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We would like to express our special thanks to our teacher Mihiret who gave us
this opportunity to do this project on AASTU cafeteria solid waste management, which
also helped us on how to work on a project. We came to know so many things related to
the course and we are really thankful about them.
Secondly we would like to thank our friends and teachers who helped us a lot in
finalizing this project within the given period of time.

This project attempts to deal with solid waste management in our campus
cafeteria. Food waste is an enormous contributor to the municipal waste stream, and its
generation has significant immediate and long-term economic as well as environmental
consequences. Food waste is particular interest to university administrators because
nationally the cost of waste disposal has increased in recent years, and will likely only
continue to increase. Additionally, there is a trend amongst universities towards reducing
dining hall waste.
This paper will cover four main components:
A portion of this paper discuss a potential option for reducing the pre-consumer
waste generated in our dining halls by contracting with an external company specializing
in waste reduction techniques.
Next, we tried to list out how the dining hall in AASTU works with topic related
to solid waste management.

Finally, we will conclude our paper with a detailed discussion of recommendations we

would like to make to the university based on our research, which include:
Performing complete waste audits in cafeteria
Encouraging AASTU to develop a university-wide culture of sustainability with a focus
on waste reduction,
Encouraging AASTU to focus on educating our student body about this importance by
expanding information, communication, and publicity about waste reduction and
Educating student consumers of AASTU dining services about the vast amount of waste
that is generated from their meals.
Placing permanent signage in dining halls as a reminder not to waste food.

What is solid waste?
Solid waste means any garbage, refuses, sludge from a waste treatment plant,
water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded
materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material, resulting from
industrial commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community
activities, but does not include solid or dissolved materials in domestic sewage, or solid
or dissolved materials in the irrigation return flows or industrial discharges.
Types of solid waste
Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source:

Source Types of solid wastes

Residential Food wastes, textile, leather and household waste

Industrial Chemical wastes, ashes, packaging waste, hazardous
Commercial Paper, glass, metal, plastics
Agriculture Agricultural wastes, hazardous wastes(pesticides)
Construction Concrete, wood, steel

Solid waste management

Solid waste management is the generation, prevention, characterization,
monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse and residual disposition of solid wastes.
Waste management is the process of treating solid wastes and offers variety of
solutions for recycling items that dont belong to trash. It is about how garbage can be
used as a variable resource. Solid wastes can be treated in different technologies like
composting, Incineration, Landfill, Recycling and windrow composting.
Waste Collection
Waste from our homes is generally collected by our local authorities through regular
Waste Ca0ollection, or by special collections for recycling. Within hot climates such as
that of the Caribbean the waste should be collected at least twice a week to control fly
breeding, and the harboring of other pests in the community. Other factors to consider
when deciding on frequency of collection are the odors caused by decomposition and the
accumulated quantities.

To work on the impact and prevention methods of solid waste that are disposed
from Addis Abeba science and technology university cafeteria by applying different
How is AASTUs cafeteria waste management?
AASTU cafeteria waste management is not well administrated. Solid wastes like
food waste, paper, toilet papers, household waste and kitchen waste are just collected and
stored in solid waste container then the government will collect the waste from the
container. In AASTU there are three solid waste containers with a volume of 8m 3. When
the day of collection comes up they just grab all the wastes together as one and put them
to the place where the city designed to be disposed. The government institute that collects
the waste materials of AASTU took action every 3 days up to a week because the
container got filled a volume 8m3 every three days. The location gap between the waste
container and the cafeteria is like 100-150m which is very near to the cafeteria
environment. Wastes that have been stored in the container stays for about 3-5 days. This
causes bad smell to the environment and health problem to the students that are near to
the container.
As we collected data from the cafeteria administrators the number of students that
use governmental cafe are 4200 and the food consumption besides this is 5400 injera per
day. We couldnt find any data or information on the number of wasted injera per day
because of poor administration system.


Solid waste that is generated at the cafeteria is because of inefficient management
at the cafeteria itself. The lack of awareness of the cafeterias stuff about the solid waste
also can be the contribution of inefficient management. This matter will relate to the
increasing amount of solid wastes that is generated at the cafeterias.
For this study the improper handling of the solid waste in the cafeteria will have
effect on the human health and the environment. The improper handling of solid waste
that is produced by the cafeteria results the promotion of microorganisms that can cause
disease and health hazard such as common cold and fever. Beside that the improper
handling of solid waste cause the undesirable odor which affect the environment of the

Minimization and controlling method

Avoidance or Solid Waste minimizing methods
Sustainable Disposal of Waste
This process calls for collection of pre-consumer fresh meals which are stored in
storage container that could be given to charity association.
Portion Control / Plate Size / Sustainable Menu Planning

AASTU dining hall is self-serve, so that students can select their own portions,
based on how hungry they are, so that they do not waste food. They are able to choose
just the right amount of food for their appetite, and they are always welcome to come
back for additional portions if they are still hungry.
Educating Students on Waste Reduction & Prevention / Increasing Awareness
Among Students

Education will prove to be a major contributor to the success of any dining

services waste prevention/reduction program. AASTU dining services should begin
actively educating students about the amount of food waste they generate and request
ideas for change. Because there is such a disconnect between food consumption and food
waste in Ethiopian culture, it is necessary that student consumers become aware of the
degree to which their food purchasing/consumption patterns greatly contribute to the
waste that is generated in AASTUs dining halls . AASTU should provide students with data
about the amount of food wasted in dining halls so that they can positively affect
students food and portion choices, thus creating the potential for less waste generation.
This could be achieved through a variety of means, but we recommend the following
routes be explored:
AASTU dining services should provide educational materials on waste prevention
(e.g., posters) in dining halls.
AASTU dining services should attempt to communicate to student consumers the
connection between food waste and higher operating costs and, ultimately, higher
food plan prices.
AASTU dining service employees could consider meeting with students and
requesting their ideas on the reasons for food waste and ways to prevent it.

Waste disposal method

Compositing: which is easy and natural bio degradation process that takes organic
wastes like ``kitchen wastes and turn into nutrients rich in food for your plant. It is
allowing organic materials to sit in one place for months until microbes
decompose it and its one of the best method of waste disposal as it can turn unsafe
organic products into safe compost. This fertilizers leads AASTU to be green by
Waste to energy (recovery energy): it involves converting of non-recyclable
wastes like kitchen and dining hall waste items into useable heat, electricity or
fuel through a variety of process. This may lead AASTU to minimize the bill of
In conclusion, we feel that waste generation in our campus dining halls is a
serious issue that needs to be addressed by Addis Abeba science and Technology
University, at all levels of our institution. After completing our project, it is apparent that
reducing food waste is not only a significant issue at AASTU but also nationally. Food
waste problems can only be expected to be worse within the near future. This is in part
due to a growing population as well as increasing food security issues tied to global
climate change. With increasing amounts of food waste in the Ethiopia, a considerable
strain could be put upon resources, such as fresh water and land, as well as the
environment as whole. Factors such as these make it an important point to begin planning
on how to deal with food waste campus wide.
Practices such as listed above could be implanted in order to reduce waste in the
cafeterias. By conducting food audits the university would gain information on the waste
habits of students. This could be used not only for projects implemented in the future but
also to educate those who are currently attending AASTU about their waste habits, their
effects, and ways to not waste as much. By focusing attention on food waste and creating
a plan to deal with it, AASTU could become a model throughout the nation in regards to
food waste and how it is dealt with it in a sustainable manor.

Addis Ababa science and technology universities (AASTU) is one of the
two science and technology universities located akaki kality sub region
at kilinto .It was established on May 11, 2011 From the time
establishment up to now this university has no any solid waste removal
technology, which is disposed from dorm, cafeteria, lounge, class,
clinic and etc. that causes different problems for the community of
AASTU.The waste that is disposed from AASTUs caf is considered as
institutional solid waste management.
On this sub title we try to give some information about our paper
target site, which solid waste management in AASTU cafeteria and we
proceed to provided suggested mitigation measures.