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SECONDHAND SMOKING EXPOSURE AMONG THE

STUDENTS AT EMILIO AGUINALDO COLLEGE

GROUP 9
Ang, Enrico
Brabante, Ziv
Cabanado, Julz Sintos
De Guzman, Joeffren Matthew
Gurung, Suraj
Hassan, Tariq
Jusay, Jeff
Katuwal, Sabina
Kasti, Sushil
Portillo, Stephen Pilar
Sangbo, Shradz Poggz
Wanprapit, Teamteam

CHAPTER 1
BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION
Tobacco is the only legal drug that kills many of its users when used exactly as intended by
manufacturers (1). Overall, 28.3% (17.3 million) of population aged 15 years old and over in the
Philippines currently smoke tobacco; 47.7 % (14.6 million) men, and 9.0% (2.8 million) women (2).
The ill effects of smoking on our health has become widespread that it has become common
knowledge. Despite this awareness, smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of premature
death and disease, presently causing over 5 million deaths each year and expected to increase to over 8
million deaths yearly by 2030 (2). The ill effects of smoking does not end with the smokers themselves,
it also involve the exposure of none smokers, also known as the secondhand smoking. Among the 61.3
million adults aged 15 and older in the Philippines, 48.8% (29.8 million) allow smoking in their home;
and 39.6% were exposed to smoke in their home daily in the last 30 days (2). The ill effects of
secondhand smoking involves both children and adult. In children, it may cause Sudden Infant Death
Syndrome and Low Birth Weight (3). In adult, it may cause Coronary Artery Diseases, Chronic
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Lung Cancer (3).

Tobacco smoking is a major cause of the non-communicable disease. By 2030, NCDs are
projected to account for more than 75% of deaths worldwide (4). The problem of tobacco smoking is
projected to rise by the year 2030. Total tobacco-attributable deaths are projected to rise from 5.4
million in 2004 to 8.3 million in 2030, at which point they will represent almost 10% of all deaths
globally (4).

As the trend for tobacco smoking is rising, so does the secondhand smoking exposure. Almost
28 million Filipinos (55.3%) who used public transportation during the past 30 days were exposed to
secondhand smoke (2). Exposure to secondhand smoking was 55.3% in public transport, 33.6% in
restaurants, 25.5% in government buildings, and 7.6% in health care facilities (2).

The students represent the upcoming professionals and leaders of a country. Their current
situation will reflect the future status of a country. To evaluate the current health status of the students
in a school will help us determine the problems we are currently facing and what will be the impact of
those problems. Evaluating the secondhand smoking exposure among the students will help us to
identify the impact of tobacco smoking. According to the Global Health Professional Students Survey
(GHPSS) of 2005, it showed that 38% of males and 18% of females were current tobacco users among
the third year pharmacy students in the College of Public Health of the University of the Philippines
(5). Determining the students exposed to secondhand smoking will also help us in evaluate their
knowledge on the ill effects of secondhand smoking.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Among the 61.3 million adults aged 15 and older in the Philippines, 48.8% (29.8 million) allow
smoking in their home; and 39.6% were exposed to smoke in their home daily in the last 30 days.
Among those who work indoors or in enclosed areas, 36.9% (6.1 million) were exposed to SHS at
work; including 30.8% (3.7 million) non-smokers. For these workers, 65.4% of their worksites have
policies disallowing smoking in any closed area; yet 13.9% were exposed to SHS in the past 30 days.
Exposure to SHS was 55.3% in public transport, 33.6% in restaurants, 25.5% in government buildings,
and 7.6% in health care facilities. (1)

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the airways and lungs, and include flu, bronchitis and
pneumonia. A review of 60 research studies found that SHS exposure in the home increased young
infants risks of developing lower respiratory tract infections by 20% to 50% (6).

Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. SHS exposure has been found to
trigger the development of asthma and exacerbate symptoms.34 A review of 79 studies reported that
exposure to pre or post-natal SHS was associated with between 30-70% increased risk of incidents of
wheeze, and 21-85% increase risk in asthma in children.35 The review concluded that the effects of
SHS exposure on incident wheeze and asthma are substantially higher than previous estimates, and the
authors argued that SHS exposure is an important risk factor for both conditions throughout childhood.
(7)

Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke is a major risk factor for the development of COPD in
non-smokers. Based upon plasma cotinine levels, a non-smoker living with a smoker has a smoke
exposure of approximately 1% of that from an individual actively smoking 20 cigarettes a day
(Thompsonetal.,1990; LawandHackshaw,1996). Despite the low level of exposure, those exposed to
secondhand smoke exhibit increased levels of elastin degradation products in the serum
(Slowiketal.,2011); these degradation products are chemotactic for macrophages in the lung, promoting
ongoing inflammation, and lung degradation (Houghtonetal.,2006).

Cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern. Study results consistently indicate that
exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk of coronary heart disease by 25 to 30 percent.
Additional evidence suggests increased risks even at the lowest levels of exposure, and data from
cellular experiments and experiments in animals indicate that effects of secondhand smoke on the
cardiovascular system are plausible. (8)

A study, based on Japanese workers (Nakata et al., 2008), found that male nonsmokers exposed
to SHS at work were more likely to report inadequate sleep, although the same relationship was not
found among women workers. Other studies have noted that self-reported SHS is associated with
snoring among adults (Franklin et al., 2004) and children (Corbo, Fuciarelli, Foresi, & De Benedetto,
1989), which is regarded as a symptom of sleep-disordered breathing such as sleep apnea (Bliwise,
Nekich, & Dement, 1991; Wetter & Young, 1994).

CHAPTER III

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


This study aims to evaluate the secondhand smoking exposure among the students of Emilio
Aguinaldo College, their knowledge of the ill effects of smoking on health and secondhand smoking,
and their measures to help theirs peers quit smoking.

GENERAL OBJECTIVE:
This study aims to evaluate the secondhand smoking exposure, knowledge on its ill effects, and
measures for smoking cessation among the students of Emilio Aguinaldo College.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:
1. To assess the number of students exposed to secondhand smoking based on:
a) Frequency of exposure in School.
b) Number of their peers who are actively smoking.
c) Duration of exposure.
2. To define the knowledge of the students of Emilio Aguinaldo College exposed to secondhand
smoking in terms of:
a) Diseases of Secondhand smoking
b) Means of smoking cessation

REFERENCES:
1. WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2015,
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/156262/1/9789241564922_eng.pdf
2. 2009 Philippines Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS),
http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/2009_gats_report_philippines.pdf

3. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: Secondhand Smoke and
What It Means to You, http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/secondhand-smoke-
consumer.pdf

4. WHO Global Info Base. (Accessed December 14, 2009).

5. (GYTS) Fact Sheets. Data retrieved from Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data (GTSS) Data.

6. Jones LL, Hashim A, McKeever T, Cook DG, Britton J, Leonardi-Bee J. Parental and household
smoking and the increased risk of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and other lower respiratory infections in
infancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Respiratory Research. 2011;12:5.

7. Burke H, Leonardi-Bee J, Hashim A, Pine-Abata H, Chen Y, Cook DG, et al. Prenatal and Passive
Smoke Exposure and Incidence of Asthma and Wheeze: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Pediatrics. 2012;129(4):735-44.

8. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence,
https://iom.nationalacademies.org/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2009/Secondhand-Smoke-Exposure-
and-Cardiovascular-Effects-Making-Sense-of-the-Evidence/Secondhand%20Smoke%20%20Report
%20Brief%203.pdf