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Forensic Ballistics

most commonly the earths atmosphere.


Forensic ballistics - is the science of analyzing
firearms usage in crimes. It involves analysis of bullets
4. Terminal ballistic - is the study of the
and bullets impact to determine information of use to a
interaction of a projectile with its target.
court or other part of legal system. Separately from the
ballistics information, firearm and tool mark
examinations also involves analyzing firearm, Colonel Calvin Hooker Goddard - father of forensic
ammunition and tool mark evidence in order to ballistic.
established whether a certain firearm or tool was used
in the commission of crime. Some Factors to be Considered in designing a
Firearm
Ballistics -(ballein "to throw") - is the science of 1. reliability of firing
mechanics that deals with the flight, behavior and 2. accuracy of projectile
effects of projectiles especially bullet, gravity bombs, 3. force of projectile
rockets or the like. 4. speed of firing

Ballistic missile - is a missile, only guided during the Characteristics of a Muzzle Loader Firearm
relative brief initial powered phase of flight whose 1. powder and bullet loaded from top of the barrel
course is subsequently governed by the laws of classical 2. smooth bore with a round lead ball.
mechanics. 3. limited range and accuracy

Flight - is the process by which an object moves Accuracy is Increased


through an atmosphere by generating aerodynamic lift, 1. by longer bore or length of metal tube
propulsive thrust, aerostatically using buoyancy or by 2. putting spiral grooves in the bore (riffling)
ballistic movement without any direct solid mechanical
support from the ground. Breech loading firearm - is a firearm in which the
cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber
Firearms identification - the identification of fired integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
bullets, cartridge cases or other ammunition
components as having been fired from a specific Sir Hiram Maxim - an American inventor of the
firearm. machine gun or the maxim gun.

Rifling - is the process of making helical grooves in the Richard Gatling - inventor of the Gatling gun, a
barrel of a gun or firearm which imparts a spin to a machine gun with a six barrel capable of firing 200
projectile around its long axis. This spin stabilize the rounds per minute at the earliest stages of
projectile, improving its stability and accuracy. development.

Projectile - is any object projected into space by the Gatling Gun - a hand driven, crank operated multi
exertion of a force. barrel machine gun.

Trajectory - is the path that a moving object follows note: velocities of bullets are increased with the use of a
through space as a function of time. jacket of a metal such as copper or copper alloys that
covers a lead core and allow the bullet to glide down the
Firearm - is a weapon that launches one or many barrel more easily than exposed lead. Such bullets are
projectiles at high velocity through confined burning of a less likely to fragment on impact and are more likely to
propellant. traverse through a target while imparting less energy.

Ballistic fingerprinting - involves analyzing firearm, Fouling - deposits of unburned powder residue in the
ammunition and tool mark evidence in order to establish bore of a gun.
whether a certain firearm or tool was used in the
commission of a crime. What is the indispensable tool of the firearm
examiner? comparison microscope.
Gun ballistic - is the work of projectile from the time of
shooting to the time of impact with the target. Firearms Terminology
1. Action - the part of the firearm that loads, fires,
Four categories of gun ballistics and ejects a cartridge. Includes lever action, pump
action, bolt action, and semi-automatic. The first
1. Internal/interior ballistic - the study of the three are found in weapons that fire a single shot.
processes originally accelerating the projectile. Firearms that can shoot multiple rounds "repeaters"
example - the passage of a bullet through the include all these types of actions but only the semi-
barrel of a rifle. automatic does not require manual operation
between rounds. A truly automatic action is found
on a machine gun.
2. Transition/intermediate ballistic - the study of 2. Barrel - the metal tube through which the bullet
the projectiles behavior when it leaves the is fired.
barrel and the pressure behind the projectile is 3. Black Powder - the old form of gun powder
equalized. invented over a thousand years ago and consisting
of nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur.
3. External/exterior ballistic - the study of the 4. Bore - the inside of the barrel.
passage of the projectile through a medium, 5. Breech - the end of the barrel attach to the action
6. Bullets - is a projectile propelled by firearm, sling, the barrel left after the spiral grooves are cut to
air gun. They are shaped or composed differently for produce the rifling.
a variety of purposes. 19. Magazine - this is a device for storing cartridges
in a repeating firearm for loading into the chamber.
20. Magnum - for rifles and handguns, an improved
round nose - the end of the bullet is blunted.
version of a standard cartridge which uses the
same caliber and bullets, but has more powder,
hollow point - there is a central cavity in the giving the fired bullet more energy. For shotgun
bullet nose not covered by a metal jacket that loads, magnum shells have more powder and may
creates expansion when a target is struck, have increased length with more shot pellets.
creating more damage. 21. Muzzle - the end of the barrel out of which the
bullet comes.
22. Pistol - synonym for a handgun that does not
action 4 - hollow point projectile made of non-
have a revolving cylinder.
fragmenting brass with radiopaque plastic tip.
23. Powder - modern gun cartridges use smokeless
powder that is relatively stable, of uniform quality,
hydra-Shock - hollow point projectile with soft and leaves little residue when ignited. For centuries
deformable anterior and hard posterior core. black powder was used and was quite volatile
(ignited at low temperature or shock),was
composed of irregularly sized grains, and left a
Jacketed - the soft lead is surrounded by
heavy residue after ignition, requiring frequent
another metal, usually copper, that allows the
cleaning of bore.
bullet to penetrate a target more easily.
24. Primer - a volatile substance that ignites when
struck to detonate the powder in a cartridge.
wad-cutter - the front of the bullet is
flattened. Rimfire cartridges - have primer inside the
base.
semi-wad-cutter - intermediate between
round nose and wad-cutter. Centerfire cartridges - have primer in a hole
in the middle of the base of the cartridge case.
7. Butt or Buttstock - the portion of the gun which
is held or shouldered.
25. Revolver - handgun that has a cylinder with
8. Caliber - the diameter of the bore measured from
holes to contain the cartridges. The cylinder
land to land, usually expressed in hundredths of an
revolves to bring the cartridge into position to be
inch (.22 cal) or in millimeters (9mm).
fired. This is a single action when the hammer
9. Cartridge - also called a round - packages the
must be cocked before the trigger can fire the weapon.
bullet, propellant and primer into a single unit within
It is double action when pulling the trigger both
a containing metallic case that is precisely made to
cock and fires the gun.
fit within the firing chamber of a firearm.
26. Riffling - the spiral grooves cut inside a gun
barrel that give the bullet a spinning motion. The
Parts of a cartridge
metal between the grooves is called a land.
a. bullet
27. Rimfire - the cartridge has the primer distributed
b. case/shell
around the periphery of the base.
c. powder
28. Safety - a mechanism of an action to prevent
d. primer
firing of the gun.
29. Shotgun - a gun with a smooth bore that shoots
10. Centerfire - the cartridge contains the primer in
cartridges that contain "shot" or small metal pellets
the center of the base where it can be struck by
of lead or steel as the projectiles.
firing pin of the action.
30. Smoothbore weapons - have no riflings,
11. Chamber - the portion of the action that holds
typically shotguns. Most handguns and rifles have
the cartridge ready for firing.
riflings.
12. Choke - a constriction of a shotgun bore at the
31. Sights - the device on top of the barrel that allow
muzzle that determines the pattern of the fired
the gun to be aimed.
shot.
32. Silencer - a device that fits over the muzzle of
13. Double Action - Pulling the trigger both cocks
the barrel to muffle the sound of a gunshot. Most
the hammer and fires the gun.
work by baffling the escape of gases.
14. Double Barrel - two barrels side by side or one
33. Single Action - the hammer must be manually
on top of the other usually on a shotgun.
cocked before the trigger can be pulled to fire the
15. Gauge - refers to the diameter of the barrel on a
gun
shotgun in terms of the number of lead balls the
34. Smokeless Powder - refers to modern gun
size of the bore it would take to weigh one pound
powder which is not really powder but flakes or
(10 gauge,12 gauge etc.) "410" gauge really refer
nitrocellulose and other substances. Not really
to caliber, but it is worded as such to refer to a
smokeless but much less so than black powder.
shotgun.
35. Stock - a wood, metal, or plastic frame that holds
16. Hammer - a metal rod or plate that typically
the barrel and action and allows the gun to be held
drives a firing pin to strike the cartridge primer to
firmly.
detonate the powder.
17. Ignition - the way in which powder is ignited. Old
Composition of Gunpowder
muzzle loading weapons used flintlock or
1. Sulfur
percussion caps. Modern guns use primers that are
2. Charcoal
rimfire or centerfire.
3. Saltpeter (potassium nitrate)
18. Lands and Grooves - lands are the metal inside
- gun powder first appeared in china but used
primarily in firecrackers. Automatic action - a firearm design that feeds
cartridges, fires, and ejects cartridge cases as long as
Different Firing Mechanisms of Firearm the trigger is fully depressed and there are cartridges
1. Matchlock - employed a burning wick on a spring available in the feed system.
that was "locked" back and released into a pan of
powder upon pulling a trigger. The powder in the Auto-safety - a locking device on some firearms
pan then ignited, sending flame through a small designed to return to the on or safe position when the
hole into the barrel chamber of the weapon, firearm is opened.
igniting a larger powder charge in the chamber and
sending the projectile (bullet) forward. Azo dye - a result of the Griess test where nitrates from
2 Wheellock - in the early 16th century, improvement gunpowder residues are converted to an orange-red
included the wheellock mechanism in which a dye. Ball ammunition - military small arms ammunition
spinning wheel against a metal plate showered with full metal jacket bullets, also known as hard ball.
sparks into the pan holding the priming powder. Ballistics - the study of a projectile in motion, following
3. Flintlock - developed in the early 17th century, the projectile travel from primer ignition to barrel exit,
flint is released by the trigger mechanism that to target entry and until motion is stopped.
strikes a steel plate to shower sparks into the pan
filled with powder. Ballistics, exterior - The study of the motion of the
4. Percussion - evolved in the 19th century, projectile after it leaves the barrel of the firearm.
consisted of a hammer that was locked and when
released, struck a cap containing a volatile Ballistics, Interior - the study of the motion of the
"primer" that ignites on impact, sending a flame projectile within the firearm from the moment of
through a small tube into the barrel chamber. ignition until it leaves the barrel.

Ballistics, terminal - the study of the projectiles


Forensic Ballistics Definition of Terms
impact on the target.

Acetone - The simplest ketone. A solvent for gun Barium - alkaline earth metal with chemical symbol Ba,
powder. A highly flammable, water-soluble solvent. atomic number 56.Present as barium nitrate in the
primer.
Action - the action of the gun consists of all the moving
parts that facilitate the loading, firing, discharging of the Barium nitrate - a common oxidizer of the primer
empty case and unloading of the gun. compound used in gun cartridges.

Action, revolver - a firearm, usually a handgun with a Barrel - that part of a firearm through which a
cylinder having several chambers so arrange as to projectile travels under the impetus of powder gases,
rotate around an axis and be discharge successively by compressed air, or other like means, may be rifled or
the same firing mechanism. smooth.

Action, semi-automatic - a repeating firearm BB - air rifle projectile of 0.177 in. diameter or a
requiring a separate pull of the trigger for each shot shotgun pellet of 0.18 in. diameter.
fired and which uses the energy of discharge to perform
a portion of the operating or firing cycle (usually the BBB shot - shotgun pellet of 0.19 in. diameter.
loading portion).
Beretta - is an Italian firearms manufacturer. It is the
Actuator - part of the firing mechanism in certain oldest active firearms manufacturer in the world.
automatic firearms that slides forward and back in
preparing each cartridge to be fired. Also, called trigger Beveling - (external or internal) defects that occur
actuator. when a projectile pass through a flat bone. The
perforation in the bone is typically larger and more cone
Ammunition - one or more loaded cartridges consisting shaped as the bullet passes from the entrance through
of a primed case, propellant and with one or more the bone to the exit.
projectiles.
Bipod - is an attachment for a weapon that creates a
Anvil marks - microscopic marks impressed on steady plane for whatever it may be attached.
the forward face of the rim of a rimfire cartridge case as A two-legged rest or stand as for rifle or
it is forced against the breech end of the barrel by the machine gun.
firing pin. These marks are characteristic of the breech
under the firing pin and have been used to identify Black powder - the earliest form of propellant. It is a
firearm. mechanical mixture of potassium nitrate or sodium
nitrate, charcoal and sulfur.
AP - abbreviation for armor-piercing ammunition.
Blasting cap - a small explosive charge triggered by
Apogee - the maximum altitude a projectile will reach lighting a safety fuse or applying an electric current
when shot in the air. used to detonate high explosives.

Assault rifle - automatic weapon designed to be fired Blunderbuss - is a muzzle-loading firearm with a short,
by one man. Ammunition is fed from a magazine. large caliber barrel which is flared at the muzzle and
frequently throughout the entire bore and used with
Automatic - a firearm capable of ejecting a cartridge shot and other projectiles of relevant quantity and/or
casing following discharge and reloading the next caliber.
cartridge from the magazine.
Bolt action - is a type of firearm action in which the
weapons bolt is operated manually by opening and
closing of the breech (barrel) with a small handle most Bullet jacket - usually a metallic cover over the core.
commonly placed on the right hand side of the weapon
for (right hand users). Bullet, lead - a standard lead bullet having a harder
A firearm in which the breech closure is in metal jacket over the nose formed from a lead alloy,
line with the bore at all times. It is manually also known as metal-point bullet. This non spherical
reciprocated to load, unload and cock and is locked in projectiles is for use in a rifled barrel.
place by breech-bolt lugs and engaging abutments
usually in the receiver. Bullet recovery system - any method that will allow
the undamaged recovery of a fired bullet. Water tanks
Bore - the interior of a barrel, forward of the chamber. and cotton boxes are most commonly in use.

Bore brush - A brush usually having brass, nylon, or Bullet wipe - a dark ring-shaped mark made up of
plastic bristles which is used to clean deposits from the lead, carbon, oil and dirt brushed from a bullet as it
bore of a firearm. enters the skin and found around the entry wound. The
discolored area on the immediate periphery of a bullet
Bore diameter - in a rifled barrel, it is the minor hole, caused by bullet lubricant, lead, smoke bore debris
diameter of a barrel which is the diameter of a circle or possibly, jacket material. Sometimes called
formed by the tops of the lands. In a shotgun, it is the burnishing or leaded edge.
interior dimensions of the barrel forward of the chamber
but before the choke. Burr striations - a roughness or rough edge especially
one left on metal in casting or cutting. A tool or device
Brass - a slang term sometimes used for fired cartridge that raises a burr.
cases.
Butt - in handguns, the bottom part of the grip frame.
Breech - the part of the firearm at the rear of the bore In long guns, it is the rear of shoulder end of the stock.
into which the cartridge of propellant is inserted. Caliber - the approximate diameter of the circle formed
by the tops of the lands of a rifled barrel.
Breech block - the locking and cartridge head-
supporting mechanism of a firearm that does not Cannelure - a circumferential groove generally of a
operate in line with the axis of the bore. knurled or plain appearance in a bullet or the head of a
rimless cartridge case.
Breech blot - the locking and cartridge head-
supporting mechanism of a firearm that operates in line Carbine - a rifle of short length and lightweight
with the axis of the bore. originally designed for mounted troops.

Breech face - that part of the breech block or breech Cartridge - is also called a round, packages the bullet,
bolt that is against the head of the cartridge case or propellant (usually smokeless powder or gun powder)
shot shell during firing. and primer into a single unit within a containing metallic
case that is precisely made to fit within the firing
Breech face markings - negative impression of the chamber of the firearm.
breech face of the firearm found on the head of the
cartridge case after firing. Cartridge case head - the base of the cartridge case
which contains the primer.
Breech-loading weapon - is a firearm in which the
cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber Cartridge, centerfire - any cartridge that has its
integral to the rear portion of a barrel. primer central to the axis in the head of the case.

Broach - rifling tool consisting of a series of circular Cartridge, rimfire - a flange-headed cartridge
cutting tools mounted on a long rod. The rifling is cut in containing the priming mixture inside the rim cavity.
on pass of the broach through the gun barrel.
Center of impact - the points of impact of the
Browning arms co. - is a maker of firearms founded in projectiles being dispersed about a single point.
Utah in 1927.
Chamber - the rear part of the barrel bore that has
Buckshot - lead pellet ranging in size from 0.20 in. to been formed to accept a specific cartridge. Revolver
0.36 in. diameter. cylinders are multi-chambered.

Bullet - is a projectile propelled by a firearm, sling, or Chamber mark - individual microscopic marks placed
air gun. upon a cartridge case by the chamber wall as a result of
any or all of the following 1. chambering 2. expansion
Bullet-bearing surface - that part of the outer surface during firing 3. extraction.
of a bullet that comes into direct contact with the
interior surface of the barrel. Choke - (shotgun) the constriction of the barrel of a
shotgun to reduce the spread of shot as it leaves the
Bullet creep - the movement of a bullet out of the gun to increase its effective range.
cartridge case due to the recoil of the firearm and the
inertia of the bullet. Also called bullet starting. Also Clip - a separate cartridge container used to rapidly
known as popping. reload the magazine of a firearm. Also called stripper.

Bullet, frangible - a projectile designed to disintegrate Coefficient of form - a numerical term indicating the
upon impact on a hard surface in order to minimize general profile of a projectile.
ricochet or spatter.
Combination gun - a multiple-barreled firearm
designed to handle different sizes or types of Ejection - the act of expelling a cartridge or cartridge
ammunition. cases from a firearm.

Concentric fractures - patterns of cracks in glass Ejection pattern - the charting of where a particular
pierced by a missile like a bullet which runs between the firearm ejects fired cartridge cases.
radial fractures and which originate on the side of the
glass from which the impact came. Ejector - a portion of a firearms mechanism that ejects
or expels cartridges or cartridge cases from a firearm.
Copper-clad steel - a composite structure of copper
and steel used for the manufacture of certain bullet Ejector marks - tool marks provided upon a cartridge
jackets. Metallic element with the chemical symbol Cu or cartridge case on the head, generally at or near the
and atomic number 29 that commonly comprises rim from contact with the ejector.
"cartridge brass" that is typically 70% copper and 30%
zinc (Zn) Extractor - a mechanism for withdrawing a cartridge or
cartridge case from the chamber of a firearm.
Centerfire - is a cartridge with a primer located in the
center of the cartridge case head. Unlike rimfire Extraction mark - tool mark produced upon a cartridge
cartridges, the primer is a separate and replaceable or cartridge case from contact with the extractor. These
component. are always found on or just ahead of the rim.

Chamber - is that portion of the barrel or firing cylinder Firearm identification - a discipline of forensic science
in which the cartridge is inserted prior to being fired. that has as its primarily concern determining whether a
bullet, cartridge case or other ammunition component
Clay pigeon shooting - (clay target shooting) formally was fired by a particular firearm.
known as inanimate bird shooting is the art of shooting
at special flying targets known as clay pigeons or clay Firing pin - that part of a firearm mechanism that
targets with a shotgun or any type of firearm. strikes the primer of a cartridge to initiate ignition.
Sometimes called hammer nose or striker.
Cylinder - rotating chambered breech of a revolver.
Damascus barrel - an obsolete barrel-making process. Firing pin drag marks - the tool mark produced when
The barrel is formed by twisting or braiding together a projecting firing pin comes into contact with a
steel and iron wires or bars. The resulting cable is then cartridge case or shot-shell during the extraction and
wound around a mandrel and forged into a barrel tube. ejection cycle.
This type of barrel is also called a laminated barrel. Firing pin impression - the indentation in the primer of a
centerfire cartridge case or in the rim of a rimfire cartridge
Decant - the process of pouring off the supernatant case caused when it struck by the firing pin.
during separation from a pellet after a mixture has been
centrifuged or left to settle. Flash hole - vent leading from the primer pocket to the body
of the cartridge case.
Derringer - the generic term applied to many variations
of pocket size pistols either percussion or cartridge
Fouling - the residual deposits remaining in the bore of a
made by manufacturers other that Henry Derringer up
firearm after firing. Fouling can change the character of the
to present time.
identifiable striations imparted to the projectile from one shot
Discharge - to cause a firearm to fire. to another.

Disconnector - a device to prevent a semi-automatic Fragment - a piece of solid metal resulting from an exploding
firearm from firing full automatic. Some pump action or exploded bomb or a piece of projectile from a firearm.
shotguns also have disconnectors.
Gauge - the interior diameter of the barrel of a shotgun
Distance determination - the process of determining expressed by the number or spherical lead bullets fitting it
the distance from the firearm, usually the muzzle, to the that are required to make a pound. Thus a 12 gauge in the
target based upon pattern of gunpowder or gunshot diameter of a round lead ball using 1/12 of a pound.
residues deposited upon that target. Where multiple
projectiles such as shot have been fired, the spread of Gas cutting - an erosive effect in a firearm caused by the
those projectiles is also indicative of distance. high velocity, high temperature propellant gases.
- The erosion that occurs from the hot gases on
Double action - a gun action where the pulling of
the bearing surface and base of a fired bullet.
trigger to fire a round recocks the gun so that the next
round is ready to be fired.
General rifling characteristics - the number, width and
Drawback effect - the presence of blood in the barrel direction of twist of the rifling grooves in a barrel of a given
of a firearm that has been drawn awkward due to the caliber firearm.
effect created by discharged gasses. This is seen
frequently in close-range contact gunshot injuries. Granules - the individual particles of propellant powder.

Driving edge, fired bullet - the driving edge of a fired Griess test - a chemical test for the detection of nitrates. It
bullet with a right twist is the left edge of the groove is used by firearms examiners to develop patterns of
impression or the right edge of the land impression. The gunpowder residues (nitrates) around bullet holes.
driving edge of a fired bullet with left twist is the right
edge of the groove impression or the left edge of the Grips - a pair of pieces designed to fit the frame of a weapon
hand impression. providing a form fit gripping, usually plastic or wood.
Groove diameter - the major diameter in a barrel that is the Headspace - the distance from the face of the closed breech
diameter of a circle circumscribed by the bottom of the of a firearm to the surface in the chamber on which the
grooves in a rifled barrel. cartridge case bears.

Grooves - spiral cuts along the bore of a firearm that cause a Headspace Gage - an instrument for measuring the
projectile to spin as it travels through the barrel providing distance from the breech face of a firearm to the portion of
stability in flight. the chamber against which the cartridge bears.

Gun cotton (nitrocellulose) - the principal ingredient of a Headstamp - numeral, letters, and symbols or combinations
single base and double base gun powders. Also, known as thereof stamped into the head of a cartridge case or shot-
cellulose hexanitrate. shell to identify the manufacturer, caliber, gauge, or give
additional information.
Gunpowder - any various powder used in firearms as a
propellant charge. Heel - the part of a rifle or shotgun stock at the top of the
An explosive consisting of a powdered mixture butt end.
of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal. - The rear portion of the bullet or its base.

Gunpowder patterns - the spatial distribution of Hinge frame - any of a large array of pistols, revolvers,
gunpowder residues deposited upon a surface. shotguns, and rifles whose frames are hinge to facilitate
- the test firing of a firearm for a loading and ejection. Generally the barrel pivots downward.
muzzle to target distance determination.
Holster stock - a holster, usually made of wood that
Gunpowder residue - unburned gunpowder, partially burned attaches to the rear of the pistol grip of certain handguns and
gunpowder, and smoke from completely burned gunpowder. serves as a shoulder stock.
Gunpowder residues are the largest part of gunshot residues.
Hydrochloric acid - a chemical reagent used in the sodium
Gunshot residue - the total residues resulting from the rhodizonate test for lead and other primer residues.
discharge of a firearm. It includes both gunpowder and primer IBIS (integrated ballistics information system) - a database
residues plus metallic residues from projectiles, fouling etc. used for acquiring, storing, and analyzing images of bullets
and cartridge casings. Jacket - cylinder of steel covering and
Gyroscopic stability - the ability of a fired bullet to remain strengthening the breech end of a gun; the envelope
stable in flight due to its spin. enclosing the lead core.

Firearm - an assembly of a barrel and action from which a Kinetics - a dynamic process involving motion.
projectile is propelled by products of combustion.
Lacquer - a sealant used by some ammunition
Flash suppressor - also known as a flash guard, flash manufacturers to seal the primer and/or bullet in the
eliminator, flash hider, or flash cone, is a device attached to cartridge case. It is used as a waterproofing agent.
the muzzle of a rifle or other gun that reduces the chances
that the shooter will be blinded in dark conditions. Land - the raised portion between the grooves in a rifled
bore.
Frame or stock - The frame is the basic structure of the gun
to which the other major parts are attached. The stock is for Land and groove impressions (right and left turn) - the
rifles and shotguns. Handguns do not have a stock but rather negative impressions on the surface of a bullet caused by the
what is called a grip. rifling in the barrel from which it was fired.

Game - is any animal hunted for food or not normally Lead - element with the chemical symbol (Pb) and atomic
domesticated. number 82.Used in the fabrication of bullet and shot for its
formability and lubrication properties.
Griess test - is a chemical analysis test which detects the
presence of organic nitrate compounds. Leading - The accumulation of lead in the bore of a firearm
from the passage of lead shot or bullets. Also, called metal
Half-cock - the position of the hammer of a firearm when fouling.
about half retracted and held by the sear so that it cannot be
operated by a normal pull of the trigger. Lever action - is a type of firearm action which uses a lever
located around the trigger guard area (often including the
Hammer - a component part of the firing mechanism that trigger guard itself) to load fresh cartridges into the chamber
gives impulse to the firing pin or primer. of the barrel when the lever is worked.

Handguard - a wooden, plastic, or metal type of Luger - a German semi-automatic pistol widely used in
forend/forearm that generally encircles the forward portion of Europe as a military sidearm, manufactured in various
the barrel to protect the hands from heat when firing. calibers most commonly 7.65 mm and 9 mm.

Handgun - a firearm designed to be held and fired with one Machine gun - Bipod or tripod mounted or handheld
hand. automatic weapon whose ammunition is fed from a magazine
or a belt.
Head,(cartridge case head) - the base of the cartridge
case that contains the primer. Magazine - is an ammunition storage and feeding device
within or attached to a repeating firearm. weapon, wielding it as if it were a club.

Magazine clip - a container for cartridges that has a spring Pitch, rifling - the angle at which the rifling is cut in
and follower to feed the cartridges into the chamber of a relationship to the axis of the bore. It is usually stated as the
firearm. number of inches required for one revolution. Also, known as
rate of twist.
Mannlicher type bolt - a bolt-action rifle that was designed
for the receiver bridge; has a gap at the top to allow passage Primer - the ignition component of the cartridge; any igniter
of the bolt handle. that is used to initiate the burning of a propellant.
Mercury bath - a process using mercury for the removal of
lead residue from a barrel. Primer cratering - the extrusion of the primer into the firing
pin hole, this phenomenon can produce identifiable marks.
Metal fouling - metallic bullet material left in the bore after Also known as primer flowback.
firing.
Primer/Fuse - any igniter that is used to initiate the burning
Microscopic marks - striae or patterns on minute lines or of a propellant.
grooves in an object. In firearm and toolmark identification,
these marks are characteristics of the object that produced Proof mark - a stamp applied at or near the breech of a
them and are the basis for identification. firearm after it has passed a proof test.

Misfire - failure of the primer mixture to ignite. Proof test - the firing of a deliberate overload to test the
strength of a firearm barrel and/or action.
Mushroom - used to describe the expansion of a projectile
upon impacting a target. Proof load - a cartridge loaded to specified pressure higher
than service loads to test firearms barrels during manufacture
Musket - is a muzzle-loading, smooth-bore long gun fired but before assembly, sometimes called blue pill.
from the shoulder.
Propellant - the chemical composition which when ignited by
Muzzle - is the end of the barrel from which the projectile will a primer, generates gas. The gas propels the projectile. Also
exit. called powder, gunpowder, powder, or smokeless.
Obliteration/Obliterated - most often used to refer to serial
numbers of firearms that are no longer readable. Propellant gases - the gases created by the burning powder
that force the projectile from the gun.
Obturation - the act of sealing or preventing the escape of
propellant gasses from the breech of a gun. Pump-action - is a rifle or shotgun in which the hand-grip
can be pump back and forth in order to eject a spent round of
Orient - the aligning of two bullets that were fired from the ammunition and to chamber a fresh one.
same barrel on the comparison microscope so that the land Rate of trust - the distance required for the rifling to complete
and groove impressions on those bullets which were one revolution.
produced by the same lands and grooves in the barrel are
opposite each other. Sometimes called phasing or indexing. Recoil - the backward movement of thrust of a gun caused
Parabellum - a Latin term meaning "for war" used as a by the pressure of the propellant gases in the process of
cartridge designation. pushing the projectile forward through the bore.

Pattern - the distribution of a series of shots fired from one Recoil operation - an operating principle of automatic and
gun or a battery of guns under conditions as nearly identical semi-automatic firearms. When the weapon is fired, the
as possible to that which occurred at the crime scene. barrel and breechblock initially recoil together. After traveling
a short distance, the barrel and breechblock unlock and the
Pellet - common name for the smooth, spherical projectiles breechblock continues to travel to the rear, extracting and
loaded into shot-shells, also referred to as shot. Also a non- ejecting the expended cartridge.
spherical projectile used in airguns.
Reference collections - a collection of various types of
Percussion cap - a small metal cap with a priming mix that firearms and ammunition used by the firearms examiner for
is placed on the nipple of a percussion lock. the purpose of test firing weapons for identification of
ammunition and firearms.
Philadelphia derringer - is a small percussion handgun
designed by Henry Derringer and a popular concealed carry Reload - a cartridge that has been reassembled with a new
handgun of the era. primer powder, projectile, or other components. Also, to place
fresh ammunition into the firearm.
Pinfire - is an obsolete type of metallic cartridge in which the
priming compound is ignited by striking a small pin which Revolver - a type of pistol with a revolving cylinder in the
protrudes radially from hust above the base of the cartridge. breech chamber to hold several cartridges so that the
revolver may be fired in succession without reloading.
Pistol - (automatic, semi-automatic, single-shot) a small
firearm having a stock that fits in the hand and contains a Ricochet - the deflection of a projectile after impact.
short barrel. A firearm designed to be fired with one hand and
with a chamber that is integral to the barrel. Rifle - a firearm having rifling in the bore and designed to be
fired from the shoulder.
Pistol Whipping - is the act of using a handgun as a blunt
Rifle slug - a single projectile with spiral grooves and hollow pressure on the trigger will release the mechanism.
base intended for use in shotguns. The theory of the grooves
is that after leaving the gun barrels muzzle, the slug will Skeet shooting - is a recreational and competitive activity
rotate and this reach its target much more accurately. where the participants, using shotguns attempt to break clay
discs automatically flung in the air from two fixed stations at
Rifling - is the process of making helical grooves in the barrel high speed from a variety of angles.
of a gun or firearm which imparts a spin to a projectile around Skid marks (slippage marks) - rifling marks formed on the
its long axis. bearing surface of bullets as they enter the rifling of the
barrel before rotation of the bullets starts. Skid marks are
Rim - the flanged portion of the head of a rimfire cartridge, typically produced by revolvers and have the appearance of a
certain types of centerfire rifles and revolver cartridges and widening of the land impression at their beginning point.
shot-shells. The flanged portion is usually larger in diameter
than the cartridge or shot-shells body diameter and provides Slippage - mark on the surface of a fired bullet made when
a projecting lip for the extractor to engage. In rimfire the bullet slides along the tops of the lands on the riflings.
cartridge, the rim provides a cavity into which the priming Slippage marks appear when the rifling is worn or when a
mixture is placed. sub-caliber bullet is fired.

Rimfire - is a type of firearm cartridge. It is called a rimfire Slug - is a heavy lead projectile that may have pre-cut rifling
because instead of the firing pin of a gun striking the primer intended for use in a shotgun and often used for hunting large
cap at the center of the base of the cartridge to ignite it, the game.
pin strikes the base's rim. - a term applied to a single projectile for shot-shells.
Sabot - a device that ensures the correct positioning of a
bullet or shell in the barrel of a gun. Smokeless powder - propellant composed of nitrocellulose
- a device, "shoe" which enables a sub-caliber (single-base powders) or nitrocellulose plus nitroglycerine
projectile to be fired in a larger caliber barrel. (double-base powders) Smokeless powders contain additives
that increase shell life and enhance performance. They are
Safety - a type of device that locks a weapon to prevent made in variety of shapes (rods, perforated rods, spheres,
accidental discharge. disks, perforated disks, and flakes.

Seating lines - the circumferential striae parallel to the axis Smooth-bore - is one in which the gun barrel or bore is
of the projectile generated on the surface of the bullet by the without a rifling.
cartridge case.
Sporting clays - is a form of clay pigeon shooting often
Semi-automatic/Self-loading firearm - is a weapon which describe as a golf with a shotgun because a typical course
perform all steps necessary to prepare the weapon to fire includes from 10 to 15 different shooting stations laid out
again after firing assuming cartridges remain in the weapons over natural terrain.
feed device or magazine.
- a firearm that Stabilizer - additive to smokeless powder that reacts with
uses the forces of combustion to extract and eject a cartridge acidic breakdown products of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine.
and to chamber a new cartridge from the ammunition source Diphenylamine and ethyl centralite are common stabilizers.
with each pull of the trigger.
Stippling - disposition of fragments of gunshot powder
Shot - a spherical pellet used in loading shot-shells or residue into the skin as the result of a gunshot wound of
cartridges. relatively close range.

Shot spread - the diameter of a shot pattern. Striae - in firearms/toolsmarks - these are lines or grooves in
an object that are characteristics of the object that produced
Shotgun - a smooth-bore shoulder firearm designed to fire them and are the basis for an identification.
shot-shells containing numerous pellets or sometimes a single
projectile. Sulfur - a non-metallic yellow element. A constituent of
blackpowder, burns easily when in powder form.
Shot-shell - a cartridge containing projectile designed to be
fired in a shotgun. The cartridge body maybe metal, plastic, Tattooing - a characteristic pattern in the skin caused by
or paper. particles of unburned and partially burned powder from a gun
blast at very close range. Also called stippling.
Signatures - in forensic ballistics, represents the location of
each feature and mark on an image from the bullet or Test bullet - a bullet fired into a bullet recovery system in a
cartridge case. The acquired signatures can then be laboratory for comparison or analysis.
correlated with the IBIS correlation engine. These signatures
which are mathematical representations of the images are Test cartridge case - a cartridge case obtained while test-
sent along with compressed images and demographics to a firing a firearm in a laboratory that is to be used for
server for correlation. comparison or analysis.

Silencer - a tubular device attached to the muzzle of a Test firing - the term used to designate the actual firing of a
firearm to reduce the sound of the report. firearm in a laboratory to obtain representative bullet and
cartridge case for comparison or analysis. Also used to test
Single-action - a type of revolver that needs to be cocked the functionality of a firearm.
before each shot by pulling back the hammer. Requires the
firing mechanism (hammer or firing pin) to be cocked before TNT (trinitrotoluene) - a high explosive used as a
component of some priming mixture. D. Ballistic Fingerprinting
3
Tracer bullet - a bullet that contains a pyrotechnic . It involves analyzing firearm, ammunition, and
component ignited by the powder charge burn, leaving a toolmark evidence in order to establish whether a
visible trail of the flight path. certain firearm or tool was used in the commission of
Trailing edge - the edge of a land or groove impression in a crime.
fired bullet that is opposite to the driving edge of that same A. Ballistics
B. Forensic Ballistics
land or groove impression. Also called the "following edge"
C. Ballistic Missile
when used in conjunction with the term leading edge.
D. Ballistic Fingerprinting
4
Trajectory - the path of a projectile after leaving the muzzle . It is a missile guided only during the relative brief
of a firearm. initial powered phase of flight whose course is
subsequently governed by the laws of classical
Trap shooting - is a shotgun shooting activity in which the mechanics.
gunner shoots at clay target discs launch single or doubly A. Ballistics
from one location but at various angle into the range field. B. Forensic Ballistics
C. Ballistic Missile
Trigger guard - a protective device consisting of a curved D. Ballistic Fingerprinting
framework surrounding the trigger. 5
. The study of the processes originally accelerating the
Trigger pull - amount of force applied to the trigger of a projectile.
firearm to cause it to discharge. A. Internal Ballistic
B. Transition Ballistic
C. External Ballistic
Trigger pull gauge - the mechanism used to release the
D. Terminal Ballistic
firing pin of a firearm by applying pressure using a finger. 6
- instrument used to measure the needed . The study of the passage of the projectile through a
amount of force to be applied to the trigger of a firearm to medium.
cause it to fire. A. Internal Ballistic
B. Transition Ballistic
Twist of rifling - inclination of the spiral grooves to the axis C. External Ballistic
of the bore of a weapon; it is expressed as the number of D. Terminal ballistic
calibers of length in which the rifling makes one complete 7
turn. . The study of the projectiles behavior when it leaves
the barrel and the pressure behind the projectile is
Velocity - the speed of a projectile at a given point along its equalized.
trajectory. A. Internal Ballistics
B. Transition Ballistics
Wad, base - a cylindrical component that is assembled into C. External Ballistics
the head end of a shot-shell. D. Terminal Ballistics
8
Wad, shot protector - various designs of shot cups made of . It is also called a round.
plastic and designed to reduce pellet deformation during A. Bullet
barrel travel. B. Shell
C. Primer
D. Cartridge
Walker test - the original chemical test for the detection of
9
the spatial distribution of nitrates in gunpowder residue.
. Employed a burning wick on a spring that was locked
Yaw - the angle between the longitudinal axis of a projectile
back and released into a pan of powder upon pulling a
and a line tangent to the trajectory at the center of gravity of trigger.
the projectile. A. Matchlock
B. Wheellock
Yaw angle - angle between the axis of a bullet and its C. Flintlock
trajectory. D. Percussion
1
Zwilling - European term for a double-barreled shoulder arm 0.Consists of a hammer that was locked and when
with one rifled barrel and one smooth-bored barrel. released, struck a cup containing a volatile primer that
ignited on impact sending a flame through a small tube
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 1 into the barrel chamber.
A. Matchlock
1. The science of mechanics that deals with the flight, B. Wheellock
behavior and effects of projectiles. C. Flintlock
A. Ballistics D. Percussion
B. Forensic Ballistics
C. Ballistic missile
D. Ballistic Fingerprinting Remember the following definition of terms:
2
. It involves the analysis of bullet impacts to determine 1. Ballistics - The science of mechanics that deals with
information of use to a court or other part of the legal the flight, behavior and effects of projectiles.
system.
A. Ballistics 2. Forensic Ballistics - It involves the analysis of bullet
B. Forensic Ballistics impacts to determine information of use to a court or
C. Ballistic missile
other part of the legal system. caliber automatic pistol in 1866.
A. Carl Walther
3. Ballistic Fingerprinting - It involves analyzing B. Hiram Maxim
firearm, ammunition and toolmark evidence in order to C. Georg Luger
establish whether a certain firearm or tool was used in D. Richard Gatling
the commission of crime. 5
. He designed the 9mm cartridge introduced in 1902 for
4. Ballistic Missile - It is a missile guided only during the Luger semi-automatic pistol.
the relative brief initial powered phase of flight whose A. Carl Walther
course is subsequently governed by the laws of classical B. Hiram Maxim
mechanics. C. Georg Luger
D. Richard Gatling
5. Internal Ballistic - The study of the processes 6
originally accelerating the projectile. . An American born inventor of the Maxim machine gun.
A. Carl Walther
6. External Ballistic - The study of the passage of the B. Hiram Maxim
projectile through a medium. C. Georg Luger
D. Richard Gatling
7. Transition Ballistics - The study of the projectiles 7
behavior when it leaves the barrel and the pressure . An American inventor of the first successful machine
behind the projectile is equalized. gun, named after him.
A. Carl Walther
8. Cartridge - It is also called a round. B. Hiram Maxim
C. Georg Luger
9. Matchlock - Employed a burning wick on a spring D. Richard Gatling
that was locked back and released into a pan of powder
upon pulling a trigger. 8. He invented the Johnson model 1941 rifle, one of the
most innovative rifle during its period.
10. Percussion - Consists of a hammer that was locked A. Robert Johnson
and when released, struck a cup containing a volatile B. Albert Johnson
primer that ignited on impact sending a flame through a C. Melvin M. Johnson Jr.
small tube into the barrel chamber. D. Calvin M. Johnson
9
Answers: Forensic Ballistics . He pioneered the making of the first handheld machine
1. A gun.
2. B A. Oliver Fischer Winchester
3. D B. John T. Thompson
4. C C. Daniel "Carbine" Williams
5. A D. Daniel B. Wesson.
6. C 1
7. B 0.He manufactured the Winchester repeating rifle which
8. D was a much re-designed descendant of the Volcanic rifle
9. A of some years earlier.
10. D A. Oliver Fischer Winchester
B. Daniel Williams
C. John Fischer Winchester
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 2
D. Daniel B. Wesson

1. Developed in the early 11th century, flint is released Remember the following: Forensic Ballistics
by the trigger mechanism that strikes a steel plate to
shower sparks into the pan filled with powder. 1. Flintlock - Developed in the early 11th century, flint
A. Matchlock is released by the trigger mechanism that strikes a steel
B. Wheellock plate to shower sparks into the pan filled with powder.
C. Flintlock
D. Percussion 2. Wheellock - In the early 16th century, improvement
2 included the wheellock mechanism in which a spinning
. In the early 16th century, improvement included the wheel against a metal plate showered sparks into the
wheellock mechanism in which a spinning wheel against pan holding priming powder.
a metal plate showered sparks into the pan holding
priming powder. 3. Characteristics of a muzzle loader gun
A. Matchlock a. Powder and bullet loaded from top of the barrel
B. Wheellock b. Smooth bore with a round lead ball
C. Flintlock c. Limited range and accuracy
D. Percussion
3 4. Carl Walther - A German gunsmith who developed a
. One of the following is not a characteristic of a muzzle reliable small caliber automatic pistol in 1866.
loader gun.
A. Spiral grooves in the bore 5. Georg Luger - He designed the 9-mm cartridge
B. Powder and bullet loaded from top of the barrel introduced in 1902 for the Luger semi-automatic pistol.
C. Smooth bore with a round lead ball
D. Limited range and accuracy 6. Hiram Maxim - An American born inventor of the
4 Maxim machine gun.
. A German gunsmith who developed a reliable small
7. Richard Gatling - An American inventor of the first A. John Garand
successful machine gun, named after him. B. Eliphalet Remington
C. James Garand
8. Melvin M. Johnson Jr. - He invented the Johnson D. Daniel Williams
model 1941 rifle, one of the most innovative rifle during 8
its period. . Russian designer of the AK-47 assault rifle.
A. Mike Kalashnikov
9. John T. Thompson - He pioneered the making of B. John Marlin
the first handheld machine gun. C. Mikhail Kalashnikov
D. Patrick Ferguson
10.Oliver Fischer Winchester - He manufactured the 9
Winchester repeating rifle which was a much re . Founder of Marlin Firearms Co. Famous for the Marlin
designed descendant of the Volcanic rifle of some years cal. 22 carbine.
earlier. A. James Mahon Marlin
B. John Mahon Marlin
Answers: Forensic Ballistics C. Jack Marlin
D. Jones Marlin
1. C 1
2. B 0. He is one of the first rifle makers. He is a blacksmith
3. A who made a revolutionary sporting rifle using a firing
4. A mechanism bought from a dealer producing the barrel
5. C himself.
6. B A. Benjamin Robins
7. D B. Elisha King Root
8. C C. Eliphalet Remington
9. B D. Roger Bacon
10. A
Remember the following: Forensic Ballistics
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 3
1. Col. Calvin Goddard - The Father of modern
ballistics. He invented the comparison microscope and
1. The Father of modern ballistics.He invented the helixometer.
comparison microscope and helixometer.
A. Col. Calvin Goddard 2. John Browning - He pioneered the breech loading
B. Col. Alvin Goddard single shot rifle.
C. Col. Kevin Goddard
D. Col. Darwin Goddard 3. Henry Derringer - A Famous 19th century maker of
2 pocket pistol.
. He pioneered the breech loading single shot rifle.
A. John Browning 4. Patrick Ferguson - He designed his own rifle which
B. Henry Derringer was one of the first breech loading rifles to be widely
C. Samuel Colt tested by the British military.
D. Patrick Ferguson
3 5. Alexander Forsyth - He was a Scottish
. A Famous 19th century maker of pocket pistol. Presbyterian clergyman who invented the percussion
A. Patrick Ferguson ignition.
B. John Browning
C. Samuel Colt 6. Uziel Gal - He invented the Uzi sub-machine gun.
D. Henry Derringer
4 7. John Garand - He is the father of the semi-
. He designed his own rifle which was one of the first automatic US rifle cal. 30 M1.
breech loading rifles to be widely tested by the British
military. 8. Mikhail Kalashnikov - Russian designer of the AK-
A. John Browning 47 assault rifle.
B. Samuel Colt
C. Patrick Ferguson 9. John Mahon Marlin - Founder of Marlin Firearms
D. Henry Derringer Co. Famous for the Marlin cal. 22 carbine.
5
. He was a Scottish Presbyterian clergyman who 10.Eliphalet Remington - He is one of the first rifle
invented the percussion ignition. makers. He is a blacksmith who made a
A. John Marlin revolutionary sporting rifle using a firing mechanism
B. Daniel Williams bought from a dealer producing the barrel himself.
C. Alexander Forsyth
D. Henry Derringer Answers: Forensic Ballistics
6 1. A
. He invented the Uzi sub-machine gun. 2. A
A. John Marlin 3. D
B. Daniel Williams 4. C
C. Uziel Gamal 5. C
D. Uziel Gal 6. D
7 7. A
. He is the father of the semi-automatic US rifle cal. 30 8. C
M1. 9. B
10. C cup and anvil.
A. Paper disc
B. Battery cup
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 4
C. Primer mixture
D. Primer cup
1. One of the first to state a sound ballistic theories.
A. Elisha King Root Remember the following:
B. Berthold Schwartz
C. Roger Bacon 1. Benjamin Robins - He wrote an influential treatise
D. Benjamin Robins on gunnery, for the first time introducing Newtonian
2. science to military men, was an early enthusiast for
Helped Samuel colt synthesize the manufacturing of rifled gun barrels.
firearms.
A. Elisha King Root 2. Elisha King Root - Helped Samuel colt synthesize
B. Berthold Schwartz the manufacturing of firearms.
C. Roger Bacon
D. Benjamin Robins 3. Roger Bacon - He is considered as the first
3. European to describe a mixture containing the essential
He is considered as the first European to describe a ingredient of gun powder.
mixture containing the essential ingredient of gun
powder. 4. Daniel Wesson - Partner of Horace Smith in making
A. Elisha King Root revolver.
B. Berthold Schwartz
C. Roger Bacon 5. Daniel "Carbine" Williams - He is the maker of the
D. Benjamin Robins first known carbine firearms.
4
. Partner of Horace Smith in making revolver. 6 Yoke - The large ring surrounding the breech end of
A. Daniel Wesson the barrel which provides a connection between the
B. Benjamin Wesson barrel and the recoil system.
C. Craig Wesson
D. Samuel Wesson 7. Slippage mark - Form on the bearing surface of
5 bullets as they enter the rifling of the barrel before the
. He is the maker of the first known carbine firearms. bullet engages the rifling.
A. Daniel "Carbine" Williams
B. Darwin "Carbine" Williams 8. Proof marks - It is the examination and testing of
C. John "Carbine" Williams firearms by a recognized authority according to certain
D. Mike "Carbine" Williams. rules and stamped with a mark to indicate that they are
6 safe for sale and used by the public.
.The large ring surrounding the breech end of the barrel
which provides a connection between the barrel and the 9.Anvil - An internal metal component in a boxer primer
recoil system. assembly againsts which the priming mixture is crushed
A. Trigger guard by the firing pin blow.
B. Anvil - The breech end of the chamber in a rim-fire
C. Trigger spring firearm.
D. Yoke
7 10.Battery cup - A flanged metallic cup used in shot-
. Form on the bearing surface of bullets as they enter shell primer assemblies that provides a rigid support for
the rifling of the barrel before the bullet engages the the primer cup and anvil. Also, called battery pocket.
rifling.
A. Shearing Answers: Forensic Ballistics
B. Proof marks 1. D
C. Provisional proof 2. A
D. Slippage mark 3. C
8 4. A
. It is the examination and testing of firearms by a 5. A
recognized authority according to certain rules and 6. D
stamped with a mark to indicate that they are safe for 7. D
sale and used by the public. 8. C
A. Shearing 9. C
B. Provisional proof 10. B
C. Proof marks
D. Slippage mark
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 5
9
. An internal metal component in a boxer primer
assembly against which the priming mixture is crushed 1. The controlled expansion of a bullet upon impact with
by the firing pin blow. a target.
A. Shearing A. Palm Swell
B. Trigger guard B. Mushrooming
C. Anvil C. Pedestalled
D. Trigger spring D. Parkerizing
1 2.
0.A flanged metallic cup used in shot-shell primer The cutting of metal from the surface of a bullet due to
assemblies that provides a rigid support for the primer cylinder misalignment in a revolver.
A. Abrasion marks produced by revolvers and have the appearance of
B. Shaving widening the land impressions at the nose of the bullet.
C. Abrasive machining
D. Rolling block 4. Blowby - The escaping of gases past a fired bullet
3 while the bullet is still in the barrel.
.Form on the bearing surface of bullets as they enter the
rifling of the barrel before the bullet engages the rifling. 5. Leading - (metal fouling) The accumulation of lead
A. Skidmarks or bullet jacket material in the bore of a firearm due to
B. Action marks the passage of bullets.
C. Slide
D. Anvil marks 6. Patch - A piece of cloth used with a rod to clean the
4 bore of a firearm.
.The escaping of gases past a fired bullet while the
bullet is still in the barrel. 7. Single-Action - An action requiring the manual
A. Backspatter cocking of the hammer before sufficient pressure on the
B. Bearing surface trigger releases the firing mechanism.
C. Barrel extention
D. Blowby 8. Dummy ammunition - An inert cartridge which
5 cannot be fired.
. The accumulation of lead or bullet jacket material in
the bore of a firearm due to the passage of bullets. 9. Muzzle wave - The air that is compressed and
A. Leading moves out spherically from a firearms muzzle after
B. Ballistite firing a projectile.
C. Blowback
D. Frizzen 10.Muzzle Brake - A device at or in the muzzle end of
6 a barrel that uses the emerging gas behind the
. A piece of cloth used with a rod to clean the bore of a projectile to reduce recoil.
firearm.
A. Fulminate of mercury Answers: Forensic ballistics
B. Nitro wad 1. B
C. Patch 2. B
D. Press forging 3. A
7 4. D
. An action requiring the manual cocking of the hammer 5. A
before sufficient pressure on the trigger releases the 6. C
firing mechanism. 7. A
A. Single-Action 8. A
B. Automatic 9. B
C. Double-action 10. B
D. Semi-automatic
8
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 6
. An inert cartridge which cannot be fired.
A. Dummy ammunition
B. Disintegrating bullet 1.When the first chamber of a jacketed bullet expands
C. Conoidal bullet and the rear chamber holds together for penetration.
D. Mushroom bullet A. Convex
9 B. Correlations
. The air that is compressed and moves out spherically C. Cordite
from a firearms muzzle after firing a projectile. D. Controlled expansion
A. Bullet splash 2
B. Muzzle wave .A plastic, paper, or fiber disk used to keep ammunition
C. Choke components in place or separated.
D. Bunter A. Card Wad
1 B. Vent
0.A device at or in the muzzle end of a barrel that uses C. Tumble
the emerging gas behind the projectile to reduce recoil. D. Wad
A. Climb 3
B. Muzzle Brake .Marks produced by the random imperfections or
C. Latch irregularities of tool surfaces.
D. Lock plate A. Inter-comparison
B. Individual characteristics
Remember the ff: Forensic Ballistics C. Impressions
D. Headstamp
1. Mushrooming - The controlled expansion of a bullet 4
upon impact with a target. .A thin card-like disc used in shot-shells as overshot
wad, undershot wad and over-powder wad.
2. Shaving - (shearing) The cutting of metal from the A. Card wad
surface of a bullet due to cylinder misalignment in a B. Filler wad
revolver. C. Wad
D. Cup wad
3. Skidmarks - (slippage) Form on the bearing surface 5
of bullets as they enter the rifling of the barrel before . A plastic or paper insert surrounding the shot charge in
the bullet engages the rifling. Skid marks are typically a shot-shell to reduce distortion.
A. Card wad 9.Combination wad - One piece of multi-piece plastic
B. Filler wad wad which may combine the following items: shot
C. Shot collar protector, filler wad, and over-powder wad.
D. Cup wad
6 10. Hollow base bullet - a bullet with a deep base
.Circular disc of various thicknesses used to adjust the cavity.
volume of the contents of a shot-shell.
A. Card wad Answers: Forensic Ballistics
B. Filler wad 1. D
C. Vent 2. D
D. Cup wad 3. B
7 4. A
. A powder and shot separator of very shallow cup 5. C
design, which when loaded with lips down acts to help 6. B
seal powder gases and so protect the rear of the shot 7. D
column. 8. A
A. Card wad 9. C
B. Filler wad 10. A
C. Wad
D. Cup wad
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 7
8.
Various designs of shot cups made of plastic and
designed to reduce pellet deformation during barrel 1.A collection and cataloging of test-fired bullets and
travel cartridge cases from known firearms.
A. Shot protector wad A. Classifying
B. Filler wad B. Bullet comparison
C. Combination Wad C. Known standards
D. Cup wad D. Collected standards
9
.One piece of multi-piece plastic wad which may 2.The number, width, and direction of twist of the rifling
combine the following items: shot protector, filler wad, grooves in a barrel of a given caliber firearm.
and over-powder wad. A. General Rifling Characteristics
A. Shot protector wad B. Gross forming
B. Filler wad C. Groove diameter
C. Combination Wad D. Intercomparison
D. Cup wad
1 3.A discipline of forensic science which has as its
0. A bullet with a deep base cavity. primary concern to determine if a bullet, cartridge case,
A. Hollow base bullet or other ammunition component was fired by a
B. Incendiary bullet particular firearm.
C. Hollow point bullet A. Ballistic examination
D. Jacketed bullet B. Firearms identification
C. Ballistics
Remember the following: Forensic ballistics D. Toolmark identification

1. Controlled expansion - When the first chamber of a 4. A discipline of forensic science which has as its
jacketed bullet expands and the rear chamber holds primary concern to determine if a toolmark was
together for penetration. produced by a particular tool.
A. Ballistic examination
2. Wad - A plastic, paper, or fiber disk used to keep B. Firearms identification
ammunition components in place or separated. C. Forensic Ballistics
D. Toolmark identification
3.Individual characteristics - Marks produced by the
random imperfections or irregularities of tool surfaces. 5. Contour variations, generally microscopic, on the
surface of an object caused by a combination of force
4. Card wad - A thin card-like disc used in shotshells and motion where the motion is approximately parallel
as Overshot wad, Undershot wad and over powder wad. to the plane being marked.
A. Striations
5.Shot collar - A plastic or paper insert surrounding B. Class characteristics
the shot charge in a shot shell to reduce distortion. C. Sub-class characteristics
D. toolmarks
6.Filler wad - Circular disc of various thicknesses used
to adjust the volume of the contents of a shotshell. 6. Discernible surface features of an object which are
more restrictive than class characteristics.
7.Cup wad - A powder and shot separator of very A. Striations
shallow cup design, which when loaded with lips down B. Class characteristics
acts to help seal powder gases and so protect the rear C. Sub-class characteristics
of the shot column. D. Toolmarks
7.
8.Shot protector wad - Various designs of shot cups Measurable features of a specimen which indicate a
made of plastic and designed to reduce pellet restricted group source. They result from design factors,
deformation during barrel travel. and are therefore determined prior to manufacture.
A. Striations
B. Class characteristics identification these marks are characteristic of the
C. Sub-class charateristics object which produced them and are the basis for
D. Toolmarks identification.
8.
Marks produced by the random imperfections or 10.Pattern matching - The process of determining
irregularities of tool surfaces. These random whether or not the details of striated marks or
imperfections or irregularities are produced incidental to impressions on two objects correspond, such as fired
manufacture and/or caused by use, corrosion, or and unfired cartridge cases and shot-shell cases.
damage.
A. Individual characteristics Answers: Forensic Ballistics
B. Class characteristics 1. C
C. Sub-class characteristics 2. A
D. Toolmarks 3. B
9. 4. D
Striae or patterns of minute lines or grooves in an 5. A
object. In firearm and toolmark identification these 6. C
marks are characteristic of the object which produced 7. B
them and are the basis for identification. 8. A
A. Individual characteristics 9. C
B. Toolmarks 10. A
C. Microscopic marks
D. Class characteristics
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 8
10.The process of determining whether or not the
details of striated marks or impressions on two objects 1.The earliest known toolmark comparison case
correspond, such as fired and unfired cartridge cases involving firearms occurred in London in
and shot-shell cases. A. 1835
A. Pattern matching B. 1837
B. Land and Groove identification C. 1836
C. Pattern Identification D. 1838
D. Toolmark identification
2. Published the first work describing wounds resulting
Remember the ff: Forensic Ballistics from small caliber firearms.
A. Henry Goddard
1. Known standards - A collection and cataloging of B. John Sedgwick
test-fired bullets and cartridge cases from known C. Monsieur Noilles
firearms. Also, known as Fired standards. D. Stonewall Jackson

2. General Rifling Characteristics - the number,


width, and direction of twist of the rifling grooves in a 3. A firearm with long barrel and for-end or forearm
barrel of a given caliber firearm. extending nearly to the muzzle.
A. Rifle
3. Firearms identification - A discipline of forensic B. Remington rifle
science which has as its primary concern to determine if C. Whitwoth rifles
a bullet, cartridge case, or other ammunition component D. Musket
was fired by a particular firearm. 4
. A portion of a firearm's mechanism which ejects or
4. Toolmark identification - A discipline of forensic expels cartridges or cartridge cases from a firearm.
science which has as its primary concern to determine if A. Ejector
a toolmark was produced by a particular tool. B. breech face
C. Extractor
5. Striations - Contour variations, generally D. Firing pin
microscopic, on the surface of an object caused by a 5
combination of force and motion where the motion is . The negative impressions on the bearing surface of a
approximately parallel to the plane being marked. bullet caused by the rifling in the barrel from which is
was fired.
6. Subclass characteristics - Discernible surface A. Lapping
features of an object which are more restrictive than B. Land and Groove impressions
class characteristics. C. Obturation
D. Parkerizing
7. Class characteristics - Measurable features of a 6
specimen which indicate a restricted group source. They . The ignition component of a cartridge.
result from design factors, and are therefore determined A. Priming mixture
prior to manufacture. B. Priming powder
C. Priming Charge
8. Individual characteristics - Marks produced by the D. Primer
random imperfections or irregularities of tool surfaces. 7
These random imperfections or irregularities are . The locking and cartridge head support mechanism of
produced incidental to manufacture and/or caused by a firearm that does not operate in line with the axis of
use, corrosion, or damage. the bore.
A. Frame
9. Microscopic marks - Striae or patterns of minute B. Breechblock
lines or grooves in an object. In firearm and toolmark C. Mandrel
D. Box lock 9. B
8 10. A
. Developed the helixometer, a magnifier probe used to
examine the interior of firearm barrels and accurately
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 9
measure the pitch of rifling.
A. Goddard and Waite
B. Goddard and Gravelle 1. The curve taken by the bullet while in flight is called
C. Doddard and Fisher A. rifling curves
D. Waite and Fisher B. effective range
9 C. drift
. Essentially two microscopes connected to an optical D. maximum distance
bridge which allows the viewer to observe two objects
simultaneously with the same degree of magnification. 2. A mechanism in a revolver that connects pivot
A. Compound microscope between the frame and cylinder.
B. Comparison micoscope A. trigger spring
C. Dual microscope B. trigger guard
D. Complex microscope C. yoke
1 D. anvil
0.He is considered by many firearm examiners to be the
"father" of firearm and toolmark identification. 3. Proof Marks - It is the examination and testing of
A. Calvin H. Goddard firearms by a recognized authority according to certain
B. John H. Fisher rules and stamped with a mark to indicate that they are
C. Colonel H. W. Todhunter safe for sale and used by the public.
D.Philip O. Gravelle A. Provisional Proof
B. Proof Marks
Remember the ff: Forensic Ballistics C. Skid Marks
D. Slippage Marks
1. The earliest known toolmark comparison case
involving firearms occurred in London in 1835. 4. Among the following, which is a long smooth bored
firearm that is designed to prepare a single shot?
2. Monsieur Noilles - Published the first work A. Shotgun
describing wounds resulting from small caliber firearms. B. Musket
C. Carbine
3. Musket - A firearm with long barrel and for end or D. Caliber
forearm extending nearly to the muzzle.
5. It is the soft guiding metal which serves as the
4. Ejector - A portion of a firearm's mechanism which container of priming mixture, paper disc and anvil.
ejects or expels cartridges or cartridge cases from a A. Primer cup
firearm. B. Primer mixture
C. Paper disc
5. Land and Groove impressions - The negative D. Battery cup
impressions on the bearing surface of a bullet caused by
the rifling in the barrel from which is was fired. 6. An automatic weapon that can fire from 400 to 1,600
rounds of ammunition each minute.
6. Primer - The ignition component of a cartridge. A. Armalite
B. Uzi
7. Breechblock - The locking and cartridge head C. Machine gun
support mechanism of a firearm that does not operate in D. Glock
line with the axis of the bore.
7. Historians considered that the age of gunpowder
8. Goddard and Fisher - Developed the helixometer, a began with its first use as a propellant for a projectile on
magnifier probe used to examine the interior of firearm A. 1313
barrels and accurately measure the pitch of rifling. B. 1413
C. 1280
9. Comparison microscope - Essentially two D. 1350
microscopes connected to an optical bridge which allows
the viewer to observe two objects simultaneously with 8. One from Hartford, Connecticut, who produced the
the same degree of magnification. first practical revolver and became famous for its .45
caliber.
10.Calvin H. Goddard - He is considered by many A. Samuel Colt
firearm examiners to be the "father" of firearm and B. Carl Walther
toolmark identification. C. Oliver Winchester
D. John C. Garand

Answers: Forensic Ballistics 9. It includes rocket launchers and such mounted guns
1. A as howitzers, mortars, antiaircraft guns, and naval guns.
2. C A. Gunnery
3. D B. Artillery
4. A C. Musketry
5. B D. Ballistics
6. D 10. That part of the handgun designed in a metal tube
7. B through which the bullet is fired.
8. C A. Grip
B. Frame D. Drilling
C. Barrel
D. Rifling 10.To widen the opening of a hole, Countersink: to enlarge or dress o
A. Abrasive machining
Answers: Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 9 B. Broaching
1. C C. Reaming
2. C D. Drilling
3. B
4. B 11.Finishing surfaces by drawing or pushing a cutter
5. A called a broach entirely over and past the surface. A broach has a ser
6. C A. Abrasive machining
7. A B. Broaching
8. A C. Reaming
9. B D. Drilling
10.C
12.The use of abrasives rather than high-speed steel or tungsten car
A. Abrasive machining
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 10
B. Broaching
C. Reaming
1. The shape metal while hot and plastic by hammering or by a forging process, either by hand or by machine.
D. Drilling
A. Forging
B. Casting 13. Metal-cutting machining in which the work piece is firmly attache
C. Blanking A. Planing
D. Shearing B. Boring
C. Milling
2. To cut sheet or bar metal between two blades which pass immediately to each other.
D. Turning
A. Forging
B. Casting 14. Producing smooth and accurate holes in a work piece by enlargin
C. Blanking A. Planing
D. Shearing B. Boring
C. Milling
3. Cutting or pressing a piece of metal from a sheet. In ammunition manufacture, the usable part of a blanking operation is the material rem
D. Turning
A. Forging
B. Casting 15. Cutting metal by feeding against a rotating cutting tool called a m
C. Blanking A. Planing
D. Shearing B. Boring
C. Milling
4. An object at or near finished shape which is produced by solidification of aD.substance
Turning in a mold. Pouring molten metal into a mold to
A. Forging
B. Casting 16.Turning operations involve cutting excess metal, in the form of ch
C. Blanking A. Planing
D. Shearing B. Boring
C. Milling
5. To cut out, bend or form with a stamp or die. D. Turning
A. Extrusion
B. Hammer Forging 17.Shaping and planing operations involve the machining of flat surfa
C. Drawing A. Planing
D. Stamping B. Boring
C. Milling
6.A process using dies and punches to simultaneously reduce the diameter and extend the length of a cup-shaped metal part. Used for both
D. Shaping
A. Extrusion
B. Hammer Forging Answers: Forensic Ballistics
C. Drawing
D. Stamping 1. A
2. D
7. The process of forming the interior and/or exterior shape of the barrel
3. ofCa firearm by hammering.
A. Extrusion 4. B
B. Swagging 5. D
C. Drawing 6. C
D. Stamping 7. B
8. A
8. The slow forcing of material under high pressure through a die reduce 9.itsDdiameter. This process is generally performed in a hydraulic pres
A. Extrusion 10. C
B. Swagging 11. B
C. Drawing 12. A
D. Stamping 13. A
14. B
9. Cutting holes in metal with a twist drill. 15. C
A. Abrasive machining 16. D
B. Broaching 17. D
C. Reaming