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# Electric Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment No #1
Introduction to (DMM) and color coding resistances.
Objective:
To measure the resistance of resistor by color coding and digital multimeter and comparing them.

Apparatus:
Digital multimeter.
7 different resistors.

Color code:
Black-0
Brown-1
Red-2
Orange-3
Yellow-4
Green-5
Blue-6
Voilet-7
Grey-8
White-9
For fourth band:

Gold-5%
Silver-10%
None-20%

Theory:
Digital Multimeter:
The digital multimeter (DMM) is one of the most useful items of test equipment. Basic instruments can
measure current voltage and resistance, but most include the capability to measure many other values. The
digital multimeter (DMM) is one of the most common items of test equipment used in the electronics
industry today. While there are many other items of test equipment that is available, the multimeter is able to
provide excellent readings of the basic measurements of amps, volts and ohms. In addition to this the fact
that these digital multimeters use digital and logic technology, means that the use of integrated circuits rather
than analogue techniques, enables many new test features to be embedded in the design.As a result, most of

Electric Circuits Lab Manual

Figure 1 DMM

A breadboard is used to build and test circuits quickly before finalizing any circuit design. The breadboard
has many holes into which circuit components like ICs and resistors can be inserted. A typical breadboard is
shown below:

The bread board has strips of metal which run underneath the board and connect the holes on the top of the
board. The metal strips are laid out as shown below. Note that the top and bottom rows of holes are
connected horizontally while the remaining holes are connected vertically.

Resistor:
Resistance is opposition to flow of current. Resistors are used for many things, often for controlling
impedances and dividing down voltages in an electronic circuit, the basic function of a resistor is to limit the
current to a safe value.
Resistors come under passive electronic components and are extensively used in electronic circuits. So
important are these components that it may be virtually impossible to build an electronic circuit without
involving resistors. Basically the function of a resistor is always to oppose the flow of current through it and
the strength of this opposition is termed as its resistance

Electric Circuits Lab Manual

Figure 5 Resistor

Procedure:
1. First of all we take seven different resistances.
2. Then we observed their color coding carefully.
3. We observed first color of resistance and compare it with its respective value i.e., 1, 2, 3
and write the digit. Then observe the second color and assigned number to it. After this we observed
third color and assign number of zeros according to third color. Then we observed fourth band on
resistor which gives tolerance i.e. for sliver-10% etc.
4. Then we take reading by means of DMM for each resistor separately.
5. Now we take different readings and compare them.
By formula
=Measured -color code/color code resistor

## Observation and calculation:

Percentage
No. of Resistance by color Resistance by DMM diff.=Measured-
observations code() () color code/color code
resistors
1 5600+5% 5420 0.0321
2 2200+5% 2161 0.0177
3 150000+5% 151000 -0.0066
4 4700+5% 4700 0
5 10000+10% 9440 0.056
6 330000+5% 333800 -0.0115
7 510000+5% 533000 -0.045
Conclusion:
We performed the experiment and learnt that DMM provides accurate readings rather than color coding.