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Factors affecting the rate of reaction TEMPERATURE As the temperature increases the particles will move faster so there will be more callsions per second. However, the main reason why an Increase in temperature incceases the rate is that more of the colliding particles will possess the necessary activation energy resulting in more successful collisions. As 2 rough rule of thumb an increase of 10°C doubles the rate ‘of a chemical reaction, CaCO, + 2HCI + CaCl, + CO, + H,0 lower temperature higher temperature volume of COs) T+10K) particles possess necessary numberof reactant patcles CATALYST Catalysis increase the rate of a chernical reaction without ‘themselves being chemically changed atthe end of the reaction. They work essentially by bringing the reactive pate’ ofthe reactant particles into close contact with each other This provides an alternative pathway forthe eaction with 2 | lower activation energy. More ofthe reactants will possess this lower activation energy, so the rate increases fraction of particles with E> for the uncetalyzed reaction fraction of paticles with E> Eyeat number of reactant parties Bat & kinetic energy ‘SURFACE AREA Ina solid substance only the particles onthe surface can ‘come into contact with a surounding reactant. If the solid is in powdered form then the surface area increases dramatically and the ate increases correspondingly. CaCO, + 2HE-+ CaCl, + CO,+ HO large pieeds of CaCO, volume of COxte) ‘powdered CaCO, CONCENTRATION ‘The more concentrated the reactants the mare collisions there will he per second per unit volume. As the reactants get used up their concentration decreases. This explains why the rate of most reactions ges slawer as the reaction proceeds. (Some exothermic reactions do intially speed up if the heat thats given aut more than compensates for the decrease in concentration} CaCO, + 2HCL—> CaCl, + CO, + HO 4 mmol dry? HC volume of CO, 2 mol dm? HEL | Time Note: this graph assumes that calcium carbonate isthe limiting seagent or that equal amounts fmol) of acid have Deen added. A. Draw tHe paph showmg the effet of contentaa pion nm the rate wit HA beurg the Amebing Uajed. 2. Why doe Pha nok mater in He Sunface een and tem phate graphs: