
= = .
90 5
234 MathematicsX
Q. 19. A child has a die whose six faces show the letters as given below:
A B C D E A
The die is thrown once. What is the probability of getting (i) A? and (ii) D?
Sol. Since there are six faces of the given die and these faces are marked with letters
A B C D E A
Total number of letters = 6
Number of possible outcomes = 6
(i) For the letter A
Two faces are having the letter A.
Number of favourable outcomes = 2
Number of favourable outcomes
Now, P(letter A) =
Total number of possible outcomes
2 1
= =
6 3
(ii) For the letter D:
Number of Ds = 1
Number of possible outcomes = 1
Number of favourable outcomes
P(letter D) =
Total number of possible outcomes
1
= .
6
Q. 20. Suppose you drop a die at random on the rectangular region shown in figure. What is the
probability that it will land inside the circle with diameter 1 m?
3m

2m

Sol. Here, Area of the rectangle = 3 m 2 m = 6 m2


And, the area of the circle = r2
FG 1 IJ 2
m2
=
H 2K
2
= m
4
Probability for the die to fall inside the circle
Area of the favourable region
=
Area of the whole region
Area of the circle
=
Area of the rectangle
LM OP
=
N4Q =
1
=

.
6 4 6 24
Probability 235
Q. 21. A lot consists of 144 ball pens of which 20 are defective and the others are good. Nuri will buy
a pen if it is good, but will not buy if it is defective. The shopkeeper draws one pen at random
and gives it to her. What is the probability that
(i) She will buy it?
(ii) She will not buy it? (CBSE 2012)
Sol. Total number of ball pens = 144
All possible outcomes = 144
(i) Since there are 20 defective pens
Number of good pens 144 20 = 124
Number of favourable outcomes = 124
Probability that she will buy it
124 31
= =
144 36
(ii) Probability that she will not buy it
= 1 [Probability that she will buy it]
31
= 1
36
36 31 5
= = .
36 36
Q. 22. Refer to Example 13. (i) Complete the following table:
Event:
Sum on 2 dice 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 5 1
Probability
36 36 36

(ii) A student argues that there are 11 possible outcomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12.
1
Therefore, each of them has a probability . Do you agree with this argument? Justify your
11
answer.
Sol. The two dice are thrown together.
Following are the possible outcomes:
(1, 1); (1, 2); (1, 3); (1, 4); (1, 5); (1, 6).
(2, 1); (2, 2); (2, 3); (2, 4); (2, 5); (2, 6).
(3, 1); (3, 2); (3, 3); (3, 4); (3, 5); (3, 6).
(4, 1); (4, 2); (4, 3); (4, 4); (4, 5); (4, 6).
(5, 1); (5, 2); (5, 3); (5, 4); (5, 5); (5, 6).
(6, 1); (6, 2); (6, 3); (6, 4); (6, 5); (6, 6).
Number of all possible outcomes is 6 6 = 36.
(i) Let the required probability be P(E).
(a) The sum on two dice is 3 for: (1, 2) and (2, 1)
Favourable outcomes = 2
2
P(E) =
36
(b) The sum on two dice is 4 for: (1, 3), (2, 2) and (3, 1).
Number of favourable outcomes = 3
3
P(2) =
36
236 MathematicsX
(c) The sum on two dice is 5 for:
(1, 4), (2, 3), (3, 2) and (4, 1)
Number of favourable outcomes = 4
4
P(E) =
36
(d) The sum on two dice is 6 for:
(1, 5), (2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 2) and (5, 1)
Number favourable outcomes = 5
5
P(E) =
36
(e) The sum on two dice is 7 for:
(1, 6), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 3), (5, 2) and (6, 1)
Number of favourable outcomes = 6
6
P(E) =
36
(f) The sum on two dice is 9 for:
(3, 6), (4, 5), (5, 4) and (6, 3)
Number of favourable outcome = 4
4
P(E) =
36
(g) The sum on two dice is 10 for:
(4, 6), (5, 5), (6, 4)
Number of favourable outcomes = 3
3
P(E) =
36
(h) The sum on two dice is 11 for:
(5, 6) and (6, 5)
Number of favourable outcomes = 2
2
P(E) =
36
Thus, the complete table is as under:
Event:
Sum on 2 dice 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1
Probability
36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36

(ii) No. The number of all possible outcomes is 36 and not 11.
The argument is not correct.
Q. 23. A game consists of tossing a one rupee coin 3 times and noting its outcome each time. Hanif wins
if all the tosses give the same result i.e., three heads or three tails, and loses otherwise. Calculate
the probability that Hanif will lose the game.
Sol. Let T denotes the tail and H denotes the head.
All the possible outcomes are:
H H H, H H T, H T T, T T T, T T H, T H T, T T H, H T H
Number of all possible outcomes = 8
Let the event that Hanif will lose the game be denoted by E.

Probability 237
Favourable events are:
H H T, H T H, T H H, T H T , T T H, H T T
Number of favourable outcomes = 3
6 3
P (E) = = .
8 4
Q. 24. A die is thrown twice. What is the probability that
(i) 5 will not come up either time? (ii) 5 will come up at least once?
[Hint: Throwing a die twice and throwing two dice simultaneously are treated as the same
experiment.]
Sol. Since, throwing a die twice or throwing two dice simultaneously is the same.
All possible outcomes are:
(1, 1); (1, 2); (1, 3); (1, 4); (1, 5); (1, 6)
(2, 1); (2, 2); (2, 3); (2, 4); (2, 5); (2, 6)
(3, 1); (3, 2); (3, 3); (3, 4); (3, 5); (3, 6)
(4, 1); (4, 2); (4, 3); (4, 4); (4, 5); (4, 6)
(5, 1); (5, 2); (5, 3); (5, 4); (5, 5); (5, 6)
(6, 1); (6, 2); (6, 3); (6, 4); (6, 5); (6, 6)
All possible outcomes = 36
(i) Let E be the event that 5 does not come up either time, then
The favourable outcomes are [36 (5 + 6)] = 25
25
P(E) =
36
(ii) Let N be the event that 5 will come up at least once, then Number of favourable
outcomes = 5 + 6 = 11
11
P(N) = .
36
Q. 25. Which of the following arguments are correct and which are not correct? Give reasons for your
answer.
(i) If two coins are tossed simultaneously there are three possible outcomestwo heads, two tails
1
or one of each. Therefore, for each of these outcomes, the probability is .
3
(ii) If a die is thrown, there are two possible outcomesan odd number or an even number.
1
Therefore, the probability of getting an odd number is .
2
Sol. (i) Not correct.
Because, the situation one of each can result in two ways HT and TH.
1
The probability = .
4
(ii) Correct.
Because the two outcomes are possible.

238 MathematicsX
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
EXERCISE 15.2
Q. 1. Two customers Shyam and Ekta are visiting a particular shop in the same week (Tuesday to
Saturday). Each is equally likely to visit the shop on any day as on another day. What is the
probability that both will visit the shop on (i) the same day? (ii) consecutive days? (iii) different
days?
Sol. Here, the number of all the possible outcomes
= 5 5 = 25
(i) For both customers visiting same day:
Number of favourable outcomes = 5
[ (Tue., Tue.), (Wed., Wed.), (Thu., Thu.), (Fri., Fri.), (Sat., Sat.)]
5 1
Required probability = =
25 5
(ii) For both the customers visiting on consecutive days:
Number of outcomes are:
(Tue., Wed.), (Wed., Thu.), (Thu., Fri.), (Fri., Sat.), (Sat., Fri.), (Wed., Tue.),
(Thu., Wed.), (Fri., Thu.)
Number of favourable outcomes = 8
8
Required probability =
25
(iii) For both the customers visiting on different days:
1
We have probability for both visiting same day =
5
Probability for both visiting on different days
= 1 [Probability for both visiting on the same day]

= 1
1
=
51 LM OP
=
4
5 5 NQ 5
4
The required probability = .
5
Q. 2. A die is numbered in such a way that its faces show the numbers 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 6. It is thrown two
times and the total score in two throws is noted. Complete the following table which gives a few
values of the total score on the two throws:
Number in first throw
+ 1 2 2 3 3 6
Number in second throw

1 2 3 3 4 4 7

2 3 4 4 5 5 8

3 5 9

6 7 8 8 9 9 12

Probability 239
What is the probability that the total score is
(i) even? (ii) 6? (iii) at least 6?
Sol. The completed table is as under:
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 3 4 4 7
2 3 4 4 5 5 8
3 3 4 4 5 5 8
4 4 5 5 6 6 9
5 4 5 5 6 6 9
6 7 8 8 9 9 12
Number of all possible outcomes = 36
(i) For total score being even:
Favourable outcomes = 18
[ The even outcomes are: 2, 4, 4, 4, 4, 8, 4, 4, 8, 4, 6, 6, 4, 6, 6, 8, 8]
18 1
The required probability = =
36 2
(ii) For the score being 6:
In list of score, we have four 6 s.
Favourable outcomes = 4
4 1
Required probability = =
36 9
(iii) For the score being at least 6:
The favourable scores are:
7, 8, 8, 6, 6, 9, 6, 6, 9, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9 and 12
Number of favourable outcomes = 15
15 5
Required probability = = .
36 12
Q. 3. A bag contains 5 red balls and some blue balls. If the probability of drawing a blue ball is double
that of a red ball, determine the number of blue balls in the bag.
Sol. Let the number of blue balls in the bag be x.
Total number of balls = x + 5
Number of possible outcomes = (x + 5).
For a blue ball favourable outcomes = x
Probability of drawing a blue ball
x
=
x+5
Similarly, probability of drawing a red ball
5
=
x+5
Now, we have
x
= 2
5 LM OP
x+5 x+5 N Q
x 10
= x = 10
x+5 x+5
Thus the required number of blue balls = 10.

240 MathematicsX
Q. 4. A box contains 12 balls out of which x are black. If one ball is drawn at random from the box,
what is the probability that it will be a black ball?
If 6 more black balls are put in the box, the probability of drawing a black ball is now double of
what it was before. Find x.
Sol. The total number of balls in the box = 12
Number of possible outcomes = 12
Case-I: For drawing a black ball
Number of favourable outcomes = x
x
Probability of getting a black ball =
12
Case-II: When 6 more black balls are added
Now, the total number of balls
= 12 + 6
= 18
Number of possible outcomes = 18
Since, the number of black balls now
= (x + 6).
Number of favourable outcomes = (x + 6)
x+6
Required probability =
18
Applying the given condition:
x+6 FG IJ
x

18
= 2
H K
12
12 (x + 6) = 36x 12x + 72 = 36x
36x 12x = 72 24x = 72
72
x = = 3
24
Thus, the required value of x is 3.
Q. 5. A jar contains 24 marbles, some are green and others are blue. If a marble is drawn at random
2
from the jar, the probability that it is green is . Find the number of blue balls in the jar.
3
Sol. There are 24 marbles in the jar.
Number of possible outcomes = 24.
Let there are x blue marbles in the jar.
Number of green marbles = 24 x
Favourable outcomes = (24 x)
Required probability for drawing a green marble
24 x
=
24
Now, according to the condition, we have:
24 x 2
=
24 3
3 (24 x) = 2 24
72 3x = 48
3x = 72 48
3x = 24
24
x = = 8
3
Thus, the required number of blue balls is 8.

Probability 241
MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED
I. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. A letter is chosen at random from English alphabet. Find the probability that the letter chosen
precedes g.
Sol. Total number of letters in English alphabet is 26.
Total number of possible outcomes = 26
Letters preceding g are:
a, b, c, d, e and f
Favourable outcomes = 6
6 3
Required probability = = .
26 13
Q. 2. A letter of English alphabet is chosen at random. Determine the probability that the letter is a
consonant. [NCERT Exemplar]
Sol. There are 26 letters in English alphabets.
Possible outcomes = 26
Q There are 5 vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and remaining are consonants.
Number of consonants = 26 5 = 21
Favourable outcomes = 21
21
P(consonants) =
26
Q. 3. A bag contains 9 black and 12 white balls. One ball is drawn at random. What is the probability
that the ball drawn is black?
Sol. Total number of balls = 9 + 12 = 21
Number of possible outcomes = 21
Number of black balls = 9
Number of favourable outcomes = 9
9 3
Required probability = = .
21 7
Q. 4. Find the probability that a number selected from the numbers 1 to 25 which is not a prime number
when each of the given number is equally likely to be selected.
Sol. Total number of given numbers = 25
Since the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 23 are prime number.
There are 9 numbers.
Number of numbers that are not prime = 25 9 = 16
Number of favourable outcomes = 16
16
Required probability = .
25

Q. 5. A die is thrown once. Find the probability of getting an odd number.


Sol. Total number of possible outcomes = 6
[ Numbers 1 to 6 are marked on the faces of a die]
odd numbers are 1, 3 and 5
Favourable outcomes = 3
3 1
Required probability = = .
6 2
242 MathematicsX
Q. 6. Cards each marked with one of the numbers 6, 7, 8, ....., 15 and placed in a box and mixed
thoroughly. One card is drawn at random from the box. What is the probability of getting a card
with number less than 10? (AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. There are 10 cards.
Total number of possible outcomes = 10
Cards marked with a number less than 10 are: 6, 7, 8 and 9
i.e. The number of favourable outcomes = 4
4 2
P(E) = or .
10 5
Q. 7. A card is drawn at random from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. What is the probability of getting
a black king? (CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Total number of cards = 52
Number of possible outcomes = 52
Number of black king = 2
2 1
P(Black king) = = .
52 26
Q. 8. What is the probability that two different friends have different birthdays? (Ignoring leap year).
(CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Number of days in a year = 365
Number of possible outcomes = 365
Since they have different birthdays.
Number of favourable outcomes = 365 1 = 364
364
P(E) = .
365
Q. 9. A box contains 3 blue, 2 white and 4 red marbles. If a marble is drawn at random from the box,
what is the probability that it will not be a white marble? (CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Total number of balls = 3 + 2 + 4 = 9
Number of possible outcomes = 9
Since, number of white balls = 2
Number of balls which are not white
= 92=7
Number of favourable outcomes = 7
7
P(E) = .
9
Q. 10. From a well-shuffled pack of cards, a card is drawn at random. Find the probability of getting a
black queen. (CBSE 2012)
Sol. Total number of cards = 52
Since, the number of black queens = 2
Number of favourable outcomes = 2
2 1
P(E) = = .
52 26
Q. 11. A bag contains 4 red and 6 black balls. A ball is taken out of the bag at random. Find the
probability of getting a black ball. (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Total number of balls = 4 + 6 = 10
All possible outcomes = 10
Since, number of black balls = 6

Probability 243
Number of favourable outcomes = 6
6 3
P(E) = or .
10 5
Q. 12. A die is thrown once. Find the probability of getting a number less than 3. (AI F 2008)
Sol. Numbers on the faces are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
Number of possible outcomes = 6
Numbers less than 3 are 1 and 2.
Number of favourable outcomes = 2
2 1
P(E) = or .
6 3
Q. 13. A die is thrown once. Find the probability of getting a number greater than 5. (AI F 2008)
Sol. Total number of possible outcomes = 6
Since only one number i.e., 6 is greater than 5
Favourable number of outcomes = 1
1
P(E) = .
6
Q. 14. Find the probability of obtaining 7 on a single toss of one die.
Sol. Numbers marked on a die are:
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6
There are six different possible outcomes.
But none of these outcomes would produce a 7.
Favouable outcome = 0
0
P(7) = =0
6
When an event cannot possibly succeed, we say it is an impossible event and probability of an
impossible event is zero.
i.e. P(impossible event) = 0

Q. 15. Cards bearing numbers 3 to 20 are placed in a bag and mixed thoroughly. A card is taken out
from the bag at random. What is the probability that the number on the card taken out is an even
number? (CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Total number of cards (3 to 20) = 18
Number of possible outcomes = 18
Since cards having even numbers (4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20) are 9,
Number of favourable outcomes = 9
9 1
P(E) = or .
18 2
Q. 16. Two friends were born in the year 2000. What is the probability that they have the same birthday ?
(AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Since the year 2000 was a leap year,
Total number of days in the year = 366
They have the same birthday.
Number of favourable outcomes = 1
1
P(E) = .
366
244 MathematicsX
Q. 17. A box contains cards marked with numbers 5 to 20. A card is drawn from the bag at random. Find
the probability of getting a number which is a perfact square. (AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Total number of cards = 16
Possible outcomes are 16.
Since the numbers 9 and 16 are perfect numbers,
Number of favourable outcomes = 2
2 1
P (E) = or .
16 8

II. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Two dice are thrown at the same time. Find the probability of getting different numbers on the
dice. (CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
Sol. Since the two dice are thrown simultaneously.
Total number of outcomes = 6 6 = 36
Number of outcomes for getting same numbers on both dice = 6
6 1
P (same numbers) = =
36 6
Now, P (different numbers) + P (same numbers) = 1
P (different numbers) = 1 P (same numbers)
1
= 1
6
5
= .
6
Q. 2. Two dice are thrown at the same time. Find the probability of getting same number on both dice.
Sol. Total number of outcomes = 6 6 = 36
Following are the outcomes that have same number on both dice are:
(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 5) and (6, 6)
Favourable outcomes = 6
6 1
Required probability = = .
36 6
Q. 3. A bag contains 10 red, 5 blue and 7 green balls. A ball is drawn at random. Find the probability
of this ball being not a blue ball.
Sol. Total number of balls = 10 + 5 + 7 = 22
Number of possible outcomes = 22
Since there are 5 blue balls.
Number of balls which are not blue
= 22 5 = 17
Favourable outcomes = 17
17
Required probability = .
22
Q. 4. Two dice are thrown at the same time and the product of numbers appearing on them is noted.
Find the probability that the product is less than 9.
Sol. Total number of possible outcomes = 6 6 = 36
The outcomes such that the product of numbers appearing on the faces is less than 9
are:
(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1),
(4, 2), (5, 1) and (6, 1).
Probability 245
Number of favourable outcomes = 16
16 4
Required probability = = .
36 9
Q. 5. An integer is chosen between 0 and 100. What is the probability that it is divisible by 7?
Sol. Numbers between 0 and 100 are 99.
Total possible outcomes = 99
Since following numbers are divisible by 7 :
7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 98.
Favourable outcomes = 14
14
Required probability = .
99
Q. 6. A letter of English alphabet is chosen at random. Determine the probability that the letter is
consonant.
Sol. There are 26 letters of English alphabet
Number of possible outcomes = 26
Since, there are 21 consonants of the English alphabets.
Favourable outcomes = 21
21
Required probability = .
26
Q. 7. Cards with numbers 2 to 101 are placed in a box. A card is selected at random. Find the probability
that the card has a square number. [(CBSE Sample Paper 2011, CBSE 2012)]
Sol. Number of numbers between 2 to 101 are 100
Total number of possible outcomes = 100
Since, the perfect numbers between 2 and 101 are:
4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81 and 100
Number of favourable outcomes = 9
9
Required probability = .
100
Q. 8. In a game of chance there is spinning of an arrow which comes to rest pointing at one of the
numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and there are equally likely outcomes. What is the probability that
it will point at
(i) 7? (ii) an odd number?
(iii) a number less than 9? (CBSE 2012)
Sol. Since, following numbers are marked on the disc:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Possible outcomes in each case are 8.
(i) Possible outcomes = 8
Favourable otucome = 1 (\ only the number 7)
1
P(The number 7) =
8
(ii) Q Odd numbers on the disc are
1, 3, 5 and 7
Favourable outcomes = 4
4 1
P(Odd number) =
8 2

246 MathematicsX
(iii) Q The numbers less than 9 on the disc are:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, (i.e. 8 outcomes)
Favourable outcomes = 8
8
P(number less than 9) = =1
8
Q. 9. From a group of 2 boys and 3 girls, two children are selected at random. Find the probability such
that at least one boy is selected.
Sol. Let B1 and B2 be two boys and G1, G2 and G3 be the three girls
Since two children are selected at random,
Following are the possible groups:
B1B2, B1G1, B1G2, B1G3, B2G1, B2G2, B2G3, G1G2, G1G3, G2G3
Total number of possible outcomes = 10
Since, one boy is to be selected,
Favourable outcomes are:
B1B2, B1G1, B1G2, B1G3, B2G1, B2G2 and B2G3.
Number of favourable outcomes = 7
7
Required probability = .
10
Q. 10. A bag contains 7 red, 5 white and 3 black balls. A ball is drawn at random from the bag. Find
the probability that the drawn ball is neither white nor black.
Sol. Total number of balls
= 7+5+3
= 15
Number of white balls = 5
Number of black balls = 3
Number of balls that are neither white nor black = 15 [5 + 3]
= 15 8
= 7
7
Required probability = .
15
Q. 11. A box contains 20 cards, numbered from 1 to 20. A card is drawn from the box at random. Find
the probability that the number on the drawn card is:
(i) even (ii) multiple of 3.
Sol. Total numbers from 1 to 20 are 20
Number of possible events = 20
(i) Even numbers are:
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20
Number of favourable outcomes = 10
10 1
Probability of getting an even number = =
20 2
(ii) Since, multiples of 3 are:
3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18
Number of favourable outcomes = 6
Probability of getting a multiple of 3
6 3
= = .
20 10

Probability 247
Q. 12. Two dice are thrown at the same time. Find the probability that the sum of the two numbers
appearing on the top of the dice is more than 9. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Following are the possible outcomes for two dice thrown simultaneously:
(1, 1) (1, 2) (1, 3) (1, 4) (1, 5) (1, 6)
(2, 1) (2, 2) (2, 3) (2, 4) (2, 5) (2, 6)
(3, 1) (3, 2) (3, 3) (3, 4) (3, 5) (3, 6)
(4, 1) (4, 2) (4, 3) (4, 4) (4, 5) (4, 6)
(5, 1) (5, 2) (5, 3) (5, 4) (5, 5) (5, 6)
(6, 1) (6, 2) (6, 3) (6, 4) (6, 5) (6, 6)
Total number of possible outcomes = 36
Following outcomes have a sum of more than 9:
(4, 6), (6, 4), (5, 5), (5, 6), (6, 5) and (6, 6)
i.e. Favourable outcomes = 6
6 1
The required probability = or .
36 6
Q. 13. In a bag-X, there are four cards numbered 1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively. In an another bag-Y, there
are three cards numbered 2, 4 and 6 respectively. A card is drawn at random from each bag.
(a) Write all the possible outcomes.
(b) Find the probability that the sum of these two cards drawn is:
(i) 7 (ii) even (iii) more than 7
Sol. (a) There are 12 possible outcomes
Bag A 1 3 5 7
Bag B


2 2, 1 2, 3 2, 5 2, 7

4 4, 1 4, 3 4, 5 4, 7 12 Possible outcomes

6 6, 1 6, 3 6, 5 6, 7

Possible outcomes are (2, 1), (4, 1), (6, 1), (2, 3), (4, 3), (6, 3), (2, 5), (4, 5), (6, 5),
(2, 7), (4, 7) and (6, 7).
(b) (i) Q Only (6 + 1), (4 + 3) and (2 + 5) gives sum as 7
Possible outcomes = 3
3 1
P(Sum = 7) = =
12 4
(ii) Q There are no even sums
Possible outcomes = 0
0
P(Sum = an even) = =0
12
(iii) Q 6+3 = 9
2+7 = 9
4 + 7 = 11
4+5 = 9
6 + 5 = 11
6 + 7 = 13
There are six sums which are more than 7
Possible outcomes = 6
6 1
P(Sum more than 7) = =
12 2
248 MathematicsX
Q. 14. A game consists of tossing a one-rupee coin 3 times and noting its outcome each time. Hanif wins
if all the tosses give the same result, i.e., three heads or three tails, and loses otherwise, calculate
the probability that Hanif will lose the game. (AI CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. For Solution, please see the solution of Q. 23 of the Textbook Exercise 15.1.
Q. 15. Find the probability that a number selected at random from numbers 3, 4, 5, ....., 25 is prime.
(CBSE 2009 C)
Sol. Total numbers are 23.
Number of possible outcomes = 23
Since, prime numbers are 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 23.
Number of favourable outcomes = 8
8
P (E) = .
23
Q. 16. The king, queen and jack of diamonds are removed from a pack of 52 cards are then the pack is
well-shuffled. A card is drawn from the remaining cards. Find the probability of getting a card of
(i) diamonds
(ii) a Jack (AI CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. There are 52 card in the pack.
And number of cards removed = 3 [1 king + 1 queen + 1 jack = 3 cards]
Remaining cards = 52 3 = 49
13 3 10
(i) P(a diamond) = = [ Total diamonds are 13]
49 49
41 3
(ii) P(a jack) = = [ Total jacks are 4]
49 49
Q. 17. A bag contains 5 red, 4 blue and 3 green balls. A ball is taken out of the bag at random. Find
the probability that the selected ball is
(i) of red colour
(ii) not of green colour. (CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Total number of balls = 5 + 4 + 3 = 12
Number of possible outcomes = 12
(i) Number of red balls = 5
Favourable outcomes = 5
5
P(red ball) =
12
(ii) Number of green balls = 3
Number of ball which are not green = 12 3 = 9
Favourable outcomes = 9
9 3
P(not green) = = .
12 4
Q. 18. A card is drawn at random from a well-shuffled deck of playing cards. Find the probability of
drawing a
(i) face card
(ii) card which is neither a king nor a red card. (CBSE 2008 C)
Sol. Total number of cards = 52
(i) Total number of face cards = 12 [4 Jacks + 4 Queens + 4 Kings]
Number of favourable outcomes = 12
12 3
P(face) = =
52 13

Probability 249
(ii) Number of kings = 4
Number of red cards = 13 + 13 = 26
Number of cards that are neither a red nor a king = 52 4 26 + 2 (red kings)
= 24
Favourable outcomes = 24
24 6
=
P(neither king nor red) = .
52 13
Q. 19. A bag contains tickets, numbered 11, 12, 13, ....., 30. A ticket is taken out from the bag at random.
Find the probability that the number on the drawn ticket
(i) is a multiple of 7
(ii) is greater than 15 and a multiple of 5. (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Total number of tickets = 20 [ Numbers from 11 to 30 are 20]
(i) Multiples of 7 are 14, 21 and 28
Number of favourable outcomes = 3
3
P(a multiple of 7) =
20
(ii) The numbers that are greater than 15 and multiples of 5 are: 20, 25 and 30
Number of favourable outcomes = 3
3
P(multiples of 5 .
and greater than 15) =
20
Q. 20. A bag contains 4 red, 5 black and 3 yellow balls. A ball is taken out of the bag at random. Find
that the ball taken out is of:
(i) yellow colour
(ii) not of red colour. (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Total number of balls = 4 + 5 + 3 = 12
Total number of possible outcomes = 12
(i) Number of yellow balls = 3
Number of favourable outcomes = 3
3 1
P(yellow) = =
12 4
(ii) Number of balls that are not red = 12 4 = 8 [ There are 4 red balls]
Favourable outcomes = 8
8 2
P(not red) = = .
12 3
Q. 21. A coin is tossed two times. Find the probability of getting at most one head.
(CBSE Sample Paper 2011)
Sol. Since, the coin is thrown two times.
Possible out comes = 4
Favourable outcomes are TT, TH, HT
i.e., Number of favourable outcomes = 3
3
P (atmost one head) = .
4
Q. 22. There are 40 students in class X of whom 25 are girls and 15 are boys. The class teacher has to
select one student as a class representative. She writes the name of each student on a separate card.
The cards being identical and she puts cards in a bag and stirs throughly. She then draws one
card from the bag. What is the probability that the name written on the card is the name of a:
(i) girl (ii) a boy

250 MathematicsX
Sol. Total number of students = 40
Number of possible outcomes = 40
(i) Q There are 25 girls in the class
Number of favourable outcomes = 25
25 5
P(name of a girl) =
40 8
(ii) Q Number of boys = 15
Number of favourable outcomes = 15
15 3
P(name of a boy) =
40 8
Q. 23. Cards, marked with numbers 5 to 50, are placed in a box and mixed thoroughly. A card is drawn
from the box at random. Find the probability that the number on the taken out card is:
(i) a prime number less than 10.
(ii) a number which is a perfect square. (AI CBSE 2008)
Sol. Numbers from 5 to 50 are 46.
Total number of possible outcomes = 46.
(i) Prime numbers (less than 10) are 5, 7.
Favourable outcomes = 2
2 1
P(prime number less than 10) = =
46 23
(ii) Perfect square are 9, 16, 25, 36 and 49
Number of favourable outcomes = 5
5
P(perfect square) = .
46
Q. 24. A die is thrown once. Find the probability of getting:
(i) an even prime number.
(ii) a multiple of 3. (CBSE 2008)
Sol. Total numbers on the faces of a die are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
Number of favourable outcomes = 6
(i) Even prime number is only one i.e. 2
Favourable outcome = 1
1
P(even prime number) =
6
(ii) Multiples of 3 are 3 and 6
Favourable outcomes are 2.
2 1
P(multiple of 3) = = .
6 3
Q. 25. A die is thrown once. Find the probability of getting:
(i) a prime number
(ii) a number divisible by 2. (CBSE 2008)
Sol. The numbers on the faces of a die are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
Number of possible outcomes = 6
(i) Prime numbers are 2, 3 and 5
Number of prime numbers = 3

Probability 251
Number of favourable outcomes = 3
3 1
P(prime number) = =
6 2
(ii) Numbers divisible by 2 are 2, 4 and 6
Favourable outcomes are 3.
3 1
P(divisible by 2) = = .
6 2
Q. 26. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. What is the probability that
(i) 5 will not come up on either of them?
(ii) 5 will come up on at least one?
(iii) 5 will come up at both dice?
Sol. The two dice are thrown simultaneously
Possible outcomes are = 6 6 = 36
(i) When 5 will not come up on either of them:
Favourable outcomes are: 36 11 = 25
25
P(5 will not come up on either dice) =
36
(ii) When 5 will come on at least one dice:
Favourable outcomes are: 36 25 = 11
11
P(5 will come on at least one dice) =
36
(iii) When 5 will come up on either dice:
Favourable outcome is only one i.e. (5, 5)
1
P(5 on both dice) = .
36
Q. 27. Two different dice are rolled simultaneously. Find the probability that the sum of numbers
appearing on the two dice is 10. [AI. CBSE (Foreign)2014]
Sol. When two different dice are rolled then possible outcomes are :
(1, 1) (1, 2) (1, 3) (1, 4) (1, 5) (1, 6)
(2, 1) (2, 2) (2, 3) (2, 4) (2, 5) (2, 6)
(3, 1) (3, 2) (3, 3) (3, 4) (3, 5) (3, 6)
(4, 1) (4, 2) (4, 3) (4, 4) (4, 5) (4, 6)
(5, 1) (5, 2) (5, 3) (5, 4) (5, 5) (5, 6)
(6, 1) (6, 2) (6, 3) (6, 4) (6, 5) (6, 6)
Number of total outcomes = 36
Sum of (5, 5), (6, 4) and (4, 6) is 10.
No of favourable outcomes = 3

3 1
Required Probability = or
36 12

252 MathematicsX
TEST YOUR SKILLS
1. Cards bearing numbers 1, 3, 5, ..., 35 are kept in a bag. A card is drawn at random from
the bag. Find the probability of getting a card bearing:
(i) a prime number less than 15.
(ii) a number divisible by 3 and 5.
2. Red kings, queens and jacks are removed from a deck of 52 playing cards and then well-
shuffled. A card is drawn from the remaining cards. Find the probability of getting (i) King
(ii) a red card (iii) a spade.
3. One card is drawn from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. Find the probability of getting:
(i) A king of red suit. (ii) A queen of black suit.
(iii) A jack hearts. (iv) A red face card.
4. A bag contains 5 red balls and some blue balls. If the probability of drawing a blue ball
from the bag is thrice that of a red ball, find the number of blue balls in the bag.
Hint: Let number of blue balls = x
Total number of balls = (5 + x)
x 5
P(blue = 3 P(red ball) = 3

ball)
x+5 x + 5
5. In a throw of a coin, find the probability of getting a head.
6. Two coins are tossed together find the probability of getting:
(i) at least one tail.
(ii) one head
7. An unbiased die is thrown once, find the probability of getting:
(i) a number greater than 4.
(ii) a multiple of 3.
8. Two dice are thrown at the same time. Find the probability of getting different numbers
on both the dice. [NCERT Exemplar]
Hint: P(different numbers on both dice) = 1 P(same number on both dice)

9. Two dice are thrown at the same time. Find the probability of getting same number on
both the dice.
10. A pair of dice is thrown once. Find the probability of getting an odd number on each die.
11. A lot consists of 48 mobile phones of which 42 are good, 3 have only minor defects and
3 have major defects. Varnika will buy a phone if it is good but the trader will only buy
a mobile if it has no major defect. One phone is selected at random from the lot. What
is the probability that it is:
(i) acceptable to Varnika?
(ii) acceptable to the trader? [NCERT Exemplar]
12. Find the probability that a number selected at random from the numbers 1, 2, 3, ..., 35 is a:
(i) prime number
(ii) multiple of 7
(iii) a prime number less than 15.
13. A bag contains 5 red marbles, 8 white marbles and 4 green marbles. What is the probability
that if one marble is taken out of the bag at random it will not be a green marble?
Probability 253
14. One card is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. Find the probability of getting:
(i) the queen of diamond
(ii) an ace of hearts
(iii) a spade.
Hint: (i) There is only one queen of diamond.
(ii) There is only one ace of hearts.
(iii) There are 13 spade cards.

15. Find the probability of getting 53 Sundays in a leap year. (CBSE 2012)
Hint: Number of days in a normal year = 365
Number of days in a leap year = 366
Number of weeks, in a normal year = 52, means 52 Sundays
[366 (52 7)] = 2 extra days in a leap year.
These two extra days may have sample-space as:
(Monday Tuesday), (Tuesday Wednesday), (Wednesday Thursday), (Thursday
Friday), (Friday Saturday), (Saturday Sunday), (Sunday Monday).
i.e. out of 7 sample spaces, only two are favourable.
2
P (53 Sundays in a leap year) =
7
16. One letter is chosen at random amongst letters of the word Mathematics. Find the
probability that the letter chosen is a:
(i) vowel (ii) consonant
17. Two coins are tossed simultaneously. Find the probability of getting:
(i) two Heads (ii) at least one Head
(iii) no Head.
Hint: In a throw of two coins simultaneously the four possible outcomes are
HH, HT, TH, TT
18. A die is thrown once. What is the probability of getting a number greater than 4?
19. What is the probability that a number selected at random from the numbers 3, 4, 5, ..., 9
is a multiple of 4?
20. From a well suffled pack of playing cards, black jacks, black kings and black aces are
removed. A card is then drawn from the pack. Find the probability of getting:
(i) a red card (ii) not a diamond card.
21. A bag contains cards which are numbered from 2 to 90. A card is drawn at random from
the bag. Find the probability that it bears.
(i) a two-digit number (ii) a number which is a perfect square.
22. Cards numbered 1 to 30 are put in a bag. A card is drawn at random from this bag. Find
the probability that the number on the drawn card is :
(i) not divisible by 3. (ii) a prime number greater than 7.
(iii) not a perfect square number. [AI CBSE (Foreign) 2014]

254 MathematicsX
Hint: Total possible outcomes = 30
(i) Numbers not divisible by 3 [1 to 30] are :
1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29,
Number of favourable outcomes = 20
20 2
Required Probability = =
30 3
(ii) Prime numbers greater than 7 are : 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29
6 1
Required probability = =
30 5
(iii) Perfect squares are 1, 4, 9, 16, 25 Total No. = 5
30 5 25 5
Required pribability = = =
30 30 6
23. Two different dice are tossed together. Find the probability :
(i) That the numbers on either die is even.
(ii) That the sum of numbers appearing on the two dice is 5. [AI CBSE 2014]
Hint: Total possible outcomes = 36
(i) Numbers of favourable outcomes = 9
[ Q (2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (4, 2), (4, 4) (4, 6) (6, 2), (6, 4) and (6, 6) are desired outcomes.
9 1
Required Probability = =
36 4
(ii) Desired (favourable) outcomes are : (1, 4), (2, 3), (3, 2), (4, 1)
4 1
Required Probability = =
36 9
24. Red queens and black jacks are removed from a pack of 52 playing cards. A card is drawn
at random from the remaining cards, after reshuffling them. Find the probability that the
card drawn is :
(i) a king (ii) of red colour
(iii) a face-card (iv) a queen [AI CBSE 2014]
Hint: A pack of playing cards consists of 52 cards. 2 red queens and 2 black jacks are removed.
Therefore, remaining number of cards = 52 - 4 = 48.
4 1
(i) Numbers of kings = 4 Required P = =
48 12
24 1
(ii) Remaining red cards = 26 2 = 24 Required P = =
48 2
8 1
(iii) Remaining face-cards = 12 4 = 8 Required P = =
48 6
2 1
(iv) Remaining queens = 4 2 = 2 Required P = =
48 24
25. Rahim tosses two different coins simultaneously. Find the probability of getting at least
one tail. [CBSE (Delhi) 2014]
Hint: Total outcomes = 4 (HH, HT, TH, TT)
Fovourable outcomes = 3 (HT, TH, TT)
Required P = 3 4
Probability 255
26. A bag contains cards numbered from 1 to 49. A card is drawn from the bag at random, after
mixing the cards thoroughly. Find the probability that the number on the drawn card is :
(i) an odd number (ii) a multiple of 5
(iii) a perfect square (iv) an even prime number [CBSE (Delhi) 2014]
Hint: Possible outcomes = 49
(i) Odd numbers are : 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21,
Favourable outcomes = 25
23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 57, 49
Required P = 25 49
(ii) Multiples of 5 are = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 P = 9 49
(iii) Perfect squares are : 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49 P = 7 49 = 1 7
1
(iv) Even Primes are : only 2. P =
49

ANSWERS
Test Your Skills
1 10 1 1 1 3
1. (i) 1 , (ii) 2. (i) 1 , (ii) , (iii) 13 3. (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv)
3 9 23 23 46 26 26 52 26

3
4. 15 5.
1
6. (i) , (ii) 1
2 4 2
1 1 5 1
7. (i) , (ii) 8. 9.
3 3 6 6

1 7 15 11 1 6
10. 11. (i) , (ii) 12. (i) , (ii) , (iii)
4 8 16 35 7 35
13 1 1 1 2
13. 14. (i) , (ii) , (iii) 15.
17 52 52 4 7
4 7 1 3 1
16. (i) , (ii) 17. (i) , (ii) , (iii) 18. 1
11 11 4 4 4 3
13 33 81 8
19. 2 20. (i) , (ii) 21. (i) , (ii)
7 23 46 89 89

256 MathematicsX
[Unit VI: Coordinate Geometry]

7 Coordinate Geometry

Facts that Matter


z Distance Formula
I. The distance between two points P (x1, y1) and Q (x2, y2) is given by
PQ = bx 2 x1 g + by
2
2 y1 g 2

II. The distance of P (x, y) from the origin is


OP = x2 + y 2
z Section Formula
I. If P (x, y) divides the line segment AB, joining the points A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) in the ratio
m : n, then
m n

A (x1, y1) P (x, y) B (x2, y2)

mx2 + nx1 my 2 + ny 1
x = , y=
m+n m+n
II. The coordinates (x, y) of the mid-point of PQ are given by:
x1 + x2 y1 + y2
x = , y=
2 2
III. If A (x1, y1), B (x2, y2) and C (x3, y3) be the vertices of ABC, then the coordinates G (x, y)
of the centroid of ABC are:
x1 + x2 + x 3 y1 + y2 + y3
x = and y =
3 3

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 7.1
Q. 1. Find the distance between the following pairs of points:
(i) (2, 3), (4, 1) (ii) ( 5, 7), ( 1, 3) (iii) (a, b), ( a, b)
Sol. (i) Here x 1 = 2, y1 = 3, x2 = 4 and y2 = 1
The required distance

= bx x g + by y g
2 1
2
2 1
2

= b 4 2g + b1 3g
2 2

257
= 22 + 2 b g 2

= 4+4 = 8
= 24 = 2 2
(ii) Here, x 1 = 5, y1 = 7
x 2 = 1, y2 = 3
The required distance

= bx 2 g + by y g
x1
2
2 1
2

1 b 5g + b 3 7 g
2 2
=

= b 1 + 5g + b 4 g 2 2

= 16 + 16
= 32 = 2 16 = 4 2
(iii) Here, x 1 = a, y1 = b
x 2 = a, y2 = b
The required distance

= bx x g + by y g
2 1
2
2 1
2

= b a ag + b b b g
2 2

= b 2ag + b 2bg
2 2

= 4 a 2 + 4b 2

= e
4 a2 + b 2 j = 2 ea 2
+ b2 j
Q. 2. Find the distance between the points (0, 0) and (36, 15). Can you now find the distance between
the two towns A and B discussed in Section 7.2 of the NCERT textbook?
Sol. Part-I Y
Let the points be P (0, 0) and Q (36, 15).
PQ = b36 0g + b15 0g
2 2
Q (36,15)

= a36f + a15f
2 2
X (0,0)
15 km

X
= 1296 + 225 P 36 km
= 1521
= 39 2 = 39 Y
Part-II
We have P (0, 0) and Q (36, 15) as the positions of two towns.
Here x 1 = 0, x2 = 36
y 1 = 0, y2 = 15

258 MathematicsX
PQ = bx x g + by y g
2 1
2
2 1
2

= b36 0g + b15 0g = 39 km.


2 2

Q. 3. Determine if the points (1, 5), (2, 3) and ( 2, 11) are collinear.
Sol. Let the points be A (1, 5), B (2, 3) and C ( 2, 11)
A, B and C are collinear, if
AB + BC = AC
AC + CB = AB
BA + AC = BC

AB = b2 1g + b3 5g
2 2

1 + b 2g
2 2
=

= 1+ 4 = 5

BC = b 2 2g + b 11 3g
2 2

= b 4g + b 14g
2 2

= 16 + 196 = 212

AC = b 2 1g + b 11 5g
2 2

= b 3g + b 16g
2 2

= 9 + 256 = 265
But AB + BC AC
AC + CB AB
BA + AC BC
A, B and C are not collinear.
Q. 4. Check whether (5, 2), (6, 4) and (7, 2) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.
Sol. Let the points be A (5, 2), B (6, 4) and C (7, 2). (CBSE 2012)

AB = b6 5g + 4 b 2g
2 2

= a1f + a6f
2 2

= 1 + 36 = 37

BC = b7 6g + b 2 4 g
2 2

= a1f + b 6g
2 2

= 1 + 36 = 37

AC = b5 7g + d 2 b 2gi
2 2

= b 2g + a0f
2 2

Coordinate Geometry 259


= 4+0 = 2
We have AB = BC AC
ABC is an isosceles triangle.
Q. 5. In a classroom, 4 friends are seated at the points A, B, C and D as shown in Fig. Champa and
Chameli walk into the class and after observing for a few minutes Champa asks Chameli, Dont
you think ABCD is a square? Chameli disagrees. Using distance single formula, find which of
them is correct.
10

8
B
7

6
Rows
5
A C
4

2
D
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Columns
Sol. Let the number of horizontal columns represent the x-coordinates whereas the vertical
rows represent the y-coordinates.
The points are:
A (3, 4), B (6, 7), C (9, 4) and D (6, 1)
AB = b6 3g + b7 4g
2 2

= a 3 f + a 3f
2 2

= 9+9 = 18 = 3 2

BC = b9 6 g + b 4 7 g
2 2

3 + b 3g
2 2
=

= 9+9 = 18 = 3 2

CD = b6 9 g + b1 4 g
2 2

= b 3g + b 3g
2 2

= 9+9 = 18 = 3 2

AD = b6 3g + b1 4g
2 2

= a 3f + b 3g
2 2

260 MathematicsX
= 9 + 9 = 18 = 3 2
Since, AB = BC = CD = AD
i.e., All the four sides are equal.
Also AC = b9 3 g + b 4 4 g
2 2

= b 6 g + a0 f = 6
2 2

and BD = b6 6g + b1 7 g
2 2

= a0 f + b 6 g = 6
2 2

i.e., BD = AC Both the diagonals are also equal.


ABCD is a square.
Thus, Champa is correct.
Q. 6. Name the type of quadrilateral formed, if any, by the following points, and give reasons for your
answer:
(i) ( 1, 2), (1, 0), ( 1, 2), ( 3, 0)
(ii) ( 3, 5), (3, 1), (0, 3), ( 1, 4)
(iii) (4, 5), (7, 6), (4, 3), (1, 2)
Sol. (i) Let the points be: A ( 1, 2), B (1, 0), C ( 1, 2) and D ( 3, 0).
AB = b1 + 1g + b0 + 2g
2 2

= a2f + a2f = 4 + 4 = 8
2 2

BC = b 1 1g + b2 0g = 4 + 4 = 8
2 2

CD = b 3 + 1g + b0 2g = 4 + 4 = 8
2 2

DA = b 1 + 3g + b 2 0 g = 4 + 4 = 8
2 2

AC = b 1 + 1g + b2 + 2g = 0 + 4 = 4
2 2 2

BD = b 3 1g + b0 0g = a4f = 4
2 2 2

AB = BC = CD = AD
i.e., All the sides are equal.
And AC = BD
Also, AC and BD (the diagonals) are equal.
ABCD is a square.
(ii) Let the points be A ( 3, 5), B (3, 1), C (0, 3) and D ( 1, 4).

AB = 3 3b g + b1 5 g 2 2

+ b 4 g
2
= 62
= 36 + 16 = 52 = 2 13

BC = b0 3g + b3 1g
2 2

= 9+4 = 13
Coordinate Geometry 261
CD = b 1 0g + b 4 3 g
2 2

= a1f + a7f = 1 + 49 =
2 2
50

3 b 1g + 5 b 4 g
2 2
DA =

= a2 f + a9f
2 2

= 4 + 81 = 85

AC = 0 3b g + b 3 5g2 2

= a 3f + b 2 g
2 2

= 9+4 = 13

BD = b 1 3g + b 4 1g
2 2
= b 4 g + b 5g
2 2

= 16 + 25 = 41
We see that:
13 + 13 = 2 13
i.e., AC + BC = AB
A, B, C and D are collinear. Thus, ABCD is not a quadrilateral.
(iii) Let the points be A (4, 5), B (7, 6), C (4, 3) and D (1, 2).

AB = b7 4 g + b6 5 g
2 2

= 3 2 + 12 = 10

BC = b 4 7 g + b 3 6g
2 2

= b 3 g + b 3g =
2 2
18

CD = b1 4g + b2 3g
2 2

= b 3g + b 1g =
2 2
10

DA = b4 1g + b5 2g
2 2

= 9+9 = 18

AC = b 4 4 g + b 3 5g
2 2

0 + b 2g = 2
2
=

BD = b1 7 g + b2 6g
2 2

= 36 + 16 = 52

262 MathematicsX
Since, AB = CD [opposite sides of the quadrilateral are equal]
BC = DA
And AC BD Diagonals are unequal
ABCD is a parallelogram.
Q. 7. Find the point on the x-axis which is equidistant from (2, 5) and ( 2, 9). (CBSE 2012)
Sol. We know that any point on x-axis has its ordinate = 0.
Let the required point be P (x, 0).
Let the given points be A (2, 5) and B ( 2, 9).

PA = b x 2g + 0 b 5g
2 2

= b x 2g + 5 = x
2 2 2
4 x + 4 + 25 = x 2 4 x + 29

x b 2g + b0 9 g
2 2
PB =

= b x + 2 g + b 9g =
2 2
x 2 + 4 x + 4 + 81 = x 2 + 4 x + 85
Since, A and B are equidistant from P,
PA = PB

x 2 4 x + 29 = x 2 + 4 x + 85
x2 4x + 29 = x2 + 4x + 85
x2 4x x2 4x = 85 29
8x = 56
56
x = = 7
8
The required point is ( 7, 0).
Q. 8. Find the values of y for which the distance between the points P (2, 3) and Q (10, y) is 10 units.
Sol. The given points are P (2, 3) and Q (10, y).

PQ = b10 2g + y b 3g
2 2

8 + b y + 3g
2
=

= 64 + y 2 + 6 y + 9

= y 2 + 6 y + 73
But PQ = 10
y 2 + 6 y + 73 = 10
Squaring both sides,
y2 + 6y + 73 = 100
y2 + 6y 27 = 0
2
y 3y + 9y 27 = 0
(y 3) (y + 9) = 0
Either y3 = 0 y=3
or y+9 = 0 y=9
The required value of y is 3 or 9.

Coordinate Geometry 263


Q. 9. If Q (0, 1) is equidistant from P (5, 3) and R (x, 6), find the values of x. Also find the distances
QR and PR.

Sol. Here, QP = b5 0g + b 3 g 1
2 2

5 + b 4 g
2 2
=

= 25 + 16 = 41

QR = bx 0g + b6 1g
2 2

x2 + 52 =
= x 2 + 25
QP = QR
2
41 = x + 25
Squaring both sides, we have:
x2 + 25 = 41
x2 + 25 41 = 0
x2 16 = 0 x = 4
4, 6)
Thus, the point R is (4, 6) or (

Now, QR = b 4g a0f + b6 1g
2 2

= 16 + 25 = 41

and PR = b 4 5 g + b6 + 3g
2 2

PR = b4 5g + b6 + 3g or b 4 5g + b6 + 3g
2 2 2 2

1 + 81 or b 9g + 9
2 2
PR =

PR = 82 or 2 92
PR = 82 or 9 2
Q. 10. Find a relation between x and y such that the point (x, y) is equidistant from the point (3, 6) and
( 3, 4).
Sol. Let the points be A (x, y), B (3, 6) and C ( 3, 4).
AB = b 3 xg + b6 y g
2 2

And AC = b 3g x + b 4 y g
2 2

Since, the point (x, y) is equidistant from (3, 6) and ( 3, 4).


AB = AC
b 3 xg + b6 y g
2 2
= b 3 xg + b 4 y g
2 2

Squaring both sides,


(3 x)2 + (6 y)2 = ( 3 x)2 + (4 y)2
(9 + x 6x) + (36 + y2 12y) = (9 + x2 + 6x) + (16 + y2 8y)
2

9 + x2 6x + 36 + y2 12y 9 x2 6x 16 y2 + 8y
6x 6x + 36 12y 16 + 8y = 0

264 MathematicsX
12x 4y + 20 = 0
3x y + 5 = 0 [Dividing by 4]
3x + y 5 = 0
which is the required relation between x and y.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED


EXERCISE 7.2
Q. 1. Find the coordinates of the point which divides the join of ( 1, 7) and (4, 3) in the ratio 2 : 3.
Sol. Let the required point be P (x, y).
Here, the end points are:
( 1, 7) and (4, 3)
Ratio = 2 : 3 = m1 : m2
m1 x2 + m2 x1
x =
m1 + m2

=
b2 4g + 3 b 1g
2+3
83 5
= = = 1
5 5
m1 y 2 + m 2 y 1
And y =
m1 + m2

=
b g b
2 3 + 37 g
2+3
6 + 21 15
= = = 3
5 5
Thus, the required point is (1, 3).
Q. 2. Find the coordinates of the points of trisection of the line segment joining (4, 1) and ( 2, 3).
Sol. Let the given points be A (4, 1) and B ( 2, 3).
P Q
A B
(4, 1) (2, 3)
Let the points P and Q trisect AB.
i.e., AP = PQ = QB
i.e., P divides AB in the ratio of 1 : 2
Q divides AB in the ratio of 2 : 1
Let the coordinates of P be (x, y).
m1 x2 + m2 x1
x =
m1 + m2

=
b g af
1 2 +2 4
=
2+8
= 2
1+2 3
m 1 y 2 + m2 y 1
y = = 1
m1 + m2

Coordinate Geometry 265


=
b g
1 3 +2 1 b g =
32
=
5
1+2 3 3
5
The required co-ordinates of P are 2, 3
Let the co-ordinates of Q be (X, Y).

X =
m 1 x2 + m 2 x1
=
2 2 +1 4 b g af =
4+4
= 0
m1 + m2 2+1 3
m1 y 2 + m 2 y 1
Y =
m1 + m 2

=
b g b g
2 3 +1 1
=
6+1
=
7
2+1 3 3
7 FG IJ
The required coordinates of Q are 0,
3
.
H K
Q. 3. To conduct Sports Day activities, in your rectangular shaped school ground ABCD, lines have
been drawn with chalk powder at a distance of 1 m each. 100 flower pots have been placed at a
1
distance of 1 m from each other along AD, as shown in the figure. Niharika runs th the distance
4
1
AD on the 2nd line and posts a green flag. Preet runs th the distance AD on the eighth line
5
and posts a red flag. What is the distance between both the flags? If Rashmi has to post a blue
flag exactly halfway between the line segment joining the two flags, where should she post her
flag?
Sol. Let us consider A as origin, then AB is the x-axis. AD is the y-axis.
100 FG IJ
Now, the position of green flag-post is 2 ,
4 H
or (2, 25)
K
100 FG IJ
And the position of red flag-post is 8 ,
5 H or (8, 20)
K
D C

2
1
A B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

266 MathematicsX
Distance between both the flags

= b8 2g + b20 25g
2 2

6 + b 5g = 36 + 25
2 2
= = 61
Let the mid-point of the line segment joining the two flags be M (x, y).
M

(2, 25) (x, y) (8, 20)

2+8 25 + 20
x = and y =
2 2
or x = 5 and y = (22.5).
Thus, the blue flag is on the 5th line at a distance 22.5 m above AB.
Q. 4. Find the ratio in which the line segment joining the points ( 3, 10) and (6, 8) is divided by
( 1, 6).
Sol. Let the given points are: A ( 3, 10) and B (6, 8).
Let the point P ( 1, 6) divides AB in the ratio m1 : m2.
Using the section formula, we have:
Fx m +m x , m y +m y I
( 1, 6) = GH m + m
2 1

1
2
m +m
2
JK
1 1 2

1