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BIOLOGYNOTES

MaintainingaBalance
1.Mostorganismsareactiveinalimitedtemperaturerange
1.1identifytheroleofenzymesinmetabolism,describetheirchemicalcompositionanduseasimplemodeltodescribetheirspecificity
onsubstrates
Enzymesareneededtomakerespirationhappenfastenoughforbiologicalprocessestooccur
Enzymescontrolallmetabolicprocesses
Usuallynamedafterthesubstratease
Allenzymesareproteins
Allenzymesarespecificthatis,eachenzymewillfitonlyonesubstrate
Theactivityofenzymesdependsupontheirenvironment,abnormalconditionsresultinlittle,ifanyactivity.Theyare
biologicalcatalysts.
Twomodelslockandkey
1. Anenzymefitsintoitssubstrateatasmallpartoftheenzymecalledtheactivesite
2. Theenzymeandsubstrateformacomplex
3. Thisisfollowedquicklybyseparation,wheretheproductsarereleasedalongwiththeunalteredenzyme
4. Theshapeoftheenzymeattheactivesiteisimportantforenzymespecificity
5. Anychangestotheactivesitewillresultintheenzymebeingunabletocatalysethereaction.
Thelockandkeymodelbestdemonstratesthis:


orinducedfit


Heatmayirreversiblydamageanenzyme
Adenaturedenzymewillstillbeinactivewhenreturnedtoregularconditions.
1.2identifythepHasawayofdescribingtheacidityofasubstance
pHisawayofdescribingacidity,itisameasureoftheH+ionsinasolution.Variationswillchangetheefficiencyofan
enzymeandlargervariationsresultinirreversibledamage.
1.3explainwhythemaintenanceofaconstantinternalenvironmentisimportantforoptimalmetabolicefficiency
Keepingtheinternalenvironmentofthebodywithincertainlimitstoalloworganismstoliveasefficientlyaspossible.
Consistsoftwostages:1.DetectingChanges
2.CounteractingChanges
Factorsaffectingenzymeefficiency:
Temperature
Eachenzymehasanoptimaltemperature
Decreasingtemperature=decreasingactivity
Increasingtemperature=increasingactivity,untilstructurechangesthenasharpdecreaseinactivityoccurs
pH
Enzymeshaveaspecificrangeinwhichtheyfunction
MostenzymesfunctioninapHthatsslightlyalkaline
AsthepHmovesawayfromtheoptimumvaluefortheenzyme,theactivityoftheenzymefalls
Ifthechangeistoogreat,theenzymecanbecomedenatured
Denatured=permanentchangeinthestructureofanenzymesoitcannolongerfunction
Substrateconcentration
Theconcentrationofthesubstrateaffectstheactivityoftheenzyme
Decreasingconcentration=decreaseinactivity
Increaseinconcentration=increaseinactivity,untiloptimumactivityisreached
Presenceofsalts,toxins,vitamins
Advantagesofhomeostasis:
Survivalvaluebodyisabletofunctionandadaptwithchangestotheoutsidetemperature/conditions
Coordinatesthesurroundingofcellsasbestitcantomaintaintheinternalenvironmentinordertoallowprocesses
withincellstotakeplaceefficiently.
Controlledbynervoussystemandendocrinesystem
1.4describehomeostasisastheprocessbywhichorganismsmaintainarelativelystableinternalenvironment
Homeostasisistheprocessbywhichorganismsmaintainarelativelystableinternalenvironment
WhyisHomeostasisimportant?
Eachorganismhasitsownrangeofconditionsinwithitscellscontinuetooperate
Theconditionsfornormalfunctioningofcellsisveryrestricted
RoleofHomeostasis:tomaintainconditionsandreactionsneededforlife
Homeostasisallowstheorganismsenzymestooperateefficientlyandthereforeallowimportantbodilyprocessesto
continueuninterrupted.
1.5explainthathomeostasisconsistsoftwostages:detectingchangesfromthestablestatecounteractingchanges
fromthestablestate
Detectingchangeswhenconditionsdifferfromoptimum
Causingchangestoreturnconditionstooptimum
Negativefeedbackmechanism=whenthebodycauseschangestocorrectanotherchange
FastheartrateandbloodflowHighbloodpressure

1.11gather,processandanalyseinformationfromsecondarysourcesanduseavailableevidencetodevelopamodelofa
feedbackmechanism

1.6outlinetheroleofthenervoussystemindetectingandrespondingtoenvironmentalchanges
Receptors:collectinformationaboutenvironment,informationiscalledstimulus
SensoryNerves:messagefromreceptorstravelsalongnervestospinalcord
SpinalCord:passeselectricalimpulsemessageuptothebrainBrain:processesinformation,differentparts
processdifferentkindsofinformation
SpinalCord:ifresponseisneeded,messagebackdownspinalcordEffectorNerves:receivebrainmessagefrom
spinalcord,passontoeffectorsEffectors:acttochangeinternalenvironment(egsweatglands)
1.7identifythebroadrangeoftemperaturesoverwhichlifeisfoundcomparedwiththenarrowlimitsforindividualspecies
Lifeisfoundoverabroadrangeoftemperatures
Lifecanexistbetween40oCand120oC
Extremesaremostlyinhabitedbybacteria
IndividualspeciescanexistinmoreLimitedTemperatureRanges
Humans=27oC43oC
Platypus=8oC34oCoAust.Alpine=10oC5oC
Speciesmaybeabletosurviveinthesetemperatures,butcanonlyfunctionoptimallyinanevensmallerrange
1.8compareresponsesofnamedAustralianectothermicandendothermicorganismstochangesintheambient
temperatureandexplainhowtheseresponsesassisttemperatureregulation
Endotherms
Organismsthatusetheirinternalmetabolismtogenerateheat
Theyareabletoregulatetheirbodytemperature
Theyareabletomaintainaconstantinternaltempundermostcircumstances
EgEmuCanincreasetempby:increasingactivity,absorbingsunlightheatandcandecreasetempby:decreasing
activity,stayinginshade,evaporation(wings)
Ectotherms
Organismsthatrelyonbehaviouraladaptationstoobtainheatfromtheirenvironment
Theareabletoregulatetheirbodytemperature
Theyareunabletomaintainaconstantinternaltempundermostcircumstances
EgBeardeddragonhasabehaviouraladaptationofclimbingabilitiestogetsuntomoveoutofshadowsandbask
insunlighttowarmitsbody.
1.10identifysomeresponsesofplantstotemperaturechange
Astemperatureextremescandamageenzymestructuresproperties,andplantshavemoreimportantenzymesinvolvedin
photosynthesisandrespiration,extremesoftemperaturecanbeamajorproblem.
E.gEucalyptshaveverticallyhangingleavestominimiseexposuretothesunintheheatoftheday.Otherplantsdroptheir
leavesifthetemperaturebecomestoocold,inordertosaveasmuchenergyaspossible.Casuarinatreeshaveverythin
leavesandsunkenstomatestoavoidhightemperaturesbyreducingwaterloss.
1.11analyseinformationfromsecondarysourcestodescribeadaptationsandresponsesthathaveoccurredinAustralian
organismstoassisttemperatureregulation
RedKangaroo
Australianmammalthatmaintainsitsinternaltemperatureat36oC
ItproducesheatfrommetabolismoWhenthekangarooneedstoloseheatit: Islessactiveduringhotperiodsof
theday
Staysinshadeoutofdirectsunlight

Pantsheatislostoutofnasalpassages
Licksitsforearmsevaporation Sweats
BrownSnake
Australianreptile
Makesenoughheatfrommetabolismtobeactiveforperiodsincoldweather
ItgainsheatbybaskinginthesunoWhenthetemperaturedropsithibernates
Whenthetemperaturerisessheltersinshadeunderlogs&isactiveonlyinthecoolerpartsoftheday(egevening)
2.Plantsandanimalstransportdissolvednutrientsandgasesinafluidmedium
1.2.1identifytheform(s)inwhicheachofthefollowingiscarriedinmammalianblood:carbondioxideoxygenwater
saltslipidsnitrogenouswasteotherproductsofdigestion
Theuniversalsolvent
Calledthisbecausesomanysubstanceswilldissolveinit
Somesubstancesformions(chargedparticles),egSalt
Othersubstancesarepolar(partiallycharged)dissolveintowater,egSugar
InMulticellularorganisms
Cellsareusuallysurroundedbywaterysolutionscalledintercellular/interstitialfluids
Thisallowsdissolvedsubstancestomoveintoandoutofcells
Substancesthatdissolveinwater&areimportancetocells
Substance Form Carriedby

Oxygen(O2)releasedduringphotosynthesisandisrequiredforrespiration Oxyhaemoglobin Redbloodcells

CarbonDioxide(CO2)usedbyplants,wasteproductofrespiration Hydrogencarbonate Redbloodcells


ions andplasma

Saltsneededaspartofthebufferingsysteminbodyfluids Ionsinbloodplasma Plasma

Water H20molecules Plasma

Otherdigestiveproducts Separatemolecules Plasma


e.gglucose

Lipids Wrappedinproteins Plasma

NitrogenousWasteformedduringthebreakdownofaminoornucleicacids Mostlyurea Plasma


1.2.2explaintheadaptiveadvantageofhaemoglobin
Circulatorysystemtransportsystemformammals
Bloodwateryliquidinwhichmanysubstancesdissolveandcarriesalongbloodcells
Bloodvesselstubesthatbloodpassesthrough
Heartpumpthatpushesbloodaroundthecirculatorysystem
Blood
Mostlymadeupofawaterysolutioncalledplasma
Plasmatransportsnumeroussubstances,suchas:carbondioxide,someoxygen,nitrogenouswastes,food
substances
sugars,aminoacids,vitamins,water
RedBloodCells
Makeup44%ofblood
FilledwithacomplexironcontainingproteincalledHaemoglobin
Haemoglobin
Carriesoxygen
BondswithoxygentoformOxyhaemoglobin(turnsbloodred)
Duringrespiration,theoxygenseparates(turnsbloodbluishpurple)
Haemoglobinasanadaptiveadvantage
Transportsoxygenfromwhereitisavailable(lungs)tocellsthroughoutthebody
Carriesmillionsofmoleculesofoxygenineachredbloodcell
Bodycellscouldnotreceiveenoughoxygenfromoxygendissolvedinplasma
Allvertebrateshavehaemoglobin
Othercomponents:
Whitebloodcellsfightingdiseaseasapartoftheimmunesystem
Platelets
1.2.3comparethestructureofarteries,capillariesandveinsinrelationtotheirfunction
Arteries Capillaries Veins

Size:Large Size:Small Size:Large


Walls:Muscular Walls:Verythin Walls:Nonmuscular
Specialfeatures: Specialfeatures: Specialfeatures:
Bloodisunderhigh Substancesreadilydiffuse Bloodisunderlowerpressure
pressure frombloodintocells(vice ContainValvestokeepbloodflowing

Artiespulse versa) towardstheheart(therightdirection)
(expand/contract)with Onlyonecellthick Surroundingmuscleshelptomove
eachheartbeat Runthroughoutentirebody bloodinveins
1.2.4describethemainchangesinthechemicalcompositionofthebloodasitmovesaroundthebodyandidentify
tissuesinwhichthesechangesoccur
HeartStructure
4chamberedmuscularpumpthatkeepsbloodmovingthroughthebloodvessels
Movingbloodisessentialfortransportingsubstancestocellsandcollectingwastes
HeartFunction
Sendsbloodtothelungs(capillariesinAlveoli)
OxygenisabsorbedandCarbonDioxideremoved
Bloodisthenpumpedthrougharteriestotissuesthroughoutthebody
Bloodinsidecapillariespassesthroughtissues,oxygendiffusesintocells
Substancesmovethroughthecapillarywallsintosurroundingcellsasneeded
Wastesubstancesareremoved(carbondioxide&urea)
Organsthatpickupandreleasesubstances
KidneysthecapillariesinthenephronUrea,excesssalts&waterremoved
Intestinethecapillariesinthevillinutrients(sugars&lipids)added
Liverproteinfragmentsareremovedfromblood,brokendownintoUreaandthenaddedbackintothebloodfrom
removal
1.2.5outlinetheneedforoxygeninlivingcellsandexplainwhyremovalofcarbondioxidefromcellsisessential
Oxygen
Lungsofamammaltotissueswhereoxygenisexchangedtobodycells
Livingcellsneedoxygenforrespiration
Mostorganismsuserespirationtoprovideenergyneededformetabolicprocesses
Productsofrespirationarecarbondioxideandwater
CarbonDioxide
Requiredforplants,wasteinmanycellsthatneedstoberemoved
Carbondioxidebecomespoisonousinhighconcentrations
DissolvedcarbondioxidecanchangethepHofbodyfluidsreducetheactivityofenzymes
Removingexcess
1.2.6describecurrenttheoriesaboutprocessesresponsibleforthemovementofmaterialsthroughplantsinxylemand
phloemtissue
TransportsysteminPlants
Neededtosupplycellswithsubstancesneededandremovewastes
Floweringplants,gymnospermsandfernscontainvascularbundles
Vascularbundlesmovewater,dissolvedminerals,glucoseandotherproducts
Thereare3typesofvasculartissue:
Cambiumproducesnewxylem/phloemtissue
Xylemcarrywaterwithdissolvedminerals,notlivingtissues.Throughtranspiration,waterispulledupfromrootsto
leaves.
Phloemcarrywater&sugars,livingtissues.Throughtranslocationoforganicmaterialbyapressureflow
mechanism.SourcetoSink
SOURCEofsugarloadedupinthesievetubecausingwatertomoveinthroughosmosis.
SINKsugaristakenoutofsievetubeandusedorstored,waterfollowscausingadropinpressure.
Thebuildupofsugaratthesourceanddropatthesinkcauseswatertoflowfromsourcetosink,takingthesugarwithit.


1.2.8performafirsthandinvestigationusingthelightmicroscopeandpreparedslidestogatherinformationtoestimate
thesizeofredandwhitebloodcellsanddrawscaleddiagramsofeach
Method:
1Setupyourmicroscope
Mountapieceofmillimetregridpaper
Viewpaperusingthex10objective(magnificationofx100)
2Estimatethefieldofview
Usethegridpapertoestimatethediameterofthefieldofview

Approx.1.6mm
3Magnifythefieldofview
Usethex40objective(magnificationx400)
Fieldofviewisnowapprox0.4mm
4Viewapreparedslideofblood
Usingx400magnification
Estimatehowmanycellswouldfitacrossthediameterofthefieldofview

Approx.50redbloodcells,
Results:
Redbloodcell=8microns
Whitebloodcellisx1.5aredbloodcell,=12microns
1.2.10analyseinformationfromsecondarysourcestoidentifytheproductsextractedfromdonatedbloodanddiscussthe
usesoftheseproducts
Transfusion
Wherebloodfromonepersonistransferredtoanotherperson
Performedwhenapatienthaslostalotofblood
Wholeblood
Bloodstraightfromdonors
Usedforsometransfusions
StableProteinPlasma
Treatedplasma
Usedinanemergencysituationbeforewholebloodisavailable
Alsousedforburnpatients,wholosefluidratherthanblood
Packedredbloodcells
Boostthepatient'sabilitytotransportoxygen
Platelets
Usedtopromoteclottinginpeoplewithleukaemia
Clottingfactors
Usedbypatientswhohaveexcessivebleedingproblems(egHaemophilia)
SerumAlbumin
Patientswithlowplasmalevels
Peoplewithliverdisease
Immunoglobulins
Contractedantibodiesusedbypatientswithdamagedimmunesystems
PeoplewithAIDS
1.2.11analyseandpresentinformationfromsecondarysourcestoreportonprogressintheproductionofartificialblood
anduseavailableevidencetoproposereasonswhysuchresearchisneeded
Realbloodislimitedbyneedtomatchdonorandrecipient
Realbloodhastheriskofspreadingdiseases
Restrictionsonthenumberofpeoplewilling/abletodonateblood
Restrictionsonshelflifeofrealblood
1.2.8performafirsthandinvestigationtodemonstratetheeffectofdissolvedcarbondioxideonthepHofwater
ObservedthatthepHofthewaterdecreasesascarbondioxidelevelsincrease
CarbonDioxideformsaweakacidcalledcarbonicacidwaterbecomesmoreacidic
Increaseofacidity=decreaseinpHinwater


1.2.9analyseinformationfromsecondarysourcestoidentifycurrenttechnologiesthatallowmeasurementofoxygen
saturationandcarbondioxideconcentrationsinbloodanddescribeandexplaintheconditionsunderwhichthese
technologiesareused
ArterialBloodGasAnalysisMachine
Measurestheconcentrationsofoxygenandcarbondioxideinafreshlytakesampleofblood
MeasurementsofthepHchange=carbondioxidelevels
Measurementsofelectricitycurrent=oxygenlevels
PulseOximeter
Detectschangesinthecolourofblood
Oximeterclipsontofingerandshinesred/infraredlightthroughthetissue
Adetectorcollectsinformationaboutthecolourofthebloodinthecapillaries
Oximeterdisplaysinformationasapercentageofoxygenintheblood
Thisisreferredtoasoxygensaturation
Normaloxygensaturationisabout96%
Usedtoconstantlymonitorpatientswithsevereproblems,unconsciousorrecoveringfromsurgery
1.2.12chooseequipmentorresourcestoperformafirsthandinvestigationtogatherfirsthanddatatodrawtransverse
andlongitudinalsectionsofphloemandxylemtissue


3.Plantsandanimalsregulatetheconcentrationofgases,waterandwasteproductsofmetabolismincellsand
ininterstitialfluid
1.3.1explainwhytheconcentrationofwaterincellsshouldbemaintainedwithinanarrowrangeforoptimalfunction
Theconcentrationofwaterincellsiscriticalanditmustremainconstant
Waterissoimportantbecause:
Watermaintainstheshapeofthecellmembranetoomuch=cellsburst
Changesinwaterconcentration=changesinconcentrationsofdissolvedsubstances
DissolvedsubstancesegCarbonDioxide,becomestoxicinhighconcentrations
1.3.2explainwhytheremovalofwastesisessentialforcontinuedmetabolicactivity
Metabolicwastesinhibitthereactionsthatproducethemifallowedtoaccumulate(LeChateliersprinciple),thusslowing
metabolism.
Productsofmetabolicreactionshinderreversiblereactions.
Nitrogenouswastesaretoxic.TheycanchangepH(soenzymesaredenatured)andinterferewithmembranetransport
Theyareproducedbythebreakdownofproteinsandnucleicacids.
CarbondioxidelowerspH.
Excesssaltscanaffectosmoticpressure
Thereforewastesmustberemovedtopromotemetabolismandtopreventcellsfrombeingpoisonedbyaccumulatingwastes.

1.
Identifytheroleofthekidneyintheexcretorysystemoffishandmammals
Thekidney is part of the urinary system and is the main organ involved in theexcretionofwastesandosmoregulationinfish
andmammals.
Osmoregulation: maintenance of a constant concentration of salt ions and therefore waterlevels withinthebodyregardless
oftheconcentrationswithintheenvironment
Theroleofthekidneyisto:
Excretewastes
Maintainosmoregulation
MaintainappropriatepHlevelsintheblood
2.
Explain why the processes of diffusion and osmosis are inadequate in removing dissolved nitrogenous wastes in some
organisms
In unicellular organisms, the excretion of dissolved nitrogenous wastes occurs solely by the processes of diffusion and
osmosis.Thesearebothformsofpassivetransport.
Thecellmembrane is selectively permeable, allowing water molecules to enter byosmosiswhen necessaryandnitrogenous
wastestoexitbydiffusion.
However,multicellular organisms are too large to rely on the processes of diffusion andosmosistoexcretetheir nitrogenous
wastes.Theyaremadeupofmillionsofcellssothereforemustridthemselvesoftheir
wastesbyothermethods.
Activetransportisonemethodwherebyionsaremovedagainstaconcentrationgradientthroughproteins.

3.Distinguishbetweenactiveandpassivetransportandrelatethesetoprocessesoccurringinthemammaliankidney
PassiveTransport:
diffusionofmoleculesfromregionsofhighconcentrationtolowconcentrationwithouttheexpenditureofenergy
Active Transport: The net movement of particles against a concentration gradient from an area of high concentration, with the
expenditureofenergy
The mammalian kidney is designed to use active transport to move ions against their concentration gradient andtherefore
excretewastes.

Process Definition Applicationtokidneyfunction

Diffusion Themovementofsubstancesfromareaswherethey Solutesinthefiltratewilltendtodiffuseoutthroughthe


areinhighconcentrationtoregionswheretheyarein tubulewallsintothetissuefluidandtheblood,butonce
lowconcentration. theconcentrationsareequaltherewillbenofurthernet
diffusion.Ifallofasubstanceneedstobereabsorbedthen
activeuptakemustoccur.

Osmosis Osmosis is the movement of water only through a 98% of water needs to be reabsorbedfromthefiltrateand
semipermeable membranefromaregionwherethere returned to the blood. Itcanmovebyosmosisonlyifthere
are lesssolutes in the water to a region wherethere aremoresolutesoutsidethetubulethaninsidethetubule.
are more solutes. (Region from higher to lower
concentration)

Activeuptake Where the cell membrane actively selects which In order to absorballtheusefulmoleculesfromthefiltrate,
substances can pass through it into the cell. Large active uptake must be involved. This is because diffusion
protein molecules in the cell membrane are involved will no longer work once the concentration of the
inthis. substance is the same of the inside and outside of the
tubule.

Secretion The cells lining the tubule can actively secrete Drugs such as penicillin and aspirinandotherpoisonsare
harmfulsubstancesintothetube. added to the fluid in the tube. Because a lot of the urea
which forms part of the glomerulus filtrate diffuses out of
thetubule,thismustbesecretedbackintothetubule.

Mostoftheprocessofreabsorptionisbyactiveuptake.Thisiswhythekidney hassuchahigh respiration rate. Water canonly


movebyosmosissothekidneymustensurethatthereisahighenoughsaltconcentrationaroundtheLoopofHenletoabsorb
thesufficientamountsofwater.
4.Explainhowtheprocessesoffiltrationandreabsorptioninthemammaliannephronregulatebodyfluidcomposition
Thefunctionalunitofthekidneyiscalledthenephron.
The nephron functions to filter the blood of metabolic wastes, make and secrete urine and reabsorb water to maintain
homeostasis.Therearemillionsofnephronsinthekidneyscortexandmedulla.

Thereabsorptionofwaterfromtheurineallowsthenephrontoregulatebodyfluidcomposition.
Purposeofnephrons
Toreabsorbusefulmolecules
Keepunwantedmoleculesinthetubule
BalancethepHoftheblood
Maintainthecorrectosmoticbalanceintheblood(water/salt)

PartoftheNephron Mainfunction(andhowitisachieved)

Glomerulus Anarea of high blood pressure in a knot of capillaries which has a semipermeable membrane allowing for
theremovalofsmallmoleculesandionsfromthebloodstream.

Bowman'sCapsule Acupshapedstructuresurroundingtheglomerulusthatcollectsmaterialforcedoutoftheblood

Proximal The first substances reabsorbed by active transport are glucose, sodium chloride, bicarbonate and
ConvolutedTube potassiumions.

HydrogenionsarepumpedintothetubuleatthispointtohelpmaintainbloodpH.

Waterisalsoreabsorbedbypassivetransport.(sodiumgradient)

LoopofHenle Water isreabsorbed into the blood through passive diffusion. If the concentration of blood is veryhighthen
morewaterisreabsorbed.

DistalConvoluted Theendpointforactivereabsorption.

Tube SomesodiumandpotassiumarereabsorbedheretoadjustthepHoftheblood.

Waterwillalsopassoutbypassivediffusion.

Thefinalfiltrateisformed.

CollectingDuct Materialsremainingafterreabsorptionofwastesmovethroughthistubule.


More wateriscollectedintothebloodstream.Thewasteinthetubuleis urinewhichis passedinto thepelvis
ofthekidney.

5. Outline the role ofthehormones, aldosteroneandADH(antidiuretichormone)intheregulationofwaterandsaltlevelsin


blood
Thekidneys play a major role in maintaining water and salt levels in the blood. They are aided byhormones producedbythebodys
endocrinesystem.ThetwomainhormonesinvolvedinosmoregulationareAntidiuretichormone(ADH)andAldosterone.

Aldosterone:
hormoneproducedbytheadrenalcortexthatregulatessaltandwaterbalance
Antidiuretichormone(ADH):
hormoneproducedbythehypothalamusthatcontrolreabsorptionofwaterinthekidneys

Aldosterone AntidiureticHormone

A consequence of lowwaterlevelsislowbloodpressure,as Hypothalamus has osmoreceptors that detect a rise in the


a result of lessened blood volume. This change in blood concentrations of solutes in the blood (low concentration of
pressure is detected by the receptors in the kidneys water).
resultinginthereleaseofAldosterone As a result ADH is released into the blood stream by the
Produced by the adrenal glands located just above each pituitarygland
kidney Travelsinbloodtodistaltubuleofkidney
Aldosterone acts to control the reabsorption of solutes, Increase the permeability of distal and collecting tubule walls
specifically sodium.Thehigherthelevelofaldosterone,the sothatmorewaterisreabsorbed
more permeable the walls of the nephrons are to sodium. Thisresulted inanincreaseintheamountofwaterreturnedto
Sosodiumionsandthereforewaterareabsorbedback into thebloodandadecreaseintheamountofurineproduced.
theblood.

Define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the
environmentanddiscussitsimportancetoestuarineorganismsinmaintainingappropriatesaltconcentrations
Enantiostasis:
maintenanceofmetabolicandphysiologicalfunctionsinresponsetovariationsintheenvironment
Estuaries are areas where saltwater from the ocean mixes with freshwater fromoneormorerivers.This resultsinfluctuating
saltlevelscausedbytidalmovements.
Organisms that live in this habitat undergo enantiostasis. This means they employ various tactics to cope with changing
salinity.
Organisms that have special physiological mechanisms that allow them to control salt levels in their bodies are called
osmoregulators.e.gcrabs
Organisms that can tolerate their body salt levels moving up and down inparallelwiththelevel of theenvironmentarecalled
osmoconformers.Theyconformtotheexternalenvironment.e.g.somespeciesofalgae
OPlantexample:GreyMangrove(seepoint15)
OA
nimalexample:Dugong
Dugongs live inwideshallowbaysandareasprotected bylargeinshoreislands suchas SharkBay inWestern Australia.They
areherbivoresfeedingonseagrass.Drinksseawaterandactivelysecreteminimalamountsofconcentratedurine.
7.

DescribeadaptationsofarangeofterrestrialAustralianplantsthatassistinminimisingwaterloss
Water loss generally occurs as abyproductoftranspiration.Ifaplantneedstoreduce waterlossitmustcloseitsstomatatodothis.
However,theplantalsoneedstophotosynthesiseandrespire,processesthatneedthestomatatobeopenforgasexchange.

Adaptation Plant How?

Phyllodes Acacia
group Replacedleaveswithamodifiedleafstemscalledphyllodes.Theyaregreenand
abletophotosynthesiselifealeafbutcontainfewerstomatapersquarecentimetre
thannormalleaves.Thereforereducestranspirationandwaterlossfortheplant.

Reducesizeof Casuarinaequisetifolia Reducestheamountofstomatapresentontheleafssurfaceandthereforereduces


leaves transpirationstream.

Sunken WollemiPine Leaves have stomata that are set into or sunken into the leaf. Thestomateshave
stomates nodirectcontactwiththesunlightsowaterevaporationisreduced.

HairyLeaves PaperDaisy Leaves and sometimes stems are covered in hairs to reduce water loss. The hairs
trap water that has evaporated from the plant, increasing the humidity around this
area.Thishumiditydecreasesthetranspirationrate.

Leafcurl FlaxLilies Will curl their leaves when temperatures get too high. Most of their stomates are
located on the upper side of their leaves so when the leaves roll up, the stomates
areontheinsideprotectedfromheatandevaporation.

Leafshape NativePigface Grows on sand dunes so exposed to sunlight practically all day. Leaves are
triangular in shape to reduce the surface area exposed to sunlight and decreasing
waterloss.


9.Gather,processandanalyseinformationfromsecondarysourcestocomparetheprocess ofrenal dialysis with the function
ofthekidney

Treatment PeritonealDialysis Haemodialysis KidneyTransplant

Howitworks Bloodispurifiedinsidethebodyusing
Bloodisremovedfrompatients Functioningkidneyfrom
theperitoneum(themembranethat artery living/braindead/recentlydead
linestheabdominalcavity)asanatural Beforepassingthroughthe personissurgicallyimplanted
filter dialyserananticlottingfactor, Otherkidneysneednotbe
Dialysissolutionenterstheabdominal Heparinisaddedtotheblood removed
cavityviacatheter Passesthroughthedialyser Donormustbeanexactmatch
Wastesdiffuseandexcesswater bloodtravelsnexttoandinthe todecreaseriskthatthe
movesbyosmosisfrominside oppositedirectiontodialysate
peritoneummembranedownthe Separatedbyacelluloseacetate patientsbodywithrejectthe
concentrationgradientintothefluid membranethatallowsdiffusionof foreignorgan
Thewastefilledsolutionisthen wastesandexcesswateroutofthe Mostdialysispatientsareon
drainedfromthecavityanddisposedof blooddowntheconcentration thedonorlistinhopeofa
Thisprocessisperformedtwicein gradient matchingkidney
eachsessionbothmorningandnight. Waterbathmaintainedatbody Requiresinvasivesurgerywith
o
Eachexchangetakes45mins temperature(37 C)preventsshock generalanaesthetic
andorganfailure
Rollerpumpmaintainspressure

Treatment PeritonealDialysis Haemodialysis KidneyTransplant

Advantages Personalchoiceoftreatmenttime Staff/organisestreatment Noneedfordialysistreatment


Involvementinselfcare Only3sessionsaweek Betterqualityoflife
Lessseverecardiovascularinstabilities Regularcontactwithpeoplein Reducedmedicalcosts
Lessdietandfluidrestriction dialysiscentre Nodiet/fluidintakerestrictions

Disadvantage Permanentcatheterinabdomen Inflexibletreatmentschedule Needforfrequentphysician


Highriskofinfection Traveltodialysiscentre visits
Potentialweightgain Twoneedlestickstoextractblood Painfromsurgery
Fourexchangesneededaday aspartoftreatment Lifelongmedicationtoprevent
Cannotmoveduringtreatment rejection
Diet/fluidintakerestrictions Suppressedimmunesystem

10.

Presentinformationtooutlinethegeneraluseofhormonereplacementtherapyinpeoplewhocannotsecretealdosterone
The pituitary produces a hormone that influences the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex, including aldosterone. If the
adrenal cortex gland is affected by a disease (e.g. Addisons disease) it can result in the gland producing insufficient levels of all
adrenalcortexhormones.Thisincludesthehormonealdosterone.
Asaresultpeoplewithinsufficientlevelsofadrenalcortexhormonesrequiremultiplehormonereplacementtherapy.
Thisincludesasyntheticformofaldosteronewhichiscalled
fludrocortisone
.
Thereplacementisneededbecausethealdosteronesecretedfromtheadrenalglandcarriesoutthevitalprocessof:
controlofbloodpressureandbodyfluidcomposition.

11.
Analyseinformationfromsecondarysourcestocompareandexplainthedifferencesinurineconcentrationofterrestrial
mammals,marinefishandfreshwaterfish
Isotonic: When the two solutions have the same concentration of solutes. There is therefore nonet movement of solutesbydiffusion
andnonetmovementofwaterbyosmosis
Hypertonic:
The name given to the fluid which contains the greater amount of solutes. Water will flow into a hypertonic solution by
osmosis
Hypotonic:
Thenamegiventothesolutionwhichcontainsthelesseramountofsolutes.Waterwillflowoutofthissolutionbyosmosis.

Nitrogenouswasteproduct Toxicity Solubilityinwater Typesofanimalsproducingthis


waste

Ammonia High High Fish

Urea Medium Medium Terrestrialmammals

Uricacid Low Low Insects,reptiles,birds

FreshwaterFish Marine(Saltwater)Fish
Tissueshyp
er
tonictosurroundings o
Tissueshyptonictosurroundings
Concentrationgradientresultsinalossofsaltsandan Concentrationgradientresultsinalossofwaterandanuptake
uptakeofwater ofsalts
Fishmustcounterthesechangestomaintainhomeostasis Fishmustcounterthesechangestomaintainhomeostasis
1.Doesnotdrink 1.Drinksseawater
2.Kidneycontainsglomeruliandsecretescopiousamounts 2.Minimalurineproduced.Kidneyslackglomeruli.Tubules
ofverydiluteurinethatcontainsammonia.Tubules activelysecreteMgSO 4
activelyreabsorbNaCl. 3.Gillmembranesarerelativelyimpermeabletowater
3.Gillmembranespermeabletowater 4.Gillsactivelysecretesodiumfromchloridecellschloride
4.Gillsactivelyabsorbions.Someammonialeavesgillsat ionsfollow.
thesametime

Freshwaterandsaltwaterfishareboth
osmoregulators
.

TerrestrialMammal DesertTerrestrialMammal

Mammalsmustproduceurinetobeabletoexcretetheir Producesveryconcentratedurine
nitrogenouswaste:urea Little waterloss occurs as most is retained throughkidneys(long
Oxidationofproteinsresultsinurea,aswellascarbon loopofhenle)
dioxideandwater
Thiscancausewaterloss


12.Use available evidence to explain the relationship between theconservationofwaterandtheproductionandexcretionof
concentratednitrogenouswastesinarangeofAustralianinsectsandterrestrialmammals
Tarrkawarra(SpinifexHoppingMouse):
LivesindesertandsemidesertregionsofCentralandWesternAustralia
Mainfoodisdryseeds.Theamountofwaterthesecontaindependsonthehumidityoftheair.Thisisgreateratnightthanday
Themicearenocturnalsocollectfoodatthemosthumidtimesoabsorbswater.
Comesoutatnighttoavoidheatofday
Verylittlewaterlossinurine
Mice huddle together in burrows during hot days. The air surrounding the group increases in humidity and hasthe effectof
reducingwaterlossfromtheskinandallowswatertoenterthemouse(insteadofwaterlosstotheenvironment).
Thelongertheloopofhenlefortheanimalthegreaterwaterpreservation(liveindesert)
rocessandanalyseinformationfromsecondarysourcesanduseavailableevidence todiscuss processesusedbydifferent
13. P
plantsforsaltregulationinsalineenvironments
Halophytes: Aplant that successfully inhibits areas of high salinity. Possess various adaptations to assisttheminsurviving highsalt
levelintheirsurroundings.
Most plants cannot tolerate saltyconditioninsalineenvironments thesoluteconcentrationin thesoilisgreaterthanitisinside
theplantsrootandsowatertendstomoveoutbyosmosis.
In addition, an excess of sodium ions inside cells inhibits enzymes activity and can result in a decrease in the uptake of
essentialpotassiumions.

Plant ProcessofSaltRegulation

Saltmarshplant(
Sarcocornia Saltcollectedinswollenleafbasesthenareshedfromtheplant
quinqueflora)

Atriplex(saltbush) Sodiumionsareconcentratedinsaltglandswithintheleafwhicheventuallyexpandand
burst,releasingtheexcesssalt.
Distichlispalmeri
PalmersGrass( ) Saltleavestheplantthroughthecellsontheleaf,buildsupontheleafsurfaceandis
ultimatelywashedaway

NorthfolkIslandPine Exposedtosaltyairandpreventsaltfromenteringtheirleavesbycoveringthestomates
withathinlayerofcuticle

GreyMangrove Saltissecretedinfromthecellsoftheplantontothelowersurfaceoftheleaf
andintobark.Theleavesarethendroppedandwaterdissolvesthesaltoffthebark.
Theendodermisintherootsformsabarrieragainstthepassageofmostsaltinto
thexylemsothexylemcontainsreasonablefreshdesalinatedwater.

Searchforabetterhealth
1.Whatisahealthyorganism?
1.1Discussthedifficultiesofdefiningthetermshealthanddisease:Health:Definedasthewellbeingoftheorganism.i.e.the
physical,mentalandsocialstatesoftheindividual.
Difficulties
Differentpeoplehavedifferentlevelsofwellbeing;whentheysaytheyarehealthy.E.g.afitpersonwillsaytheyarehealthyif
theycurrentlydonothaveadisease.
However,apersonwithachronicdiseasewillsaytheyarehealthyifthesymptomsarenottoobadthatday.
Difficulttodefineashealthhasmanycomponents,suchasphysical,mental,andsocial,someofwhichareverysubjective.
Disease
Definedasanyconditionthatadverselyaffectsthefunctionofanypartofalivingthing.E.g.ascrapeonthekneetoaserious
organmalfunctionandcancers.
Difficulties
Therecanbeconfusionbetweendisabilitiesanddisease,e.g.healthreportswillstatearthritisisadisablingconditionrather
thanadisease.
Havemanycomponents.Becauseitisdescribingastateofimpairedfunctioning,itdependsonanorganismsnormallevelof
functioning,andwhattheyexpecttheirqualityoflifetobe.
Apathogenisaparasitethatcausesharmordamagetoahost.Itmaybe:
amicroorganisme.g.abacteriumorfungus
anagente.g.avirusorprion
amulticellularorganisme.g.aworm
1.2Outlinehowthefunctionofgenes,mitosis,celldifferentiationandspecialisationinthemaintenanceofhealth
Genes
Genescontroltheproductionofproteinsinthebody(neededforproperfunctioning)andsohealthygenesensurethecorrect
proteinsaremade.
Throughproductionofproteins(especiallyenzymes),genesensurethecorrectcellprocessesoccur,maintainingmetabolism
andhomeostasis.
Geneexpressionproperfunctionisessentialtomaintaingoodhealth
Mitosis
Mitosisistheprocessthatenablesgeneticmaterialtobecopiedexactly,ensuringthegenesarecorrectandabletomaintain
healthintheirownway
Mitosisisalsotheprocessthatorganismsusetogrow,andmaintainandrepairbodycells,maintaininghealth.
CellDifferentiationandSpecialisation
These2processesresultincellswhicharespecialisedforspecificfunctionsinthebody,suchasredbloodcells,etc.
Together,allthespecialisedbodycellsworktogetherinacoordinatedwaytomaintainthehealthandproperfunctioningof
theorganism.
CellDifferentiation: changefromunspecializedcelltospecialisedcellBecomespecialisedfordifferentfunctions
Undifferentiatedcellsformtumours
CellSpecialisation: cellshavedifferentiatedtoperformparticularfunctionAllowscellstodevelopstructuretobestperform
specificfunctionsprevententryofpathogen

1.3Useavailableevidencetoanalysethelinksbetweengeneexpressionandmaintenanceandrepairofbodytissues:
GeneexpressionoccurswhenageneisswitchedonandtheDNAcodeisconvertedintopolypeptidesthatcontrolthe
structuresandfunctionsofacell.
IftheDNAisdamagedgeneexpressionwillcausetheproductionofavarietyofenzymesthatcanrepairdamagedDNA,e.g.
somerepairenzymescancutoutthedamagesDNAandmakenewDNAtoreplaceit.
TherearealsoenzymesthatpreventcopyingerrorswhenDNAisreplicatedthisiscalledproofreading.Geneexpressioncan
leadtothereplacementofsomecells,e.g.liningtheintestines,asthesecallsaretoodamagedbythedigestionprocesstobe
repaired.
Ifacellisexposedtoveryhightemperaturesitcanswitchonagenetomakeheatshockproteins.Theseheatshockproteins
canbeproducedveryrapidlyandcanstabilisetheotherproteinsinthecell.Thishelpsprotectthecellallowingittofunction
forlonger.

2.Over3000yearsagotheChineseandHebrewswereadvocatingcleanlinessinfood,waterandpersonalhygiene
2.1Distinguishbetweeninfectiousandnoninfectiousdisease:
Infectiousdisease
adiseasecausedbyanorganismandcanbetransferredfromonepersontoanother.
causedbyaninvasionofthebodybypathogens(aninfectiousagentthatcausesdisease).
E.g.viruses(influenza),bacteria(tonsillitis),protozoans(malaria),prions(CJD),fungi(tinea).
Noninfectiousdisease
notcausedbyadiseasecausingorganismandapartfromgeneticdiseasesfromparenttochild,cannotbetransferredfrom
onepersontoanother.
Involvesnopathogens
Notransferofthediseasefromonepersontoanother.
E.g.:Inherited(genetic)disease:DownsSyndrome,haemophiliaNutritionaldisease:scurvy,beriberi,kwashiorkor
Environmentaldisease:skincancer,asbestosis
2.2Explainwhycleanlinessinfood,waterandpersonalhygienepracticesassistincontrolofdisease:
Cleanlinessinfood
Diseasecausingmicroorganismscanbetransferredfromonepersontoanotherinfood.E.g.choleraanddysenteryare
transmittedininfectedfood.
Humantapewormdiseaseiscausedbyeatinginfected,undercookedpork.Butmicrobesinfoodonlybecomeahealthrisk
whentheyareallowedtomultiplyandreachlargenumbers
Modernmethodstoreducethenumbersofmicrobesinfoodinclude
Heating:E.g.cookingfoodtokillmicrobes,pasteurisation
Cooling:Refrigerationoffoodsslowsdownthegrowthofmicrobes
Drying:Dehydratingfoods,suchasfruitorvegetables,andsmokingmeat,killsmicrobes,makingthemlastlongerAllthese
methodsareusedtoreducethenumberofmicrobesandtocontrolthespreadofdisease.
Cleanlinessinwater
Manydiseasecausingmicroorganismsaretransferredtoanewhostincontaminatedwater.
Lackofcleanwater,suchasindevelopingcountrieswithnowaterpurificationsystemsisalargefactorinspreadingdisease.
Majorcausesofdiseasearethepathogensthatoriginatefromfaeces.
Waterwillalwayscontainmicrobes,butreducingthenumbersthroughtreatmentcontrolsthespreadofdisease
Treatmentofwater,inprocessessuchchlorination,reducestheriskofdisease.
PersonalHygiene
Pathogensaretransferredbytheinhalationofinfectivedroplets,bydirectcontactandbyotherpracticesrelatingpersonal
hygiene.
E.g.influenzaandpneumoniaaretransferredbyinhalinginfectiousdropletsfromasneezewhenthepersondidnotcover
theirmouth.
Impetigoiscausedbydirectcontactwiththeskinofaninfectedperson.
2.3Identifytheconditionunderwhichanorganismisdescribedasapathogen:
Organismsarecalledpathogenswhentheycausedisease.
Ifapathogenistocausedisease,itmust
Havevirulence:thatis,bepresentinsufficientnumberstocausethedisease
Enterthehostthroughacertainpartofthebodyorsurviveonthebodywithoutbeing
destroyedbythebodysnaturaldefences.
Escapefromonehosttoanother
Survivetransmissionfromonehosttoanother
2.4Identifydatasources,plan,chooseequipmentorresourcestoperformafirsthandinvestigationtoidentifymicrobesinfoodorin
water:
Steriletechniques
Thenutrientagarplatesshouldbeautoclaved(heatedinapressurecooker)
Allsurfacesshouldbewipedwithmethylatedspiritstominimiseriskofcontamination
SteriliseinoculatingloopinnonluminousblueBunsenflame
Petridishshouldbeontableandlidliftedatanglenogreaterthan45degreeswhenopening,pointingawayfromanyone
Donottalkatstation
Sealdishwithstickytapeandlabelaroundedge
Placeupsidedowninincubator
Donotopenonceclosedandsealed
Method
1. Wipeallsurfaceswithacottonswabwithmethylatedspirits.
2. SteriliseinoculatingtubeinblueBunsenflame
3. Poursampleoverinoculatingloop
4. Openlidofagarataround45degrees
5. Spreadsampleontoagarusinginoculatingloopinzigzagmotion
6. Closedishandsealwithstickytapeonedge
7. Labelwithapermanentmarker
8. Placedishinovenat37degreescelsiusfor48hours
Results
Control(unopened)nothing
Pondwateryellow,brownandwhitecolonies(round)
Bottledwaterrangeofcolonies
Bubblerwatercreamcolonies
Tapwaternothing
Final:bottleandpondwaterhasthemostnumberofcolonies
Controls
Sameagar
Samesterilitymethods
Reduceriskofexposuretoharmfulbacteria:platesremainsealed&destroyedinapressurecooker.
2.5Gather,processandanalyseinformationfromsecondarysourcestodescribewaysinwhichdrinkingwatercanbetreatedanduse
availableevidencetoexplainhowthesemethodsreducetheriskofinfectionfrompathogens:

WaterChlorination
Chlorinegasinjectedintothe
watertokillgerms.
BoilingWater
Boilingwaterforafewminutes
cankillmicrobes.
Thetreatmentofwaterusuallyhas3
stages.
1.PrimaryTreatment
Screeningoutlargedebrisusing
barsandscreens
Degritting theremovalof
largegritparticles
Flocculation mixingofthewaterwithchemicalstoformsuspendedparticlesthatcontainmanymicrobes
Sedimentation ofsuspendedmicrobefullparticlestothebottomoftanks
Sludgeprocessingcollectionandprocessingofsedimentfromtanks
2.SecondaryTreatment:
Filtration
thisremovesnearlyalltheremainingmicrobesandotherparticlesbypassingthewaterthroughsandbedsor
charcoal.
3.TertiaryTreatment:
Chlorination addingchlorinetothewaterkillsoftheremainingharmfulmicrobes
Otherchemicalsareaddedhere,suchasfluorides,dependingonthelocation

3.Duringthesecondhalfofthenineteenthcentury,theworkofPasteurand
Kochandotherscientistsstimulatedthesearchformicrobesascausesof
disease
3.1DescribethecontributionofPasteurandKochtoourunderstandingofinfectious
diseases:
LouisPasteur
Discoveredthatinfectiousdiseasesarecausedbymicroorganisms.
KnownashisGermTheoryofDisease.
Experiment
Soughttodisprovethetheoryofspontaneousgeneration.(thatlivingmatter
spontaneouslyformedfromnonlivingmatter)
Hypothesisedthatmicrobeswereintheaireverywhere,andfoodspoilswhen
thesemicrobeslandthereandbecomeactive.
Pourednutrientbrothinto2identicalswanneckflasks,andboiledbothofthemto
killofallmicrobes.
Thenhebrokeofthenecksandleftbothflasksoutinopenair.
Ashepredicted,theflaskwiththebrothopentotheairdevelopedcloudybacterial
growths,whiletheflaskwiththeswanneckstayedclear
Thisprovedthatthemicrobesthatspoilfoodcomefromtheair,anddisproved
spontaneousgeneration.
PasteurandFermentation
Pasteurexaminedsamplesoffermentingwinesunderthemicroscope.
HeobservedYEASTS,whichwereconvertingthesugarstoalcohol.
HealsoobservedBACTERIA,whichwereconvertingsugarstolacticacid.
Thebacteriawerealsoobservedinsourmilkandwerethecauseoffoodspoilage.
Pasteurshowedthatheatingthewineormilkto55Cforafewminuteskillsthemicrobesthatspoilthem.
Thisprocessiscalledpasteurisation.
RobertKoch
Studiedanthraxdisease=Anthraxisabacterialdiseasethataffectssheepandhumans.
Processofhisinvestigation
Obtainedinfectedmatterfromasheepsufferingfromanthrax
Placeditonaslide,observeditunderamicroscopeandsawactiverodshapedcellsandinactivedormantspores.
Establishedthatthebloodofanimalswithdiseasealwayscontainedthesemicroorganisms,whilethebloodofhealthyanimals
didnot.
Hefoundthatifbloodfromaninfectedanimalwasinjectedintoahealthyanimal,itwouldcausedisease.
Hegrewculturesoftherodshapedbacteriatoinfectmicetheydevelopedthedisease.Thisprovesthatitwasthebacteria,
andnotanyotherbloodcomponentthatcausedthedisease.
KochsPostulates(forestablishingthatacertainmicrobecausesadisease)
1. Microorganismsmustbepresentineveryorganismwiththedisease.
2. Themicroorganismmustbeisolatedfromthehostandcultured.
3. Apotentialhost,wheninoculatedwiththeculturedmicroorganism,mustdevelopthesamesymptomsastheoriginalhost.
4. Themicroorganismmustbeabletobeisolatedfromthesecondhostandbeidentifiedasthesamespeciesastheoriginal
culture.
3.2PerformaninvestigationtomodelPasteursexperimenttoidentifytheroleofmicrobesindecay:
Materials
Beefbroth(filteredtoremoveanycloudiness)
2conicalflaskswithastoppereach
Sshapedglasstubing
Straightglasstubing
Bunsenburner
Tripod
Method
1. Addthefilteredbrothintoeachflaskuntilitis1/3full.
2. Fitthestoppers,onewiththestraighttubingandtheotherwiththesshapedtubing.
3. Heateachflasksothatitboilsgentlyfor15mins.Ensurethatafterboilingthereisasmallamountofwatertrappedinthe
sbend.
4. Leavebothflasksinawarmpositionoutofdirectsunlightforseveralweeks.
5. Observethecontentsofeachflask.Lookforcloudinessandfungalcolonies.
Conclusion
Microbesfromtheairinfectedthestraightneckedflask,whilethebrothintheswanneckedflaskstayedsterileasmicrobes
couldnotreachthebroth.


3.3Distinguishbetweenprion,viruses,protozoans,fungi,bacteria,macroparasitesandnameoneexampleofdiseasecausedbyeach
typeofpathogen:
Pathogen Description Examplesofdiseases
itcauses
Prions Proteinthathasbeenalteredfromitsnormalstructureandcanthenalterotherproteinsto Scrapieinsheep
developmoreprions,sothatthechangespreadslikeachainreaction. spongiform
Whatisit? encephalopathy
Aprionisaninfectiousproteinthatcausesthedegenerationofbraintissue
Everyhumancontainsthegeneticinstructionstomakenormalprionprotein. cattle(madcow
Theproteinoccursmainlyinnervecellsanditsfunctionisunknown disease)
Reproduction:
Ifanorganismbecomesinfectedwithadefectiveprion,itconvertsnormal
proteinsintoprionprotein.(thisisequivalenttotheprionreplacingitself)
Thechainofaminoacidsthatmakeuptheprionproteinsbecomefoldedinadifferent
andabnormalwayssoitisnotaffectedbyagentssuchasenzymesthatnormallyact
onproteins.\Cellsdonotkillprionsandaftertheprionsreplicatetheyeventually
causethecelltolyse(burst)soarefreetoinfectothercells.
Affect:
Theburstingofnervecellsresultsinholesseenininfectedbrains.
Notreatmentisavailableforindividualswithinfectedprionsandprionsare
extremelyresistanttoheatandchemicalagents.
Viruses ConsistofDNAorRNAenclosedinprotein,liveinsidelivingcells.Theyaresosmallthatthey Influenza
cannotbeseenwithalightmicroscope. measles
Whatisit? warts
Considerednoncellularandnonlivingastheylackacellmembrane. Footandmouth
Howevertheyhaveaproteincasingenclosingasinglekindofnucleicacid disease
(eitherDNAorRNA).
Theproteincoatmaycontainlipids,carbohydratesandsometimesenzymeswhichare
involvedinpenetrationofthehostcell.
Virusesdonothavetheirownenzymesystem,butrather,relyuponandutilise
theenzymesandmetabolismofthehostcell.
Reproduction:
Itreproducesbyalternatingitslifecyclebetweentwophases:
1.Extracellularphase;whenitexistsasaninert,infectiousparticleorvirion
2.Intracellularphases;whenitexistsintheformofreplicatingnucleicacid.Thehost
cellreplicatestheviralcomponents
Theycanonlymultiplyinahostcellandusethemetabolismofthehostcellto
reproduce.
Thehostcellusuallydiesandthevirusparticlesarereleasedtoinfectothercells.
Bacteria Verysimplecellswithnointernalmembranes. Boils
Whatisit? Cholera
Bacteriaareatypeofprokaryote(unicellularlifeform)andhavethesamebasic Tuberculosis
internalstructureregardlessoftheirvaryingshapes.
Theyhavenomembraneboundorganellesandnotruenucleus.
Theyhaveanucleoid,aregioncontainingasinglecoiledstrandofDNAandcontain
ribosomesandenzymesinthecytoplasm.
Thecellmembraneissurroundedbyacellwall.
Generalshapes:
Spherescoccus/cocci
Rodsbacillus/bacilli
Curvesspirillum/spirilla(spirallyshaped)orvibrio/vibrios(commashaped)
Bacteria
Bacteriasometimespossessadditionalstructuressuchas:Slimycapsule(coveringlayer
aroundcell)
Flagella(hairlikeappendagesenablingmovement)
Pili(filamentousappendagesotherthanflagella)
Endosporesorspores(thesecanremaindormantinfood,vegetation,soil,dust
forweeksmonthsorevenyears)
Reproduction:
Bacteriareproduceasexuallybybinaryfission.
ThecellelongatesbygrowingandtheDNAreplicatesandseparatesintotwodifferent
nuclearareas.
Thenthecellmembraneandcellwallmoveinward,tofollowcytokinesisanddivide
thecellintotwoseparatecells,eachofwhichisidentical.
Whencellsdividethetotalnumberdoubles,andasthegenerationtimeis
usuallybacteriacanmultiplyrapidly.
Protozoans Microscopicsinglecelledorganismswithinternalmembranes. Amoebic
Whatisit? dysentery
Protozoaareatypeofprokaryote(unicellularlifeform) Malaria
TheyhaveacellmembraneandareheterotrophicSomeprotozoanshavefood
vacuolesandcontractilevacuoleswhichenableosmoregulation.
Manycanencystandbecomedormantwhenconditionsareunfavourable.
Protozoansaretypicallymotile,althoughsomesporeformersareimmotile.
Theyareclassifiedonthebasisoflocomotion:
Flagellates
Ciliates
Amoeboid
Sporozoans
Reproduction:
Protozoanscanundergobothasexualandsexualreproduction:
Sexualreproductionbyconjugation
Asexualreproductionbybinaryfission,multiplefissioninsporeformers.
Sporeformersareallparasiticandoftenhavecomplexlifecycles.
Fungi Heterotrophicorganisms.Some(e.g.yeasts)areunicellular,othersconsistoflongbranching Ringworm
threads. Tinea
Whatisit? Thrush
Includestheyeasts,mouldsandmushrooms Candidiasis
Yeastsareunicellular,nonfilamentous,ovalorsphericalcells.
Moldsaremulticellularandfilamentous.
Fungihaveacellwallwhichusuallycontainschitin,butinsomeformscontains
cellulose.
Theyhavenoroots,stems,leavesorvascularsystemsanddonotcontainchlorophyll
andhenceareheterotrophic.

Reproduction:
Sporesareproducedbymostfungiandareminutepropagatingunitswhichenable
reproduction
Fungicanreproduceeitherasexuallyorsexuallyorboth.Asexualreproductionoccurs
by:budding,sporulation,fragmentation,fission.
Macroorganisms Organismsthatarevisibletothenakedeye,alsocalledparasites. Fleas
Whatisit? ticks
Endoparasites: tapeworms
Thesearemainlyflatwormssuchasflukesandtapewormsandroundworms.
Mostendoparasiteshavealongassociationwiththeirhost.
Theyremainpermanentlyinsidethehost,obtainingfoodandshelter
Ectoparasites:
Thesearemainlyarthropods,especiallyinsects,suchaslice,fleasandarachnidssuch
asticksandmites
Someectoparasitesvisitthehostbrieflyjusttofeed(mosquitoes)othersburryinto
theskinforlongerperiodsobtainingshelteraswellasfood(mites)
Reproduction:
Endoparasites:
MultiplywithinthehostEctoparasites:Canmultiplywithinoroutofthehost
3.4Gatherandprocessinformationtotracethehistoricaldevelopmentofourunderstandingofthecauseandpreventionofmalaria:
Backgroundonmalaria
MalariaisadiseasecausedbyaprotozoanofthegenusPlasmodium.Ithasa
complicatedlifecyclerequiringamosquitooftheAnophelesgenustocarrythe
Plasmodiumtoitshost.Thediseaseiscommonintropicalareaswherethe
Anophelesmosquitolives.Thefemalemosquitorequiresabloodmealtocomplete
thereproductioncycleofthemosquito.DuringthebloodmealthePlasmodium
(sporozoites)aretransferredfromthemosquitosalivaryglandsintotheblood
systemofthehost.Thesporozoitestraveltotheliverviathebloodsystemand
entercellsintheliver.After12daysanewformoftheprotozoancalled
merozoitesarereleasedandtheseenterbloodcells.Atthesametimetoxinsarereleased.Thiscausesthesweatsandfeverthatare
associatedwiththedisease.Someofthemerozoitesdevelopintogametocytesandmaybesuckedupbyanothermosquitoinanother
bloodmeal.Inthegutofthefemalemosquitothegametocytesbecomegametesandarefertilised.Thisformssporozoiteswhichwill
traveltothesalivaryglandsofthefemalemosquitoandawaitthenextbloodmealtoenteranotherhost.
Thediseasewasknownfromthestartofrecordedhistorybutittookmanyresearcherstouncoverthecomplicatedlifecycleabove.Sir
RonaldRoss(18571932)wasaBritishmedicalofficerworkinginIndia.Forthousandsofyears,peoplehadbeenpuzzledabouttheway
inwhichmalariaspreadbuttheyknewthatmalariawascommoninareasclosetoswampyland.Inthelate1800s,peoplewere
beginningtowonderifmosquitoescouldspreadmalaria.Rosscollectedmosquitoesandpainstakinglydissectedthemundera
microscope.Hediscoveredthemicroorganismthatwasknowntocausemalaria,insidethebodiesofAnophelesmosquitoes.Thisledto
therealisationthatinsectscouldcarrypathogens,thatis,theycanbevectorsofdisease.


Date Development
18BC ThediseasemalariawasdescribedbytheRomans.Malariawasthoughttocomefromswampssothenamemeans'badair'
1820 Quinineusedtopreventthedisease
1880 CharlesLaveranaFrencharmydoctorobservedthemalarialparasite
1886 Golgiobservedasexualreproductionintheprotozoan Plasmodium andidentifiedtwospecies
1898 GiovanniGrassinamedthe Anophelesmosquitoasthecarrierofthemalarialparasite
1897 RonaldRossdiscoveredthat Plasmodiumwastheprotozoanthatcausedthediseasemalaria.
1940 Chloroquinethefirstsyntheticantimalarialdrugwasused
3.5Identifydatasources,gather,processandanalyseinformationfromsecondarysourcestodescribeonenamedinfectiousdiseasein
termsofitscause,transmission,hostresponse,majorsymptoms,treatment,preventionandcontrol:
Cholera Malaria

Cause VibrioCholerae Plasmodium

Transmission Transmittedbyconsumingwaterthatis AfemaleAnophelesmosquitoingestsgametocytesfrom


contaminatedwithfaecesfromaninfectedperson. aninfectedhuman.Theparasitemustundergo835days
Consumptionofcholeracanhappenthrough ofdevelopmentwithinthemosquitobeforetheinfective
drinkingcontaminatedwateroreatingfoodsthat sporozoitesareformed.Thesporozoitesaretransmittedto
havebeenwashedwithormadewith anotherpersonviathebiteofaninfectedmosquito.
contaminatedwater.

Hostresponse HostproducesantibodiesagainstVibrioCholerae Wheninthebloodcellsthehostproducesantibodies


againstPlasmodium

Major Severediarrhoea,dehydration,lowbloodpressure Chills,fever,sweating,deliriumandheadache


symptoms

Treatment Replacementofwaterandsalts Antimalarialdrugssuchasquinineandchloroquine


Drugs:tetracyclineandchloramphenicol

Prevention Goodseweragesystem,treatmentofdrinking Coverupafterdark,andusepersonalinsecticide,mosquito


water,vaccination nets

Control Keepclean Drainingswamps,sprayingwithinsecticidesbyeliminating


breedingsites
3.6Identifytheroleofantibioticsinthemanagementofinfectiousdisease:
Antibioticsarechemicalsthatpreventthegrowthordevelopmentofbacteria.
Theyareimportantintreatingbacteriacauseddiseasesandpreventinginfections
Antibioticsworkbyinhibitingcellwallformation,damagingthecellmembraneorinterferingwithnucleicacidmetabolismand
celldivision.
Examplesincludepenicillinandstreptomycin.
Negativesoverusehasresultedinsuperbugs,strainsofbacteriabecomingmoreresistant
3.7Processinformationfromsecondarysourcestodiscussproblemsrelatingto antibioticresistance
Antibioticresistance
Withthewidespreaduseofantibiotics,aproblemthatthreatensthesuccessfultreatmentofthesediseaseshasdeveloped.
Bacteria,duringthenormalprocessofnaturalselection,haveevolvedstrainsthatareresistanttomany,ifnotall,ofthe
antibioticsthatareusedtotreatinfectiousdiseaseintheworldtoday.
Naturalselectionandresistance
Darwinstheorystatesthatinanypopulationthereisvariation.Inaparticularenvironment,theorganismsthathavea
variationthatisbestsuitedtothatenvironmentsurviveandreproduce.Thisproducesapopulationinwhichmostorganisms
areadaptedtosurvivalinthatparticularenvironment.
Whenantibioticsareadministeredtotreatabacterialinfection,someofthebacteriapresentmaypossessanaturalresistance
totheparticularantibioticandsotheysurvive.Theythenreproduceandcanquicklybuildupapopulationthatisresistantto
theantibiotic.Inconjunctionwiththis,thebacteriaarealsocapableofpassingthisresistanceontootherbacteriatheycome
intocontactwith,furtherbuildingupthepopulationofresistantbacteria.(bacteriacanswayDNAbetweenspecies)
Itishelpedbythefactthatbacteriamultiplyandmutaterapidlyincreasingthechanceofresistancegenesoccurringnaturally.
Naturalselectionthenfavourstheresistantbacteria.Addingtothisproblemisthefactthatmostresistantgenesoccuron
plasmids(circularDNA)whichbacteriaareabletopasstootherbacteria,evenbetweenspecies.
Important
Mustnotwritethatbacteria develop
resistance.Itisapreexistingtraitthatmaybepassedon.
Examples
Particularconcerninclude
TBresistance(Tuberculosis).
Humanpractisescontributingtoantibiotic
resistance
Overuseofantibioticsegforviral
infectionssuchasacold/flu.
Notfinishingantibioticcoursesselects
themostresistantbacterialeavingthem
tomultiply.
Puttingantibioticsinanimalfeedtoincreasepopulation,selectstheresistantones,killsthenonresistantoneintheanimal
stomachs.
Massiveuseofantibioticsinhospitals.Useofantibacterialingredientsincleaningproducts,encouragesresistantstrainsas
theyarenotstrongenoughtofullykillthebacteria.
Problemswithantibioticresistance
Sometypesofantibioticsarenotlongereffective.SomediseasesthatusedtobecurableegTBnowhaveresistantstrains.New
antibioticsarebeingdevelopedbuttheyaremoreexpensiveandmoretoxic.Insomecountriesitisexpensiveandthediseases
becomeuntreatable.Therearesomesuperbugsthathaveevolvedandareresistanttoalltreatment.
Waystodealwithitinthefuture
Onlyusethemforbacterialinfections,stricthygieneinhospitals,publicshouldbeeducatedabouttakingthewholepacketof
antibiotics.Penaltiesshouldoccurforillegaluse.

4.Oftenwerecogniseaninfectionbythesymptomsitcauses.Theimmuneresponseisnotsoobvious,untilwe
recover
4.1Identifydefencebarrierstoprevententryofpathogensinhumans:
Lineofdefence Description Whatitdoes

Skin Skincontinuouslygrowsbynewcellsbeingproduced Whenunbroken,skinpreventstheentryofpathogens.


frombelow.Cellsfittightlytogethertoforma Poresintheskinsecretesubstancesthatkillbacteria.
protectivelayercoveredbydeadcells.

Mucous Cellsliningtherespiratorytractandopeningsofthe Mucusisstickyandtrapspathogensandotherparticles.


urinaryandreproductivesystemsthatsecretea Whentherearemanypathogensmoremucusis
protectivelayerofmucus. producedtoflushthemout.

Cilia Hairlikeprojectionsfromcellsliningtheairpassages Movewithawavelikemotiontopushpathogensfrom


thelungsuptothethroat.

Chemical Acidinthestomach;alkaliinthesmallintestine;the Stomachaciddestroyspathogens,includingthosethat


barriers enzyme,lysozyme,intears arecarriedtothethroatbyciliaandthenswallowed.
Alkalidestroysacidresistantpathogens.Lysozyme
dissolvesthecellmembranesofbacteria.

Otherbody Secretionsfromsweatglandsandoilysecretionsfrom Containchemicalsthatdestroybacteriaandfungi.


secretion glandsinhairfollicles.
4.2Identifyantigensasmoleculesthattriggertheimmuneresponse:
Anantigenisamoleculethattriggerstheimmuneresponse.
Antigenscausetheformationsofantibodies.
AntigenANTIbodyGENeratingsubstance
Itmaybepartofapathogenorevenatoxicmolecule
E.g.Theglycoproteinspikesonthesurfaceoftheinfluenzavirusactas
antigens,triggeringtheimmuneresponse.
Thevenomofpoisonoussnakesalsocontainsantigens.
Theimmuneresponseisthewaythebodyactswhenitdetectssomething
itconsiderstobeforeign.
Severalwaysthebodycanrespond,e.g.inflammation,phagocytosis,and
allergicresponse.
4.3Explainwhyorgantransplantsshouldtriggeranimmuneresponse:
Allanindividualscellsarerecognisedbytheimmunesystemasbelongingtothebodythebodyrecognisesitasself
Anyothersubstancesarerecognisedasnonselfforeign.
Atransplantedorgancontainssubstanceswhichtheimmunesystemrecognisesasbeingforeign.
ThesesubstanceactsasANTIGENS.
Thisstimulatesthebodytomakeantibodiesandothersubstanceswhichattackandcanpossiblydestroytheorgan.
4.4Identifydefenceadaptationsincluding:
Inflammationresponse
Involvesthedilationofthebloodvesselsaroundtheinfectedareamakingtheareaswollenandred.
Histaminesarereleasedtoincreasethepermeabilityofthebloodvesselssoantibodiesandwhitecellsmoveintothearea.
Paincanaccompanytheswelling.
Theincreasedheatmakesthetemperaturemoreunsuitableforbacterialenzymesandthereisanincreaseinthenumberof
phagocytes.
Phagocytosis
Involvesphagocyteswhichflowaroundparticles,surroundthemandreleaselysozymesenzymestobreakdownordigestthe
contentsintoharmlesswaste.
Somewhitebloodcells,calledmacrophagesandneutrophils,canveryeasilychangetheir
shapesothattheyflowaroundparticlesandcompletelyenclosethemwithintheircell,
wheretheyarebrokenupbycellenzymes.
Lymphsystem
Thelymphsystemfiltersthelymphfluidasittravelsthroughlymphnodes.
Atlymphnodes,foreignmaterialsandcancercellsaresurroundedbyphagocytosis.
Atlymphnodes,Bcellsmakeantibodiesagainstparticularpathogenantigensalready
recognisedbythebody.
Otherareasinthelymphsystemthattrapantigensarethespleen,thymusgland,tonsils.
Thelymphsystemreturnsintercellularfluidtothebloodsystem,filterscelldebrisand
produceswhitebloodcellsresponsiblefortheimmuneresponse.
Celldeathtosealoffpathogens
Somepathogensinvadecells,releasetoxinsandcauseuncontrolledcelldeath.
Thebodycanformgranulomaswhichareaclusterofcellsthatproduceacoveringtoseal
thepathogeninthatarea.
Macrophages,lymphocytesandahardcoveringsurroundthegranulomasothepathogen
canberemovedwhilethebodyisstillprotected.
4.5Gather,processandpresentinformationfromsecondarysourcestoshowhowthrushresultsfromanimbalanceofmicroflorain
humans.
Microflora(micro:small,flora:organisms)
Microorganismsthatliveonorinthebody,andusuallydonotcausedisease.
Livemainlyontheskin,andintheintestines,thecolon,themouthandthevagina.
Mostareoftenpartofthefirstlineofdefence,eg.theharmlessbacteriathatsecreteacidstodestroypathogens.
Thebodysuppliesthesemicrofloraswiththenutrientsandconditionstheyrequiretosurvive.Inreturn,thepresenceofthese
microflorainhibitsthegrowthandmultiplicationofmanypathogensbycompetition,thusprotectingthebodyfrom
contractingdiseases.
Iftheconditionsofthebodychange(foranyreason),thebalanceofmicrofloraisupset,thusthegrowthandmultiplicationof
theharmfulpathogensmaynotbecontrolled;thisleadstoanincreasenumber,anddevelopmentofdisease.
Thrush
Thrushisafungalinfectionofthemucousmembranesespeciallyinthemouthandvagina.
Itoftenoccursafterantibiotictreatmentforanotherdisease,whichcausesanimbalancein
microfloraandinturnfungalinfection.
Thetakingofcertainmedications,suchaswidespectrumantibiotics(whichcankillbeneficial
bacteria),orcontraceptivepills,canupsetthebalanceofmicroflorainthebody,whichcan
resultinanincreaseinthenumbersoftheCandidafungus,leadingtothrush.
Candidiasis (commonlyknownasthrush),isadiseasecausedbyanimbalanceinthe
numbersofthefungus,Candidaalbicans.
Thefungusisusuallykeptincheckfromcompetitionfromothermicrobessuchasbacteria
livinginthesamearea.
Theyareoftenpartofthefirstlineofdefencetheharmlessbacteriathatsecreteacidstodestroypathogensareanexample.
Itoftenoccursinthemouth,butcanspreadtothegastrointestinaltract,respiratorytractandthefemalereproductivetract.
Thefungusisusuallynaturallycontrolledthroughcompetitionwithothermicrobes(suchaslactobacilli),howevertheusageof
broadspectrumantibiotics(whichcankillbeneficialbacteria)andthecontraceptivepillcanupsetthebalanceofmicrofloraby
Candida
killingbacteriathat competeswith.Becausethereislittlecompetition,thenumbersrapidlyincrease,causingthrush.

5.MacFarlaneBurnetsworkinthemiddleofthetwentiethcenturycontributedtoabetterunderstandingofthe
immuneresponseandtheeffectivenessofimmunisationprograms
5.1Identifythecomponentsoftheimmuneresponse:
Name Whatitis Whatitdoes

Antibodies ProteinsthatthebodyproducesinthelymphnodesbyB Joinwithantigenssothattheyareclumpedtogether


cellswhenitdetectsantigens.Eachdifferentantigen andcanbemoreeasilyrecognisedanddestroyedby
stimulatestheproductionofitsownparticularantibody. macrophages
Immunoglobulins Antibodyantigenresponse
ProducedinthelymphnodesbyBcellsinresponseto

specificantigen

BCells Aspecialkindoflymphocyteproducedinthebonemarrow WhenaBcellrecognisesanantigen,itdivides


(thusBcell) repeatedlytoproduceamassofidenticalcells
ControlthehumoralbloodresponseBcellsinbloodand
(clones)thatworkasantibodyproducers(plasma
lymphactivatedbyantigens cells).
ProducedinresponsetohelperTactivationorbythe
presenceofantigens
ActivatedBcellsclonethemselvesandthen

differentiate
Intoplasmacellsthatsendantibodiesintothe
blood
ORintomemorycells
(Processoccursinlymphnodes)

TCells Anotherkindoflymphocyte,thatispassedthroughthe Someproducetoxicsubstancesthatdestroycellsthat


thymusgland(thusTcell) havebeeninvadedbyavirus.OthershelptheBcells
Cellmediatedimmunity: AntigenbindstoTcell todividerapidly.
activatingittomultiplydestroy
5.2Describeandexplaintheimmuneresponseinthehumanbodyintermsof:
InteractionbetweenBandTlymphocytes
HelperTcellsinitiatetheproductionofkillerTcellsandalsotheproductionofBcells.
PlasmaBcellsproduceantibodies.
ThenwhentheinfectionhasbeenovercomesuppressorTcellsstoptheproductionofbothkillerTcellsandBcells.
MechanismtoallowinteractionbetweenBandTlymphocytes
TopreventTcellsattackingBcellsasforeignthereareselfmoleculesonthesurfaceofBcells.
Tcellsrecognisetheselfmolecules.
HelperTcellssecreteinterleukinsthatchemicallybindtoBcellsorcausemorehelper
Tcellstodevelop,orencourageBcellstomakeantibodies.


5.3Outlinethewayinwhichvaccinationspreventinfection:
Avaccinecontainsantigensthatstimulatetheproductionofantibodiesandinducesacquiredimmunity.
Whenapersonreceivesavaccinetheyreceivetheantigentostimulatetheproductionofantibodies.
Thevaccinedoesnotproducethesymptomsorthedisease.
Boosterinjectionsincreasethenumberofmemorycellsandtheyassistimmunologicalmemory.
Activeimmunisation
Injectionofanantigen
StimulatesproductionofantibodiesandTandBmemorycellsspecifictothatantigen
Protectagainstmeasles,polioanddiphtheria
Passiveimmunisation
Injectionofantibodiesproducedbyotherorganisminresponsetoinfection
Shorttermprotection
Risk:stimulatingaggressiveresponse
Helpfulforimmediateprotection:peoplehavenoimmunitytodiseasetheyhave
5.4Process,analyseandpresentinformationfromsecondarysourcestoevaluatetheeffectivenessofvaccinationprogramsin
preventingthespreadandoccurrenceofoncecommondiseaseincludingsmallpox,diphtheriaandpolio:
Polio Diphtheria Smallpox

History DiseaseexistedinAncient 100yearsago,50%ofallthose FirstappearedinAsiaorAfricaaround


Egyptandkilledhundredsand infectedwithdiphtheriawoulddie 10000BCoSpreadaroundtheworldby
thousandsofpeopleinthe LargeepidemicsoccurredinEurope explorers,tradersandcrusades.
19thCentury afterWWII Responsiblefor1in10ofalldeathsin
Therateofpoliobeganto Therehavebeenrecentoutbreaksin Europeinthe19thCentury.
fallinthe20thCentury AlgeriaandChina ReachedAustraliain1789,withearly
Europeansettlers,andhadadevastating
effectonAboriginalcommunities.

Vaccination Thevaccinationwasfirst In1923,avaccinewasreleased EdwardJennerperformedthefirst


Programs introducedin1955 In1974theWHObegantoexpandits smallpoxvaccinationbyinoculatingpeople
Inthe1960sanoralformof immunisationprogramglobally withcowpox
thevaccinewasintroduced In1990,theworldwideimmunity ThevaccinewasusedbytheWHOona
andthepoliodiseasewas ratewas80% globalscalein1967
broughtundercontrol TheWHOroutinelyimmunisedpeople
In1988theWHObeganan withthevaccine,providedsupplementary
immunisationcampaign vaccinationsandcarefullysupervised
Thenumberofcases areaswiththepotentialforinfections
droppedby80%in1990 In1980,theWHOannouncedtheworld
Goodvaccinepractices freeofsmallpox

Evaluationof Despitewidespreadsuccess Thevaccineprogramreducedthe Sincethevaccinationprogramsresulted


Effectiveness inpoliocontrol,therearestill spreadofthediseasefromcyclic inthecompleteeradicationofthedisease
smallbreakoutsinaround70 academicstosomebreakoutsoflow fromtheplanet,itcanbesaidthatthe
countries. density programswereextremelyeffective.
Polioinfectionrateshave Therateofimmunityishigh,the
beensuccessfullycontrolled diseaseisstillpresentindeveloping
andreducedby80% countriesandhasnotyetbeen
eradicated
5.5
Outlinethereasonsforthesuppressionoftheimmuneresponseinorgantransplants:
Transplantorgansstimulatesimmuneresponsetissueproteinsofonepersonnotthesameasanother(exceptfortwinsor
closelyinbredstrains)
Beforetransplantdonorandrecipientverycloselymatchedtohavesimilarmajorhistocompatibilitycomplexes(MHCs)
hundredssohardtomatch
Bodyidentifiesasforeign
Tcellsmaincellresponsibleforrejectionoftransplantedorgans
Patientsgivenpowerfulimmunosuppressivedrugssuppressimmuneresponseinordertohelptransplantedorganliveand
becomeapartofbody
Sideeffects:Diabetes,renalimpairment,susceptibilitytoinfection
MacfarlaneBurnet
Contributiontounderstandingofimmunologicalresponses
Oneofthefoundersofimmunology
Isolatedstrainsofvirusestodevelopvaccines
Investigatedhowtheimmuneresponsefunctions

6.Epidemiologicalstudiesinvolvethecollectionandcarefulstatisticalanalysisoflargequantitiesofdata.Such
studiesassistthecausalidentificationofnoninfectiousdiseases
6.1Identifyanddescribethemainfeaturesofepidemiologyusinglungcancerasanexample:
Epidemiologyisthestudyofthediseasesthataffectmanypeople.Itdescribesthepatternsandcauseofdiseasesin
populations.
Tobevalidtheymust
Focusonlargegroupsofpeopleratherthanindividualsandrelatetoatargetpopulationthatcanbeidentified.
Thisallowsstatisticstobeusedtoidentifytrendsandpossiblecausativefactors.
Usepopulationswherethereisoccurrenceofthediseaseandwherethereareunequalexposurestothesuspectedorpossible
causes.
Noconclusionsabouttheeffectofsmokingcouldbedrawnfromagroupofpeoplewhoeachsmoke20cigarettesaday
Allowforanalysisoffactorsthatmightcontributetotheoccurrenceofthediseaseamongthoseafflicted,suchasage,sex,
ethnicgroup,andoccupation.
Therearethreemajortypesofepidemiologicalstudies:
1.Descriptive:showspatternsinthewaysdiseaseshappentobedistributedinpopulations.
2.Analytical:areplannedinvestigationswhichareusedtotesthypothesis.
3.Intervention:Thismeasurestheeffectivenessandthesafetyofcertainintervention.
Theepidemiologicalstudiesconcerninglungcancerareagoodexamplethestudiesrangeovermanydecades,startingfrom
the1950s,whenlevelsoflungcancerfirstbegantobecomenoticeable.
Thepeoplesurveyedinthestudiescamefromawiderangeofages,fromWWIveteranswhohadstartedsmokingbecause
theyweregivenfreecigarettestothewaveofwomenwhohadbeguntotakeupsmokinginthe1970s.
Thestudieshaveshownthatthereisastrongcorrelationbetweensmokingandlungcancer.
Threewaysepidemiologicalstudiesaredone:
1. Randomisedtrials


2. CohortStudies


e.g.DollandHillstudy1951
QuestionnairesenttoallBritishdoctorstodeterminesmokinghabits
Over25years,deathcertificateswerecollectedfromthegroup
Diseasesrecordedoncertificateslinkedtosmokinghabits
Causeeffectrelationshipfoundbetweensmokers&lungcancercases
Deathrateforlungcancerinsmokersmuchgreaterthannonsmokers
3. Casecontrolstudy


e.g.DollandHill1947study
Todetermineiftherewasalinkbetweensmokingandlungcancer
Lookedathospitalpatientswithdifferenttypesofcancerandthosewithnocancer
Findingsshowedthatcigarettesmokershadmorelungcancerthannonsmokers
6.2Gather,processandanalyseinformationtoidentifythecauseandeffectrelationshipofsmokingandlungcancer:
Dataisanalysedandmanyreportsareavailabletothepublic,e.g.theNSWHealth
Department'sreportsoncausesofdeathanddeathduetosmokinginNSW.
Nowitisgenerallyrecognisedthatthereisalinkwithsmokingandlungcancer,e.g.
legislationforthelargeprintnoticesandgruesomepicturesoncigarettepackets.
Moststatisticsshowadecreaseinthetotalnumberofsmokerinthepopulationthatrelates
topeoplegivingupratherthanpeoplenotbeginningsmoking.
Smokingisnowlinkedwithcertainagegroups,occupationsandconsumptionofalcohol.
6.3Identifycausesofnoninfectiousdiseaseusinganexamplefromeachofthefollowingcategories:
Noninfectiousdiseasesarenotcausedbypathogens.
Theyarenottransmittedfromoneorganismtoanother.
InheritedDiseases:
Thesediseasesarecausedbygeneandchromosomeabnormalities.
Theyaretransmittedbyreproduction.
Theycanbeminordisorders,suchasmyopiaorserioussuchashaemophilia.
E.g.DownSyndromeisaninheriteddiseasethatiscausedbytheinheritanceofoneextrachromosome(trisomy21).
PeoplewithDownsyndromehaveacharacteristicappearanceandmayhaveashortenedlifespan.Motherswhohavechildren
laterinlifearemorepronetoproduceDownsyndromechildren.
NutritionalDiseases:
Thesearecausedbyincorrectorinsufficientdiets.
Itcanbeovereating(obesity)orundernourishment(anorexia).
E.g.ScurvyThisdiseaseiscausedbythelackofvitaminCinthediet.Itcausesswellingofbodypartsandteethstarttofall
out.
EnvironmentalDisease:
Manyfactorsintheenvironmentcancausedisease
Theyincluderadiation,heavymetals,pollution,etc
E.g.Asthmathisdiseaseiswherethemusclesintheairwayscontractandcancauseseverebreathingdifficulties.Causes
includepollution,pollen,duststorms,humidity,andmanyotherenvironmentalfactors.
6.4Identifydatasources,planandperformafirsthandinvestigationorgatherinformationfromsecondarysourcestoanalyseand
presentinformationabouttheoccurrence,symptoms,cause,treatment/managementofanamednoninfectiousdisease:
Scurvy
nutritionaldisease Skincancer
environmentaldisease DownSyndrome
inheriteddisease

Occurrence Rarelypresentinadults, causedbyexposuretoUVradiation Approximately1per733livebirths


althoughinfantsandelderly inthesunlight.
moresusceptible.Still
widespreadinthirdworld
countries.
Symptoms Vitamincisneededforthebody crusty,nonhealingsores Lowerthanaveragementalability
tomakeconnectivetissue.When smalllumpsthatarered,paleor Almondshapedeyes
connectivetissuearoundthe pearlyincolour Shorterlimbs
teethcannotbemadeor newspots,frecklesordrymoles Speechimpairment
repaired,gumsstarttobleed. changingincolour,thicknessor Enlargedtongue
Spotsonskin shapeoveraperiodofweeksto Highriskofheartfailure
Spongygums months.

Cause CausedbyVitaminC(ascorbic Solariums Trisomyitisageneticdiseasethatis


acid)deficiency. Tanningandsunburns causedbythepresenceofanextra
chromosomeinthe21stposition.

Treatmentor Canbepreventedbyadequate removalofskincancers,screening Specialcareinmanyareasoflife,


management vitamincintakebyeatingfoods treatmentwithointmentor includingeating,washingandgeneral
richinvitaminC(citrusfruits). radiationtherapy,cryotherapyor hygiene
SimplytreatedwithVitaminC cautery Physiotherapymaybeneeded,as
intake. preventionthroughslip,slop,slap childrenbornwithDownsyndromehave
protectiveclothing, weakenedmuscles,andshorterarms
sunscreen,hat,seeking andlegs
shade,sunglasses

7.Increasedunderstandinghasledtothedevelopmentofawiderangeofstrategiestopreventandcontroldisease
7.1DiscusstheroleofquarantineinpreventingthespreadofdiseaseandplantsandanimalsintoAustralia:
Quarantineisthecontrollingoftheimportorexportofanimals,plants,andotherproductsforthepurposeofcontrollingthe
spreadofdisease.
TheRoleofQuarantine:
Protectsthehealthofthehuman,animalandplantpopulationsofAustralia.
PreventstheentryofforeignpestsandcontagiousdiseasesintoAustralia.
Quarantinelawspreventtheentryofitemsconsideredarisk.
Importantanimalsfaceatimeinisolationtoensurenodiseaseispresent.
Livingplantsarealsoquarantinedtomakesuretheyarenotcarryingpestsor
sufferingfromanyinfectiousdisease.
Plantseedsareexaminedtocheckthatnoweedseedsarepresent.
Usedvehiclesandagriculturalmachineryareinspectedandcleanedtoensureno
soil/plantmatterentersthecountry.
7.2Explainhowoneofthefollowingstrategieshascontrolledand/orpreventeddisease:
Publichealthprograms:
Theseprovidequarantine,sanitation,safedrinkingwaterandimmunisation.
TheyarealsoresponsibleforadvertisingcampaignsthattargetcancerandAIDS.
ExamplesofsuccessfulhealthcampaignsaretheSlip!Slop!Slap!Skincanceradvertisements,theadvertisementsthatshow
variousdiseasesthatcanbecausedbysmokingandtheGrimReaperseriesforeducationaboutAIDS.
Pesticides:
Pesticides,suchasDDT,havebeenusedtodestroymosquitoes,whicharethevectorsofsomediseases,suchasmalariaand
denguefever.
Exampleofastrategytocontrolorpreventdiseaseisthepesticidecontrolofthediseasemalaria.
AdultmosquitoescanbedestroyedbychemicalssuchasDDT.
In1956,theWorldHealthOrganisationwasresponsibleforamajorcampaignusingaresidualformofDDT.
DDThasbeenbannedinmanycountriesoftheworldbecauseofitsharmfulecologicaleffects,butitisstillusedformosquito
eradicationinmalarialareas.Thishasridmanyareasoftheworldfrommalariabuthasunfortunatelynotreduceditglobally
andmalariaisstillamajorkillerofchildrentoday.ManyareashaveDDTresistantmosquitoes.
Geneticengineeringtoproducediseaseresistantplantsandanimals:
Geneticallyengineeredplantscannowkilltheirownpestsbecauseoftheinsertionofagenefromasoilbacterium,Bacillus
thuringiensis(Bt).
BtcottonwasthefirstgeneticallyengineeredcropgrowninAustralia.
Thebacteriacontainsagenethatproduceschemicalsthatkillcertaininsects.
Bytakingthatgenefromthebacteriaandinsertingintothegenomeofplants,theplantsnowproducethechemicalthatwill
killinsectpests.
7.3Processandanalyseinformationfromsecondarysourcestoevaluatetheeffectivenessofquarantineinpreventingthespreadof
plantandanimaldiseaseintoAustraliaoracrossregionsofAustralia:
BecauseofAustraliasstrictquarantinelaws(AQIS),Australianplantsandanimalsdonothavesomeoftheseriousdisease
foundinothercountries,suchasfootandmouthdisease,madcowdiseaseandrabies.
Animaldiseasethat hasnotenteredAustraliaFootandmouthdisease:
Ahighlycontagiousmusclewastingdiseaseofclovenhoofedanimalssuchascows,sheepandgoat.
Symptomsincludefever,drooling,lethargyandblistersonmouth,tongue,lips,hoovesandfeet
Itiscausedbyanairbornevirusitisspreadnotonlybyliveanimalsbutalsobythecarcass,andalsoinsoilandequipment.
Quarantineregulationshaspreventedtheentryofthisdiseaseifanoutbreakdidoccur,itwouldcostbillionsofdollarsin
loss.I.e.InspectionofpeopleandcargoatallpointsofentryintoAustraliaandthepreventionofentryofclovenhoofed
animalsandtheirproductsensuresthatanyitemsthatcouldpotentiallyharbourthepathogenresponsibleisrefusedentry,
thusreducingthechanceoffootandmouthdiseaseenteringthecountry.
Australiahasbeenfreeoffootandmouthdiseasesince1872duetoourstrictandhighlysuccessfulquarantinesystem.
Plantdiseasethat hasnotenteredAustraliaCitrusgreeningdisease:
Diseaseofcitruscausedbyavectortransmittedpathogen
Symptomsinclude;yellowingoftheveinsandadjacenttissue,blotchymottlingoftheentireleaf.
Affectedtreeshavestuntedgrowth,bearmultipleoffseasonflowers(mostofwhichfalloff),and
producesmall,irregularlyshapedfruitwithathick,palepeelthatremainsgreenatthebottomand
tastesverybitter.
rapidremovalofinfectedtreesistheonlywaytostopthespreadofthebacteriaresponsible.I.e.
inspectionofallmaterialsbroughtintoAustraliaatentrypointswithconfiscationofallsuspect
itemstheriskofpathogenorthepestthatcarriesitenteringAustraliaisgreatlyreduced.
E.g.PreventingspreadofdiseaseacrossregionsofAustraliaFruitflies
Quarantinemeasureshavebeenimplementedthatforbidthemovementoffruitacrossstateborders.
Thesemeasuresareinplacetocontrolthespreadoffruitflies,whichcauseseveredamagetofruitcrops
suchasbananas.
ThereistheMediterraneanfruitflyinWesternAustralia,andtheQueenslandfruitfly,ineasternAustralia.
TheNorthernTerritory,SouthAustraliaandTasmaniadonothavethesepests,becauseofquarantine
measures.
Overall,quarantinepracticeshavebeengreatlyeffective.
Duetotherigorousimplementationofquarantinepractices,mostdiseasesandpestshavenotbeenbroughttoAustralia.
7.4Performaninvestigationtoexamineplantshootsandleavesandgatherfirsthandinformationofevidenceofpathogensandinsect
pests:
Aim: Toobserveplantshootsandleavesanddetectevidenceofpathogensandinsectpests
Method: Collectarangeofgardenplantsandobserveusingmicroscope
Results:
OldLillyPilly: lumpsonleavescalledpimplegalldeformedgrowth
KangarooPawPlants :blackinkymarksonleavesevidenceoffungusthatoccursinmoistconditions
Conclusion: Discolourationofleaves,deformationofleaves,irregularshapedleaves,furywhitegrowthonbase
ofshootsevidenceofinsectsandpathogens

7.5Gatherandprocessinformationanduseavailableevidencetodiscussthechangingmethodsofdealingwith
plantandanimaldiseases,includingtheshiftinemphasisfromtreatmentandcontroltomanagementorpreventionofdisease:
ShiftfromTREATMENTANDCONTROLTOMANAGEMENTORPREVENTION
Therehasbeenashiftfromwaitingforadiseasetooccur>topreventingtheoccurrenceofadisease
beforeitinfects
Agriculture:geneticallyresistantcropsaregrowndonthavetospraypesticidesfordiseaseslaterinlife
AnimalandplantdiseasesmanagedbyAustralianquarantinerestrictions
Diseasese.g.footandmouth,rabiesmanagedbynotallowinginfectedorganisms
Worldwideimmunisationagainstsmallpoxdiseaseeradicated
ExamplesInclude:
Plants:BTCottonplantsweresprayedwithpesticidestokillthecaterpillarsthatwereresponsibleforeatingtheirleavesand
dramaticallyreducingtheyieldingofcotton.Cottonplantshavenowbeengeneticallyengineeredtoproduceanaturalinsecticide
thatkillsthecaterpillarlarvaeandpreventstheleavesbeingeaten.Nopesticideisrequired.
Animals:Cardiovasculardiseasecanbetreatedusingsurgeryanddrugs.Publiceducationprogramsarenowinplacetoencourage
lifestylechangesthatwouldpreventtheoccurrenceofthediseaseinthefirstplace.

Measuresthat
treat Advantages Disadvantages

Pesticides Destroyorganismsthatdamagecropsor Organismscouldformresistancetodiseasewhichwould


gardenplants,orcausediseasesinanimals. provetheireventualineffectiveness.
Biologicalcontrol Controlpestsusingotherlivingorganisms Pestmaybecomeresistanttotheparasiteororganism
doesntharmenvironment

Medication Eradicatediseasesthroughtopicalortablet Withoverusepeoplecouldformresistancetoantibiotics,


(Antibiotics) form andthereforewemayrunoutofantibiotics

Measuresthat Advantages Disadvantages


managesorprevents

Publichealthprograms Helpsmaintaindiseasefreecommunities Onlypromote


e.ggarbagecollection Notlegallybindingorcompulsory

Transgenicplant Plantsareautomaticallyresistanttopests Novariationinthepopulation


species anddisease

Quarantinerestrictions Preventspreadofdiseasebypreventionof Peoplemightfinditannoying


organismsinfectedwithfootandmouth,or Ownershavetoabandontheiranimals
rabies,fromenteringthecountry