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IBM WebSphere

Lombardi Edition V7.1


Process Modeling
(Course code WB001/VB001)

Student Notebook
ERC 1.1

IBM WebSphere
Lombardi Education
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August 2010 edition


The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is distributed on an as
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these techniques to their own environments do so at their own risk.

Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2010.


This document may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
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Contents

Introduction 7
Course Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Course Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Course Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Course Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Other Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Prologue: The Foundation for Process Modeling 11


Objectives and Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Business Process Management . . . . . . . . . . 12
BPM Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
The BPM Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
BPM Project Components . . . . . . . . . . 13
BPM Project Team Members . . . . . . . . . 14
About Process Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Business Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
IBM BPM Blueprint and WebSphere Lombardi Edition 16
How do they t in Process Modeling? . . . . . 16
How do they t in BPM Project Methodologies? . 17
The Hiring Requisition Project . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Core Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Challenge Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . 20

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Unit 1: Playback 0 - Process Discovery 23
Objectives and Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
About Process Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Why IBM BPM Blueprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Creating a Discovery Map . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Discovery Map Elements and BPMN . . . . . . 29
Milestone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Sub-process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Modifying the Discovery Map . . . . . . . . . 38
Exercise 1.1 Creating a Discovery Map . . . . . 44
Capturing the Process Details . . . . . . . . . . 46
Exercise 1.2 Capturing the Process Details . . . 58
The Conceptual Data Model . . . . . . . . . . . 60
When do I move from a Discovery Map to a Process
Diagram? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Unit 2: Playback 0 - Process Diagram 67


Objectives and Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
IBM BPM Blueprint Process Diagram . . . . . . . 68
About BPMN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Core Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Create a Process Diagram in Blueprint . . . . . 69
Exercise 2.1 Creating a Process Diagram . . . . 72
When do you migrate from Blueprint to Lombardi? . . 74
About WebSphere Lombardi Edition . . . . . . . . 75
Lombardi Authoring Environment . . . . . . . 76
The Process Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Exercise 2.2 Subscribing to a Blueprint Process . 78

iv Table of Contents
Unit 3: Playback 1, Part 1 - Process Flow 81
Objectives and Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
About Process Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Normal Sequence Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Conditional Sequence Flow. . . . . . . . . . 83
Default Sequence Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 84
About Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
About Gateways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Exclusive Gateway (X/OR) . . . . . . . . . . 89
Inclusive Gateway (AND/OR) . . . . . . . . . 90
Parallel Gateway (AND) . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Splits and Joins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Using Gateway Splits and Joins . . . . . . . . 93
Evaluating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Exercise 3.1 Adding Gateways . . . . . . . . 96

Unit 4: Playback 1, Part 2 - Intermediate Events 99


Objectives and Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Intermediate Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
A Way to Model an Escalation . . . . . . . . . . 102
Intermediate Timer Events . . . . . . . . . 102
Intermediate Timer Event Implementation . . . 103
Exercise 4.1 Adding Intermediate Timer Events 104

Unit 5: Playback 1, Part 3 - Validate the Process Model 107


Objectives and Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
The Process Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Exercise 5.1 Validating the Process Model . . . 110

Appendix: Challenge Exercises 113

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Introduction Course Overview


The IBM WebSphere Lombardi Edition 7.1 Process Modeling
course teaches the basics of process modeling. Concepts are
presented in a systematic way, building upon each other to
facilitate a good understanding of process modeling.
We begin by creating a Descriptive Model of the process. This
starts with mapping the expected process ow, or happy path,
which includes the identication and capture of the process
milestones, activities, the participants in those activities, and
the normal order in which activities are performed.
We move to a more detailed model to allow for analyzing the
process performance and capturing business and functional
requirements for an IT implementation. This effort includes
adding process decision ow and intermediate event patterns.
Hands-on exercises demonstrate the application of these
concepts in a real life process scenario. The inclusion of
practical tips and techniques further enhance the learning
process.
The key take-away is knowing how to create process models
that stand on their own - models that are clear and complete
from the diagram alone and that can ultimately be used as
an executable Business Process Denition (BPD) in IBM
WebSphere Lombardi Edition (Lombardi).

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COURSE GOAL Model a business process using IBM Blueprint and IBM
WebSphere Lombardi Edition

COURSE OBJECTIVES After completing this course, you should be able to:
Perform process discovery mapping and detail capture in IBM
Blueprint
Capture key business data requirements in the context of the
process participant interactions
Create a process diagram using IBM Blueprint
Control the process ow using Gateways in IBM WebSphere
Lombardi Edition
Use an Intermediate Timer Event to ensure process deadlines
are met
Validate the process model meets all business and functional
requirements and is ready for implementation

COURSE MATERIALS The materials created for this course are supplements for training,
including lecture, and class activities:
Student Notebook
Class Activity and Individual Exercise Environments
IBM BPM Blueprint
IBM WebSphere Lombardi Edition

8 Introduction
IBM WEBSPHERE LOMBARDI EDUCATION

TECHNICAL SUPPORT IBM BPM Blueprint


Process Mapping 101 Self-Paced Online Course
Performance Support Tutorials - Blueprint Help System
Product Blog
User/Developer Forums

IBM WebSphere Lombardi Edition (Lombardi)


WebSphere Lombardi Edition 7.1.0 Authoring Environment
User Guide

OTHER RESOURCES Business Process Modeling Notation Specication 1.2


Email Questions about Websphere Lombardi
Training, upcoming courses, or course materials to
lombarditraining@us.ibm.com
Technical questions can be directed to Support by visiting
http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/

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Prologue:The Organizations seeking to improve their business processes


will turn to Business Process Management (BPM) to provide
Foundation a systematic approach to accomplish this improvement. BPM
initiatives gain momentum from early adoption to designation
for Process of rst critical or rst launch projects.

Modeling Regardless of the project, big or small, it all begins with


a Process Model. A clear model that communicates the
process and where improvements can be achieved is the key
to maintaining the initial executive level momentum. A good
Process Model thus aligns the interest of the business and the
execution of the IT groups.

Objectives
The objectives for this section are to:
Describe Business Process Management (BPM)
List the components of a BPM project
List and describe BPM Project Team members
List and describe the Process Modeling phases
Describe how IBM BPM Blueprint ts in Process Modeling
Describe how WebSphere Lombardi Edition ts in Process
Modeling

Topics
This section includes the following topics:
Business Process Management
About Process Modeling
IBM BPM Blueprint and WebSphere Lombardi Edition
A Process Narrative: The Hiring Requisition Project

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Business Process Management


Business Process Management (BPM) is described in a variety
of ways by many different sources, but the common themes
throughout are the goal, the system, and the expected results.
The BPM goal is efcient business processes with visibility.
The BPM system is the management of people-to-people
work steps, system-to-system communications, or person-to-
system interactions.
The BPM expected result is process improvement. Business
process improvement brings about multiple benets to an
organization.
BPM Vision
Does BPM have or even require a vision? If the ideal were to
match the proper toolset with the stated goal, system, and
expected result, then the vision might be limited to the execution
of a process application build. This would also impact what a
Process Model might look like and what it would communicate to
a process application development team.
What if a broader vision for BPM were the following:
BPM is the means by which companies and governments
improve their operations by leveraging internal business expertise
in new, scalable ways. This is achieved by directly engaging
business people in the design, denition and creation of
enterprise-class process applications.
NOTES

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The BPM Project


Project lifecycles for any IT initiative are typically reinforced by
well established standards and methodologies. A BPM project,
especially one that includes the broader vision and denitions
provided, would not t the typical project lifecycle because the
key BPM project components are slightly different.
BPM Project Components

The top-down diagram view of the BPM components provides


a quick view of how a typical BPM project lifecycle will evolve.
Any of these components missing from a project would interrupt
the effective design, denition, and creation of the process
application, and perhaps curtail the engagement of business
people.

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BPM Project Team Members


The unique lifecycle and components of a BPM project require a
specic set of project roles, including:
Process Sponsor - Responsible for establishing the
project goals and scope, securing organizational support
and resources, and ensuring alignment with organizational
business goals
Process Owner - Person who knows everything about the
process
Program Manager/Project Lead - Person responsible for the
projects success
Subject Matter Experts - Those with knowledge of specic
process resources, or systems
Core BPM Project Development Team - Business Process
Management (BPM) development teams typically include a
BPM Analyst, BPM Developer - Process, BPM Developer -
Integrations, and a BPMS Administrator
Facilitator - (Optional) Typically manages the collaboration
meetings for a BPM Team.

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About Process Modeling


An understanding of a business process is necessary before it
can be modeled.
Business Process
A business process is a repeating set of coordinated tasks
or activities and transactions used to achieve organizational
objectives. Process Modeling captures the ordered sequence
of these tasks or activities, the roles performing the activities,
conditional branching, and the sequencing of the ow of work
between activities along with the supporting information from
start to end.

Descriptive
Modeling

Analytical
Modeling

Executable
Modeling

Process Modeling can be described as a three phase approach:


Describe the process - High-level description of the process
easily communicated across the organization
Analyze/Improve the process - Analytical, more detailed
modeling, showing all pertinent activities and ow including
exception paths. Used to create detailed functional
requirements for the process
Implement the process - The executable process
implementation

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IBM BPM Blueprint and WebSphere Lombardi


Edition
With a vision in place to launch a BPM project, the next task
would be to nd the right toolset not only to build the process
application, but to maintain the project lifecycle synergy between
business and IT when it comes to Process Modeling.
How do IBM BPM Blueprint and WebSphere Lombardi Edition
t in Process Modeling?
IBM BPM Blueprint (Blueprint) and WebSphere Lombardi Edition
(Lombardi) offer the ability to efciently handle each component
of a BPM project and the three phases of Process Modeling.
They also provide built-in functionality to involve business people
throughout the modeling phases, whether it is through direct
collaboration or effective model validation meetings, called
playbacks, that are part of the functional charter for both tools.

KEY INFORMATION It is very important to note that both tools do not have a clear
demarcation where one stops and the other begins in terms
of the lifecyle of project. That varies from project to project.
However, both work well together to engage business people
early and often while still offering sophistication for robust
process application implementations.

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How do IBM BPM Blueprint and WebSphere Lombardi Edition


t in BPM Project Development Methodologies?
While BPM development strategies and methods vary from the
standard IT development strategies and methods, some BPM
toolsets are more closely aligned with the latter. Blueprint and
Lombardi incorporate features and functionality that will make
support use of unique and effective methodologies that increase
development success factors. Here is a quick snapshot of three
methods and approaches:
Shared Model Approach - WebSphere Lombardi Edition uses
a single shared environment for design and development.
All process artifacts are stored in a single shared model
architecture.
Iterative Approach - a development method where a process
application is created through discreet development sections
and repeatedly elaborated until the application reaches
maturity. WebSphere Lombardi Edition supports a fully
iterative development approach aligned with best practices for
BPM development.
Playbacks - the built-in WebSphere Lombardi Edition
playback functionality encourages IT and Business to
collaborate and share feedback on the process application
much more frequently during development.
A playback between business and IT is a focused
demonstration of a partially implemented process model
with the goal of discussion, consensus bulding, collaborative
improvement, and ultimately approval of the model.
Playbacks thus enable the iterative development of the
process application. Obviously the BPM team will want to
reach milestone deliveries in the development of the process
application to know when to move on, so Playback 0 through
3 designate the sign-off phases for the development lifecycle.
NOTES

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The Hiring Requisition Project


The following process narrative is an example of what a BPM
team might develop in collaboration with a process owner. It is
provided here as the foundation for the Process Modeling effort
needed for the Hiring Requisition Project.

Process Narrative
Core Requirements
A Hiring Manager will submit a hiring requisition to the HR
Department containing the following information:
General Details
Requisition Number
Date of request
Requestor
Date Position Available

Position Details
Job Title
Job Description
Job Level (from company database)
Number of direct reports (only display if the job level
requested is Technical Lead or above)
Department Details
Division (from company database)
Department (from company database)

Compensation Details
Salary to Offer
Bonus Amount (default to 10% of salary to offer, but in
no case shall exceed 50%)

Recruiting Details
Multiple Employees Needed? (Y/N)
Number of Employees Needed (only display if multiple
employees are needed)
New Position? (Y/N)

Hiring Manager Comments

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Core Requirements
2.1 If the answer to New Position is YES, the request shall
be forwarded to the appropriate General Manager based
on the values specified under Division. Once the General
Manager receives the request, they will indicate approval or
disapproval.
2.2 If the request is not approved, the General Manager should
specify a reason and the request is terminated. If the request
is approved, a salary compliance check should be performed.
2.3 The Hiring Manger should be notified of the GMs decision
before the process is ended.
2.4 An automated check for salary compliance should be
performed. If the request meets salary compliance the hiring
request should be automatically posted to the HR Positions
database and made available for dissemination.
2.5 When a request violates the companys established salary
guidelines, the HR Administrator can approve or reject the
requested salary override.
2.6 If the requested salary is approved, the request should be
posted to the HR Positions database and made available for
dissemination.
2.7 If the HR Administrator rejects the requested salary they
must provide comments regarding the violation, add a
proposed salary, and send the request back to the originator
for resubmission or cancellation.
2.8 The HR Administrator has 4 hours to complete the review. If
the review is not completed within 4 hours, the task priority
shall be changed to Urgent and an email shall be sent to the
HR Administrator notifying them of the missed deadline.
2.9 When the Hiring Manager gets the request back because of
a rejection, they have the option to attempt to negotiate an
adjusted salary or they can cancel the request.
2.10 All hiring requests must be added to the HR Positions
database regardless of the disposition.
2.11 This process can be started from hiring requests received
from external Hiring Manager resources.

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Challenge Requirements
Hiring Request
3.1 The Hiring Manager must complete all information on the
Hiring Request form. Please do not display the form with any
excess required eld styling. Validation should be transparent
to the end user.
3.2 In the General Details section, add the following automatic
functions:
Requisition Number (Auto-generated)
Date of request (Automatic date/time stamp)
Requestor (Automatic user name stamp)
3.3 If the answer to New Position is NO, the following information
must be provided:
Who is being replaced?
Name
Status (drop down - Full Time, Part-Time,
Contractor, Temp)
Manager
Job Level
Pay Type (drop down Hourly, Salary)
Notes
This information should only be displayed if the answer to
New Position is NO.
HR Administrator Salary Override Review
3.4 The HR Administrator should be able to retrieve a list of
current positions in the Positions database that match the
current request. This will provide the HR Administrator with a
salary comparison. This is optional and by request of the HR
Administrator, it should not automatically appear. The list of
Positions should appear in a pop-up window.
3.5 If the HR Administrator does not complete the review within
8 business hours, the review should be reassigned to another
HR Administrator.

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Salary Negotiation
4.1 If the salary to offer is changed by the HR Administrator, the
original salary offer must be preserved. Additionally, the name
of the HR Administrator who made the change should appear
next to each proposed salary change. Each time a new salary
is proposed, this list should be updated.
4.2 The HR Administrator or the Hiring Manager should be able
to select from this list if they want to revert to a previously
suggested salary. Selecting from this list should populate the
Salary to Offer eld.
4.3 If the Hiring Manager wants to attempt to renegotiate the
salary offer, they should provide a proposed salary and a new
override justication.
4.4 Each time the proposed salary, signing bonus, Hiring Manager
salary override reason, and HR rejection reason is changed;
the original information should be added to lists that are
available during the negotiation phase.
4.5 The Signing Bonus must behave the same way.
4.6 A total of three attempts by the Hiring Manager to negotiate
a salary override are allowed. After the third attempt to
negotiate a salary override, their only option is to cancel the
request, or select a previously offered salary from the HR
Administrator.

New Position Review


4.7 If the General Manager cannot approve the request for a
New Position, the Hiring Manager should indicate whether a
Temporary Contract position is acceptable.
4.8 If a temporary position is not acceptable, the request is
cancelled.
4.9 If a temporary position is acceptable, the request shall
be forwarded to the HR Recruiting department. If the HR
Recruiting department can fulll the request, the GM and
Hiring Manager are notied and the request is submitted for
salary compliance.

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Unit 1: Playback When a process has been identied and it is ready for a
Business Process Management (BPM) initiative, the rst
0 - Process undertaking is to model the process. Process Modeling begins
with a descriptive process modeling effort, otherwise known
Discovery as Process Discovery. Process Discovery encompasses
mapping the process, a capture of the process details, and
creation of the initial process diagram.
All of this is accomplished during the Playback 0 phase of
development. The project team meets with each business
stakeholder during this phase, leading up to the nal milestone
session where sign-off is obtained. This nal Playback 0
sign-off should validate that the model accurately reects
the expected process ow, that identied process roles are
veried, and that process details and process improvement
needs are well documented.

Objectives
After completing this unit, you should be able to:
Capture process Milestones for a Discovery Map
Capture process Steps and Activities for a Discovery Map
Create a sub-process from Discovery Map Activities
Document process details including process participants
and intended process improvements in a Discovery Map
Create a Conceptual Data Model

Topics
This unit includes the following topics:
About Process Discovery
Creating a Discovery Map
Capturing the Process Details
The Conceptual Data Model
When do I move from a Discovery Map to a Process
Diagram?

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About Process Discovery


There are two main goals for process discovery, the rst of which
is highlighted in this unit:
Communicate the process across all team members and the
organization. What is the process? What is not the process?
Collaboration
Process discovery leads to the creation of a Discovery Map and
is accomplished through collaboration sessions with process
subject matter experts and the process owner. These session
provides the information needed to create the initial Discovery
Map: a high-level process map diagram that communicates the
expected order of process task accomplishments and the process
details surrounding these tasks.

Process Discovery

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Collaboration (continued)
Once important process details are fully captured, the
Discovery Map is shared with the process team to get everyone
aligned. It is also shared with the business stakeholders for
review, validation, and input. The Discovery Map powerfully
communicates very important process information with business
process owners, facilitating effective collaboration.
Collaboration does not end when the Discovery Map is converted
into a Process Diagram -- it is enhanced. Engaging business
stakeholders early on in developing the Process Diagram ensures
their interest and understanding throughout the entire process
modeling lifecycle.
NOTES

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Why IBM BPM Blueprint?


IBM BPM Blueprint is a software as a service (SaaS) application
well suited for descriptive process modeling. Blueprint is an easy
to use and highly effective way to map, document and diagram
a business process. Participant and Contributor tool modes
allows for input from BPM team members and Business. You
avoid having to maintain multiple les to accomplish the process
discovery with Blueprint.
IBM BPM Blueprint provides:
A real-time collaborative descriptive process modeling
platform
A business facing process diagramming tool
Process documentation in a fraction of the time of typical
documentation efforts
A centralized up-to-date version of the process available to
many across an organization
A standard approach to process discovery, documentation
and diagramming across an organization
NOTES

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NOTES

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Creating a Discovery Map


An IBM BPM Blueprint Discovery Map is created by focusing on
these elements:
Milestones
Activities
Sub-processes
Each of these elements can be captured during the collaborative
process mapping sessions with the process owner and subject
matter experts. The elements can also be extracted from a
comprehensive process narrative when one is available. It is
important to understand when to map each of these elements
and how each relates to each other.

NOTES

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Discovery Map Elements and BPMN


Creating a Discovery Map is about making sure the expected
order of activities in the process is described effectively. This is
the reason why Business Process Management Notation (BPMN)
standards are limited in terms of use at this point of the modeling
effort. Eventually, these elements will become part of a larger
set of components in the process model in Blueprint and then
WebSphere Lombardi Edition.

Discovery Map Element Description


Use a Milestone in a Discovery Map to communicate
a particular process phase. Milestones are not a
BPMN standard, but a very important component in
Blueprint and Lombardi.

Use an Activity to communicate a process task


accomplished by a single business unit in a
Discovery Map. Activity is a BPMN standard.

Use a Sub-process to communicate an Activity that is


executed by multiple business units. Sub-process is
a BPMN standard.

NOTES

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Milestone
For a Discovery Map, a milestone is used to dene a particular
process phase, representing a change in state or status of the
intended process output. For the entire process, milestones are
listed in a sequential manner. Each milestone consist of a group
of activities intended to produce a specic deliverable within a
given time frame.
Early collaboration or review of a process narrative should yield
the process milestones. This is the rst task to accomplish to
create a Discovery Map.
Expense Reimbursement Process
EXAMPLE
While contributing information for the Discovery Map of an
Expense Reimbursement process, the process owner identied
the following milestones:

Submission Approval Payment Archive

NOTES

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GUIDELINES Arrange milestones in the order in which they are performed.


Consider using nouns to label the milestones
Milestones are process phases; they should indicate the
signicant subdivisions of the whole process, not each
individual step
Milestones highlight portions of the process that may be good
candidates for implementation of process tracking intervals
during process implementation, and may provide a useful
way to organize discussion of process metrics with process
owners and other stakeholders
NOTES

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Activity
Now that the Discovery Map milestones are in place, it is time
to add the associated Activities for each milestone. In process
modeling, an Activity represents an atomic unit of work, those
things that a responsible party in a process does to complete a
task. Collaboration with a process owner or information from a
process narrative should yield all the process steps needed to
identify all tasks (activities).
Steps
Elaborating the Discovery Map begins with the capture of process
steps placed under each milestone.
EXAMPLE In the example provided below, three steps captured from the
Expense Reimbursement process information are placed under
the rst milestone. These are the steps someone would take to
submit an expense report.

Submission Approval Payment Archive

Submit
Expenses

Scan
Receipts

Submit
Expense
Report

Each of the three steps is assigned to the same responsible party


in the process.

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GUIDELINES If there is an unusally high number of steps for a given


milestone, this may be an indication that more milestones
need to be added
Label steps, tasks, and activities with a verb-noun
combination

NOTES

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Activity (continued)
If there is no change of ownership from one step to the next
under a milestone in your Discovery Map, then these steps
should be converted to a single task.
EXAMPLE In the example from the Expense Reimbursement process, the
Discovery Map now communicates one atomic unit of work or
activity.

Submission Approval Payment Archive

File
Expense
Report

NOTES

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Activity (continued)
EXAMPLE Action such as Submit or Send to are represented with workow
direction symbols in the Discovery Map.

Submission Approval Payment Archive

File Archive
Approve by Confirm
Expense Expense
Manager Payment
Report Report

Approve by
Accounts
Payable

The initial Expense Reimbursement Discovery Map is complete.


The goal was to list the Milestones and Activities in a sequential
manner following an order of accomplishment. At this stage,
the lack of detail such as who and when in the Discovery Map is
deliberate. The intent of the process map is to provide visibility
into what the business process actually is, without regard to any
conditions or exceptions.

NOTES

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Sub-process
An Activity in a Discovery Map can also be communicated as
a Sub-process. Sub-processes are tasks that are owned and
executed by different business units.
EXAMPLE The example Expense Reimbursement process Discovery Map
shows a candidate Milestone and set of Tasks that could convert
to a single Sub-process.

Expense Reimbursement Process

Submission Approval Payment Archive

File Archive
Approve by Confirm
Expense Expense
Manager Payment
Report Report

Approve by
Accounts
Payable

NOTES

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Sub-process (continued)
EXAMPLE The revised Discovery Map with the Sub-process in place.

Expense Reimbursement Process

Submission Approval Payment Archive

File Approve Archive


Confirm
Expense Expense Expense
Payment
Report Report Report

NOTES

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Modifying the Discovery Map


A stated goal of the Discovery Map is to provide visibility into the
essential elements of the business process, without regard to
any conditions or exceptions. What is the process? What is not
the process? becomes clearer as the Discovery Map is modied
into a concise diagram of the expected path of the process.
Opportunities to improve the Discovery Map in this regard
include modication of any element, including the Milestones
if necessary. The process owner or project team may suggest
deleting unnecessary information that hinders the goal of dening
the essential elements of the process.

NOTES

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Modifying the Discovery Map (continued)


EXAMPLE The example Expense Reimbursement process Discovery Map,
with a highlighted portion of the map under consideration for
modication.

Expense Reimbursement Process

Submission Approval Payment Archive

File Approve Archive


Confirm
Expense Expense Expense
Payment
Report Report Report

NOTES

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Modifying the Discovery Map (continued)


The example Expense Reimbursement process Discovery Map
modied to a concise, clear diagram of the process.

Expense Reimbursement Process

Submission Approval Payment

File Approve Confirm


Expense Expense Payment
Report Report

Archive
Expense
Report

NOTES

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GUIDELINES For ease of use, use the outline view of the Blueprint
Discovery Map to edit and modify elements during a real-time
collaboration session
Use the snapshot feature in Blueprint to capture and label the
initial version of the Discovery Map once you have completed
the effort

NOTES

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Expense Reimbursement Process Discovery Map

Submission Approval Payment

File Approve Confirm


Expense Expense Payment
Report Report

Archive
Expense
Report

NOTES

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Discovery Map Best Practices and Guidelines


When you create your process in IBM BPM Blueprint, provide
a simple and clear process name
Agree on naming conventions for Milestones and Activities
across your organization so names mean the same thing to all
process team members and key stakeholders
Arrange Milestones in sequence.
Use nouns to label the milestones
Milestones are process phases; they should indicate the
signicant subdivisions of the whole process, not each
individual step
Milestones highlight portions of the process that may be good
candidates for implementation of process tracking intervals
during process implementation, and may provide a useful
way to organize discussion of process metrics with process
owners and other stakeholders
Start by adding process Steps to the Discovery Map under
each appropriate Milestone
Convert multiple concurrent Steps that are assigned to one
owner into a single Task
If there is an unusally high number of steps for a given
milestone, this may be an indication that more milestones
need to be added
Label steps, tasks, and activities with a verb-noun
combination
Process conditions, exceptions, and who and when
details are not the focus of a Discovery Map at this stage of
process modeling
For ease of use, use the outline view of the Blueprint
Discovery Map to edit and modify elements during a real-time
collaboration session
Use the snapshot feature in Blueprint to capture and label the
initial version of the Discovery Map once you have completed
the effort

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1.1 Creating a Discovery Map


The Hiring Request Process Owner provided a comprehensive
process narrative and a set of requirements. To accomplish
the task of creating a Discovery Map for the Hiring Requisition
Project, this narrative and set of requirements must be used to
capture the process Milestones, Activities, and Sub-processes.
Exercise Objective
After completing this exercise, you should be able to:
Create a Discovery Map in IBM BPM Blueprint using either
a Process Owners collaboration or narrative of the process
Key Steps
Capture the Milestones found in the New Hire Request
process
Place the individual process Steps you nd in the New Hire
Request process underneath the appropriate Milestone
Modify those individual process Steps into comprehensive
Tasks or Activities accomplished by a single entity
Create Sub-processes from the Task or Activities where
necessary
Make sure the Discovery Map describes the expected
order of the Tasks and Activities in the process, without
conditions or exceptions

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NOTES

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Capturing the Process Details


Another facet of Process Discovery is the capture of process
details. Thus the focus shifts to:
Who does what in our process?
When does a task start and nish?
Capturing process details in the Discovery Map in IBM BPM
Blueprint allows for the addition of key information about the
process task owners, known as Participants, and other process
documentation not communicated in the diagram. The rst
goal of our Discovery Map is to communicate what is the
process? and adding these details amplies that effort.
The second goal of a Discovery Map is to reveal problem areas
in our process. This is accomplished through a capture of the
process problem details in Blueprint, including the severity and
frequency of each problem. Documenting process problems
moves the project from mere process description to a process
improvement effort.
NOTES

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Example expense reimbursement process details in IBM BPM Blueprint

NOTES

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Participants
The Discovery Map is now ready for us to identify and capture
process task owners, or Participants.
The Participant provides the responsible role detail for the
Activities in a process. Capturing Participants in the Discovery
Map is crucial for creating a Process Diagram later in IBM
BPM Blueprint and WebSphere Lombardi Edition.

NOTES

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Participants (continued)
EXAMPLE In the example Expense Reimbursement process Discovery
Map, the Participant identied for the rst Activity is Employee.
Notice that a Participant represents a role and not a particular
person. Also, had this process been scoped for used by a specic
group or department then the Participant would be different,
such as Salesperson. In the same manner, if the process has a
wider scope in terms of Participants (if, for example, the process
includes contract labor and vendors), then the role would probably
be an Expense Submitter.

Expense Reimbursement Process

Participant
Employee Submission Approval Payment

Business Owner(s)
HR Director File Approve Confirm
Expense Expense Payment
Expert(s) Report Report

Archive
Expense
Report

GUIDELINES Business Owner(s) are the accountable party for the


process.
Adding an Expert or Experts to your map details will identify
the core subject matter experts that you should consult on
process details.

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Inputs and Outputs


While adding Participants to the Discovery Map helps answer the
question who does what in the process?, Inputs and Outputs
will help answer when does a Task begin and nish?. Inputs and
Outputs do not pertain to data as much as they deal with process
task upstream and downstream details.

NOTES

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Inputs and Outputs (continued)


EXAMPLE The example Expense Reimbursement process Discovery Map
provides a quick look at input and output details for the rst
Activity. In this case, the upstream Input for the Task is a blank
standardised expense report, while the downstream output is
a completed expense report. This is the level of information
needed for a Discovery Map.

Expense Reimbursement Process

Input and Outputs


Submission Approval Payment
Blank Standardised
Expense Report (I)
Completed Expense
Report (O) File Approve Confirm
Expense Expense Payment
Report Report

Archive
Expense
Report

GUIDELINES Use the Supplier(s), Input(s), Output(s), and Customer(s)


elds in IBM BPM Blueprint to describe passive BPMS
interactions. Start with supplier inputs and outputs to
customers that match an ideal case. NOTE: This is not a
capture of data inputs and outputs; that information is better
served when it is detailed in a Conceptual Data Model.

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Problems
Surfacing process problems is a very important aspect of
Process Discovery. It is a Process Discovery goal to document
these problems so the project team can easily transition from a
descriptive to an analytical process modeling. First, identify and
document these Problems in the Discovery Map. The Severity of
the Problem should be documented along with the Frequency in
order to rank and prioritize each.

NOTES

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Problems (continued)
EXAMPLE The example Expense Reimbursement process Discovery Map
has an identied Problem that is both Frequent and Severe in
the rst Activity. Receipts not attached is cause for concern
because it delays the ability to complete the task and all
subsequent tasks in the desired timeframe.

Expense Reimbursement Process

Problems
Submission Approval Payment
Receipts not attached

File Approve Confirm


Expense Expense Payment
Report Report

Archive
Expense
Report

GUIDELINES Document Problems when they are mentioned, including


severity and frequency if provided. However, avoid investing
time to solve these problems at this point in the Discovery
effort.

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Documentation/Attachments
Process details are important for the Discovery Map so even
if the information offered by SMEs or stakeholders for a
particular Task or Milestone does not t a category, capturing
that information in the Documentation area in Blueprint will be
valuable for the next phase of process modeling. In the same
way, legacy materials and existing process documentation should
be included as attachment items.

NOTES

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Documentation/Attachments (continued)
EXAMPLE For the example Expense Reimbursement process Discovery
Map, the BPM Team added an attachment to the rst Task so
there will be a reference point for actual documents used in the
current process. The reference material will be valuable later on
during the implementation of the process.

Expense Reimbursement Process

Documentation/
Submission Approval Payment
Attachments
Attached: Current
PDF version of the
expense report. File Approve Confirm
Expense Expense Payment
Report Report

Archive
Expense
Report

GUIDELINES Use the Documentation section to capture the process


sponsor vision, improvement targets, and implementation
details not yet captured or documented.
IBM BPM Blueprint gives you the ability to communicate
details about a process to a wide range of interested parties
within your organization. It is up to you what level of detail
you use based on how much you want to communicate. If
you feel like youre doing needless or redundant data entry
and youre not going to share or discover anything new about
the process, it is okay to stop adding details to your process.

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Expense Reimbursement Process Discovery Map

Submission Approval Payment

File Approve Confirm


Expense Expense Payment
Report Report

Archive
Expense
Report

Details Added (Activities and Milestones)


Partcipants
Inputs and Outputs
Suppliers
Customers
Attachments
Problems (Severity and Frequency)
NOTES

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Capturing Process Details Best Practices and Guidelines


The Participant provides the responsible role detail for an
Activity in a process. Capturing Participants in the Discovery
Map is crucial for creating a Process Diagram later in IBM
BPM Blueprint and WebSphere Lombardi Edition.
Business Owner(s) are the accountable party for the
process.
Adding an Expert or Experts to your map details will identify
the core subject matter experts that you should consult on
process details.
The System, Cycle Time and Cost is information you can add
to outline both functional and business requirements
Use the Supplier(s), Input(s), Output(s), and Customer(s)
elds in IBM BPM Blueprint to describe passive BPMS
interactions. Start with supplier inputs and outputs to
customers that match an ideal case. NOTE: This is not a
capture of data inputs and outputs; that information is better
served when it is detailed in a Conceptual Data Model.
Risk and Value Add is information identied in the process
analysis phase of modeling.
Document Problems when they are mentioned, including
severity and frequency if provided. However, avoid investing
time to solve these problems at this point in the Discovery
effort.
Use the Documentation section to capture the process
sponsor vision, improvement targets, and implementation
details not yet captured or documented.
IBM BPM Blueprint gives you the ability to communicate
details about a process to a wide range of interested parties
within your organization. It is up to you what level of detail
you use based on how much you want to communicate. If
you feel like youre doing needless or redundant data entry
and youre not going to share or discover anything new about
the process, it is okay to stop adding details to your process.

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1.2 Capturing the Process Details


The Hiring Request Process Owner provided a comprehensive
process narrative and a set of requirements. To accomplish the
goal of capturing and documenting Process Details in a Discovery
Map for the Hiring Requisition Project, this narrative and set of
requirements must be used.
Exercise Objective
After completing this exercise, you should be able to:
Capture and document important Process Details in a
Discovery Map in IBM BPM Blueprint using either a
Process Owners collaboration or narrative of the process
Key Steps
Add Participant information for each Task in the Discovery
Map
Add Inputs and Outputs information, including Supplier and
Consumer information, in the Discovery Map
Document Problems in the Discovery Map Tasks where
necessary
Add any necessary Documentation to each Task in the
Discovery Map
Add any Attachments available for Tasks in the Discovery
Map

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NOTES

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Conceptual Data Model


Until this point, the focus has been on the business process and
how to model this process effectively. BPM solutions, however,
are composed of much more than just the business process.
Business Data Models contribute to the success of a process
application as well as the effectively articulated Business Process
Models. At times business data is only considered during nal
implementation modeling and will not comprehensively involve
any business stakeholders.
This is where a bridge between the developer driven Business
Data Model and the Business Process Model can help. A
Conceptual Data Model allows the business and project team to
work through the Inputs and Outputs for Task (Activities) more in-
depth. Conceptual Data Models provide a business friendly way
to visualize actual business data and data relationships within the
process.
When dening the Conceptual Data Model for your process, look
at the process as a whole. For each Activity or core element, ask
what data does the process need to complete that task?. This is
part of the Blueprint and Lombardi process ow system.

NOTES

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GUIDELINES Capture of business data entities requires using either


Blueprint documentation, real-time creation of Lombardi
variable types, UML case tools, or spreadsheets
During the Process Discovery sessions, capture the nouns
used when business entities are mentioned

NOTES

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EXAMPLE Captured conceptual data in the Expense Report process rst


Activity:

Expense Report
1. Name
2. Department
3. Manager
4. Expense Date
5. Expense Amount
6. Expense Reason

NOTES

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EXAMPLE Captured conceptual data in the Expense Report process second


Activity:

Expense Report
1. Name
2. Department
3. Manager
4. Expense Date
5. Expense Amount
6. Expense Reason
7. Approval Status
8. Reason Rejected

NOTES

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When do I move from a Discovery Map to a Process


Diagram?
Part of Process Discovery is the creation of a Process Diagram.
Up until now, the focus has been the creation of a comprehensive
Discovery Map complete with as much process detail as possible.
The most common question when in the midst of a Process
Discovery effort is:
When do I move from a Discovery Map to a Process
Diagram?
Several aspects need to be considered to answer this question.
When a Discovery Map has exhausted all requirements to
communicate what a process is, complete with documented
problems within the process, then it is close to the time to
transfer over to a Process Diagram. Another item to consider is
the conversations in the process collaboration sessions during
Playback 0 meetings. If the questions no longer center around
what does this process do? and start to center around what
does this process look like?, then the move to the Process
Diagram is at hand.

NOTES

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Blueprint Discovery Map

Blueprint Process Diagram

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The process Discovery Map has the information in place


Unit 2: Playback necessary for stakeholder validation of the high-level process.
0 - Process Up to this point the objectives have been to make sure the
process was mapped in its current state, make sure to have
Diagram all the appropriate process details in place, be precise on the
expected order of steps, and capture all process problems.
Now the goal is to create a process diagram to graphically
represent the process. The core element ow-chart based
notation will be used to further communicate process needs
to the BPM team. The diagram allows BPM teams to analyze
the process for improvement and to create the functional
requirements for process application implementation.

Objectives
After completing this unit, you should be able to:
Create a process diagram from the Discovery Map in IBM
BPM Blueprint
Import a IBM BPM Blueprint Process Diagram into
WebSphere Lombardi Edition (Lombardi)
List the major components of the WebSphere Lombardi
Edition (Lombardi) Authoring Environment

Topics
This unit includes the following topics:
IBM BPM Blueprint Process Diagram
When Do I Migrate from Blueprint to Lombardi?
About WebSphere Lombardi Edition

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IBM BPM Blueprint Process Diagram


As described earlier, Process Modeling captures the ordered
sequence of activities within a process along with supporting
information from start to end. In Modeling, the business process
is framed using a workow model to reect component activities,
the roles performing those activities, conditional branching and
the sequencing of the ow of work between activities. In IBM
BPM Blueprint, this workow model is called a Process Diagram.
About BPMN
To communicate this model clearly within your organization, a
notation standard must be applied. The primary goal of Business
Process Management Notation (BPMN) is to provide a notation
that is readily understandable by all business users, from the
business analysts that create the initial drafts of the processes,
to the technical developers responsible for implementing the
technology that will perform those processes, and nally, to the
business people who will manage and monitor those processes.
Thus, BPMN creates a standardized bridge for the gap between
the business process design and process implementation. This
single notation has been agreed upon among multiple BPM
vendors for the benet of the user community.
Core Elements
Both IBM BPM Blueprint and WebSphere Lombardi Edition use
six core BPMN 1.2 elements:
Activity
Event
Gateway
Flow
Pool
Lane
The manner in which each tool uses these six elements varies
because the focus of each is different. Blueprints focus is to
maintain a very close relationship with Business, while Lombardi
is meant to carry the process model through to implementation
and then to deployment of the process application. In Lombardi,
the BPMN elements have robust constructs not found in
Blueprint.

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Create a Process Diagram in IBM BPM Blueprint


To continue the descriptive process modeling in IBM BPM
Blueprint, a Process Diagram must be created. This is not a
new experience or handoff, but an extension of the work already
produced in the Discovery Map.
In IBM BPM Blueprint, creation of a Process Diagram is a
simple matter of one click to convert from the Discovery Map.
IBM BPM Blueprint automatically does the work for you. The
elements created from the Discovery Map retain all the details
entered previously. Milestones are translated to process diagram
section headers, the Participant details into Lanes, also known as
Swimlanes, and the Activities assigned to each Participant fall into
the proper Lane for each. Because the expected order of tasks is
the focus of the Discovery Map, conversion to a Process Diagram
causes a Start and End Event to be automatically assigned with
connectors for each task.

Process Diagram Elements Description


Activity An Activity is an atomic unit of work and can be
represented as a Task or a Sub-process.

Lane A Lane is a sub-partition within a process Pool.


Pools are not as evident in a Blueprint Process
Diagram and will be discussed later in Lombardi.
Lanes are used to organize and categorize Activities
within a Process Diagram.
Event An Event is something that happens during the
course of a business process. EventTypes like Start
will indicate where a process starts and End will
Start End indicate where a process will end. Another Event-
Type - Intermediate - will be discussed later in the
course.

KEY INFORMATION Creation of the Process Diagram does not preclude you from
continuing to modify the Discovery Map through on-going
collaboration sessions. Once you create a Process Diagram, it
is linked to the Discovery Map and any revisions are reected
in both areas of the IBM BPM Blueprint process.

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EXAMPLE Expense Reimbursement Process Diagram


The example below is an example of a Process Diagram that has
been created from an existing Discovery Map and then modied.
BPMN elements were added and the diagram was adjusted to
articulate the clearest view of the process model to a business
audience.

Example modied expense reimbursement process diagram in Blueprint


modied

NOTES

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Process Diagram Best Practices and Guidelines


The following is a list of guidelines for IBM BPM Blueprint that
you can use to accomplish the task of creating and modifying a
Process Diagram.
Each activity you create must reside in a swimlane
Start activities at the top and work down as new swimlanes
are added
If an activity has an either/or responsible party, create a
swimlane that includes both participants
Decision Gateways should be labeled as a question, with the
answers to the question documented on outgoing lines
Blueprint will try to represent the ideal Process Diagram
initially, however, it is a good idea to maneuver the elements
in this initial diagram until you get an optimal representation of
your process
The use of color for your Activities in the Process Diagram is
dependent upon your organizations need
Swimlanes in a Process Diagram are the articulation of roles
in that process so use naming conventions that describe the
role, not the person responsible

NOTES

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2.1 Creating a Process Diagram


The Hiring Request Process Owner provided a comprehensive
process narrative and a set of requirements. To accomplish the
task of creating a Process Diagram for the Hiring Requisition
Project, this narrative and set of requirements must be used to
identify any diagram modications.
Exercise Objective
After completing this exercise, you should be able to:
Create a Process Diagram in IBM BPM Blueprint from a
Discovery Map
Modify the Process Diagram in IBM BPM Blueprint
Add elements to a Process Diagram in IBM BPM Blueprint
based on a process narrative
Key Steps
Capture the Process Diagram requirements found in the
New Hire Request process
Convert the existing Discovery Map to a Process Diagram
Modify the diagram to include any elements that will
enhance the communication of the model to the Business
Create a linked Sub-process for the required Activity
Use color schemes to your Activities to indicate process
problems

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NOTES

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When do you migrate from Blueprint to Lombardi?


IBM BPM Blueprint allows modication of the Process Diagram
in order to migrate towards analytical process modeling. At some
point in the process modeling effort, the decision to move to
WebSphere Lombardi Edition needs to be made.
When the questions in the collaboration sessions shift to how
will we improve this process?, you are ready to make the
shift towards analytical process modeling and Lombardi. Your
modeling effort is now closer to an executable process model
with a few modications and updates left to accomplish. This is
when you are engaged in the actual Lombardi implementation.
The rst thing you must do is to import the IBM Blueprint process
diagram into Lombardi.
KEY INFORMATION Import of a Blueprint Process Diagram to Lombardi does not
mean that Blueprint has exhausted its value in the project
lifecycle. There are still many reasons why Business will
want to continue to look towards Blueprint as the centralized
process modeling communication and documentation.

GUIDELINES A process diagram or model is referred to as a Business


Process Denition (BPD) in Lombardi
Any sub-process in your BPD is referred to as a Nested BPD
in Lombardi
In general, a BPD should be as simple an abstraction as you
can make it. A highly conceptual BPD will be very resilient to
change.
Make sure you use the Documentation tab in the Properties
section in Lombardi to include important requirement notes
for each BPD Activity, Decision Gateway, Events and other
core elements.

For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi Edition-


7.1.0-Authoring Environment User Guide>Basic modeling
tasks>Creating a BPD

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About WebSphere Lombardi Edition


WebSphere Lombardi Edition is an enterprise application that:
Allows you to build faster, work smarter, constantly improve
your business process model
Employs a graphical process development tool
Provides process visibility and performance data
Provides process simulation and optimization

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Lombardi Authoring Environment


Lombardis Authoring Environment (AE) is composed of three key
applications:
Process Application Designer (Model and Service)
Process Inspector
Process Optimizer
The Process Center
WebSphere Lombardi Editions unique design environment
includes a central repository called the Process Center. True to
its name, the Process Center is the central place for BPM teams
to store, retrieve, and deploy process applications. The Process
Center provides a centralized development environment for
distributed authoring of all project artifacts, some of which can be
designated as resuable applications.

A previously stored process app can be launched from the


Process Center by clicking on the Open in Designer option.

New process apps can be created by clicking on the Create New


Process App option.

Either option will allow access to the Process Application


Development Environment (Designer).

For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi Edition-


7.1.0-Authoring Environment User Guide>Basic modeling
tasks>Managing the Process Center Repository

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Designer
To continue the process modeling effort, use the Designer, an
environment composed of a Process Modeler and a Process
Library. Discovered and developed processes in Blueprint
can easily be accessed from the Designer. Once in Lombardi,
alterations can be made to improve the process and add the
conditions and exceptions required by the Business.
Blueprint subscriptions (imports) are only available in existing
Process Apps, so creation of a new app or use of an existing app
is necessary.
EXAMPLE The example Expense Reimbursement Blueprint process
diagram subscription in the Designer Authoring Environment

Library Element
Palette

Blueprint Modeler Attributes


Subscription

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2.2 Subscribing to a Blueprint Process


The Hiring Request has been modeled in Blueprint using a
comprehensive process narrative and a set of requirements
provided by the Process Owner and other SMEs. Accomplish
the task of subscribing to a Blueprint Process from the Lombardi
Designer Environment for the Hiring Requisition Project.
Exercise Objective
After completing this exercise, you should be able to:
List the steps necessary to import a IBM Blueprint Process
Diagram into Lombardi
Manage a IBM Blueprint import in the WebSphere
Lombardi Edition Library structure
Alter the Blueprint subscription in Lombardi
Key Steps
Make sure you have a Blueprint account and the process
you created is in your account name
Make sure you are subscribing from an existing Process
App in the Process Center and not a Toolkit
Access the Blueprints option in the Library and subscribe
to the Blueprint Process you wish to import
Modify the Blueprint subscription once accessed from the
Library

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NOTES

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Unit 3: Playback Not all business processes can follow a single path from start
to end. Conditions and exceptions are usually unavoidable and
1, Part 1 - must be dealt with to capture the functional requirements of
your process
Process Flow BPMN allows us to create a business process diagram, which
represents the activities of the business process and the ow
controls that dene the order in which they are performed.

Objectives
After completing this unit, you should be able to:
Describe Process Sequence Flow and the runtime use of
Process Tokens
Describe the three Gateways as implemented by
WebSphere Lombardi Edition
Model a Decision Gateway
Model a Simple Split Gateway

Topics
This unit includes the following topics:
About Process Flow
About Tokens
About Gateways

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About Process Flow


Process Sequence Flow refers to the ow that originates from a
Start Event in your process and continues through activities via
alternative and parallel paths until it ends at an End Event.
Normal Sequence Flow
The simplest example of this is a single Sequence Flow
connecting two activities.
This is referred to as Normal Sequence Flow.

NOTES

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Conditional Sequence Flow


Sequence Flow can have condition expressions that are evaluated
at runtime to determine whether or not the ow will be used.

NOTES

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Default Sequence Flow


In Lombardi, when using conditional sequence ow, a Default
ow is required. This Default ow will be used only if none of the
other outgoing ow conditions are true at runtime. These types of
Sequence Flow have a slash added to the beginning of the ow
line.

NOTES

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About Tokens
A token is a descriptive construct used to describe how the ow
of a process will proceed at runtime.
By tracking how the Token traverses the Flow Objects, the
sequence ow should be denable.

NOTES

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Tokens (continued)
By tracking how the Token gets diverted through alternative paths,
the sequence ow should be denable.

NOTES

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Tokens (continued)
By tracking how the Token gets split into parallel paths, the
sequence ow should be denable.

NOTES

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About Gateways
A Gateway can be thought of as a question that is asked at a
point in the process ow.
The question has a dened set of alternative answers, which
in effect act as gatesthe process cannot proceed until a valid
answer is provided.

!
!
A Gateway provides a point where the process may select one, or
more, of a number of paths, depending on the type of gateway,
and some known condition in the process.
For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi
Edition 7.1.0 Authoring Environment User Guide>Modeling
Processes>Basic Modeling Tasks>Using Gateways
NOTES

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Exclusive Gateway (X/OR)


Lombardi uses the term Decision Gateway to identify a Exclusive
Gateway (X/OR) Split. Decision Gateways are used to direct the
process ow along only one of the available outgoing conditional
sequence ows.
An outgoing default sequence ow (a line with no condition) must
be modeled. The outgoing default sequence ow is only followed
if none of the preceding conditions are true.

Outgoing sequence ow conditions are evaluated in order


from top to bottomas dened in the gateways Properties
tab.
Only one outgoing sequence ow condition can be true.
Once a condition is met, evaluation of subsequent outgoing
sequence ow conditions stops.
For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi
Edition 7.1.0 Authoring Environment User Guide>Modeling
Processes>Basic Modeling Tasks>Using Gateways
NOTES

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Inclusive Gateway (AND/OR)


Lombardi uses the term Conditional Gateway to identify a
Inclusive Gateway (AND/OR) Split. Conditional Gateways are
used to direct the process ow along one or more outgoing
conditional sequence ow. All conditions must be met before the
process can execute the next task in the ow.
An outgoing default sequence ow (a line with no condition) must
be modeled. The outgoing default sequence ow is only followed
if none of the preceding conditions are true.

The difference between a Conditional Split and a Decision


Gateway is, essentially, this: a Decision Gateway allows a process
to take only one of the available paths, while a Conditional Split
can allow it to take one or more paths, but not all at once.
For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi
Edition 7.1.0 Authoring Environment User Guide>Modeling
Processes>Basic Modeling Tasks>Using Gateways

NOTES

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Parallel Gateway (AND)


Lombardi uses the term Simple Split to identify a Parallel Gateway
(AND). Simple Split gateways are used to direct the process ow
along every outgoing sequence ow in parallel. There are no
conditions for Simple Split gateways.

For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi


Edition 7.1.0 Authoring Environment User Guide>Modeling
Processes>Basic Modeling Tasks>Using Gateways

NOTES

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Splits and Joins


Typically, Gateways have two distinct modes:
A Gateway splits the incoming path into multiple outgoing
paths (split)
A Gateway merges several incoming paths into one outgoing
path (join)

In Lombardi, and contrary to BPMN, a Decision Gateway cannot


be used to join multiple tokens. Conditional and Simple Split
Gateways allow for joins to be used.

NOTES

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Using Gateway Splits and Joins


Gateway Splits allow for concurrent activity.
However, there are times when some actions must not proceed
until a set of previous activities have completed (i.e. a summary
task of the results of previous actions).
GUIDELINES As such you need an accompanying join to:
make the process work in a sensible, simple manner
make the process diagram easy to understand by different
audiences
A good rule of thumb for modeling splits and joins is one token
into the process, one token out of the process

For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi


Edition 7.1.0 Authoring Environment User Guide>Modeling
Processes>Basic Modeling Tasks>Using Gateways

NOTES

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Evaluating Conditions
If the conditions are simple expressions of process data, you
could put the decision logic in the outgoing Sequence Flows of
the Gateway.

Invalid

OK

Receive
Order Validate
Order

NOTES

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Evaluating Conditions (continued)


GUIDELINES The best practice is to externalize the decision logicmake it
independent of the process model.
Use a Task preceding the Gateway to make the decision, and use
the outgoing Sequence Flows from the Gateway to route the ow
based on the decision.

No

Validate Yes
Order

Receive
Order Order Valid?

NOTES

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3.1 Adding Gateways


The Hiring Request Process Owner provided a comprehensive
process narrative and a set of requirements. To accomplish the
task of adding all the Gateways necessary to model the ow
control for the BPD in the Hiring Requisition Project, use the
narrative and set of requirements to identify any alterations that
must be made to the model.
Exercise Objective
After completing this exercise, you should be able to:
Add Gateways to a Business Process Denition in
Lombardi
Model the appropriate sequence ows for each Gateway
Key Steps
Drag the type of Gateway you need from the element
palette to the BPD
Using the Sequence Flow tool, click to anchor the ow line
from a Gateway and then click to connect the ow line to
an Activity in the BPD
To enter conditions in Gateways that require them, click
the Gateway Implementation tab and for each outgoing
sequence line, enter the condition (in JavaScript) that
controls whether the path is followed
Make sure that the sequence line shown as Default Line in
the Implementation Tab is the one you want the process to
follow if all conditions evaluate to false
To designate a different Default Line in your Gateway
Implementaton tab, use the arrow icon to move the one
you want to be the default as the last line listed

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NOTES

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Process modeling requires us to nd opportunities to integrate


Unit 4: Playback activities or task responsibilities with automated non-
1, Part 2 - human performance. We look to model behaviors of people
and organizations. At times, these behaviors also involve
Intermediate exceptions, delays and deadlines.

Events Prescribed delays or deadlines can be represented with an


Intermediate Timer Event in the BPD.

Objectives
After completing this unit, you should be able to:
Model an escalation path using an Attached Intermediate
Timer Event
Identify and list the functions within an Intermediate Timer
Event

Topics
This unit includes the following topics:
Intermediate Events
A Way to Model an Escalation
Intermediate Timer Event
Intermediate Timer Event Implementation

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Intermediate Events
Intermediate Events occur between a Start Event and an End
Event in the BPD.
The Intermediate Event is a circle that is drawn with a double thin
black line. An internal marker indicates the type of intermediate
event.

Intermediate Event Types Description


Intermediate Timer Event Responds to the passing of time.

Intermediate Message Event Responds to the receipt of (catches) a message.

Intermediate Exception Event Responds to the occurrence of (catches) an excep-


tion.

Intermediate Tracking Event Used to indicate a point in a process at which you


want to track the run-time data for reporting pur-
poses. NOTE: This is a Lombardi specific intermedi-
ate event.

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All Intermediate Events behave the same way, depending on how


they are implemented.
An Intermediate Event placed in the sequence ow will pause the
process ow until the specied event occurs.

An Intermediate Event attached to the boundary of an activity will


generate a separate token and, if the specied event occurs while
the activity is active, the Intermediate Event will release its token
along the outgoing sequence ow. Once this ow occurs, you can
specify whether to create parallel or alternate process ow.
NOTE: Intermediate Tracking Event does not conform to these
behaviors.

NOTES

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A Way to Model an Escalation


Tasks or Activities assigned to a Participant may have set
completion rules, such as complete this task by a specied
date or time. If the task is not completed, the model must
communicate what should happen, including how the task is
escalated and to whom. This provides visibility for your business
process and implements controls to manage important process
cycle times. It also assists with service level agreements for the
process steps that need to be met.
Intermediate Timer Event
One method used in Lombardi to model an escalation is through
an Attached Intermediate Timer Event. If an Activity takes
longer to complete than a dened period of time, an Attached
Intermediate Timer Event is triggered and the process follows the
path from the Attached Timer Event to an escalation Activity.

For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi


Edition 7.1.0 Authoring Environment User Guide>Modeling
Processes>Basic Modeling Tasks>Adding Events to a BPD

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Intermediate Timer Event Implementation

Attached Event Details


These options will only appear when the Intermediate Timer Event
is attached to an activity.
Close Attached Activity: Closes attached activity after time
elapses
Repeatable: Resets timer to countdown again after time elapses

Ti
Timer P ti
Properties
Trigger On: Species when Timer Event should start
Custom Date: Use JavaScript to calculate and specify a date
Before/After Difference: Amount of time
Tolerance Interval: Species an additional delay if work is in
progress. Will only measure once.

For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi


Edition 7.1.0 Authoring Environment User Guide>Modeling
Processes>Basic Modeling Tasks>Adding Events to a BPD

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4.1 Adding Intermediate Timer Events


The Hiring Request Process Owner provided a comprehensive
process narrative and a set of requirements. To accomplish the
task of adding all the Intermediate Timer Events that help satisfy
both Core and Challenge requirements for the Hiring Requisition
Project, use the narrative and the set of requirements to identify
the alterations that must be made to the model.
Exercise Objective
After completing this exercise, you should be able to:
Add an Intermediate Timer Event to a BPD based on
business requirements
Select the appropriate functionality for the Intermediate
Timer Event based on the business requirements
Model an Escalation path in a BPD in IBM WebSphere
Lombardi Edition
Key Steps
Drag the Timer Event component you need from the
element palette to the BPD
If an Attached Intermediate Timer Event is needed, place
the element in the boundary of the desired Activity
If an sequence ow Intermediate Timer Event is needed,
place the element in the desired sequence ow in the BPD
Dene the Intermediate Timer Event properties in the
Implementation tab of each
If modeling an escalation, place an Activity from the palette
in the BPD where the Participant responsible for the
escalated task is located
Use the Sequence Flow tool to connect the Attached
Intermediate Event to the Activity
Use the Sequence Flow tool to modify the sequence ow
where the Intermediate Timer Event is located

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NOTES

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Unit 5: Playback An effective BPM initiative strives to have a Business group


that is as engaged, if not more so, as the IT development
1 -Validate the group. An iterative development approach allows the
BPM development team to involve the Business as much
Process Model as possible. WebSphere Lombardi Edition is built to
facilitate collaboration and discussions on the accuracy and
completeness of the model during those iterative development
cycles. This is accomplished through the built-in functionality
called playbacks in the Process Inspector, a powerful
component of the WebSphere Lombardi Edition Authoring
Environment.

Objectives
After completing this unit, you should be able to:
List the components of the Process Inspector
Describe how to validate a Process Model using Playbacks

Topics
This unit includes the following topic:
The Process Inspector

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The Process Inspector


The Process Inspector, a vital component of the WebSphere
Lombardi Edition Authoring Environment, is key to an iterative
approach to process development. Using the Process Inspector,
individual developers can run processes and services on the
Process Center Server or remote runtime Process Servers.
Likewise an entire development team can use the Inspector
to demonstrate current process design and implementation to
stakeholders in playback sessions. Playback sessions help capture
important information from different stakeholders in a process,
such as management, end users, and business analysts.
Taking an iterative approach to process development ensures
that process applications meet the goals and needs of everyone
involved. It also helps maintain an involved Business group
throughout the lifecycle of the project.
For More Information, Refer To: WebSphere Lombardi Edition-
7.1.0-Authoring Environment User Guide>Basic modeling
tasks>Running and debugging processes with the Inspector

NOTES

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Inspector Toolbar Options


Removes Opens a
Resumes a Pages
any record debug session
suspended through
of a selected in the default
process the BPD
process Web Browser
instance instances
instance
Pauses Stops a Refreshes
selected running the current Runs the
process process list of selected
instance instance process task
instances

Current and
previously active
Process Instances
Current BPD Task

BPD Diagram Execution


Progress

Shows the variables


used in the current step

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5.1 Validating the Process Model


Playbacks for the Hiring Requisition Process have been scheduled
in order to validate that the model is ready.
Exercise Objective
After completing this exercise, you should be able to:
Validate that the BPD will function as modeled using the
Process Inspector
Key Steps
Run the Hiring Requisition BPD
Change the interface to the Process Inspector
Highlight the process instance you wish to inspect,
perferrably the one you just initiated
Select an icon from the toolbar options that that matches
the action you want to take for the process instance
Choose to step through a process instance

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NOTES

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Vacation Request
Appendix:
An employee requesting time off lls out a Vacation Request
Challenge form. All Vacation Request forms must be submitted to
the manager of the employee for review and approval/non-
Exercises approval. A manager will use the criteria of conicts with other
employees requesting the same time off and enough work
resource coverage for an approval.
If the manager decides to decline the request, the manager
noties the employee of the denial. The employee is allowed
to select a new set of dates for vacation request submittal.
If the request is approved, the manager will walk the form over
to HR for review. The HR Administrator will check whether the
employees available accrued vacation days matches the days
requested. The HR Administrator must approve or reject the
request within 4 hours of receiving the request. If rejected, the
HR Administrator will notify the employee of the available days
accrued, allowing the employee to adjust the days requested.
Once approved by the HR Administrator, the approval is sent
to a HR Specialist who updates the HR Employee database,
noties the employee, the manager and payroll of the approved
Vacation Request form.

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Publishing
Publishing model: When an article is submitted for publishing,
the editor rst reviews it, after which it goes in parallel to the
copy editor for text editing and to the art director for graphics.
When both are done, it goes to nal layout.
Publishing model 2: When an article is submitted for
publication, the editor rst reviews it, after which it goes to
the copy editor for text editing. If the article contains graphics,
it goes in parallel to the art director for graphics. When both
are done, it goes to nal layout.

NOTES

114 Appendix
IBM WEBSPHERE LOMBARDI EDUCATION

Insurance Claim
When reviewing an insurance claim, the adjuster may request
additional supporting information. If no additional information
is required, the claim can be processed by central processing.
If additional information is required, suspend the claim until
the supporting information is received.
If the required information is not received within 7 days,
send a reminder. If the information is not received within 5
additional days, notify the claimant and terminate the claim

NOTES

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Building Damage Reporting Process


When damage occurs to the building, the Facilities Manager
must submit a Damage Report
If the damage was caused by re, the Fire Department must
be notied
If the amount of damage is greater than $5000, the Insurance
Agent must be notied
The Building Manager must always be notied

NOTES

116 Appendix
IBM WEBSPHERE LOMBARDI EDUCATION

Submit Auto Damage Claim


If claim amount is less than $1000, conduct Small Claims
Review
If claim amount is $1000 to $5000, conduct Standard Claims
Review
If claim amount is greater than $5000, conduct Fraud Claims
Review

NOTES

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New Hire On-boarding Process


On the rst day of employment,employees must complete
the HR New Hire forms
Then, they must:
Apply for a Security Badge
Requisition a computer
Apply for a Network ID and email address

NOTES

118 Appendix
IBM WEBSPHERE LOMBARDI EDUCATION

Determine Route Home


Check the weather
If the weather is not clear, take route A home, otherwise
check the time
If the time is after 6 pm, take route B home, otherwise check
congestion on primary route
If the primary route is OK, take the primary route home,
otherwise take route A home

NOTES

Lombardi Process Modeling 119