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IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 5. No. 4.

November 1990 1773


Leonid Grcev, Member IEEE Farid Dawalibi, Senior Member IEEE

University of Skopje, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Safe Engineering Services & technologies
P. 0. Box 574, 91000 Skopje, Yugoslavia 1544 Viel, Montreal, Canada

ABSTRACT A unified approach for calculatzng the low and Meliopoulos[l3],Velazquez[25] ) proposed time-domain solu-
high frequency, and the transient performance of a network of tions to transient problems based on transmission line theory.
grounding conductors is given. Results which are derived first in This approach, however, is strictly valid for long horizontal con-
the frequency domain, are converted to the time domain by Fast ductors and is not suited for the analysis of vertical conductors
Fourier Transform algorithms. A grounding system is modeled and arbitrary interconnected conductors. Refer to the work of
by an ensemble of thin-wire conductor segments. The computer Pluniey[l9] for an interesting discussion of this topic. Another
model used to determine the electric fields and current distribu- publication by Takashima[24] accounted for the effects of soil
tion in and around a grounding system is described and its main permittivity but ignored induction effects. A recent publica-
limitations discussed. tion by Papalexopoulos[l8] examined the transient problem
KEYWORDS: Electromagnetic Fields, Transient perfor- using a time-domain approach but restricted the analysis to fre-
mance, Time Harmonic Performance, Computer Modeling, quencies low enough to satisfy the condition that the integration
Grounding. path dependent component of the electrical field is negligible (in
practice for frequencies on the order of 0.1 to 0.5 MHz depend-
ing on the size of the substation grounding). Research work
1 Introduction by Dawalibi[G,i]analyzed the response of practical grounding
There is a massive body of literature describing the performance grids using electromagnetic field theory in the frequency domain.
of wire conductors energized at low and high frequencies in space, Although the solution was formulated for low and high frequen-
air or soil. It is impossible to list all major research contributions cies, the analytical expressions used in the computer model were
in this research field. T h e reader is referred to the national derived based on the quasi-static assumption to avoid direct nu-
and international journals devoted to the subject of antennas merical integration of the general solution. Later Grcev devel-
oped in his P h D. thesis [8] the methodology for the analysis of
and propagation, geophysical prospecting and electromagnetic
compatibility for an overview of the recent advances in this field. arbitrary grounding conductors at all frequencies based on com-
putational techniques involving the method of moments, numer-
However useful materials pertinent to this research paper can be
found in the References section. ical integration of Soinmerfeld integrals and Fast Fourier Trans-
forms ( F F T ) in a way similar t o the approach used by Burke
Most of the cited work however has concentrated on t,he
[14,5]. T h e initial computer model which resulted from this work
response of metallic structures excited by a voltage applied
was specialized to horizontal linear conductors (Grcev[S]).
to two closely spaced (but isolated) feed point terminals lo-
This paper summarizes the follow-on research work which ex-
cated on the energized structures or by an incident electromag-
tends the computer model to a network of interconnected ground
netic field illuminating the structures (Adams[2], Burke[5],
conductors and discusses the advantages and limitations of the
Miller[l4],Mitra[l5,16], Olsen[l7]). Another important por-
model. Detailed numerical results for practical grounding sys-
tion of the work specializes in electromagnetic geophysical
tems will be presented in a future publication.
prospecting where some methods use short rods immersed in
a dissipative medium (Wait[26]).
There are only a few published research works involving high 2 Frequency Domain Analysis
frequency performance of power system grounding structures.
The transient problem is first solved by a formulation in the fre-
Pioneering work was conducted by Sunde in the late thirties. His
quency domain. T h e time-domain response is then obtained by
work culminated in the publication of his well known reference
application of a suitable Fourier inversion technique. T h e re-
book (Sunde[23]). Recently, several papers (Mazzettie[l2],
sponse to a steady-state, time harmonic excitation is computed
for a wide range of frequencies starting at OHz. From this fre-
90 lili.I 130-5 PiRD A paper recommended and approved quency response, a transfer function is constructed for every fre-
by t h e IEEE S u b s t a t i o n s Committee of t h e IEEE Power quency considered. T h e transfer function is dependent only on
E n g i n e e r i n g S o c i e t y f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e IEEE/PES the geometric and electromagnetic properties of the grounding
1990 Winter Meeting, A t l a n t a , Georgia, F e b r u a r y system and its environment.
4 8, 1990. Manuscript s u b m i t t e d August 27, 1989;
made a v a i l a b l e f o r p r i n t i n g December 27, 1989.
If i ( t )represents the injected current at a point in the ground-
ing system, and r ( t ) denotes an observed response, then

z ( t ) = 3- { W ( j W ) . F[Z(t)]}

0885-8977/90/1100-1773$01.00 Q 1990 IEEE


CO, PO Air

Grounding System
General Coordinate

Figure 1: Illustration of the Physical Situation. Figure 2: Seginent Coiifiguration/Iiiteractioii.

where F and F-are the Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms, a scat,tered electric field E. See Harrington[lO] for a. detailed
respectively, and w is the angular frequency and where j = R. description of this analytical The so-called sca.t tered
Since the Fourier transform is straight-forwardly computed field E is the results of the currents a.nd charges induced in the
using F F T algorithms [16], the major part of t,he problem is to grounding system by the impressed electric field E
compute the transfer function V V ( j w ) . The expression for the induced currents is derived by stat-
The physical model is based on the following assumptions. ing the boundary conditions for t,he tangential component of
the electric field at the surface of the conductor segment,s. The
The earth and the air media. are homogeneous and occupy
boundary condition at the surface of a lossless conductor seg-
half-spaces with a common horizontal plane boundary be-
ment imposes the following equation. Note that because of t,hr
tween them.
thin-wire approximation, the equation requires only t,he axial
The earth and the grounding electrodes exhibit linear and component of the electric field at the conductor surfa.ce.
isotropic, arbitrary characteristics.
t . (E + E ) = 0 (2)
The grounding system is assumed to be made of cylindrical
metallic conductors with arbitrary orienta.tion. However, The sca.ttered electric field E produced by the axial elec-
they are assumed to be subject to the thin-wire approxi- tric currents l e and cha.rges g t in t,he grounding system can be
mation, i.e., the ratio of the length of the conductor seg- expressed in terms of ret,arded pot,ential integrals as follows. Ap-
ment to its radius is ,> 1 . In practice a ratio of about 10 is pendix A provides a brief description of the steps involved in the
satisfactory. See Adams[l] for a detailed discussion of the derivation (Mitra[l5]):
implications of the thin-wire approximation.
Energization occurs by the injection of a current impulse
of arbitrary produced by an ideal current generator
with one terminal connected to the grounding system, and
the other to the ground at, infinity. The influence of t,he
connecting leads is ignored.
The subscripts 0 and 1 in Figure 1 and in the following text refer
to air and soil cha.racteristics, respectively.
-(VV . - 7 ; )
4*J.<, 1 t . It(r)gl(r,r)dt

Where the integration is carried along the axis e of the ground-

ing system conductors and where
e x p ( - x Ir - rl), = 2Tf,
3 The Matheiliatical Model g l ( r , r) = &j Ld

The first step in the development of the mathematical model is 7: = --w2p1c1 and c1 = + $.
to determine the current distribution in the grounding system
for a time-harmonic excitation for a number of appropriate fre- Here f is the frequency measured in Hz. The conductance
quencies. This task is conducted in two steps. First the solution (S/m), permittivity ( F / m ) and permeabilit,y ( H / m ) of the
for the unbounded conducting medium case is obtained, then medium are denoted by U ] , 1 and respect,ively. T h e various
the effects of the air-soil interface is accounted for in the final geometric quantities are defined in Figure 2. Not,e t,hat g l ( r , r)
expression as explained hereafter. stands for the Greens function for an unbounded medium
(Miller[l4]). Also note that t,he time-variation exp(Jb1f) has
been suppressed throughout this paper.
3.1 Unbounded Conducting Medium The required mathematical model follows from the substitu-
In this Section, we start first with lossless conductors. Then the tion of ( 3 ) into ( 2 ) . The result of this substitut,ion[l4] yields the
lossy case is introduced (See equations ( 5 ) and (6)). electric field integral equation
Figure 2 illustrates two conductor segments of the grounding
systems under consideration. T h e position of a. point on t,he a.xis
of a segment is defined by a vector r and that of a point on the
surface S of a segment is defined as vector r. The vect.or t rep- where G1 ( r .r) is the dyadic Greens function for the electric
resents the unit vector along the segment axis and t represents field at r due to a current element at r. Here
the axial unit vector tangential to the segment surface.
In t,he general case the total electric field E in t,he ground can
be considered a.s the sum of an impressed electric field Et and
The thin-wire approximation does not imply that the finite
thickness of the conductor segments is neglected since the bound-
ary conditions are applied a t the surface of each segment. Fur-
ther, although the radial currents in the conductors are ignored,
the model does not neglect the radial leakage currents t o the
ground along each segment.
In the case of lossy conductors, the boundary conditions (2)
need to be modified. In this case the tangential component of the
total electric field at the surface of a conductor segment equals
the internal voltage drop per unit length along the segment.
T h a t is,
t . (Ez+ E) = 1 . Z, (5)
on the conductor surface S. Here Z, is the surface internal
impedance. Let u2, 2 and pz represent the coininon conduc- X
tance, permittivity and permeability of the conductors. We have
(Stratton[l]): General Coordinate

Figure 3: Coordinate Systems for Evaluatiou of the Correc-

t,ion Term Gs(r,r).
Here Xz zz u 2 ( p 2 g 2- p l c l ) . T h e radius of the conductor segment
is a . T h e Bessel functions of the first kind of order zero a.nd one
are denoted JO and J 1 , respectively. 4 Solution of the Matheiliatical Model
T h e selection of suitable computation methods is critical for the
3.2 Half-space Conducting Medium evaluation of the mathematical model. Because they must rep-
resent a compromise between accuracy, computation time and
The electromagnetic field generated by current elements
complexity of the computer code.
(dipoles) immersed in a half-space conducting medium was rig-
orously treated in 1909 (Sommerfeld[22]).
Based on Sommerfeld work, and following the approach taken 4.1 Integral Equations
by Miller[l4],the effect of the earth air interface can be taken The met,hod of moments (Mitra[lG]) permits the reduct,ion of
into account simply by replacing in (4) the dyadic Greens func- an integral equation of the kind given by (4) t o a system of
tion GI (r,r) for an unbounded medium with that corresponding linear equations whose solution can be obtained using st andartl
to a half-space conducting medium. This yields numerical inversion techniques. This solution which requires a
suitable segment,ation of the grounding conductors, yields the
G(r,r) = G ~ ( r , r -) Gt(r,r)+Go(r,r) (7) current, distribution in each conductor segment, and t,angential
Here the term G,(r,r) represents the dyadic Greens function of electric fields on their surfaces.
the image of the current element on the conductor segment with Several approaches are encompassed by t,he met.hod of 1110-
respect to the interface. T h e first two terms in ( 7 ) are equivalent ments (Adams[l], Miller[l4],Harrington[lO]).T h e approach
to the direct application of image theory. They provide the exact used here (Adanis[2]),although one of the simplest, is very a.c-
solution only if the frequency is zero. T h e third and last term cura.te in practice.
Gs(r,r)is a correction term. It can be expressed in terms of First, the grounding system is divided int,o N small segments.
Sominerfeld integrals. T h e latter appear in the expressions The optimal value of iV is determined by the required a.ccuracy.
of the electromagnetic field of horizontal and vertical electrical Accuracy improves with la.rger values of N , albeit a t the ex-
dipoles immersed in a half-space conducting medium. pense of computation time. However, beyond a. certain number
For an arbitrary oriented dipole the correction term is given N , errors due to the violat,ion of the thin-wire a.pproximation
by a s u m of correction terms associated with an equivalent com- grow quickly and will eventually lead t o a significant decrease i n
bination of horizontal and vertical dipoles. See Figure 3. accuracy.
The correction term can be written as (Miller[l4]): The axial current distribution in the network is usually ap-
proximated by a linear combination of M basis functions P,(C).
In general, the current, I ( P ) a t point, t on the grounding net,work
is given by

I ( l )= Ce .Pt(4 (9)
where RF . . . R; are given in Appendix B, and where x,y, z and
p, #I and z are unit coordinate vectors for the rectangular and for some coefficients c,. In this work, the M = N piecewise-
cylindrical coordinate systems, respectively. T h e superscripts H
consta.nt basis functions
and V indicate the contributions of the aforementioned horizon-
tal and vertical dipoles, respectively. 1 on the i-th segment; a,nd
P,(4 = 0 otherwise
T h e correction field components and also the complete dipole
fields can be derived in a rather straight-forward manner from
are selected. They give a piecewise constant representatioll of
Maxwells equations subject to the boundary conditions at t h e
the current distribution in which
surface of the ground (Sommerfeld[22]). T h e correction field
components are given in Appendix B.
Equations (4), ( 7 ) and (8) yield the mathematical model.
c,= { I,
on the i-th segment; and
When the lossy nature of the conductors is taken into account,
only the main diagonal elements, which represent the general-
ized self-impedances of the segments, have t,o be modified. T h e
I(L) - Stepwise Approximation diagonal elements become:

I, =II
k/ R e d Current
zh, = z,,, + Z,AE, (13)

for 1 5 n 5 N . Here Z,is given in ( 6 ) .

c While the first two terms of the kernel

G(r,r) = Gl(r,r)- Gt(r,r) G9(r,r)+

Figure 4: C u r r e n t Distribution o n End-Driven Electrode. of the integral in (12) are easily determined, the third term,
that is the Sommerfeld correction term G s ( r , r ) given by ( 8 )
has t o b e numerically integrated. The major problem resides in
Here I, is a constant approximation to the current distribution the evaluation of the semi-infinite complex, Sommerfeld integrals
in the 2-th segment. See Figure 4. ( 3 1 ) and ( 3 2 ) in Appendix B.
A zero current is assumed a t the open ends of a segment.
This is not strictly correct in the case of bare conductors not in
4.2 Soniinerfeld Integrals
contact with other conductors. It is, however, a valid assumption
in the context of the thin-wire approximation. The computation of the Sommerfeld integrals requires an ac-
To determine the N unknown coefficients I, in (9), a system of curate and efficient technique valid for a wide variation in the
N equations is needed. If the generator current is I,, as for the pa.ra.meters including frequency, distance between conductor seg-
case illustrated in Figure 4,the first equation becomes I1 = I,. ments and observation points, depths of the segments and ob-
The voltages across the 2-th segment is the sum of contribu- servation points, and the characteristics of the ground.
tions from the currents in all segments (Adams[l]). This yields For this purpose, the technique of numerical integration on a
modified path in the complex plane is chosen. This technique
V , = Iizti + I Z Z ~+Z . . + I N Z , N (10) is accurat,e for a wide range of parameters, a.s required in this
study. T h e deta.ils of t,his numerical procedure can be found i n
Here z,, equals the voltage across the 2-th current segment due Lytle[ll] and elsewhere. T h e computation model used here is
to a unit current through the m-th segment. It corresponds to an enhanced version of the model described by Grcev[R] which
an open-circuit impedance in network theory. In electromagnetic can examine interconnected grounding conductors.
field theory, it has been called (Harrington[lo])a generalized
impedance. It represents, the electromagnetic interaction be-
tween the segments. It depends only on the geometry of the 5 Electric Field Near Electrodes
grounding system, the excitation frequency and the characteris- Once the current distribution given by (9) has been computed
tics of the surrounding medium. the electric field E(r) can be calculated a t any point r in soil b y
In the case of lossless conductors, the value of V, in (10) is summing the contributions due to the current,s in each segment.
zero, so that the condition 11 = I , and (10) yield T h a t is,

where g ( r ,r) is the conducting half-space Greens function

At points very close to the surface of an electrode, an ap-
The evaluation of the generalized impedances znm in (11) is proximate expression is used (Adams[2]) to avoid numerical
a very important step in the computations. T h e voltage V, is insta.bility. That. is,
expressed as the product of the tangential electric field on the
surface of a point at the center of the segment by its length. By
(4), (9) and (10) we have
Here El,, denotes the normal component of the direct electric
Vn = -Al,t(r,) . E(rn) (12)
field and p denotes the radial distance from the segments axis.

5.1 Leakage Current Distribution

Here At, and A ,! denote the lengths of the n-th and m-th T h e leakage current density can be evaluated as the product, of
segments respectively. The central point,s on the surface of the the normal component of the electric field on the surface of a
n-th and on the axis of the m-th segments are denoted by rn ground conductor and the conductance of the soil (Grcev[9]):
and r l , respectively.
The details concerning the evaluation of the term between the Je(r) = E p ( r ). m (16)
braces of (12), that is the generalized impedances z, for all where J P and E , are the leakage current density and the normal
possible configurations of the segments can b e found elsewhere component of the electric field, respectively, a t the surface of a
(Grcev[S]). T h e latter contains further references and a prelim- ground conductor.
inary version of the computer program used in this paper.
5.2 Impedance to Ground 40 T I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 , I

T h e application of the method of moments in antenna theory

leads directly to the value of the impedance of feed points. In
power system grounding however, the procedure is different and 30
more involved because of the method of energization. An a.n-
tenna is energized by a generator with very close terminal points
while a grounding system is energized by injecting a current be- 01
tween a ground conductor point and remote soil. Consequently,
i t is necessary to calculate the voltage between the generator ter-
minals. While this is a simple task when the terminals are close,
a = 0.5 cm
the voltage (and hence, the impedance to ground) for the higher
u I = 0.01 Slm
frequencies is usually dependent on the path of integration of T,/T,= 115 pslps
the electric field. 10
T h e voltage can be obtained by the integration of the electric
/,,Ye : 3 2 0 . 014 9 PS
field from the feed point on the electrode to a remote point. ht -0.012 0.024
F. -40.96 20.40 10.24 llhz
T h e difficulty with using the foregoing as a definition of voltage
4 I 4I
arises because its value for time-varying fields depends on the 0 I 1 1 1 1 I

path of integration. Therefore, a t the higher frequencies range, 0.05 0.01 0. I t@s)
it is extremely important to define the test circuit used for the
voltage measurement.
Figure 5: Influence of F, o n Transient Impedance Conipii-
tat ions.
6 Time-Domain Solutions
Once the transfer function M ; ( g w ) have been determined for This leads to a higher frequency than t,
each calculated quantity, for example the electric field or current on the usual approach. T h e maximum frequency F,, is usn-
at specified points, the time-domain solutions can be obtained ally determined as the frequency above which the amplitudes
by direct application of (I). For example, in the case of the in the recorded spectrum are negligible (Mazzettie[l2]). For
impedance, the time-domain response of the voltage a t the feed instance, the maximum frequency F , may be specified by the
point is evaluated using (1) and the transient impedance follows requirement that 99% of a wave energy lies in the frequency
using band below F,. This is clearly illustrated in Figure 5. which
shows a lossless cylindrical conductor in an unbounded conduct-
ing medium. T h e conductor is energized by the injection of
The Fourier transform of the excitation current z ( t ) can be a double-exponentialcurrent wave (Grcev[9], Mazzettie[121,
Meliopoulos[l3]). T h e value of Fm which captures 99%#of the
obtained analytically for simple cases, but in general numerical
energy of I ( J w )is GOO KHz a.nd 7 MHz for V ( J W(Grcev[8]).
integration is required.
However, even F, = 10 MHz (curve 1) does not allow the evalu-
The calculation of the inverse Fourier transform is carried out
ation of the maximum of the impulse impedmce. This value or-
by a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm (Brigham[4]) which is
curs at At % 0.04ps and therefore F, % 25MHz. Here F,, = 20
well-suited for the evaluation of the time-domain responses. This
MHz (curve 2) leads to a.pproxima.te results for early times while
technique however is approximate because it involves bandlim-
F , = 40 M H z (curve 3 ) yields the most accurate results for early
iting (windowing) of functions and requires regular sampling of
times. All curves give accurate results for t > 0 . 0 3 ~ s .
continuous functions which are generally of rather long dura-
tions and infinite spectrums. It is thus necessary t o determine
the proper density of sampling and the Nyquist (maximum) fre- 7 Computer Model
quency in all calculations of a transfer function W ( j w ) . T h e
number of samples is minimized by application of an adaptive The flowchart for the computer model is shown in Figure 6.
interpolation algorithm (Grcev[S]). Essentially, the transfer function is approximated by frequency
sampling in a loop around Modules 1, 2 and 3. The frequency
and then the time-domain electromagnetic field generated by
6.1 Nyquist Frequency single or multiple injections of current impulses into the ground-
ing network is computed in Module 4. Further details are now
T h e Nyquist frequency and the number of samples is determined given.
by the accuracy required for the representation of the tiine-
domain response at early times of the current excitation (for
example during the calculation of responses t o current waves 7.1 Structure of the Computer Model
with steep fronts). The Nyquist frequency range is given by
To approxima.te the tra.nsfer function, the frequency-domain re-
sponse of the network to single frequency, time-harmonic input
Fm = current,s is found. T h e spacing A bet,ween t,hese sa.mpling frr-
quencies is implicitly defined by Nyquist relation F, = &
where At denotes the earliest time for which accurate informa- where F , is the frequency bound discussed in Section 6.1. For
tion on a response is desirable (assuming that the excitation each single sa.mpling frequency, the loop computa.tions are as
current is also known at that time). follows.
If the time step At is specified in advance, the Nyquist fre-
quency (18) yields the maximum frequency which has to be ac- Module 1 . Preliminaries. T h e Soinmerfeld integrals a.nd t,he
counted for in the frequency spectrum. correction terms given in Appendix B are computed for
7.2 Computation Time
T h e ma.jor disadvantage of this computer model lies in the sig-
nificant computation time required to numerically evaluate the
va.rious integrals involved and t o solve the simultaneous 1inea.r
equations (11) for the current distribution. For insta.nce, this
evalua.tion for a grounding grid broken down into N z 300 seg-
inent,s requires over 30 hours of CPU on a.n a.rra.y processor at,-
tached to the Q-Bus of a VAX (with a MAP-4000 army proces-
sor running a t 40 MFLOPS peak) for a solution
Som..rt.ld Intaqrals corresponding to a 30 MHz frequency spectrum.
A major reduction of this computation time can be achieved
by applying whenever possible, for instance a t low frequency and

for short distances between a segment and observation points.
formal solutions of the Sommerfeld integrals (Dawalibi[G,7]).
Furthermore, code optimization and use of asympt,ot,icexpan-
sions valid for particu1a.r combinations of media characteristics
can be also employed to reduce computation t,imes (Wait[26]).
This work is presently in progress and significant achievements
a t Prmscribed (i.e., reductions of comput,er time by a factor of 5 to 10) will be
0bs.rv.tIon Points
report,ed in fut,ure publications.

8 Numerical Results
Detailed numerical analysis for a variety of practical ground-
ing systems will be the subject of a forthcoming paper. Note
that various numerical results for simple electrodes (in both the
frequency and time domains) can be found in the previous pub-
lications by the first author (Grcev[S,S]).

9 Conclusions
The development and application of a. computer model for a.n-
alyzing the transient performance of grounding systems ba.sed
on electromagnetic field theory has been described. T h e use
Figure 6: Computation Flowchart. of a combination of numerical int,egra.tion techniques, met,hod
of moments, adaptive interpolation and Fast Fourier Tra.nsforln
constitutes the basis for the computation of various physical
points on a grid in the Cartesian coordinates system. All quantities such as the electric fields in the ground, longitud-
points of interest in the problem are within the confines nal and leakage currents in the ground conductors and ground
of the grid. The computed values are stored for later use. impedances. It is seen that t,he analysis of conductforsenergized
The mesh size of the grid is chosen sufficiently small, so by currents waves can require computations a t frequencies higher
that further values of computed quantities can be found by than the significant frequencies in the spectrum of the excitat,ion
interpolation between the grid points. signal while simpler models may fail to predict accurately the
transient performance.
Module 2. Current Dzstrzbutzon. First the values of correction
terms are interpolated in order to evaluate the integrals in T h e main limitation of t,his computer model is attributed to
the computer time required for the analysis of large or complex
(12). This yields the generalized impedances from which
grounding syst,ems. However, research work by t,he authors is
the current distribution for the single-frequency input is
presently conducted in order t o reduce computer time sufficiently
determined by (11).
to enable its use on general purpose computers.
Module 3. Electroaagnetzc Fzeld. The electromagnetic field
generated by the single input frequency is computed a t
points (field profiles) selected by the user and also along an Acknowledgments
appropriate path when the grounding system impedance is
requested. T h e research work and the development of the extended coin-
puter model was supported by Safe Engineering Services RL tech-
Repetition of the loop across the various frequencies completes nologies Itd (SES). The authors would like t,o t,hank Dr. Alan
the computation, or rather more precisely, the sampling of the Selby of SES for his constructive comments a.nd hlr. Walt,rr
transfer function. Tavcar of SES for his assista.nce in t,he final software develop-
Finally in Module 4, the frequency domain representation of ment, and in the prepara.t,ion of the manuscript. Finally, t.he
the computed electromagnetic field responses are then converted first author would like t o thank Professor Z. Ha.2nada.r of the
to the time-domain by application of the Fast Fourier Transform Universit,y of Zagreb, Yugoshvia, for his continuous support.
to each component of interest.
Appendix A in terms of the fields of a vertical and a horizontal current ele-
ment. These are shown in Figure 3, along the z-axis and x-axis,
The scattered electric field E(r) a t a point r produced by a
respectively. T h e components of the electric field are as follows:
current t.I(r)and a charge ue(r)can be expressed in terms of
the magnetic vector potential A(r) and electric scalar potential
4(r) as follows:
E(r)= -jwA(r) - Vd(r) (19)
The magnetic vector potential A(r) and the electric scalar
potential 4(r) are given by the retarded potential int,egrals


A formula for the electric field, obtained by the substitution (30)

of (20) and (21) into (19) is

E(r) = -e lt.I(r)g,(r,r)df? (31)

Yet mother form representation of the sca.ttered electric field

follows from the continuity equation Here p denotes the dipole strength. The superscripts 5 and H
respectively indicate the vertical and horizontal components.
ue(r) = --V . tI(r) (23) As in Section 3.1, g1 denotes the unbounded conducting
JW medium Greens function, while its image function is here dp-
Here substitution of (23) into (22) yields noted by g,. Finally, Ull and VI1 are given by Sommerfeld inte-
E(r) = - tI(r)gI(r,r)
df? (24)

In some cases changing the order of integration and differentia-

tion in (24) is advantageous. This is possible when r # r and
r E f? as this condition implies that the Greens function g1 (r,r)
and all its partial derivatives are finite and continuous.
When the order of integration and differentiation can be
changed, the vector algebra identity T h e field components in (31) can be used to construct
Gs(r, r) in (8). T h e vector components for horizontally and
vv ( p c )

= ( 0 p ) v . c + pvv . c + vp x vxc vertically oriented current elements, used in (8), can b e easily
+(c.V)vp+(va.v)c (25) shown from (27) to(31) t o be the following.

and (24) imply

1 (34)
Es(r) = -/It . I(r) . V] [Vgl(r,r)
4*.iwC, e
- y?tI(r)gI(r,r)] (26)

Equations (22) and (23) are used in (3). Equation ( 2 6 ) is used

in (4).

Appendix B
Sommerfelds solution for the electromagnetic fields due t o an
infinitesimal current element radiating in the presence of a con- where CI = &-
ducting half-space is based on Maxwells equations subject t o 1

boundary conditions on the tangential components a t the half-

space interface. The exact solution is expressed in terms of semi- References
infinite integrals, often called the Sommerfeld integrals.
Following Banos[3] systematic approach, the fields of an ar- [l] A. T. Adams, A n Introductaon to the Mrthocl of Monzenfs,
bitrary oriented infinitesimal current element can be expressed Report RADC-TR-73-2 17, Syracuse University, 1974.
[2] A. T. Adams, B. J. Strait, D. E. Warren, D. C. Kuo, T. [20] Saint-Privat-dAllier Research Group, Eight Year.9 of
E. Baldwin, Near fields of Wire Antennas by Matrix Methods, Lightning Experiments at Saint-Privat-dAIller, Revue Gen-
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. A P erale de lElectricite, Vol. 91,561-582, September 1982.
-21, 602-610, September 1973. [21] J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill,
133 A. Banos, Dipole Radiation in the Presence of a Conducting New York 1941.
Half-space, 0xford:Pergamon Press, 1966. [ 2 2 ] A. Sommerfeld, Uber die Ausbritung der Wellen i n der
[4] E. 0. Brigham, T h e Fast Fourier Transform, Prentice-Hall, Draftlosen Telegraphe, Annalen der Physik, (4th Folge), Vol.
Fnglewood Cliffs 1974. 28, 665-736, 1909.
[5] G. J. Burke, E. K. Miller, Modeling Antennas near t o and [ 2 3 ] E. D. Sunde, Earth Conduction Eflects i n Transmission
Penetrating a Lossy Interface, IEEE Transactions on Anten- Systems, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York 1949.
nas and Propagation, Vol. AP-32, No. 10, 1040-49, October [24] T. Takashima, T. Nakae, R. Ishibashi, High Frequency
1984. Characteristics of Impedances t o Ground and Field Distri-
[6] F. Dawalibi, Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Overhead butions of Ground Electrodes, IEEE Transactions on Power
and Buried Conductors. Part 1 - Single Conductor. Part 2 ~
Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-100, No. 4, April 1981, pp
Ground Networks, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol 1893-1900.
PWRD-1, 105-119, October 1986. [25] R. Velazquez, D. Mukhedkar, Analytical Modeling of
[7] F. Dawalibi, Eflectiveness of Station Grounding and Sur- Grounding Electrodes Transient Behaviour, IEEE Transac-
face Detection of Damaged Ground Conductors, Canadian tions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-103, 1i31-2-
Electrical Association, Report 019T218, April 1984. 1322, June 1984.
[8] L. Grcev, Calculation of the Transient Impedance of [ 2 6 ] J. R . Wait, Geo-Electromagnetism, Aca.deinic Press, New
Grounding Systems, D. Sc., t,hesis (in Serbo-Croatian), Uni- York 1982.
versity of Zagreb, Yugoslavia 1986.
Dr. Leonid Grcev (M84) was born in Skopje, Yugoslavia on
[9] L. Grcev, Z. Haznadar, A Novel Technique of Numerical April 28, 1951. He received in electrical engineering t,he B. Sc.
Modeling of Impulse Current Distribution in Grounding Sys- degree from the University of Skopje, and the M. Sc. and D. Sc.
tems, Proceedings, 19th International conference on lightning degrees from t,he University of Za.greb, Yugoslavia., in 1978, 1982
protection, Graz 1988, paper 3.4, 165-169. a.nd 1988, respectively.
[IO] R. F. Harrington, Field Computation by M o m e n t Methods, From 1978 to 1988. he held a position with the Electric I w
Macmillan, New York, 1968. dust,ry of Macedonia, Skopje working in the Telecommunications
and Information Systems Department. In 1988, he joined t.he
[ll] R. J. Lytle, D. L. Lager, Numerical Evaluation of S o m -
Faculty of Electrical Engineering a t the Universit.y of Skopje,
merfeld Integrals, Report UCRL 51688, Lawrence Livermore a.nd is now an Assisbnt Professor of Electrical Engineering. His
Laboratory, 1974. present research interests are in computational electroma.gnetics
[12] C. Mazzettie, G. M. Veca, Impulse Behaviour of Ground- applied to grounding and interference.
ing Electrodes, IEEE Transactions on Power Appara.tus and Leonid Grcev is a member of IEEE PE, AP and EMC societ.iw
Systems, Vol. PAS-102, 3148-3154, September 1983. He is also a member of the Applied Computational Elect.romag-
[13] A. P. Meliopoulos, and M. G. Moharam, Transients ilnaly- netics Society.
sas of Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus Dr. Farid Dawalibi (M72 SM82) was born in Novemher
and Systems, Vol. PAS-102, 389-399, February 1983. 1947. He received a Bachelor of Engineering degree from St.
Josephs University, a.ffiliated with the University of Lyon, ant1
the M. Sc. A . and Ph. D. degrees from Ecole Polytechnique of
[14] E. K. Miller, A. J. Poggio, G. J. Burke, E. S. Selden, Anal-
the University of Montreal. From 1971 to 19i6, he worked as a
ysis of a Wire A n t e n n a i n the Presence of a Conductive Half-
consulting engineer with the Shawinigan Engineering C,ompaug,
space. Part I: T h e Vertical A n t e n n a i n a Free Space. Part 11:
in Montreal. He worked on numerous projects involving power
T h e Horizontal Antenna in Free Space, Canadian Journal of
system analysis and design, railway electrification studies and
Physics, Vol 50, 879-888 and 2614-2627, 1970.
specialized computer-software code development. In 1976, he
[15] R. Mitra, Editor, Computer Techniques f o r Electromng- joined Montel-Sprecher &L Schuh, a manufacturer of high volt.age
netics, Pergamon Press, New York, 1973. (Cha.pter 4). equipment in Montreal, as Manager of Technical Services and
[16] R. Mitra, Editor, Numerical and Asy.mptotic Techniques was involved in power system design, equipment select,ion and
in Electromagnetics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New testing for systems ranging from a. few to several hundred kV.
York 1975. In 1979. he founded Safe Engineering Services & Technologies,
a company which specializes in soil effects on power networks.
[17] R. G. Olsen, D. C. Chang, Analysis of Semi-Infinite and
Since that time he has been responsible for the engineering ac-
Finite T h i n Wire A n t e n n a above a Dissipative Earth, Radio
tivities of t,he company including the development, of software
Science, Vol 11, Nov. 1976, pp867-874.
code rela.ted t,o power syst,ems applications.
[I81 A. D. Papalexopoulos, A. P. Meliopoulos, Frequency De- He is the a.ut,hor of more tha.n sixty papers on power systems
pendent Characteristics of Grounding Systems, IEEE Trans- grounding and safety, soil resistivity, electroma,gnetic interfer-
actions on Power Delivery, Vol PWRD-2, 1073-1081. October ence. He has written several resea.rch reports for CEA and EPRI.
1987. Dr. Dawalibi is a corresponding member of va.rious IEEE
[19] J . P. Plumey, D. J . Roubertou, J. M. Fontanine, Committee Working Groups, and a senior member of the IEEE
P. Kouteynikoff, High Frequency Impedance of a n A n t e n n a i n Power Engineering Society a.nd the Canadian Society for Elec-
Conductive Half-space, Colloque sur la. Compatibilite Electro- trical Engineering. He is a regist,ered Engineer in the Province
magnetique a. Tregastel, 1981, paper C5.1-6. of Quebec.
DISCUSSION Driven Grounds - 11", AIEE Trans., Vol. 61,
pp. 349-363 and 446-448.
ABDUL M. MOUSA (British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, [28] Eriksson, A . J .(May 1981). "Transient Impedance
B. C., Canada): I wish to congratulate Messrs. Grcev of Earthing Systems", Part I1 of CIGRE Working
and Dawalibi for this masterpiece of analytical work. Group Paper No. 33.81 (SC) 03.2, 14 pp., presented
I have a comment and a question regarding the scope of at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
applicability of the paper. The literature cited in
the INTRODUCTION on antennas and propagation, 291 Kosztaluk, R., Loboda, M., and Mukhedkar, D.
geophysical prospecting and electromagnetic (1981). "Experimental Study of Transient Ground
compatibility, deals with current signals which have Impedances", IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS-100, NO. 11,
high frequency but small amplitudes. In power systems, pp. 4653-4660.
on the other hand, the high frequency ground currents
(arising from disturbances, e.g. lightning) also have 301 Liew, A.C. and Darveniza, M. (1974). "Dynamic
high amplitudes which can exceed 100 kA. As a result, Model of Impulse Characteristics of Concentrated
breakdown occurs in the soil and this affects the Earths", Proceedings IEE, Vol. 121, No. 2 ,
behaviour of the electrode. This is definitely the pp. 123-135.
case with power line towers where grounds are mostly of
the concentrated type. In case of substations, the Manuscript received March 1, 1990.
effect of soil ionization can probably be neglected
because the length of the buried conductor is long and
hence the current densities are relatively low. Soil L.GRCEV and F.DAWALIBI: The authors thank Mr.Abdul M.Mousa
ionization was taken into consideration in the work for his kind words. The authors agree that when high currents are
reported in Ref. [12] and [25] o f the paper and in discharged through small electrodes, the soil ionization problem becomes
Ref. [27]-[30] below. According to Section 2 of this important. The soil characteristicswill then vary. This should be taken
paper, the ground electrodes are assumed to exhibit into account in any analytical model aimed at analyzing ground electrode
linear characteristics, i.e. soil ionization is not performance.
considered. In view of the above, is it fair to state
that the method given in this paper can be applied to One of our research goals is to determine the exact current distribution in
substations but not to power lines? If s o , do the metallic structures above or below the ground in the case of constant soil
authors plan to extend their method to include soil characteristics.From such work it will be feasible to determine when the
ionization effects? soil ionization threshold is met or exceeded. When the latter occurs it is
possible to develop an iterative algorithm to model and account for
changing soil characteristics.This approach could be similar to some of
REFERENCES those already appearing in the references cited in the paper and by Mr.
Mousa. The present paper is a necessary step in that direction. Mr.
[27] Bellaschi, P.L., Armington, R.E. and Snowden, A.E. Mousa's remarks are an indication of further work that needs to be done.
(1942). "Impulse and 60-Cycle Characteristics of Manuscript received March 28, 1990.