27th Ittc Oec Final Report v7

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27th Ittc Oec Final Report v7

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- CFD
- Kongsberg K-Thrust RCS Propulsion and Thruster Control System Operator Manual
- Work Over Operations GT Ppt
- FDSdispersion
- Project CFD Guide
- Smoke in Atrium
- spentzos
- ECOS 2011 Pariotis Kosmadakis Rakopoulos
- Sam Lindop L018852A Assignment 2
- Zhao 2007
- Full Text
- Wall Functions
- Modeling wall impaction of diesel sprays
- knotek.pdf
- Star Thesis
- 112106186
- Lect.01-02
- Further Developments for Coiled Tubing Floater Operations.docx
- Accepted Version
- 05501413

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February 2014.

1.1 Membership and Meetings

1.2 Tasks Based on the Recommendation

The members of the Ocean Engineering of 26th ITTC

Committee of the 27th International Towing

Tank Conference were as follows: Update the state-of-the-art for predicting

the behavior of bottom founded or

Prof. Wei Qiu (Chairman), Memorial stationary floating structures including

University of Newfoundland, Canada moored and dynamically positioned ships

Mr. Halvor Lie (Secretary), MARINTEK, emphasizing developments since the 2011

Norway ITTC Conference. The committee report

Dr. Jean-Marc Rousset, Ecole Centrale de should include sections on:

Nantes, France

Dr. Dong-Yeon Lee, Samsung Ship Model - The potential impact of new technological

Basin, Korea developments on the ITTC

Prof. Sergio H. Sphaier, Federal University - New experimental techniques and

of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil extrapolation methods

Prof. Longbin Tao University of - New benchmark data

Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom - The practical applications of

Prof. Xuefeng Wang, Shanghai Jiao Tong computational methods to prediction and

University, China scaling

Dr. Takashi Mikami, Akishima Laboratory - The need for R&D for improving methods

(MITSUI ZOSEN) Inc., Japan of model experiments, numerical

Dr. Viacheslav Magarovskii, Krylov modeling and full scale measurements.

Shipbuilding Research Institute, Russia

Review ITTC Recommended Procedures

Four Committee meetings were held relevant to ocean engineering

respectively at:

- Identify any requirements for changes in

Samsung Heavy Industries, Geoje the light of current practice, and, if

Shipyard, Korea, December 2011. approved by the Advisory Council.

MARINTEK, Trondheim, Norway, - Identify the need for new procedures and

September 2012. outline the purpose and content of these.

Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France, June

2013. Complete the VIV and VIM guidelines and

benchmark study initialized by the

263

Specialist Committee in Vortex Induced Section 2.7: Practical Applications of

Vibrations of the 26th ITTC. The report on Computational Methods to Prediction and

the benchmark test shall include clear Scaling

definition of all the test parameters. Section 2.8: Improving Method of Model

Experiments, Numerical Methods and Full-

Complete and report on the wave run-up Scale Measurements

benchmark study for a single cylinder.

for cases of four columns using the

experimental data from MARINTEK. Section 3 reviews the procedures, 7.5-02-07-

03.1 Floating Offshore Platform Experiments,

Investigate and report on the thruster- 7.5-02-07-03.2 Analysis Procedure for Model

thruster interaction, ventilation and their Tests in Regular Waves and 7.5-02-07-03.3

scaling for DP systems. Model Tests on Tanker-Turret Systems, and

addresses the need for new procedures.

Investigate and report on physical and

numerical modeling of vessels in side-by- New Documentation

side operations with an emphasis on wave

elevation in the gap. Section 4 discusses the development of

guideline for VIV and VIM model tests.

Investigate and report on motions of large Section 5 presents numerical benchmark

vessels and floating structures in shallow studies of VIV.

water. Section 6 presents benchmark studies of

wave run-up for cases of single and four

Jointly organize and participate in the joint columns.

ISSC/ITTC workshop on uncertainty in Section 7 discusses the investigation of

measurement and prediction of wave loads thruster-thruster interaction, ventilation and

and responses. their scaling effect for dynamic positioning

(DP) systems.

1.3 Structure of the Report Section 8 presents the study of physical and

numerical modeling of vessels in side-by-

The work carried out by the Committee is side operations.

presented as follows: Section 9 discusses the motions of large

ships and floating structures in shallow

2. State of the Art Reviews water.

Section 10 summarizes the outcome of the

Section 2.1: Predicting the Behaviour of first joint ISSC/ITTC workshop on

Stationary Floating Structures and Ships uncertainties in measurement and prediction

Section 2.2: Predicting the Behaviour of of wave loads and responses.

Dynamically Positioned Structures

Section 2.3: Highly Nonlinear Effects on Conclusions and Recommendations

Ocean Structures

Section 2.4: Predicting Vortex Induced Sections 11 and 12 present the conclusions and

Vibrations and Vortex Induced Motions recommendations, respectively.

Section 2.5: New Experimental Techniques

Section 2.6: New Extrapolation Methods

264

2. STATE OF THE ART REVIEWS

Ships

using spar platforms have been in deepwater

offshore regions. There are many technical

challenges with deployment and operation in

deep or ultra-deep water, typically including

the design and construction of drilling and

production facilities to withstand the harsh

deepwater environment and regulatory issues

that arise from operations at these depths.

address the global motions of spar hulls in Figure 2.1.1.1 Sketch of S-Spar (Sun and

waves, current and wind including vortex Huang, 2012)

induced motion (VIM). The wave and current

interaction is also an important issue for the Lefevre et al. (2013) presented CFD studies

spar platform. on the VIM of a spar using STAR-CCM+. The

numerical solutions were compared with model

VIM of spars has been studied by many test results. Good agreement was found.

researchers using numerical and experimental Recommendations on computing spar motions,

methods. Gonalves et al. (2012) applied the including the use of turbulence models, mesh

Hilbert-Huang Transform Method to analyze resolutions and the choice of time step, were

VIM of a mono-column platform and showed a given for CFD simulations of spar VIM.

good agreement compared to that from the Constantinides and Oakley (2013) simulated

traditional analysis. Gonalves et al. (2012a) the VIM of a truss spar using AcuSolve. A

presented an overview of relevant aspects on cylindrical domain and a specialized boundary

VIM of spars and mono-column platforms and condition were used to avoid the creation of

showed that the loading condition had the separate setups for each heading in the spar

largest impact on VIM responses because the design phase.

low aspect ratio leads large 3D effects on the

vortex shedding. A JIP has recently been set up to specifically

address VIM. The project started in the

summer of 2013 and will be completed in the

summer of 2016. MARIN and USP will carry

out model tests as well as CFD computations.

Comprehensive benchmark data will be

produced from model tests for the validation of

numerical simulations.

responses of spars in waves and current.

265

Murray et al. (2012) conducted a model test loads on tethers due to air-gap and wave impact

campaign on a 1:50 Radial Wellbay Spar on deck.

(RAW Spar) at the OTRC, Texas A&M

University. The model test results were Some of the results of the Cooperative

compared with numerical simulations by an Research on Extreme Seas and their impacT

ABAQUS-based time-domain semi-empirical (CresT) JIP were presented and discussed in

model by Muehlner et al. (2012b). Kurian et al. the work of Hagen (2011), Bitner-Gregersen

(2013) conducted experimental and numerical (2011), Hennig et al. (2011), Forristal (2011),

studies on a truss spar subjected to long and and Forristal and Aubult (2013) in the 30th and

short crested waves. The numerical solutions 32nd OMAE Conferences. Figure 2.1.2.1

agreed well with the experimental results. shows the TLP model used in the CresT JIP.

Lower responses were also observed for short

crested waves. Zhang et al. (2012) conducted

model tests and investigated the added mass

coefficients of a truss spar. In the model tests,

the truss spar was subjected to uniform current.

It was found that the added mass coefficients

decrease as the reduced velocity was increased.

Hong et al. (2013) presented an experimental

study on the motion of a 1/100 scaled model of

a spar-type floating platform. The effect of test

conditions, e.g., the center of gravity, mooring

stiffness and the fairlead location, were Figure 2.1.2.1 The TLP Model Used in CresT

investigated. Rodriguez and Neves (2012) (Hennig et al., 2011)

studied the nonlinear instabilities of spar

platforms in waves with a focus on the Hagen (2011) discussed the wave

parametric resonance phenomenon. Parametric nonlinearities that might lead to unrealistically

Amplification Domains (PADs) were low estimates of the extreme tether tension for

computed, showing the boundaries of the the TLP, especially those related to wave-in-

instability regions and the maximum roll deck events. The 100-year return period value

amplitudes. was shown to increase considerably if the

New design concepts have also been nonlinearities beyond the second order were

developed. For example, Sun and Huang included.

(2012) developed a new spar concept called "S-

Spar" (Figure 2.1.1.1). The "S-Spar" combined Bitner-Gregersen (2011) presented the

the features of classic spars and truss spars. reliability assessment of the air-gap of a

Numerical predictions were performed using

the panel method. The new concept led to generic TLP for a given extreme wave

smaller wave forces and motions than those of condition. The study demonstrated the effects

the classic spars. of wave nonlinearity beyond the second order,

diffraction and radiation by the TLP, spatial

2.1.2 TLPs variations of crest statistics, deck heights and

sea water level variations. Based on a

In the past three years, research has been stochastic model, sensitivity studies were

carried out on TLPs using experimental and carried out to identify the importance of

numerical methods focusing on motions and parameters on the probability of failure.

266

Uncertainties related to the analyses were less data in comparison with the conventional

identified and ranked. statistical procedure.

Hennig et al. (2011) reported some results of Johannessen (2011) investigated the high-

extreme wave loads and responses observed in frequency loading and the response of a TLP in

the model tests of the TLP. It was concluded irregular steep waves. By comparing the model

that the wetted deck area, depending on the test results of tether loadings, it was concluded

type of wave impact, wave-in-deck event and that the weakly nonlinear methods seem to be

design variation, affects significantly the actual incapable of estimating the excitation at very

responses of TLP. The effect of the wave short- high frequencies, while a much simpler

crestedness on extreme loadings was also impulse formulation gave a better estimate of

assessed. horizontal excitations at these high frequencies.

Based on the JIP experimental results, Muehlner et al. (2012a) investigated the

Forristal (2011) showed that the maximum effect of high-frequency oscillations of a TLP

crest heights in an area are greater than those at on the fatigue of its tendons by direct

a single point. It was also stated that calculations in time domain. The coupled

Piterbargs theory (Piterbarg, 1996) can analysis of the TLP with tendons and risers was

accurately predict this behaviour. Model tests carried out by considering several

showed that the short-term statistics of the nonlinearities, including large displacements,

diffracted waves under a TLP have the same finite wave height, viscous drag, higher-order

form as that of the incident waves. Based on wave effects, and variable added mass of the

these evidences, the author proposed a method TLP columns. The analysis results showed that

for the calculation of air-gap. the fatigue damage due to high-frequency

oscillations in the tendons was significant.

More recently, also in the context of the

CresT JIP, Forristal and Aubult (2013) Mansour et al. (2013) investigated the

analyzed the effect of wave diffraction on the design aspects of TLP tendon and tendon

measured wave heights under the deck of the foundation systems. The studies involved the

TLP. The results demonstrated that the first- numerical simulation of progressive failure of

order diffraction theory can be used to find the tendons in cyclonic events. The TLP responses

wave heights under the deck of the TLP, and it during the transition from the restrained

should also be used to correct the wave condition (TLP with all tendons) to the free-

measurements for a TLP. The second-order floating condition have been numerically

theory gave marginal improvements and is simulated and validated against model test

therefore not recommended. results.

Based on extensive model tests, Gaidai et al. Relatively new TLP concepts have also been

(2012) proposed another method for estimating proposed and studied. Chandrasekaran et al.

the extreme value statistics of air-gap for a TLP (2011) investigated a relatively new platform

subjected to random events. The method used concept for ultra deepwater offshore

only the area extreme value at each point to exploration using an experimental method. The

obtain a robust identification of the crossing platform, Triceratops, combines the

rate function that determines the extreme value characteristics of TLP and spar, and consists of

distribution. It was shown that this method can deck structure supported by three buoyant leg

lead to an accurate prediction by using much structures (BLS) connected through ball joints.

Model tests in regular waves showed that the

267

compliancy of the ball joints significantly

affects the motion responses and the tether

tensions. Only surge motions are transferred

from the BLS to the deck. Figure 2.1.2.2 shows

a typical triceratops.

(Rao et al., 2012)

Figure 2.1.2.2 The Triceratops Concept

(Chandrasekaran et al., 2011)

analyses of a relatively new concept of a TLP,

namely Tension Based Tension Leg Platform

(TBTLP) (see Figure 2.1.2.3), which was

proposed for greater water depth than that for

the conventional TLPs. Time series of free

vibrations and the response amplitude

operators (RAOs) were obtained and compared

for three different cases of TLPs with and

without tension base in various water depths.

The efficacy of the provision of a tension base

has been proved by comparing the RAOs.

Figure 2.1.2.4 The TLP with Perforated

More recently, Srinath and Chandrasekaran

Members (Srinath and Chandrasekaran, 2013)

(2013) investigated the effect of perforated

members on the dynamic response of TLPs

New installation methodologies regarding

through model testing. Experiments in regular

TLP and its tendons have also been proposed.

unidirectional waves showed that surge and

For tendon installation, Li et al. (2012)

pitch response amplitudes decrease in the

proposed an innovative approach, which

presence of retrofitting perforated cylindrical

involved the horizontal assembly of TLP

members. Depending on the wave period, the

tendon segments on a construction barge,

reduction may vary from 4% to 25%.

instead of the typical vertical installation using

268

expensive heavy lift vessels. The partially purposes and in the assessment of operating

assembled tendon was then incrementally conditions, especially in extreme wave

pulled out through a stinger at the barge stern conditions.

and secured with a holdback clamp so that the

next tendon joint can be connected. The TLPs with direct and indirect applications as

process repeated itself until the whole tendon offshore wind energy devices have also been

was assembled and deployed. The tendon was investigated. Bachynski and Moan (2012)

then upended to a vertical configuration and studied four TLP wind turbine (TLPWT)

connected to a TLP or a foundation pile. concepts using a fully-coupled nonlinear time-

domain method and a linear frequency-domain

Rijken (2013) provided two engineering method. The designs included a wide range of

solutions for the installation of TLPs under displacements. The wind-induced responses

swell conditions. These methods aim to reduce were found to be significant and dependent on

heave motions either by installing heave plates the TLPWT hull according to the nonlinear

or by temporarily decreasing the waterplane simulations. The nonlinear time-domain results

area. Both methods reduce the heave RAOs for coupled wind and wave simulations

when the wave period is greater than 12 s. indicated that wind loads were important for

They may be applicable to situations where the both operational and survival cases. In the

installation window may contain prolonged operational cases, the operating turbines

periods of persistent swell. provided low-frequency excitations and some

pitch damping. The wave-induced motions

In terms of hydrodynamic behavior of TLPs, tended to become more important in more

some interesting work has been published. severe sea states. In the parked condition, the

Cruz et al. (2012) reported the parametric yaw aerodynamic torque was found to be quite

motions of a TLP in close proximity to a strong, and it was proved to be a critical force

moored FPSO. It was also observed in the component for the smallest TLPWT design.

experiments that as the TLP yaw motion

amplifies, the TLP sway amplitudes reduce, The Tension-Leg-Buoy (TLB), a concept

revealing a strongly non-linear coupling developed based on the TLP for offshore wind

between these modes. A nonlinear turbine applications, was investigated by Myhr

mathematical model that takes hydrodynamic and Nygaard (2012). They addressed the

interactions of two bodies and nonlinear effects of the Excess Buoyancy (EB) and

restoring into account was also proposed to mooring lines layout. Other offshore wind

investigate the occurrence of parametric energy applications related to TLPs can be

instabilities of this type of system. Rudman and found in Copple and Capanoglu (2012), Ren et

Cleary (2013) applied the Smoothed Particle al. (2012) and Stewart et. al (2012).

Hydrodynamics (SPH) method to the fully-

coupled simulation of the impact of a highly Bae and Kim (2013) presented an analysis

non-linear breaking rogue wave on a moored method for a mono-column TLP-type floating

semi-submersible tension leg platform. They offshore wind turbine (FOWT) designed for

showed the detailed effect of wave impact 200m water depth. In the proposed method,

angle on the subsequent platform motions and rotor dynamics and control, aero-dynamics,

determined how the cable tension varied with tower elasticity, floater dynamics, and mooring

wave impact angle and the time after impact. line dynamics were considered. The full

The application of the method and the dynamic coupling among them was

presented results highlighted how the investigated in time domain along with the

simulations could be used for practical design effects of sum-frequency wave-excitations. The

269

sum-frequency wave loading effects can be pontoon volume, and the pontoon cross-section

significant in the coupled analysis when blades shape. In the NexGen design, the pontoon

are fixed (not rotating) at a minimal angle like volume was re-distributed to minimize heave

in the survival condition. Therefore, there are loading while maintaining sufficient structural

significant differences between uncoupled and rigidity, a long heave natural period and

coupled analyses, and care needs to be taken adequate quayside buoyancy. The blisters

when applying the conventional dynamic attached to the columns effectively break the

analysis methods, which are typically used for vortex shedding coherence along the column

floating offshore oil and gas platforms, to the length and therefore suppress VIM.

design of FOWTs. There exist complicated

coupling effects among blade rotation, tower Kyoung et al. (2013) conducted model tests

flexibility, blade-control mechanism, platform and numerical simulations to validate the

and mooring dynamic characteristics, and they global performance of a Heave and VIM

should be fully considered for effective and Suppressed (HVS) semisubmersible. Xu et al.

robust design of future FOWTs. (2012) validated the VIM responses of a HVS

semisubmersible by model tests and CFD

2.1.3 Semi-Submersibles computations. Both the model test and the CFD

analysis showed better performance of the

Semi-submersibles are subjects of HVS design than an equivalent conventional

continuing interest and have been studied by a semisubmersible. Gonalves et al. (2012)

number of authors using a variety of methods. presented new experimental results on VIM of

a large volume semisubmersible platform. The

DaSilva and Knecht (2011) introduced the wave effects were the main focus. According to

practical implementation of a stochastic the results, regular and irregular waves led to

approach involving known aspects that affect considerable differences in responses. Bai et al.

the air gap for semi-submersibles. These effects (2013) conducted model tests in a towing tank

include the first-order vessel motions under an to study the VIM response of a Deep Draft

undisturbed wave field, diffracted wave Semisubmersible (DDS) with four rectangular

elevation under the platform, slow drift columns and four pontoons. CFD computations

quadratic transfer function (QTF), vessel set- based on the RANS model were also carried

down, and the heel effects due to mooring out. The experimental results showed that the

stiffness. The results showed good correlation VIM responses of the DDS mainly include

between the model test results and the horizontal motions (surge, sway and yaw),

analytical methods. among which sway is dominant. It was

demonstrated in the numerical simulations that

VIM of semisubmersibles has been the CFD method could be used for the

addressed in various degrees. For example, Xu prediction of VIM.

(2011) introduced a new semisubmersible

design (NexGen) as a wet-tree floater by Gonalves et al. (2012) experimentally

maintaining the simplicity of a conventional

studied the Vortex Induced Yaw (VIY) motion

semisubmersible design. Its improved heave

on a large volume semisubmersible platform. It

motion and VIM performance was

was shown that a resonant behavior occurred in

demonstrated through hull-form optimization

yaw motions with considerable amplitudes.

studies. The difference between the NexGen

semi-submersible design and a conventional

Mansour and Kumar (2013) presented the

semi-submersible design lies in the blisters

numerical results for the motion response of a

attached to the columns, the distribution of

270

Free Hanging Solid Ballast (FHSB) low frequency motion, the effect of internal

Semisubmersible in extreme hurricane. The liquid cargo, the hydrodynamic interaction

new feature was proved to improve the when operated in a close proximity, the

performance of a conventional shallow water effect, and fully nonlinear

semisubmersible. analysis.

response of FPSO systems subjected to squalls

and developed a robust approach to estimate

the design value. It was shown that the

governing squall parameter concerning FPSO

offset is the peak wind speed, both for spread

moored and turret moored vessels. It was

shown that the dynamic amplification

limitation method has great potential for use as

a Design Value Estimating method, as it

combines the physical correctness of the

squalls and the response characteristics of the

FPSO system.

heading for a FPSO with spread mooring

operating in Santos basin considering the wave

Figure 2.1.3.1 The Free Hanging Solid induced motions was presented by Oliveira

Ballast (FHSB) Semi-submersible (Mansour (2012. A search algorithm has been

and Kumar, 2013) implemented to allow the comparison of a large

number of statistical results and to determine

Kurian et al. (2012) conducted model tests an adequate heading for the FPSO. It was

on a moored semisubmersible with one failure found that the optimum ranges concerning the

mooring line. Results showed that the platform roll motion, the vertical displacement and the

migrated to a new mean position with a vertical acceleration at the riser connection

considerable transient response after the line point dont occur at the same heading. An

failure. approximation of the best range can be selected

by considering the restraints.

Shan et al. (2012) conducted model tests

Zhang et al. (2012) studied a SPM mooring

and studied the wave run-up phenomenon of

system for two side-by-side vessels. A new

column arrays. The leg spacing was found to be

side-by-side mooring bay designed by Keppel

a factor that affects the wave run-ups.

Offshore & Marine Technology Centre was

investigated, and its global performance and

2.1.4 FPSO Vessels

dynamic stability were compared against those

FPSO vessels have been operated in a of the traditional SPM-mooring system. The

variety of water depths due to their flexibility, multi-body systems include a SPM buoy with a

reliability, and low cost. Efforts have been turntable mooring system, a VLCC FPSO, oil

made to investigate the responses of FPSO tanker, and the hawsers/fenders and yokes

vessels in waves. Studies have been addressing between them. The work clearly showed that

the newly-designed SPM mooring system

271

experienced smaller relative motions between Kaminski and Bogaert (2010) presented the

vessels and was more stable in the same recent progress made in the full-scale tests of

environment compared to the traditional SPM real membrane containment systems subjected

mooring system. to the action of breaking waves, which were

used to model the sloshing impacts in LNG

In the work of vant Veer et al. (2012), a tanks of LNG carriers or Floating LNG

validated methodology was introduced to terminals (FLNGs). The waves were generated

calculate the oscillatory loads on bilge keels of in a water flume using a wave focusing

ships operating at zero forward speed in method. The tests were carried out through the

irregular sea states. To calculate these loads, Sloshel project. Necessary steps were taken to

the local relative fluid velocities acting normal improve the test repeatability, and to collect

to the bilge keel were combined with a KC data for the analysis of scaling laws, hydro-

dependent drag coefficient. The local relative structural interaction, and effects of membrane

velocity to the bilge keel was obtained from 3D corrugations.

potential-flow computations. The KC

dependent drag coefficient of the bilge keel The motions and mooring loads of a turret

geometry was calculated by 2D CFD moored Floating Storage and Regasification

simulations in harmonic flow oscillations Unit (FRSU) and a Liquefied Natural Gas

utilizing a rectangular fluid domain. With the Carrier (LNGC) including sloshing were

proposed approach, it was possible to quantify studied by Cho et al. (2011). The turret moored

the ultimate load on the bilge keel in extreme FSRU weathervanes on a turret, and the side-

design conditions and to obtain the long term by-side LNGC moves and interacts with

load distribution necessary for fatigue analysis. FSRU. It was concluded that the longitudinal

Model tests for several FPSO vessels have sloshing considerably affects the surge motion

been used to validate the methodology. and mooring tensions. It was shown in their

work that sloshing needs to be considered

simultaneously in the analysis of side-by-side

moored FSRU and LNGC.

methods for offloading operability of side-by-

side moored FLNGs. The operational envelop

of loading arm is a function of relative motions

between two vessels and the wave drift forces.

In the proposed methods, one concept (Concept

1) involved an articulated type of reduction

device with oil and spring as a damper in the

cylinder with a stroke of 0.15m (9.0m in real

scale). This motion device can be installed at

Figure 2.1.4.1 Bow Connection Details of the bow and the stern of a FLNG and a LNGC

New Concept SPM Mooring System (Zhang et to reduce the relative motions. The waves in

al., 2012) the gap lead to drift forces in head seas. For

reduced waves in the gap between the FLNG

2.1.5 Floating LNG Production Storage and the LNG carrier, the wave absorber type of

and Offloading Vessels device, Concept 2, was introduced. This device

can lead to a reduction of the second-order drift

forces. It can be installed between fenders on a

272

side of FLNG. From the experimental studies,

it was found that the proposed motion For dynamically positioned crane barges

reduction devices significantly reduced the operating in a close proximity to FPSO vessels

relative motions between two vessels, and during lifting operations, the hydrodynamic

eventually, improved the offloading interactions are important and must be

operability. considered in the analysis. Tannuri et al. (2012)

presented a large set of experimental tests

considering a DP Barge in a close proximity to

2.2 Dynamically Positioned (DP) a FPSO. Results include the hydrodynamic

Structures interactions and their effect on the DP

performance in terms of station-keeping and

Xu et al. (2013) presented a new control thrust demand.

strategy considering roll-pitch motion control.

Traditionally, DP systems only deal with van Daalen et al. (2011) presented a generic

horizontal motions without considering vertical optimization algorithm for the allocation of

ones including roll and pitch. However, large dynamic positioning actuators, such as

roll and pitch motions may be induced by azimuthing thrusters and fixed thrusters. The

thruster actions, which obviously should be algorithm is based on the well-known Lagrange

avoided. The main idea in the new control multipliers method. In their work, the

strategy was to consider roll-pitch velocity and Lagrangian represents not only the cost

acceleration feedback in the horizontal control function (the total power delivered by all

law in order to avoid large roll-pitch motions. actuators), but also all constraints related to

The time-domain simulation results showed thruster saturation and forbidden zones for

that the new control strategy can suppress roll azimuthing thrusters. The Newton-Raphson

and pitch motions. However, it will reduce the method was recommended to solve the thruster

positioning accuracy in the horizontal-plane in allocation problem. Depending on the

some degree. Moreover, the energy configuration, it may lead to significant power

consumption with the new control strategy was (energy) savings. An iterative process has also

lower than that with the conventional one. been studied by taking the limitations of

actuators into account.

Smit et al. (2011) investigated to what

extent the current feed forward control would 2.3 Highly Nonlinear Effects on Ocean

improve the positioning performance of Structures

dynamically positioned FPSO vessels in

varying currents, for example, tidal current 2.3.1 Slamming

reversals and so called internal soliton

currents. The DpSim software developed by Slamming is a complex nonlinear problem.

MARIN was extended with a module It has been continuously studied by many

containing the current feed forward control. researchers using experimental and numerical

When the current feed forward control was methods. In the numerical simulations,

applied to dynamic positioning in varying methods based on the potential-flow theory and

currents, the mean and the standard deviation CFD methods such as SPH, VOF and CIP have

of the control point excursion were reduced. been employed.

The heading performance and the power usage

did not change significantly while achieving

this reduction.

273

(CEL) approach and the VOF method.

Experiments were also conducted to validate

the numerical results. The third method was

proved to be potentially suitable for 3D

slamming studies.

tests to investigate the process of lowering a

large scale mud mat (plate with shirts) with

different porosities into calm water, regular

wave, and irregular wave. Constant velocities

were kept by using an electric jack. Impact

Figure 2.3.1.1 High-Speed Shock Apparatus loads were measured during the tests. Effects

(Alaoui and Nme, 2012) of porosity, impact velocity, and inclination

angles of the plate on the impact coefficient

Various model tests have been carried out were studied. Furthermore, a numerical method

to further investigate the fluid-structure based on RANS with VOF for free surface

interactions during the water entry. Alaoui and capturing was applied to simulate the slamming

Nme (2012) carried out an experiment to phenomena and to predict the impact loads.

study fluid-structure interactions during the

slamming impacts. The vertical impact Huera-Huarte et al. (2011) conducted a

velocities were maintained constant by using a series of experiments to study slamming forces

specially designed high-speed shock machine. on a rigid flat plate. A novel test apparatus,

Three rigid structures, including a cone, a named Slingshot Impact Testing System

square pyramid and a wedge-cone, were tested. (SITS), was developed. The tests were

Good repeatability of impact velocities and conducted with high impact velocities up to 5

slamming loads was observed, and empirical m/s and a wide range of deadrise angles from

formulas for non-dimensional slamming 0.3 to 25. The cushion effect due to trapped

coefficients were obtained. The predicted

air with small deadrise angles (<4) was

slamming coefficients of the cone by the

ABAQUS/Explicit code are in good agreement confirmed from the tests. An empirical formula

with the experimental results. for non-dimensional impact coefficients was

proposed in their work.

Constantinescu et al. (2011) carried out

experiments for cones with varying deadrise

angles using a hydraulic shock machine. In

their work, three numerical methods were

employed to study 2D slamming of wedges and

pseudo-3D slamming of cones. The first

method, Impact++ABAQUS, was based on

Wagner's theory and the displacement potential

formulation. The second one combined the

Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) analysis

and a commercial finite element software

program, ABAQUS/Explicit. The third method

was based on the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian

274

Stansberg et al. (2012) conducted

experiments to investigate the breaking-wave

induced slamming loads on vertical offshore

structures. Time series of wave elevation,

pressure distribution, and the integrated

slamming loads were measured in the

experiments. An empirical formula for

slamming coefficient was also presented.

address the slamming problems by Wagner's

theory, potential-flow based and CFD methods.

Korobkin and Khabakhpasheva (2013)

investigated the effect of water depth on the

first peak of bending stresses during the water

Figure 2.3.1.2 Slingshot Impact Testing System entry of an elastic body. Wagner's model was

(Huera-Huarte et al., 2011) applied to solve the deepwater impact while the

leading-order solution was presented for the

van Nuffel et al. (2011) conducted free-drop shallow water impact. Two typical shapes,

tests to study the water entry of a rigid cylinder including a wedge with small deadrise angle

into calm water. Improvements were made on and a cylindrical shell of elastic structure were

the accuracy and the repeatability of the considered. Computed bending stresses were

pressure measurements. In their study, compared to experimental data, and good

pressures and accelerations were recorded and agreement was observed.

further investigated. Parametric studies were

carried out to examine the effects of sensor Yan and Liu (2011) proposed a fully

mounting, data sampling rate, temperature nonlinear numerical method based on the

shock, the object surface conditions, and the potential flow theory to investigate water entry

water surface conditions on the measured of axisymmetric bodies. The method was based

pressure peak. Recommendations for on an axisymmetric linear boundary element

experimental set-ups were provided. In 2012, method (BEM) and a mixed Eulerian-

they continued the study with the same Lagrangian (MEL) approach. A jet cutting

apparatus (van Nuffel et al., 2012). Global technique, which was effective and robust, was

forces were also measured in the tests. developed. They applied the numerical method

Relationships for pressure-speed and force- to study the effect of gravity and body

speed were investigated. geometry as well as the flow separation

location on the continuous body surface. Two

To investigate the slamming load representative bodies, an inverted cone and a

distribution and its relationship with the impact sphere, were included in the studies. They

velocity, Peng et al. (2011) conducted a free developed a formula with a single similarity

drop slamming test with a scaled trimaran parameter for evaluating the contribution of the

model. Pressures were measured at the main gravity of the total impact force on the cones.

hull, the side hull, and the cross structure of the For the sphere impact, it was observed the

trimaran. Comparisons were made between the gravity effect was unimportant in the initial

experimental data and the simulation results stage of impact, but it slightly increased the

based on the finite element method. impact pressure in the later stage when Froude

number is less than 2.0. The flow separation

275

location remained at a fixed location at the compared with the experimental data (Aarsnes,

angle of 62.5 deg when the Froude number is 1996). Furthermore, a linear strip-theory code

larger than 1.0. was combined with the SPH algorithm to

compute the impact loads on hull sections. The

RANS methods along with the free surface numerical solutions were also compared to the

capturing methods such as VOF and CIP have experimental data from Ochi (1958).

been used for slamming simulations. For

example, Rahaman and Akimoto (2012) In recent years, progress has also been made

studied the slamming at the bow flare region by in addressing the structural deformation during

using a RANS-based CFD method. They slamming. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI)

investigated the pitch and heave motion as well method has been employed in recent work.

as the pressure distribution at the bow flare Jiang et al. (2012) validated two CFD methods

region of a 3D container ship model travelling for slamming problems by comparing the

in regular head waves. Two dimensional predicted impact loads with experimental data.

simulations were carried out for selected bow The two CFD methods were a RANS method

flare sections based on the VOF method and with STAR-CCM+ and a Lagrangian-Eulerian

FLUENT. Predicted slamming loads agreed Fluid-Structure Interactions (FSI) method with

reasonably well with the experimental data by DYSMAS. The pressure peak, the pressure

Zhao et al. (1996). time history, and the pressure-area relationship

were investigated. Reasonable agreements

Yang and Qiu (2012) continued their studies between numerical predictions and

of 2D and 3D slamming problems based on a experimental results were reported.

constrained interpolation profile (CIP) method.

The compressible air was considered in the Vepa et al. (2011) carried out comparative

simulations. Validation studies of the studies of slamming loads on cylindrical

numerical methods were carried out for 2D structures with three methods: a mesh-based

wedges with large and small deadrise angles, a implicit method, a mesh-based explicit method,

3D catamaran, and 3D cylinders. Numerical and the SPH method combined with the finite

results were compared with solutions by other element (FE) model. The explicit method and

numerical methods and experimental data. the SPH-FE method were applied by using LS-

DYNA while the implicit method was applied

In addition, SPH has also been employed for by using FLUENT-ABAQUS. Rigid and

slamming computations. For instance, Veen deformable cylinders were included in the

and Gourlay (2011) conducted parametric computations. A significant pressure peak

studies to investigate the effects of sectional reduction was observed in the deformable

shape and time-varying impact velocity on cylinder cases. They also concluded that the

slamming loads by using the 2D SPH method. SPH method had better convergence than the

They used three section shapes, including a mesh-based methods.

wedge, a bow flare and a catamaran in their

studies. Veen and Gourlay (2012) further Wang and Soares (2013) investigated the 2D

carried out numerical studies on 2D bottom water entry of a bow flare section and the

slamming and bow flare slamming problems. effects of roll angle on slamming loads by

In their work, the solid wall boundary applying an explicit finite element method in

conditions were modelled by using the ghost combination with a multi-material Eulerian

particle technique. The numerical method was formulation and a penalty coupling method. In

applied to the water impact with prescribed the previous work by Wang et al. (2012),

velocity profile, and the numerical results were computations were carried out by using LS-

276

DYNA/Explicit. The predicted slamming load with clear water), 14 different excitation

and pressure were compared with experimental conditions, and a measurement setup. It aimed

data by Aarsnes (1996) and the numerical to compare the laboratory measurements. From

results by using other methods, including BEM the comparison of experimental data, some

and CIP. preliminary conclusions were presented - the

repeatability of single impact waves seemed to

Yamada et al. (2012) applied an explicit be acceptable, however notable discrepancies

finite element code LS-DYNA to simulate the in event rates and probabilities of pressure

slamming loads of water-entry of a full-scale exceedance were clearly observed for harmonic

wedge. They first validated the method with a and irregular waves. These differences led to

small-scale rigid wedge and an elastic cylinder. the next round of benchmark studies in 2012-

Further, the method was employed to 2013.

investigate slamming of a full-scale elastic-

plastic wedge. Results from numerical The focus in the second round was on the

simulations were compared to those by the accurate control of three parameters: the water

conventional Wagner method. filling level, the positioning of the tank and the

rig motion. Many of motion rigs were

hexapods (Loysel et al., 2013, Baudin et al.

2.3.2 Sloshing 2013). The results for single wave impacts with

large gas pockets showed good agreement.

The problem of the sloshing of liquid cargo This resulted in considering this setup as a

in tanks is especially important in the design of reference configuration to validate

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo methodologies. Differences were found when

containment systems. The liquid is stored at the impact location, the gas pocket location and

atmospheric pressure in insulated tanks at - its size were not accurately controlled.

161 Celsius. Due to the insulation system, Discrepancies in the results for irregular

tanks cannot be partitioned. As a result, liquid motions still existed and they are comparable

motions in the tanks, excited by the vessel to those in the precedent benchmark studies.

motions, may be observed. The design of LNG Temperature effects were highlighted and

ships or storage units is thus very complicated. further investigations regarding this aspect

The state-of-the-art methodology is based on were proposed.

the use of seakeeping computer codes to

estimate ship or platform motions. Experiments

on tank models and CFD simulations have

been performed in order to estimate global and

local fluid loadings in the tanks.

parameters affecting the fluid motion and

pressure are presented in the work of Loysel et

al. (2012) and (2013). These results were

acquired during two rounds of Sloshing Model

Test (SMT) benchmark studies.

Figure 2.3.2.1: Representative Pressure Time

involving nine participants, were based on a

Histories by Six Participants for A Single

simple tank geometry (2D rectangular tank Impact Wave (Loysel et al., 2013)

277

Souto-Iglesias et al. (2011) presented a showed the impact pressure was higher in the

description of an experimental setup for case of the flexible wall.

sloshing tests involving angular harmonic

motions. Details on data acquisition and

synchronisation schemes were given. An

uncertainty analysis was presented, focusing on

the measurements of the first peak pressure.

sloshing tests using a hexapod with two 2D

model tanks. The maximum pressures were

measured for 1-DOF motions. An analysis of

the experimental setup was presented in their

paper. A thermal artefact on the pressure

transducers was observed when the water hit Figure 2.3.2.3 Rigid and Flexible Models and

their sensitive surfaces. This effect was also Locations of Pressure Transducers

reported by Loysel et al. (2012). They also (Choi et al., 2012)

checked motions of the excitation rig. The

steps of data collection and analysis, as well as Lugni et al (2013) presented similar

corrections to experimental shortcomings, were findings from their hydroelasticity experiments

described. on a flexible tank wall. They also investigated

the pressure effects on air cavities formed by

the impact waves.

reliability-based methodology for the sloshing

assessment of a membrane-type LNG cargo

containment system (CCS) in LNGCs and

FLNGs. For each individual sloshing impact

event, the dependency of two parameters (the

magnitude and the rising time) was taken into

account in this new methodology. Based on the

test data for the sloshing model, the equivalent

static pressure for each individual impact event

was calculated using the magnitude and the

dynamic capacity factor (DCF) through the

associated rising time. In the reliability

Figure 2.3.2.2 Full-Scale Air Pocket Impact

analysis, the limit state function was used by

on MarkIII (Kaminski and Bogaert, 2010)

applying the Load and Resistance Factor

Design (LRFD) approach. Then, the sloshing

Hydroelasticity in sloshing experiments

load (equivalent static pressure) and structural

was studied by Choi et al. (2012) using a resistance (static capacity) distributions were

hexapod and rectangular tank models. Surge employed to determine the partial safety factors

motions for four different filling levels were in the CCS design formula at a target reliability

tested using a regular rigid tank and a tank with index.

a flexible stainless steel wall. The experiments

278

Fillon et al. (2013) applied the extreme Water run-up and run-down on walls were

value theory to the samples of sloshing analyzed with respect to the flow regimes.

pressure in order to improve the model for

predicting the maxima of sloshing pressure. Progress has been made to investigate the

Two different statistical fitting methods were scale effect using model and full scale tests.

used for sloshing pressure measurements in one Lafeber et al. (2012) reported the scale effect

sea state which is equivalent to a 480-hour on wave impact using an instrumented wall

duration sloshing test at full scale. This long adopted in the Sloshel JIP. The first tests were

duration sloshing test was in fact generated by carried out using 1:6 scale in 2009 and full

using 96 five-hour individual experimental scale in 2010 at the same ambient conditions.

tests. The two methods led to a correct The comparison of the two tests results showed

estimation of the maximum sloshing pressure. the effect of the liquid properties and the air.

Graczyk et al. (2012) investigated local As the compressibility of the gas was not

pressure effects based on low filling level tests scaled, the loading processes, building jets

of a 2D LNG tank model (scale 1:35). The tank along the wall from the impact area and

has smooth wall surfaces and a wall with compression of entrapped air, were not

horizontal protrusions similar to Invar edges Froude-similar. The full-scale wave impact

that disturb the local flows, inducing either result was obtained after the loading process of

pressure amplifications or cancellations. The compression of entrapped air at scale 1:6 was

authors indicated the need of advanced corrected using the one-dimensional model of

instrumentation in combination with high- Bagnold (1939).

speed cameras to explain the measurements of

local pressure. Pasquier and Berthon (2012) compared the

sloshing impact measurements at full scale and

Using the same motion rig, Bouscasse et al. at a model scale. The actual ship motions were

(2013) measured the free surface elevations in used as input for the model tests (scale 1:40). A

a 2D rectangular swaying tank. The good correlation was found between the model

experimental data were used to check the test and full-scale results. At the small scale,

weakly-compressibility assumption in the SPH the experimental simulations of LNG sloshing

simulations. represented an accurate global flow inside the

tanks in terms of the impact frequency.

Clauss et al. (2012) presented the However, the authors suggested the need of

comparison of model test results for a moored studies for a wider range of conditions.

LNG model (scale 1:100) and numerical

solutions. The study focused on the water Karimi et al. (2013) also investigated the

motions within the prismatic tanks (30% filled) effect of scaling on the sloshing pressure. Two

in beam seas. sets of model tests of 2D tanks at scales of 110

and 140 were carried out by GTT with a fill

Using a PIV system, Ji et al. (2012) level of 20%. The effect of the gas-liquid

measured velocities of flow in a small swaying density ratio and the speed of sound in the gas

rectangular tank excited by a crank motorised on measured pressures was studied.

arm. The harmonic motions in non-resonant

conditions were compared to the published The sloshing pressures were also measured

results, and the properties of travelling waves by Kim et al. (2012) for a 1:50-scale model and

were obtained from the velocity flow fields. a 1:70-scale model. The sloshing pressures

were recorded at the same location for the

279

excited model tanks with irregular motions at cylinder exposed to nonlinear regular waves

the same Froude scale. The comparison showed with wave lengths much greater than the

the differences in the statistical results for the diameter of the cylinder. Comparison with the

two models. However, when the Froude scaling theoretical and experimental data showed that

was applied, a good agreement was found. the proposed method predicted wave run-ups

accurately with a small computational domain

2.3.3 Wave Run-up confined near the cylinder.

Research has been carried out in the past Li et al. (2012) investigated wave run-ups

years on the study of the wave run-up on on a vertical circular cylinder in an extreme

circular cylinders, monopiles, barges and wave environment. The waves were generated

columns of large semisubmersibles using CFD in a 3D wave basin using a focused wave

methods. The outcome of the studies indicates method with different frequency and

the importance of high-order nonlinearities and directional components. A practical method

the need of computational efforts for accurate based on the velocity stagnation head theory

predictions. was calibrated to calculate the wave run-up.

The maximum wave kinematics at wave crest

Ramrez et al. (2011) presented a CFD was calculated using the second-order theory.

model (NS3), which solves Navier-Stokes Wave run-ups on the weather side of the

equations and uses the VOF method to treat the cylinder were computed and compared with

free surface. NS3 was applied to simulate the measurements in experiments with multi-

wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder and directional focused wave groups. The relations

the numerical results were compared with the between the defined parameters and the wave

experimental data from large-scale tests parameters, such as model scale, directional

performed at the Large Wave Channel (GWK) spreading index and wave steepness, were

in Hannover, Germany. discussed.

Cao et al. (2011) conducted simulations of Peng at al. (2012) investigated wave run-ups

wave run-up on a fixed vertical cylinder. The on a monopile foundation in regular and

finite volume method was employed to solve irregular waves using ComFLOW. The

Navier-Stokes equations based on numerical solutions are in good agreement with

OpenFOAM. The wave elevations were experimental data. It was showed that wave

computed at several locations within a radial run-ups are dependent on the wave

distance around the cylinder. The computed nonlinearity. A set of dimensionless and simple

wave run-ups, velocities and pressures at formulae have been derived to relate the non-

various locations were compared with the dimensional wave run-up on the structure to

published experimental data from the diameter of the structure and the Ursell

MARINTEK. number. The proposed formulae included the

effect of the diameter of structure on wave run-

Kim et al. (2011) developed a numerical ups. It led to similar results in comparison with

wave tank model by matching the far-field other formulae.

wave solution based on the potential-flow

theory and the CFD solution in the near field. Watai et al. (2011) reported some of the

This model was implemented in a CFD code results from a cooperative project that

based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian investigated wave run-ups on a large moving

(ALE) finite element method. The developed semi-submersible platform. Wave elevations at

method was applied to a truncated vertical various locations below the deck were

280

measured and compared with the predictions the CF one. It also triggers higher-order

by WAMIT and by the improved ComFLOW harmonic responses in both IL and CF

code. Results showed that ComFLOW was directions which further increase the fatigue

able to predict the relative wave elevations at damage. Passano et al. (2012) reported the

different positions below the deck. latest development of the VIV prediction

program, VIVANA, with its new IL prediction

Priyanto et al. (2012) studied wave run-ups model. The modelling of risers partially

on a large semi-submersible. Tests of a small- covered by strakes in Shear7 was presented by

scale moored model in irregular waves were Resvanis and Vandiver (2011). The

carried out in Marine Technology Centre hydrodynamic force model of the strake section

(MTC)'s towing tank at Universiti Teknologi was generalized from forced motion tests with

Malaysia. Significant wave run-up occurrences a rigid cylinder with strakes.

on the square-sectioned columns were

observed. Efforts have been made to develop a general

methodology to calibrate Factors of Safety

Shan et al. (2012) presented an experimental (FoS) for fatigue damage due to VIV. Fontaine

investigation on three model configurations et al. (2013) presented a reliability based

including a four-column array, a two-column method which accounts for uncertainties in S-N

array and a single column, aiming to behaviour, metocean conditions and software

understand relationships between wave run-ups predictions of VIV. Tognarelli et al. (2013)

and the leg spacing and between the wave also presented similar methods, in which the

interaction and the model configuration, as well uncertainties in prediction are based on the

as the wave run-up distributions around measured flow and the response data for full-

columns. The wave environment was restricted scale drilling risers in the field.

to monochromatic progressive waves with

different wave steepness. For the three tested 2.4.2 VIV Prediction Based on CFD

configurations, wave run-ups reached the

maximum on the front sides of the fore Huang and Larsen (2011) presented the 2-D

columns, and decreased gradually as waves numerical simulation results for an elastically

propagated. It was also found from the tests mounted circular cylinder subject to vortex

that wave run-ups decreased gradually as the induced vibrations. Reynolds-Averaged

leg spacing increased for the four- and the two- NavierStokes (RANS) equations and k

column arrays, which indicates the leg spacing turbulent equations were solved by a finite

would have important effect on the wave volume method. The predicted response

interaction among columns, and eventually amplitudes, hydrodynamic forces and wake

affect wave run-ups on the columns. patterns were compared with the measured data

in the equivalent experiments.

2.4 VIV/VIM Zhao et al. (2012) simulated the one-degree-

of-freedom (1-DOF) VIV of a circular cylinder

2.4.1 Empirical VIV Prediction Programs in oscillatory flow. The vibration of the

cylinder was confined in the cross-flow

Slender structures subjected to VIV often direction only. RANS equations and k

vibrate in both in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF) turbulent equations were solved by a Petrov

directions. The in-line motion of VIV can be a Galerkin finite element method. The same

major contributor to the fatigue damage due to method was applied by Zhao et al. (2013) to

its higher frequencies and response modes even study VIV responses of a cylinder in the

that the IL displacement is normally less than combined steady and oscillatory flow.

281

each time step, the added mass, lifting force

Bourguet et al. (2011, 2012) performed and drag force coefficients and their

direct numerical simulations on a tensioned corresponding loads are computed for each

beam with a length to diameter ratio of 200, element. Validation studies have been carried

subject to vortex-induced vibrations in linear out for a full-scale rigid riser segment and a

varying shear flow at three different Reynolds model-scale flexible riser. The numerical

numbers, from 110 to 1,100. The energy results were compared with experimental data

transfer between the structure and the fluid was and solutions by other programs. The

studied and the presence of mono- and multi- validation studies have shown the proposed

frequency responses was investigated. Similar method is promising in VIV prediction.

study was also carried out for the tensioned

beam subject to the exponential flow (Bourguet 2.4.4 Experiments

et al., 2013). The mechanism of the broadband

VIV responses was studied. A. 2D Tests

programs rely on hydrodynamic force

A time-domain finite element analysis coefficients generalized from forced motion

method using a local hydrodynamic force tests of rigid cylinders. In the work of Zheng et

model has been developed by Mainon et al. al (2011), extensive forced in-line and

(2011). In this model, the recent history of the combined in-line and cross-flow experiments

velocity is used to enter a database of velocity were used to provide the hydrodynamic

and force measurements obtained from rigid coefficient databases, in addition to the existing

cylinder tests, and thus to determine the force CF hydrodynamic coefficients. In these tests,

and advance the dynamic FEM analysis. the IL and/or CF motions are harmonic.

Preliminary results are encouraging. The

objective was to create models that can capture It is known that the cross-flow motions of a

higher harmonics and can be used in the flexible beam subjected to VIV can be far from

analysis of risers with seafloor contact or time- harmonic motions. The motion amplitude can

varying currents and waves. also vary in time. To investigate the VIV

response subjected to the non-harmonic

Campbell et al. (2013) proposed a new motions, forced motion tests for rigid risers

random vibration method with a band-limited using observed orbits extracted from flexible

white-noise lift-force model to predict the VIV beam were carried out by Yin and Larsen

responses of a fully straked flexible cylinder. (2011). The tests results were compared with

CFD solutions. Using the same experiment

Ma et al. (2012) developed a time-domain technique, Yin and Larsen (2012) further

analysis tool for VIV prediction of marine compared the hydrodynamic coefficients

risers based on a forcing algorithm and by obtained from the forced motion tests with

making full use of the available high Reynolds observed motion orbits extracted from flexible

number experimental data. In the formulation, beam experiments and from periodic

the hydrodynamic damping is not treated as a approximations. Aglen et al. (2011) studied the

special case but simply an extension of the added mass coefficients from forced motion

experimentally derived lift curves. The forcing tests with extracted orbits from flexible beam

algorithm was integrated into a mooring tests. The influence of added mass on the IL

analysis program based on the global- and CF interactions has been studied for tests

coordinate based finite element method. At

282

with mode one dominating the responses in in sub-critical Reynolds numbers due to the

both directions. limitation in the test facility and the cost.

free oscillation tests of a rigid cylinder to study riser models subjected to vortex-induced

the Reynolds number effect within the range of vibrations was carried out in the MARINTEK

8.00l03 to 1.50l05. The objective of their Offshore Basin Laboratory on behalf of Shell

work was to design a power generation unit Oil Company (Lie et al. 2012). Three different

based on VIV that can absorb energy from the riser models were towed horizontally at various

fluid. It was found that VIV is significantly speeds, simulating uniform and linearly

different at different flow regimes. An varying sheared current. The test program

amplitude ratio of 1.9 was achieved for a included approximately 400 tests with different

smooth cylinder in VIV even with high riser configurations. VIV responses of risers

damping imposed. with/without suppression devices as well as the

effect of Reynolds number and marine growth

To further investigate the effect of Reynolds were investigated.

number on VIV, a new innovative VIV test rig

was designed and built at MARINTEK to test a Huera-Huarte et al. (2013) presented the

rigid full-scale riser model (Lie et al., 2013). experiment results of a long flexible cylinder

The rigid riser model was mounted vertically with low mass ratio subject to a stepped

and can either be elastically mounted or be current. The test pipe is 3m long with an

given a forced CF motion. The bare cylinder external diameter of 19 mm. The effect of low

was tested in both sub-critical and critical mass ratio on VIV was investigated. Song et

Reynolds number regimes. The effect of al. (2010) performed VIV tests with a long

Reynolds number on the amplitude of VIV flexible riser towed horizontally in a wave

displacement was found to be significant and basin. The riser model has an external diameter

further research was recommended to explore of 16 mm and a total length of 28.0 m. The

the subject. asymmetrical distribution of displacement was

mainly resulted from the modal composition.

Constantinides et al. (2013) performed the

tandem riser tests at the prototype Reynolds Fu et al. (2013) performed VIV tests of a

numbers. The tests were carried out utilizing flexible cylinder in an oscillatory flow. A

two full-scale cylinders fitted with actual VIV flexible cylinder was forced to harmonically

suppression devices and towed either in fixed oscillate at various combinations of amplitude

or spring supported configurations. The results and period. The tested cylinder is 4m long with

revealed significant differences from those by an outer diameter of 24mm. Unique features of

today's design practices and industry codes. VIV in an oscillatory flow were presented.

performed model tests to study the interference

Several VIV tests with flexible beam have between two identical risers. In these tests, two

been carried out during 2011-2013. Strain flexible risers were arranged in tandem and

gauges were mostly used in these tests. side-by-side positions. The test pipe is 1.5m

Accelerometers were also used in some of the long with an outer diameter of 16mm. The

tests to provide redundancy in the dynamic responses of the two interfering risers

measurements. All of the tests were carried out were presented.

283

Efforts have also been made to further number of measurements. McNeill (2012)

analyze the existing VIV test data. Larsen et al. further proposed an alternative way of

(2012) applied wavelet analyses to reveal the estimating the fatigue damage, which is based

frequency components in the measured signals, on Dirlik's method to obtain rain-flow damage

using Hanytangen and NDP high-mode VIV for Gaussian random stress.

test data. This study characterized the

frequency components of VIV measured in 2.5 New Experimental Techniques

flexible beams subjected to sheared current in

order to establish a general model for use in the Song et al. (2013) presented a velocity

empirical VIV prediction programs. measurement method derived from the PIV

technique using a high speed camera, called

The presence of higher-order harmonic Bubble Image Velocimetry (BIV). It directly

frequency components and chaotic responses uses air-water interfaces in the image without

has been observed in many flexible beam tests. the use of a laser for illumination. The

Price et al. (2011) studied the impact of higher- measurement plane is controlled by minimizing

order harmonic stress components and the the depth of field within which objects (i.e., air

broad band responses on fatigue damage using bubbles and water droplets in this case) are in

NDP high-mode VIV test data. The study focus and sharp, and therefore carrying more

indicated that both factors can lead to weight (i.e., higher intensity) in the correlation

significant fatigue damages. process for the velocity determination.

analyzed the NDP high-mode VIV by Embry et al. (2012) for in-situ

experimental data. The stationary and chaotic measurements, using a high resolution 3D laser

VIV responses were characterized. Their imaging unit. The optical head was mounted on

influences on the fatigue damage were a 2D-scanning device. The equipment and the

discussed. Vandiver (2012) proposed a preliminary tests in a basin were described

dimensionless damping parameter to describe showing the ability of high spatial accuracy at a

the cylinder VIV response, which overcomes relatively low scanning frequency.

the limitations in existing "mass-damping" Experimental data (clouds of points) can be

parameters. processed by regular dedicated software.

Shapes of objects can be measured within a

Swithenbank and Larsen (2012) calculated large volume at a millimeter precision. The

the energy in the system from measured system was initially developed for surveys and

responses of a flexible beam and the associated maintenance purposes, and it could be used in

energy levels in the duration of the VIV with wave tanks for underwater measurements, for

high amplitudes. Rao et al. (2013) studied the example, the scours around foundations.

excitation competition between the bare and

buoyant segments of flexible cylinders using Chabaud et al. (2013) developed the concept

the Shell high-mode VIV test data. of real-time hybrid testing (RTHT), defined as

a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation, and

McNeill and Agarwal (2011) proposed an applied it to scaled model testing. The authors

efficient method for modal decomposition and admitted this method is not a standard and

reconstruction of riser responses due to VIV. accurate method in offshore studies. In order to

The travelling wave responses and the fatigue generalize its use, they described the global

damage along the riser can be estimated scheme and presented details on the different

accurately by this method using a limited

284

stages of calculations and data processing, at

least on numerical and theoretical aspects.

presented by Cole et al. (2012). The design and

development of model-scale fenders and their

application in float-over topsides installation

experiments were provided. Improvements

were shown in term of versatility and Figure 2.6.1 Air Pocket Impact on A

robustness. Corrugated Wall (Upper: 1:6 Scale; Lower:

It should be mentioned the openings of two Full Scale) (Bogaert et al., 2011)

new facilities in UK with wave and current

capacities, mainly for ocean engineering and For example, in the Sloshel project, Bogaert

testing of marine energy devices. The et al. (2011) discussed the uncertainties in

Plymouth Ocean Wave Basin, established in model tests of sloshing due to scaling biases

2013, is 35m long and 15m wide fitted with a which are associated with the Froude-scaled

movable floor (0-3m depth) and excitations. Based on the results of experiments

multidirectional wave generator. FLOWAVE- at 1:6 and 1:1 scales (see Figure 2.6.1), it was

TT, opened in 2014 and located at Edinburgh, concluded that gas pocket pressures are greatly

is a 25m diameter circular tank with a rising affected by the gas compressibility bias due to

floor. Pumps around the tank allow to generate the un-scaled properties of the gas.

a water current up to 1.6 m/s at any direction in

the tank. 2.7 Practical Applications of

Computational Methods to Prediction

2.6 New Extrapolation Methods and Scaling

During the period of 2011-2013, limited Koop and Bereznitski (2011) calculated

investigations have been carried out on the current coefficients for the JBF-14000 semi-

development of extrapolation methods. submersible using MARIN's in-house code

However, challenges and issues in scaling of ReFRESCO. Full-scale CFD computations

model test results to full scale have been were carried out to investigate possible scale

indicated in problems related to sloshing, effects using five subsequently refined grids for

dynamic positioning systems, and mooring and three different headings and ten different grids

risers. of different type for a scaled model. The

numerical results were compared with the

experimental data obtained from wind tunnel

experiments and tests in the offshore basin.

Approximately 15-20% lower values were

found than those from the model-scale tests.

thruster-hull interaction of a semi-submersible

crane vessel in a current. CFD computations

were compared with the model test data for the

assessment of the thrust efficiency of the DP

thrusters. From the comparison between the

CFD and model test data, it was observed that

285

the CFD method was able to predict the Procedure for Model Tests in Regular Waves

relevant force components within a sufficient and 7.5-02-07-03.3 Model Tests on Tanker-

accuracy for engineering purposes. To assess Turret Systems.

the CFD prediction in case of full scale,

numerical results were compared with the sea Only very minor revisions were identified

trial data for the vessel with different thrust for 7.5-02-07-03.1 and 7.5-02-07-03.2. The

combinations. The comparison suggests the Committee however found that there is little

improvement in CFD code. information in 7.5-02-07-03.3 and the limited

information in 7.5-02-07-03.3 is very similar to

2.8 Improving Method of Experiments, that in 7.5-02-07-03.1. The Committee

Numerical Methods and Full-Scale recommended to move the contents of 7.5-02-

Measurements 07-03.3 to 7.5-02-07-03.1.

Huera-Huarte (2012) used the Defocusing The Committee also identified that there is

Digital Image Particle Velocimetry (DDPIV) no existing procedure dealing with the result

method to measure vortex-induced vibrations analysis of model tests in irregular waves. The

of long flexible cylinders in wind/water tunnel. Committee recommended to develop a new

The concept of the proposed method was given procedure on this aspect.

by Willert and Gharib (1992). The authors

suggested the method, as a better alternative to 4. GUIDELINES FOR VIV AND VIM

other traditional vibration response TESTS

measurement techniques, could be used to

study VIV in the laboratory. The good Bluff marine structural bodies such as the

agreement of measured data with known results risers, free spanning pipelines and offshore

confirmed the effectiveness of the above platforms with cylindrical members (e.g., spars

technique. and semi-submersible) can undergo vortex

shedding in ocean currents. The vortex

The flooding process of a tank in a damaged shedding process and vortices induce periodic

ship was studied by Ruponen et al. (2012) at forces on the body which can cause the body to

full scale. A decommissioned ship was used vibrate in both in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF)

for the full-scale tests. Bernoullis equation for directions. If the vortex induced response

compressible fluid was used for air flows in the mainly causes elastic deformation in marine

time-domain flooding simulations. For structures, such as risers, cables and free

numerical simulations, The NAPA flooding spanning pipelines, this phenomenon is known

simulation tool was used. In general, the as Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV). If the

comparison between experimental and vortex induced response mainly causes rigid

simulated results showed a good agreement body motions such as a sway motion of a

with small inaccuracies in the calculation of platform, this response often is denoted as

transient phenomena in the beginning of the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM).

flooding process.

The Committee focused on the development

3. REVIEW OF THE EXISTING of guideline for VIV testing (7.5-02-07-03.10).

PROCEDURES The purpose of this guideline is to ensure that

laboratory model tests of VIV responses of

The Committee reviewed three existing marine structures are adequately performed

procedures: 7.5-02-07-03.1 Floating Offshore according to the best available techniques and

Platform Experiments, 7.5-02-07-03.2 Analysis to provide an indication of improvements that

286

might be made. The guideline is also to ensure

that any comprises inherent in VIV tests are 5.1 Benchmark Data

identified and their effects on the measured

results are understood. As reported in the ITTC Ocean Engineering

Committee Report (2011), the benchmark data

The Committee has also drafted the for the VIV of a circular cylinder was provided

guideline for VIM testing (7.5-02-07-03.11). It by MARIN. The rigid circular cylinder is

is recommended to be completed by the Ocean 200mm in diameter and 3.52m in length

Engineering Committee of 28th ITTC. (Figure 5.1.1). The cylinder was suspended

from the carriage about 1.7m below the calm

5. NUMERICAL BENCHMARK water surface. The VIV test apparatus is shown

STUDIES OF VIV in Figure 5.1.2. The towing tank is 4m deep,

4m wide and 210m long. The cylinder was

In the previous benchmark studies organized towed horizontally by the carriage at various

by the 26th ITTC Ocean Engineering speeds. Details of the tests can found in the

Committee, all participants used the two- work of de Wilde and Huijsmans (2001,2004)

dimensional unsteady RANS method. Various and de Wilde et al. (2003 and 2006).

turbulence models were employed with the

assumption that the flow is fully turbulent. For numerical computations, six (6)

Reynolds numbers were selected as follows:

It was concluded from the studies that the

drag crisis phenomenon on the stationary 6.31E+04, 1.26E+05, 2.52E+05

smooth cylinder was not captured by the 3.15E+05, 5.06E+05, 7.57E+05

RANS method. It is well known that the drag

crisis is caused by the instability of separated The measured drag coefficients for the

shear layer in the critical Reynolds number smooth stationary cylinder are presented in

regime (2x105< Re <5x105). At the critical Figure 5.1.3.

Reynolds numbers, the transition point is

located very close to the point of flow

separation. As a result, the shear layer eddies

cause the mixture of flow in the boundary layer

so that the flow is energized and the flow

separation is delayed. The delay of separation

point leads to the reduction of the drag

coefficient. The methodology based on two-

dimensional, unsteady RANS with turbulence

models is inadequate to simulate this physical

phenomenon (ITTC Ocean Engineering

Figure 5.1.1 Smooth Cylinder

Committee Report, 2011). It is necessary to

extend the benchmark studies by including

other CFD methods.

and wave run-ups was held in Nantes, France,

October 17-18, 2013. Six participations

presented their results of VIV studies. The

benchmark studies are summarized below.

287

Organization Country

1 China Ship Scientific China

Research Centre

2 Seoul National University Korea

3 Samsung Ship Model Basin Korea

4 Memorial University Canada

5 Inha University Korea

6 University of Iowa USA

7 University of Southampton UK

8 Shanghai Jiao Tong China

University

Figure 5.1.2 High Reynolds Number VIV Test

Apparatus Table 5.2.2 Numerical Methods Used by

Participants

RANS

2D/ Steady/

Code name /DES

3D Unsteady

LES

FLUENT

A 2D Unsteady RANS

(Commercial Code)

SNUFOAM

B 2D Unsteady RANS

(In-house Code)

FLUENT

C 2D Unsteady RANS

(Commercial Code)

CFDShip-IOWA

D 3D Unsteady LES

(In-house Code)

Code-S

E 3D Unsteady LES

(In-house Code)

OpenFOAM

F 3D Unsteady LES

(Open Source Code)

Naoe-FOAM-SJTU

G 2D Unsteady RANS

(In-house Code)

STAR-CCM+

H1 2D Unsteady RANS

(Commercial Code)

STAR-CCM+

H2 2D Unsteady RANS

Figure 5.1.3 Drag Coefficient for the Smooth (Commercial Code)

STAR-CCM+

Cylinder H3

(Commercial Code)

3D Unsteady DES

STAR-CCM+

H4 3D Unsteady LES

(Commercial Code)

5.2 Participants and Numerical Methods

Number Convection

Type of Grid t

Various organizations and individuals have of Grid Term

0.001/0.00

been invited to participate in the benchmark A 87,223 Structured Upwind 05

studies. A list of participants is given in Table

0.001/0.00

5.2.1. The numerical methods and B 32,280 Structured Upwind 02

computational details are summarized in Table /0.0001

5.2.2. 0.001

C 43,820 Structured Upwind

0.00008

D 67,000,000 Structured QUICK/WENO

Table 5.2.1 Participants for the VIV /0.0001

Unstructured

Benchmark Studies E 11,300,000

(Cartesian)

Upwind (CFL=0.5)

Max Hybrid

F Unstructured (Central + 0.005

4,000,000 Upwind)

0.00017

G 100,000 Chimera Upwind

~ 0.0015

H1 592,478 Hybrid Upwind 0.0001

288

~0.002 1.6

Exp.

0.0001

H2 592,478 Hybrid Upwind 1.4 A

~0.002 B

0.002 1.2 C

H3 12,400,000 Structured Upwind

~0.02 1

D

E

0.002

Mean CD

H4 12,400,000 Structured Upwind F

~0.02 0.8 G

H1

0.6

H2

H3

y+

(Used/Not Model (Used/ Not 0.2

Used) Used)

0

A 59 U k-w SST N 1E+04 1E+05 2E+05 3E+05 4E+05 5E+05 6E+05 7E+05

B 2 N k-w SST N Re

C 10 N k-w SST N

Dynamic Figure 5.3.1 Mean Drag Coefficient

D 0.03 ~0.15 N N

model

Dynamic 0.15

E - N N

model Exp.

A

Dynamic 0.1

F 1 N N B

model C

D

Mean CL

0 F

H2 0.06~0.56 N k-e (Standard) N G

H3 0.06~0.56 N - N 0.05 H1

H4 0.06~0.56 N - N H2

0.1 H3

H4

0.15

0.2

5.3 Numerical Results 1E+04 1E+05 2E+05 3E+05 4E+05 5E+05 6E+05 7E+05

Re

In the benchmark studies, unsteady RANS Figure 5.3.2 Mean Lift Coefficient

(URANS), detached eddy simulation (DES)

and large eddy simulation (LES) methods were 1.2

Exp.

A

B

D

agreement with the experimental data than 0.8

E

RMS CL

F

0.6 G

H1

H2

0.4

H4

at high Reynolds numbers. The mean CD , the 1E+04 1E+05 2E+05 3E+05 4E+05

Re

5E+05 6E+05 7E+05

mean CL , the RMS of CL , and the Strouhal Figure 5.3.3 RMS of Lift Coefficient

number are compared with experimental data

in Figures 5.3.1 to 5.3.4, respectively, and are

also presented in Tables 5.3.1 to 5.3.4.

289

0.9

Exp.

0.8 A

B

Table 5.3.4 Strouhal Number

0.7

C Strouhal Reynolds Number (E+05)

Number 0.631 1.26 2.52 3.15 5.06 7.57

Strouhal Number

D

0.6

E

Exp. 0.19 0.20 N/A 0.46 0.79 0.42

0.5 F

G

A 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.32

0.4

H1 B 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.22 0.21

0.3

H2 C 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.28

H3 D 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.41 0.41 0.40

0.2 H4

E 0.28 0.27 0.53 - - -

0.1 F 0.20 0.21 0.28 0.30 - -

0

G 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.28

1E+04 1E+05 2E+05 3E+05 4E+05 5E+05 6E+05 7E+05 H1 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.31

Re H2 0.35 0.34 0.35 - 0.36 0.37

H3 0.22 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.31

Figure 5.3.4 Strouhal Number H4 0.21 - 0.32 0.33 0.37 0.37

Table 5.3.1 Mean Drag Coefficient

Reynolds Number (E+05)

Mean CD

0.631 1.26 2.52 3.15 5.06 7.57 5.4 Summary of Presentations at the

Exp. 1.16 1.10 0.77 0.27 0.26 0.26 Workshop

A 0.70 0.57 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.42

B 0.87 0.69 0.61 0.61 0.54 0.54

C 1.05 0.89 0.82 0.79 0.71 0.62 In the Workshop, six papers were presented

D 1.37 1.37 0.56 0.27 0.25 0.22 on VIV benchmark studies. A summary of

E 1.10 1.08 0.88 - - -

F 1.49 1.10 0.41 0.38 - - some papers related to the benchmark studies is

G 1.14 1.02 0.74 0.68 0.61 0.60 given below.

H1 1.28 1.16 1.04 1.06 1.00 0.95

H2 0.54 0.57 0.59 - 0.54 0.50

H3 1.38 1.02 0.84 0.81 0.69 0.52 Yeon et al. (2013) studied drag crisis with

H4 1.33 - 0.45 0.43 0.35 0.35

the LES method and the computations were

carried out at various Reynolds numbers. It was

Table 5.3.2 Mean Lift Coefficient indicated that the solutions are strongly

Reynolds Number (E+05)

Mean CL

0.631 1.26 2.52 3.15 5.06 7.57 affected by the domain size. The mean drag

Exp. 0.01 -0.02 -0.17 -0.02 -0.04 -0.11 coefficients were compared to experimental

A 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.000

B 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 data by MARIN in Figure 5.4.1.

C -0.002 0.003 -0.002 0.000 0.001 0.001

D 0.002 -0.003 0.012 0.007 0.003 0.015

E -0.030 -0.020 0.000 - - -

F 0.000 0.040 0.000 0.000 - -

G 0.000 0.012 0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001

H1 0.130 -0.120 0.000 -0.080 -0.160 -0.180

H2 0.010 -0.010 0.010 - 0.010 0.010

H3 -0.040 -0.020 0.020 -0.030 -0.010 0.010

H4 0.027 - 0.023 -0.009 -0.006 0.004

Reynolds Number (E+05)

RMS CL

0.631 1.26 2.52 3.15 5.06 7.57

Exp. 0.24 0.26 0.07 0.03 0.05 0.04

A 0.53 0.46 0.26 0.22 0.25 0.21

B 0.47 0.28 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16

C 0.83 0.70 0.64 0.61 0.50 0.34

D 0.60 0.62 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.05

E 0.18 0.16 0.08 - - -

F 0.51 0.34 0.06 0.06 - - Figure 5.4.1 Drag Coefficient versus Re

G 0.86 0.72 0.24 0.19 0.15 0.12 (Yeon et al., 2013)

H1 1.08 1.04 0.95 1.00 1.02 0.95

H2 0.10 0.12 0.13 - 0.13 0.12

H3 0.58 0.38 0.32 0.32 0.21 0.13 Lee and Yang (2013) also employed LES

H4 0.37 - 0.14 0.12 0.08 0.07

for the benchmark studies and carried out

290

simulations at three Reynolds numbers, Re =

6.31E+04, 1.26E+05, and 2.52E+05. The 3D

LES code was developed in-house based on a

finite-volume method. A dynamic sub-grid

scale model, in which the model coefficient is

dynamically determined by the currently

resolved flow field rather than by assigning a Re = 3.15 x 105

prefixed constant, was implemented for

accurate turbulence modelling. Figure 5.4.2 Figure 5.4.3 Vortical Structures in terms of the

presented time-averaged statistical data in Second Invariant of the Velocity Gradient

comparison with those by MARIN. Note that Tensor (James and Lloyd, 2013)

Grids #1, #2 and #3 consist of 4.4, 8.7 and 11.3

millions of cells, respectively. As shown in the

figure, LES captured the trends of the mean

drag coefficients near the drag crisis.

Figure 5.4.2 Simulation Results of 3D LES at Re = 6.31E+04 (top: SST k- model,

( Lee and Yang, 2013) middle: k- model, bottom: Reynolds stress

turbulence model) (Wen and Qiu, 2013)

James and Lloyd (2013) studied the flow

around the circular cylinder at high Reynolds Wen and Qiu (2013) simulated the two-

numbers using LES. They found that dimensional unsteady turbulence using a

unstructured grids provide better resolution of RANS solver, Star-CCM+, and various

key flow features, when a reasonable grid turbulence models. The studies showed that

size is maintained. A blended upwind-central turbulence models have significant effects on

scheme, unique in OpenFOAM, was used, the solutions (see Figure 5.4.4) and RANS is

avoiding unnecessarily high numerical inadequate to address the drag crisis

dissipation as well as removing artificial phenomenon.

wiggles observed in the full central scheme.

Figure 5.4.3 presents an example of vortical Ye et al. (2013) used a RANS solver,

structures. pimpleFoam in OpenFOAM, coupled with an

291

overset grid technique. The k- SST turbulence 6. BENCHMARK STUDIES OF WAVE

model was employed. Numerical results RUN-UP

without overset grid approach were also

presented for comparison study. An example of 6.1 Introduction

predicted velocity contour is presented in

Figure 5.4.5. The Committee conducted benchmark

studies of wave run-ups on a single truncated

cylinder and on four truncated cylinders. A

Workshop was held at Nantes, France on

October 17 and 18, 2013 and provided

opportunities for participants to present and

discuss the results of benchmark studies.

Numerical solutions based on various methods

were compared with experimental data. Note

Re = 7.57 105 that six organizations of Korean Towing Tank

Figure 5.4.5 Velocity Contour Conference (KTTC) also carried out the

(Ye et al., 2013) comparative studies on wave run-ups using

MOERI's benchmark data. A Workshop on the

5.5 Conclusions and Recommendations benchmark studies was held at Daejeon, Korea

on September 12, 2013. Note that this Section

In the benchmark studies, URANS, DES focuses on the outcome of the Workshop

and LES were used. In terms of overall trend, hosted by the Committee.

numerical predictions by DES and LES are

generally in better agreement with the 6.2 Benchmark Data

experimental data than those by URANS. It can

be concluded that the LES method captured the The experiments for wave run-ups on a

drag crisis phenomenon and the LES solutions single truncated circular cylinder were carried

agree better with experimental data at most out by both MOERI and MARINTEK.

points than those by URANS. At high MARINTEK also conducted the model tests

Reynolds numbers, some solutions by the for wave run-ups on four truncated cylinders.

URANS method agree reasonably well with the The benchmark data are summarized in the

experimental data. following sections.

Some of the participants are still working 6.2.1 Single Truncated Circular Cylinder

on completing the simulations at all the

Model tests were carried out by MOERI for

Reynolds numbers using DES and LES. More

the single truncated circular cylinder for six (6)

comparisons will be made in a journal paper,

wave periods and four (4) wave steepness.

which is being prepared by the Committee.

Table 6.2.1.1 presents the test matrix, in which

the shaded cases were also tested by

The Committee recommended to continue

MARINTEK (Kristiansen et al., 2004). Note

the benchmark studies based on LES and DES.

that the experimental data provided by MOERI

was used in the benchmark studies. The

diameter of the prototype cylinder is 16.0m and

its draft is 24.0m. The model scale is 1:50.3

and the model diameter is 31.8cm. Figure

6.2.1.1 shows the locations of wave probes.

292

The experimental set-up used by MOERI is Figure 6.2.1.1 Locations of Wave Probes

presented in the Figure 6.2.1.2. (MOERI)

In the benchmark studies, the first-order, the Table 6.2.1.1 Test Matrix for the Single

second-order harmonics and the mean results Truncated Circular Cylinder

of following measured items were compared

with numerical solutions at various wave

frequencies in terms of kR ( k is wave number

and R is the radius of the cylinder):

1) Horizontal force, Fx

2) Vertical force, Fz

3) Wave elevations at 10 wave probe

locations. Table 6.2.2.1 Locations of Wave Probes (in

Prototype Scale)

6.2.2 Four Truncated Cylinders Circular Cylinder Squared Cylinder

X(m) Y(m) X(m) Y(m)

a1 34.0000 25.9500 a1 34.0000 25.9500

Model tests were conducted by MARNTEK a2 34.0000 24.5300 a2 34.0000 24.5300

for four truncated cylinders of two different a3 34.0000 21.2500 a3 34.0000 21.2500

cross-section geometries (circular and squared). a4 34.0000 18.0000 a4 34.0000 18.0000

b1 28.3078 28.3078 b1 27.1362 27.1362

The locations of wave probes and four b2 27.3037 27.3037 b2 26.1321 26.1321

truncated cylinders as well as wave headings b3 24.9844 24.9844 b3 23.8128 23.8128

b4 22.6863 22.6863 b4 21.5147 21.5147

are shown in Figure 6.2.2.1. The coordinates of c1 25.9500 34.0000 c1 25.9500 34.0000

wave probes are given in Table 6.2.2.1. Test c2 24.5300 34.0000 c2 24.5300 34.0000

c3 21.2500 34.0000 c3 21.2500 34.0000

conditions are summarized in Table 6.2.2.2. c4 18.0000 34.0000 c4 18.0000 34.0000

Note that MARINTEK has also carried out Note: a1,b1 and c1 are the wave probes on the cylinder surface

model tests for single circular and squared

cylinders, as shown in Table 6.2.2.2. Only Table 6.2.2.2 Test Matrix

experimental data for four truncated cylinders

were used in the benchmark studies.

III) four circular columns, IV) four squared columns

293

Figure 6.2.1.2 Experimental Set-up

Figure 6.2.2.1 (MOERI)

Experimental Set-up for Four

Truncated Cylinders (MARINTEK)

(0,0)

Benchmark Studies

Ecole Centrale de Nantes (ECN) France

2 Hyundai Heavy Industries Korea

3 Inha University Korea

4 University of Iowa USA

(a) Four Circular Truncated Cylinders

5 MOERI(KRISO) Korea

6 University of Bath UK

7 MARINTEK Norway

8 Pusan National University Korea

Samsung Heavy Industries with

9 Korea

CD-Adapco Korea

10 Seoul National University Korea

11 Shanghai Jiao Tong University China

(0,0)

6.3 Participants

benchmark studies. The list of participants is

given in Table 6.3.1. Most organizations

participated in the benchmark studies by

carrying out numerical simulations and others

(b) Four Squared Truncated Cylinders

294

conducted model tests. Table 6.3.2 presents boundary conditions and time steps employed

the cases studied by each participant. by participants are summarized in Table

6.4.1.1. The grid topologies are presented in

6.4 Numerical Results Figure 6.4.1.2.

Scheme

to simulate wave run-ups. The numerical

methods, the computational domains,

Single Single Four

Four

Participant Circular Squared Squared

Circular Cylinders

Cylinder Cylinder Cylinders

Wave

heading: 0 deg 0 deg 45 deg 0 deg 45 deg

0deg

ECN, France O O O O

Hyundai Heavy

O

Industries

Inha University O

University of Iowa O

MOERI O

University of Bath O

MARINTEK* O O O O O O

Pusan National

O

University

Samsung Heavy

Industries with CD- O O O

Adapco Korea

Seoul National

O

University *

Shanghai Jiao Tong

O O O

University

benchmark studies by carrying out model tests.

295

Table 6.4.1.1 Numerical Methods and Schemes

Participants A B C D E G-1 G-2 H

VOF with

Free-surface scheme VOF-Implicit MMD-Explicit local height - - VOF-Explicit

function

Stoke 5 th Stoke 5th Stoke 1 st & Stoke 2 nd Airy theory,

Wave theory Stoke 5 th order Stoke 2 nd rder

order order 2nd order order Linear

Wave Patch with

Not

Inlet Velocity Velocity Velocity pressure & relaxation Velocity

applicable

Velocity zone

Patch with

Pressure Pressure Not

Outlet Pressure outlet Exit relaxation Velocity

outlet outlet Damping applicable

Boundary zone

zone

conditions Not

Side Symmetry Symmetry Wall w/ wall B.C Zero gradient Slip-wall Velocity

applicable

Not

Top Symmetry Symmetry - Far-field Patch Atmosphere

applicable

Not

Bottom Wall Symmetry Wall Slip-wall No-slip wall Slip wall

applicable

Variable time

Variable time

step

step by T/250~

Time step size T/250 1/1000s 0.005 controlled by T/200

courant T/100

Courant

number

number

Inlet 1~2 2 1 3D

Not

Per length 150EA 75EA Min. 60EA 20~30EA 82EA 50~70EA 70EA

Number applicable

of Cells Not

Per height 20EA 20EA Min. 6EA - At least 15 12~22EA 10EA

applicable

Commercial In-House Comflow In-House

Code CFDShip-Iowa DIFFRACT OpenFoam In-house

Star-CCM+ INHAWAVE-II ver 3.1 FEDIF

V4.5 Ver.2009 Ver.2.2.1

(a) A

(b) B

(d) D

296

(h) G-2

(e) E

(f) F

(i) H

Circular Cylinder

(g) G-1

297

6.4.2 Single Circular Cylinder

at 10 wave probe locations (WPB#01-

WPB#05, WPO#01-WPO#05) and forces on

the single truncated circular cylinder ( Fx and

Fz ) are compared with the time histories of

experimental data by MOERI in Figure 6.4.2.1

(a) A for two test conditions (T15S110 and

T09S116). It can be observed that the predicted

patterns of wave run-ups on the single

truncated circular cylinder, obtained by all the

participants, are very similar to those of

experimental ones.

results at WPB#01. The trends of experimental

results by MOERI and MARINTEK are similar

at WPB#01. The trends of numerical results by

participants A, B and F agree well with the

experimental results by MOERI at WPB#01.

Figure 6.4.2.2(b) shows the 2nd harmonic

results at WPB#01. The trends of experimental

results by MOERI and Pusan National

(b) E University (denoted as EXP-A) are similar at

WPB#01. However, the trend of those by

MARINTEK is somehow different from the

other two.

(c) F

Circular Cylinders

298

(a) 1st harmonic components

(a) T15S110

the Single Truncated Circular Cylinder

(b) T09S116

Forces with Experimental Results

299

6.4.3 Four Truncated Cylinders

elevations at 12 locations (a1~a4, b1~b4,

c1~c4) for four truncated columns. They are

compared with experimental results by

MARINTEK. The predicted patterns of wave

run-ups on the four truncated circular and

squared cylinders are similar to those of

experimental data. The 1st and 2nd harmonic

components of wave elevations at a1, b1 and c1

are compared with experimental data in Figure

(a) Four Circular Cylinders, T07S130, Wave 6.4.3.2 and Figure 6.4.3.3, respectively, for the

Heading =0 deg four truncated circular cylinders (wave heading

of 0 degree).

Heading =0 deg

Heading =45 deg

for Four Truncated Circular and Squared

Cylinders

300

(a) Location - a1

2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

2 2 2 2 2 2

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

1 1 1 1 1 1

H/L=1/10

0.5 H/L=1/16 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

H/L=1/30

0.25 H/L=1/50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

2 2 2 2 2 2

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(b) Location - b1

301

EXP-MOERI EXP-Marinetek EXP-A CFD-A CFD-B CFD-C

2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

2 2 2 2 2 2

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

1 1 1 1 1 1

H/L=1/10

0.5 H/L=1/16 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

H/L=1/30

0.25 H/L=1/50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

2 2 2 2 2 2

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(c) Location - c1

Figure 6.4.3.2 1st Harmonic Values for Four Truncated Circular Cylinders at Locations of Three

Wave Probes (Wave Heading =0 deg)

5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

2 2 2 2 2 2

H/L=1/10

1 H/L=1/16 1 1 1 1 1

H/L=1/30

0.5 H/L=1/50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(a) Position - a1

302

EXP-MOERI EXP-Marinetek EXP-A CFD-A CFD-B CFD-C

5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

H/L=1/10

1 H/L=1/16 1 1 1 1 1

H/L=1/30

0.5 H/L=1/50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(b) Position - b1

5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

H/L=1/10

1 H/L=1/16 1 1 1 1 1

H/L=1/30

0.5 H/L=1/50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(c) Position - c1

Figure 6.4.3.3 2nd Harmonic Values for Four Truncated Circular Cylinders at Locations of Three

Wave Probes (Wave Heading =0 deg)

303

6.5 Summary of Presentations at were compared with measured time series in

Workshop experiments and the solutions by WAMIT.

Spectral analyses were carried out. RAOs and

In the Workshop, six papers were presented QTFs of wave elevations were compared with

on wave run-up benchmark studies. A the results obtained by Kristiansen et al.

summary of papers related to the wave run-up (2004). Figure 6.5.2 presents an example of the

benchmark studies is given below. first-order and second-order wave elevations.

elevations at several locations around a

truncated circular cylinder using CFDShip-

Iowa. Time series of wave elevations and wave

forces were compared with experimental data.

Figure 6.5.1 presents the comparison of

predicted wave elevations with experimental Figure 6.5.1 Experimental Wave Profiles

ones. (Stansberg and Kristiansen, 2005) and

Numerical Predictions for the Case of T=15s,

Sun et al. (2013) predicted wave elevations H=35m (Yoon et al., 2013)

around a single truncated circular cylinder

using a potential-flow solver (DIFFRACT) and

a viscous-flow solver, OpenFOAM. Results

Figure 6.5.2 First and Second-order Wave Elevations (Sun et al., 2013)

Kristiansen and Stansberg (2013) studied deep water. Measurements clearly show higher

the wave diffraction (upwelling) and run-ups wave crests than those by the linear modelling

on vertical columns in steep wave conditions for steep waves. The second-order modelling

by reviewing a data set from the scaled model can be used to improve this. However, there are

tests with single and multiple fixed columns in still deviations in steep waves, especially at

304

short wave periods (see Figure 6.5.3).

Figure 6.5.3 Wave Crest Heights for the Case of T=15 sec, Four Columns and Heading = 45 deg.

(Kristiansen and Stansberg, 2013)

Cao et al. (2013) computed wave run-ups on truncated cylinder, and four organizations

a fixed single truncated circular cylinder and participated in the benchmark studies on the

four circular cylinders using in-house CFD cases of four truncated cylinders. Nine

naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver. Favourable wave participants employed CFD methods in their

elevations were obtained in comparison with studies. The FFT analysis was performed to

experimental data (see Figure 6.5.4). predict the harmonic values, and the results of

harmonic values were compared with the

experimental results.

of the computed wave elevations and forces by

CFD methods are in good agreement with the

experimental results for the cases of single and

four cylinders.

computing resources, most of participants have

Figure 6.5.4 Wave Elevations for the Case of focused on the single circular cylinder cases. It

Four Circular Cylinders (T = 9 sec and is recommended that more studies be extended

Heading=45 deg) (Cao et al., 2013) to the four-column cases. Some of the

participants are still working on completing the

6.6 Conclusions and Recommendations simulations. More comparisons will be made in

a journal paper, which is being prepared by the

Eleven organizations participated in the

Committee.

benchmark studies on the cases of the single

305

7. THRUSTER INTERACTION AND in the late 1980s and early 1990s (Nienhuis,

SCALE EFFECT IN DP TESTS 1992). In 1983, a semi-empirical calculation

procedure was developed by MARIN to

7.1 Introduction estimate the thruster-thruster interaction

(Nienhuis, 1986). The underlying assumption

Dynamic positioning (DP) systems and of this method was that the propeller slipstream

azimuthing thrusters are widely used in the behaves similar to a swirling turbulent jet. The

offshore industry for station-keeping. The good correlation between model test results and

effective force generated by thrusters can be the calculations indicated that this assumption

significantly smaller than those obtained from was correct. However, this conclusion was not

their open-water characteristics. This is a result confirmed since the extent of the thruster-

of thruster interactions with the hull, current thruster interaction was largely determined by

and the wake of neighbouring thrusters. These two factors: the decrease of the velocity in the

phenomena are often referred as thruster- slipstream and the width of the slipstream.

thruster and thruster-hull interactions. The These two factors are related by the

understanding and quantification of thruster conservation of momentum. In 1986/1987, the

interaction (or thrust degradation) effects is first detailed thruster slipstream was measured

essential for the evaluation of the station- by MARIN using a 2D LDV. These

keeping capabilities of DP vessels. Figure 7.1.1 measurements were carried out on a thruster

presents some typical scenarios of thruster- mounted under a simple-shaped barge. Some of

thruster interactions. the conditions were however very similar to the

open-water condition. The test results showed a

jet spread and a velocity decay different from

that predicted by the simple calculation

procedure mentioned above.

thruster interaction in open water were

published by Lehn (1980, 1981) which are for

zero-speed conditions only and cover variations

in relative thruster position and thruster angle.

field downstream of a simplified thruster

(which delivered the same thrust and the same

power as Lehn's thruster) and calculated the

thruster-thruster interaction. The average

inflow velocity over the propeller disk of the

second thruster was calculated, and the

resulting advance ratio was used in conjunction

Figure 7.1.1 Scenarios for Thruster-Thruster with the estimated open-water diagram of the

Interactions (Tello Ruiz et al., 2012) thruster used by Lehn (1980). Moreover,

Nienhuis (1992) investigated the interaction of

7.2 Literature Review thrusters below a flat plate. By using the

calculated velocity field for a simplified

A lot of current knowledge on thruster thruster close to a flat plate, it is possible to

interaction effects was due to the development calculate the thruster-thruster interaction using

306

the same approach as for the open-water case. may occur due to inflow and cross flow, and

Both measurements and calculations showed due to waves if they cause ventilation effects.

that the interaction in open-water persists for They stated that as the thrust is generated based

larger distances between the thrusters. In the on the principle of accelerating water, there is a

work of Nienhuis (1992), the thruster-hull suction flow and a jet flow. The suction flow is

interaction was also investigated. characterized by relatively low flow velocity

over a wide area, while the jet flow is high

API (1996) provided guidelines for the speed and concentrated in a relatively small

determination of available thrust, and cross-section area. Furthermore, the jet may

particularly gives guidance on how the thrust induce other flow patterns, depending on the

varies with the inflow velocity. It indicates that local hull form and the intensity and direction

the thrust reduction for dynamic positioning of the jet. These flows, together with the

systems due to oblique inflow cross-coupling current flow and waves may cause interaction

effects is not well researched. API states that effects leading to degradation of thruster

the propeller thrust decreases with increasing performance. The following types of

inflow, which is caused by the current speed, interaction were considered: thruster-thruster,

movement of vessel or the slipstream from thruster-hull (including the Coanda effect),

another thruster. A 5-15% correction factor is thruster-current, and thruster-waves.

suggested to account for the Coanda effect. If

there are support struts to the propeller in the

flow, the reduction in thrust is approximately

10%.

rules for thruster assisted (TA) mooring

systems. Depending on whether manual TA or

automatic control (ATA) is employed, 70% or

100% of the net thrust can be used. It is

assumed that azimuthing thrusters can provide

thrust in all directions, unless specific

Figure 7.2.1 Thruster Configurations

restrictions are defined.

Reported in Nordtveit et al. (2007)

Brandner (1998) investigated the interaction

Ekstrom and Brown (2002) addressed the

between two closely spaced ducted azimuthing

influence of two thrusters in close proximity.

thrusters through a series of experiments.

The experiments were carried out at the wave

Forces acting on a single thruster as well as on

tank in the Department of Mechanical

two thrusters were measured for a range of

Engineering at University College London.

operating conditions and relative positions. The

They recognized that additional research into

results showed that forces from the trailing

the thruster cross-coupling effects at a range of

thruster were heavily affected by interaction

in-flow velocities is needed, as these effects are

due to impingement of the race from the

likely to be significant at the current speeds

leading thruster, whereas forces from the

appropriate to manoeuvring situations using

leading thruster essentially remain unaffected

dynamic positioning systems. In their work,

despite its proximity to the trailing thruster.

they drew some interesting conclusions:

van Dijk and Aalbers (2001) showed that

degradation effects on a thruster in model scale

307

The thrust in open water tests was 8 to 15% collocation points. These instabilities were

more than that in the tests with a thruster removed by applying a realistic vortex model

attached to a vessel. instead of the analytical vortex model. It was

Thrust losses were up to 5% for the concluded that the thruster interaction propeller

thruster closer to the vessel. model coupled with the turbulent jet wake field

The loss of thrust is more likely due to the yielded an accurate prediction of thruster

hull influence rather than the Coanda effect interaction. Although results based on the

for thrusters placed close to the stern of the linear potential wake field model are

vessel. promising, the prediction of the divergent and

A reduction or an increase in thrust can subsiding characteristics of the physical wake

occur when one thrusters slipstream is field needs to be improved, since the linear

influenced by the other thrusters wake model does not correctly represent the

slipstream. physical properties of the wake.

A reduction in thrust (up to 40%) was

recorded when one thrusters slipstream is Palmer et al. (2009) assessed thruster-hull

pointed into the other thrusters slipstream. and thruster-thruster interactions on for

autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The

Nordtveit et al. (2007) presented the results interactions were investigated using an

of model tests carried out in MARINTEK. The experimental approach. The induced

tests were to assess the thrust degradation in longitudinal force (thrust loss) was less than

DP operations of an Aframax DP2 shuttle 10% of the desired thrust force and the induced

tanker, operating in rough environmental lateral force was between 8% and 20% of the

conditions in the North Sea. Investigations desired thrust.

were conducted for tunnel thrusters, azimuth

thrusters and main propellers with rudders. The

results showed that thrust loss or thrust

degradation effects due to thruster-thruster and

thruster-hull interactions and the dynamics

effects are of significant importance for the

design, analysis and operation of a DP vessel.

The magnitude of thrust degradation depends

on the vessel type, design, operation and

environmental forces. Thrust degradation

coefficients are recommended for the DP

capability analysis of the Aframax shuttle

tanker.

method to predict the interaction effects. The

developed propeller interaction model is based

on the panel method. At the second thruster the Figure 7.2.2 Possible Thruster Interactions

distorted flow field due to the first thruster was on AUVs (Palmer et al., 2009)

modeled by means of two wake field models; a

linear potential wake model and an empirical de Wit (2009) and van Daalen et al. (2011)

turbulent jet model. Due to the intersection of investigated the interaction effects on the

wake and the body panels at the second optimization of DP allocation algorithms. In

thruster, numerical instabilities occurred at the

308

their work, the effect of the thruster-thruster an azimuth thruster were measured at 15

interaction on the reduction of delivered power intervals between 0 and 360. The resultant

was studied. thrust and moment were obtained by measuring

the force using the dynamometer in the towing

Det Norske Veritas (DNV, 2012) outlined carriage. A Wind Turbine Installation Vessel

the guidelines for the design of dynamically (WTIV) was used in the studies. Based on the

positioned vessels. In the design process of DP model tests, the thrust loss due to thruster-hull

systems, the thruster interaction effect is interaction was up to 30% of the pure thrust. In

recognized as an important issue in the the numerical simulations, two methodologies,

determination of the desired capability. The MRF (Moving Reference Frame) and SM

magnitude of losses associated with the (Sliding Mesh), were applied. Although both

interaction effects is a function of the hull numerical methodologies showed good

shape, the locations of thrusters, the degree of agreements with experimental data, it was

tilt of the propeller or nozzle axis. Barred suggested that the MRF method is time-saving

zones that prevent thrust in defined sectors can and therefore more practical to predict the

be created in the DP control system software to thrust loss.

address issues associated with the thruster wash

for azimuthing thrusters. Such barred zones

may result in reduced capability. Furthermore,

in order to minimize negative effects caused by

thrusters interacting hydrodynamically with

each other, DNV recommends that the distance

between thrusters should be maximized to the

feasible extent.

American Bureau of Shipping (ABS, 2013) Figure 7.2.3 Ship Model for Thruster-

also published a Guide for Dynamic Position Thruster/Hull Interaction Tests at Samsung

Systems. It recommends that the thruster- Ship Model Basin (Song et al., 2013)

thruster interaction effect should be included

in the station-keeping performance assessment,

and that the results from full-scale or suitable

model tests for thruster-thruster interaction

effects can be used whenever possible. If such

results are not available, Appendix 1 of the

ABS Guide provides guidelines for the

assessment of the interaction effect on the

available thrust.

loss by interactions between azimuth thrusters

and ship hull based on the model tests and the

numerical simulations. In the DP condition,

two thrusts need to be considered: one is the

thrust of the azimuth thrusters and the other Figure 7.2.4 Polar Plot of Thrust Loss due to

one is the resultant thrust for the ship. The Thruster-Thruster Interaction

difference between these two thrusts denotes a (Song et al., 2013 )

thrust loss due to the thruster-hull interaction.

In the model tests, the thrust and the torque of

309

The work described above demonstrates location and the shape of the stern keel. The

progress made in the study of the effects of comparisons between the CFD and the model

thruster-thruster and thrust-hull interactions on test results demonstrate that CFD is able to

the performance of DP vessels. Thrust predict the relevant force components well with

degradation effects can be quantified using data a sufficient accuracy for engineering purposes.

available from literature, or by carrying out

dedicated model tests. Published data can give 7.3 Measurement of Thruster Wake

valuable insights, but it is often too general, or

not applicable to a specific design. Model tests, Research has been carried out to understand

on the other hand, do provide detailed results the thruster interaction effects by measuring the

but they are relatively expensive. In addition, detailed wake flow using PIV systems.

model test results often become available

relatively late in the design process, making it

difficult to incorporate the results in the design.

method but there is little experience in the

application of CFD as an engineering tool for

thrust degradation effects. With the rapidly

increasing capabilities of CFD models and

computer hardware, the time is right for the

development of new tools to analyze the

thruster interactions (Cozijn, 2010).

operations, the station keeping capabilities of a Azimuth 270 deg (Ottens et al., 2011)

DP-vessel affect the operability limits of these

operations. The efficiencies of DP thrusters of Cozijn et al. (2010) investigated the wake flow

these vessels have been assessed by comparing behind a ducted azimuthing thruster in open

the CFD solutions with model test results water and under a barge. Model tests were

(Ottens et al., 2011). Numerical studies using carried out in stationary conditions. The

CFD were performed to assess thruster-hull propeller thrust and torque were recorded and

interactions on a semi-submersible vessel. The the flow velocities in a large number of cross-

CFD results were validated against results of a sections at various distances from the thruster

series of model tests, including an open-water were measured using a PIV system (see Figure

thruster, the single thruster-hull interactions 7.3.1).

without current, and full thruster-hull

interactions with all active thrusters and

without current. The CFD results show good

agreement with the model test data. The

computed forces on the semi-submersible as

well as on the individual floater with active

thrusters are in 10% difference in comparison

with the model test data. The largest

discrepancies are in the bow quartering

conditions where the thruster-hull interactions

show the most complex flow pattern due to the

310

flattening the cross-section of the thruster

wake. In addition, the wake flow along the

bottom and the bilge of the barge resulted in a

low pressure region, causing the wake flow to

diverge up as it flows under the barge into the

open water. This phenomenon is known as the

Coanda effect and was clearly visible in the

PIV measurements.

thruster-interaction model tests carried out in

Figure 7.2.6 Visualization of the Impingement MARIN's Deepwater Towing Tank. The wake

of Wakes on the Portside of the Floater, flow at a large number of cross-sections at

Azimuth 270 deg. (Ottens et al., 2011) different distances from the thrusters was

measured with a PIV system for two different

DP vessels, a semi-submersible and a drill ship.

The PIV measurements provided a detailed

image of the flow velocities in the thruster

wake, showing the axial velocities, as well as

the transverse and vertical velocity components

(see Figure 7.3.3).

of an Azimuth Thruster (Cozijn et al., 2010)

(Cozijn and Hallman, 2013)

7.4 Recommendations

hydrodynamics of thruster interaction (TRUST

JIP) was initialized to investigate the thruster

Figure 7.3.2 Flow Field of A Single Sweep interaction effects using both experimental and

Measurement with the PIV System ( Cozijn et CFD methods. As an outcome, guidelines are

al., 2010) also expected to be developed on how to use

model tests and CFD computations in the

In addition, velocities were measured in a analysis of thruster interaction effects and for

longitudinal plane at the thruster centre line the optimization of thruster configurations on

(see Figure 7.3.2). The PIV measurements for DP vessels.

the thruster under a barge show the thruster

wake deformed by the presence of the barge as Although the application of CFD methods

well as by its bilge. The bottom of the barge for thruster interactions is still largely

forms a flat plate above the thruster, clearly

311

unexplored, suitable modeling methods should required as input in these methods. For

be investigated and developed in the near example, Chen (2005) computed the drift

future. Thorough validation studies of CFD forces and wave elevations in the gap for two

models against measurement results, both at side-by-side barges and for a barge adjacent to

model-scale and at full-scale, are required. a Wigley hull and compared the results with

experimental data. Numerical simulations

Research into CFD computations for showed that the wave height and the drift force

thruster interactions should first focus on the in the resonance band were over-predicted

computation of the velocities in the wake of a using a damping coefficient =0. A better

thruster in open water. The accurate agreement with the experimental data was

computation of the velocities, especially at achieved with = 0.016. Cheetham et al.

large distances from the thruster, is crucial for (2007) presented numerical results by using

the accurate prediction of thruster interaction AQWA software for side-by-side ship

effects in a later stage. Different modelling hydrodynamics and validation studies. A

options should be investigated. Subsequently, linearized damping lid boundary condition was

complex configurations should be considered applied in the gap region. Simulations were

in the computation by introducing additional performed for a ship-barge case where it was

physics, such as friction forces on the hull and determined that a value of damping factor =

the deflection of the thruster wake (Coanda 0.01 was the most appropriate value for the

effect). boundary condition.

IN WAVES reasonable predictions without providing the

experimental data beforehand, it may be

8.1 Introduction challenging to apply them in design and

analysis. It is desirable to determine the

When two vessels are in a close proximity, damping due to viscous effect.

large resonant free surface elevation occurs in

the gap. Most of the linear seakeeping 8.2 State-of-the-Art Review

programs based on the potential flow theory,

currently used by the industry, over-predict the Many researchers have contributed to the

free surface elevations between vessels and studies of interactions of side-by-side bodies

hence the low-frequency loadings on the hulls. based on the potential-flow theory in the

This could lead to problems in the design of the frequency domain, using lower-order and high-

fenders, hawsers and loading arms and may order panel methods. Pauw et al. (2007) carried

lead to unsafe operations. out numerical simulations for two side-by-side

LNG carriers and compared the numerical

To overcome the problems, the lid technique results with the experimental data. The

(Huijsmans et al., 2001), in which the free numerical analysis was performed with a panel

surface in the gap is replaced by a rigid lid, has method code using a flexible damping lid in the

been developed to suppress the unrealistic gap region. A variety of gap widths were used

values of low-frequency forces. A linear in head seas with an attempt to obtain a

dissipation term has also been proposed by rationale for predicting suitable damping

Chen (2004) to modify the free-surface factors. No unique value was found for the

boundary condition. Newman (2003) used the damping factor that could fully cover all the

generalized mode technique to model the free measured cases. It was noted that the damping

surface. However, artificial damping factors are factor could be tuned using the second-order

312

drift forces but not the first-order quantities, motions tended to be greater as the sizes of

such as wave height. The damping factor was barges became larger.

found to have the greatest effect on the second-

order drift force. Ten et al. (2012) used a semi-analytical

method to predict the characteristics of the

Bunnik et al. (2009) applied the method as resonance of viscous fluid in a narrow gap.

described in Chen (2005) to two side-by-side Dissipation was introduced in the form of

LNG carriers in head seas and compared the pressure loss. This method was validated by

solutions with the results of model tests. The comparing with the solution with other

damping lid was also extended to the surface analytical, numerical and model test results. It

inside the vessels. The comparison with the was found that the conventional BEM was

experimental results indicated that the damping inapplicable to very small gap. The semi-

lid method worked better than the rigid lid analytical model was reported suitable for

method at frequencies of interest. small and large ratios of gap width to the ship

breadth.

Molin et al. (2009) applied DIODORE, a

potential-flow code, to two side-by-side fixed Clauss et al. (2013) investigated the gap

barges. A set of massless plates were used in effects for side-by-side vessels with numerical

the gap between the barges and a quadratic methods in the frequency domain. The free

damping force was applied to the plates. The surface elevation was modelled by a damping

numerical results were compared with the lid. WAMIT was used in their studies. The

model test results of two rectangular barges in numerical and experimental investigations

irregular waves. A drag coefficient, CD = 0.5, were conducted for a LNG carrier next to a

was employed to determine the quadratic fixed terminal. Wave propagations in terms of

damping force, which led to a good agreement wave height and regions of cancellation and

with measured data. It was recommended that amplification were examined. They reported

an investigation of freely floating ships should that the surface elevation in the gap was

be performed in the future. surprisingly not overestimated by WAMIT at

the critical frequency around 0.81 rad/s without

Kawabe et al. (2010) studied water surface using any numerical damping lid.

responses in a moon pool of a freely floating

vessel. Studies showed that a damping factor of Xu et. al. (2013) computed second-order

= 0.05 resulted in a good agreement between mean drift forces and moments on three side-

the predicted and measured free surface by-side barges during the float-over operation

elevations. using WAMIT. The numerical results were

validated by model tests. It was reported that

Zhang et al. (2013) carried out numerical satisfactory numerical results could be obtained

studies on the hydrodynamic interactions of by adding viscous damping.

two bodies in arbitrary arrangements in terms

of gap widths, relative sizes and relative angles. Kashiwagi and Shi (2010) obtained the

HYDROSTAR, a potential-flow program, was pressure distribution for multiple bodies in a

utilized. The numerical results showed that the close proximity. They solved the integral

resonance phenomenon became more dominant equation of the diffraction potential by the

than the shielding effect as the gap width Higher-order Boundary Element Method

decreased. Studies also suggested that sway (HOBEM). It was found that when the

and heave responses were sensitive to relative separation distance between bodies is smaller,

angles in head seas. For parallel arrangements,

313

there would be a larger deviation of the corresponding fully nonlinear results and

pressure distribution. concluded that the second-order theory might

overestimate the wave amplitude in the gap and

Hong et al. (2013) studied the gap resonance the wave loads on the structures.

between the bodies in close proximity by two

methods, in terms of a nine-node discontinuous Ma et al. (2013) applied the fully nonlinear

higher order boundary element method potential theory to study the 2D resonant waves

(9dHOBEM) and a constant boundary element in the gap between two floating barges by

method based on the boundary matching using the Quasi Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian

formulation (BM-CBEM). The results showed Finite Element Method (QALEFEM). Based on

that BM-CBEM combined with the free surface the computed free surface elevations and the

damping or 9dHOBEM combined with a tuned forces acting on barges, it was recommended

value of the wetted surface damping parameter that nonlinear models for such cases should be

could largely reduce the over-predicted first- used, in particular, including the 4th-order or

order hydrodynamic coefficients, and higher-order component. These investigations

successfully estimate the time-mean drift forces provided a basis for future 3D studies.

on two side-by-side floating structures.

Attempts have also been made to determine

Efforts have been made to address the the viscous effect by solving Reynolds

interaction problem in the time domain. Xiang Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations.

and Faltinsen (2011) developed a time-domain Lu et al. (2010a) carried out numerical studies

solution for linear loads and motions of two for two identical bodies and three identical

tankers paralleled in calm and deep water in bodies at a close proximity by using the

lightering operation by using 3D Rankine potential-flow method and the viscous-flow

source method. The numerical results were method without artificial damping force. The

compared with analytical solutions, viscous flow model was based on a three-step

experimental data and numerical results by finite element solver, and the CLEAR-VOF

others. Zhu et al. (2008) computed the forces method was applied to capture the free surface

on two fixed side-by-side hull-shaped boxes in the gap region. Experimental results were

with a narrow gap due to incoming and used to assess the performance of each model.

diffracted waves based on a time-domain Both potential and viscous models performed

method. The predicted resonant phenomena in well for predicting frequencies outside the

the gap is in good agreement with that from the resonance band, while the potential flow model

frequency-domain analysis. over-predicts the wave height around resonant

frequencies. The viscous flow model showed

Numerical methods based on nonlinear good agreement with measured values for all

potential-flow theory, such as the finite element frequencies. To improve the potential flow

method, have also been developed to solve the method, Lu et al. (2010b) extended the

interaction problem. previous work and applied artificial damping to

the free surface. The results by the potential

Wang et al. (2011) applied fully nonlinear flow model with a damping coefficient = 0.4

potential theory to study 2D resonant waves in were in good agreement with the viscous flow

the gap between two floating structures. A results and the experimental data for the two-

higher-order finite element method was used to body cases and for both gaps in the three-body

analyze the fully nonlinear resonant oscillations cases. In 2011, they studied on the effects of

of the liquid in the gap. They compared the gap width, body draft, body width and number

second-order time-domain results with the

314

of bodies of multi-bodies at close proximity

(Lu et al., 2011). Kim et al. (2012) carried out a series of

model tests and investigated the effect of the

Lu and Chen (2012) examined the energy heading control on the offloading operability of

dissipation around resonant frequencies side-by-side moored vessels, LNGC and LNG

between two bodies by CFD computations. The FPSO (FLNG), in multidirectional

dissipation was found to be relatively constant environments. The key variables affecting the

over frequencies near the resonant frequency. offloading operability, such as hawser tensions,

The dissipation rate was examined over various fender loads, and relative motions between two

zones. Studies showed that the over-prediction vessels, were measured. Several heading angles

of resonant wave elevation could be reduced by were selected to investigate the impact of the

using the dissipation coefficient to assimilate heading control on the offloading operability.

the friction force. An explicit formula to obtain The model tests indicated that the offloading

the dissipation coefficient was recommended. operability in the multi-directional

Zou and Larsson (2013) investigated the environments can be improved by heading

interaction of two side-by-side ships in shallow control. In the model tests, the motion RAOs

water. They completed a systematic and horizontal drift forces/moments due to

investigation of ship-ship interactions during a waves for the side-by-side moored vessels were

lightering operation using a steady-state measured.

Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS)

solver. The numerical results were compared Cho et al. (2011) carried out experimental

with benchmark experimental data. A good studies of motions and drift forces of side-by-

agreement was found between measured and side moored FSRU and LNGC including

computed wave heights, indicating that the sloshing effect. The effect of filling level on

predicted pressure distribution on the free the coupling between sloshing and motions of

surface was appropriate. the floating bodies was investigated in their

work. The effect of gap flow was also

8.3 Existing Model Tests examined.

have been identified in the review, including

captive and floating tests with and without

mooring lines between two bodies. Besides

those listed in Section 8.2, some recent model

tests on side-by-side vessels are presented

below.

(Kim et al., 2012)

315

elevations at three locations in the gap were

8.4 Potential Experimental Data for measured. Figure 8.4.1 shows the simplified

Benchmark Studies models in the tank. Model tests have also been

carried out for the single body in regular waves.

To investigate the wave elevation in the gap The tests are planned to be repeated in an ocean

between two side-by-side bodies and the effect engineering basin. It is anticipated that the

of viscous effect on the prediction, it is of experimental results can be used in benchmark

importance to identify benchmark data for studies.

validation studies. The Committee

recommended model tests of two floating

bodies without mooring lines and fenders in

between. The experimental data should include

at least measured wave elevations in the gap

and motions of bodies and/or mean drift forces

at various gaps, wave frequencies and

headings. The following experimental data

have been identified for potential use in the

proposed benchmark studies.

Figure 8.4.1 Simplified Models

Hong et al. (2005) carried out model tests of

side-by-side LNG FPSO and LNGC with wired

springs as mooring at the KRISO Ocean 8.5 Recommendations

Engineering Basin. The gap was set as 4 m in

full scale. Model tests were performed in both The determination of the viscous effect on

regular and irregular waves. For regular waves, the prediction of wave elevations in the gap

the wave frequencies were from 0.25 rad/s to and the drift forces on two bodies in a close

1.2 rad/s in full scale and the headings were proximity remains as a challenge. As the next

150, 180, 240 and 270 degrees. Six DOF step, the Committee recommended to collect

motions of each vessel were measured with the experimental data available for benchmark

photo sensors, relative waves at 3 locations studies. With an objective to investigate the

(midship and +/- 0.3L from the midship, viscous effect on the predictions by potential-

portside) of LNG FPSO were measured by flow methods, numerical tools based on the

capacitance type probes. Strain gauge type CFD methods should be included in the studies.

accelerometers were used for measuring

horizontal and vertical accelerations. Drift 9. MOTIONS OF LARGE SHIPS AND

forces were measured using the tension load FLOATING STRUCTURES IN

cells at the end of spring wire moored to the SHALLOW WATER

ships.

The Committee have also initialized a model The shallow water wave problem has

test program for two identical bodies with become one of the important issues in offshore

simplified geometry in regular waves (wave hydrodynamics as the need for floating LNG

steepness is 1/30). The tests were carried out at terminals increases. The amplitude of the long

Ocean Engineering Research Centre of period resonant motion of moored structures in

Memorial University's 60 m towing tank. The shallow water is greatly influenced by the low

test matrix included three gaps and three wave frequency part of the incident waves, which

headings. Motions of each body and wave themselves are a result of interactions of the

316

component waves of the incident wave floating storage and regasification unit (FRSU)

spectrum (ITTC Ocean Engineering and an LNGC in shallow water waves with

Committee, 2008). The Committee was tasked varied bathymetry. The numerical results were

to report on the motions of large ships and compared with those for the equivalent

floating structures in shallow water. A constant water depth condition. The

literature review was first conducted to identify comparison shows that the motion responses

the progress made in model tests and numerical are in general larger than those for the cases of

simulations of large floating structures. constant water depth. In particular, the

horizontal motions are significantly large

In terms of the prediction of slowly varying because of wave deformations due to the

motions and loads, Stansberg and Kristiansen bottom topography and the low-frequency

(2011) conducted model tests with a large waves. The increased horizontal surge motion

LNG carrier moored in shallow water. is certainly critical for the design of mooring

Quadratic Transfer Function (QTF) for slowly lines in shallow water.

varying surge force was obtained using the

cross-bi-spectral analysis. The off-the-diagonal

QTF values have a tendency to increase

significantly as the difference frequency is

increased in shallow water condition,

especially for smaller incident wave

frequencies. In their studies, it was shown that

QTF for shallow water condition was

underestimated by Newmans approximation.

boundary element method to an axisymmetric

floating body in bi-chromatic waves. The Figure 9.1 Tower Yoke Mooring System (Kim

occurrence of large low-frequency motions was et al., 2011 )

shown in experiments and in numerical results

when the difference frequencies between The motions of a LNG carrier in various

bichromatic waves were close to natural bathymetric conditions were studied by Kim

frequencies of surge motion and even pitch (2013) using a linear Rankine panel method

motion. and by solving the Boussinesq equations. The

depth was assumed to be shallow (15-30m),

Progress has also been made in simulations constant or with a slope. The numerical results

of nonlinear shallow water waves by solving were compared with those with infinite depth

Boussinesq equations. Lee et al. (2010) conditions, in term of hydrodynamic

simulated nonlinear waves in shallow water by coefficients and motion responses. The authors

considering shoaling, refraction and non-linear concluded that the nonlinear effects are not

wave interactions. By using the shallow water noticeable except for a very steep slope, and

wave field, motion responses were further that the linear methods can be used to evaluate

computed. The radiation and diffraction forces the hydrodynamics of floating bodies over

were predicted by a constant panel method. varied bathymetry.

The wave height and velocity components,

computed from the Boussinesq equations, were Model tests have also been carried out to

utilized to estimate wave forces in shallow study the responses of large floating structures

water. The computations were applied to a such as FRSU in shallow water waves. For

317

example, Kim et al. (2012) carried out model The second ISSC/ITTC joint workshop to

tests to study the responses of a FSRU with a be held in August 30, 2014 will focus on the

mooring system in shallow water. In their wave-induced motion and structural loads on

work, two different mooring systems, the turret ships and offshore structures, including a

catenary system and the tower yoke system, computational benchmark test for a large

were compared. modern ship.

water mooring system for FPSO systems.

Based on a turret mooring with self adjusting 11.1 State of the Art Review

stiffness system (TUMSAS), the mooring

systems were developed using numerical Stationary Floating Structures and Ships

approaches and experimental validations. The

design case was for a 30,000-ton FPSO in a Experimental and numerical procedures for

location of 24m deep. The self adjusting predicting motions of floating structures are in

stiffness was obtained by using a weight general well established. There is still a need of

module and catenary chains. The results show a research on vortex induced motions of spars

larger offset of the FPSO and a drastic and semisubmersibles, and on the platform

reduction of the forces acting on the mooring responses in extreme seas. Studies have been

system. Vertical motions were also reduced in carried out on novel TLPs, spars and

comparison with a regular turret. semisubmersible structures. Relative motions

between two floating bodies remain very

The shallow water wave problem and the important research topics, especially for the

motions of large floating structures in shallow safe operation of floating LNG production and

water remain as challenging topics. The storage and offloading vessels.

Committee recommended to identify

benchmark data to validate numerical methods Highly Nonlinear Effects on Ocean Structures

including those based on the potential flow

theory, CFD and those based on solving the Slamming, sloshing and wave run-ups,

Boussinesq equations. representing the highly nonlinear effects,

remain as important issues for the

10. ISSC/ITTC WORKSHOPS design/operation of offshore structures in

extreme sea conditions. CFD methods such as

The first ISSC/ITTC joint workshop on VOF, SPH and CIP, along with experiments,

uncertainty modeling for ships and offshore are the primary tools to address these highly

structures has been successfully organized by nonlinear phenomena.

ISSC, the ITTC Ocean Engineering Committee

and the ITTC Seakeeping Committee. The For sloshing, the state-of-the-art

Committee presented the uncertainties related methodology is based on the use of seakeeping

to predictions of loads and responses for computer codes to estimate ship or platform

offshore structures at the Workshop on motions. Experiments on sloshing tank models

September 8, 2012 at Rostock, Germany. The and CFD simulations have been performed in

joint effort between ISSC and ITTC has led to order to estimate global and local fluid

the publication of a special issue on uncertainty loadings in the tanks. Benchmark studies of

modeling for ships and offshore structures in LNG sloshing have been carried out to assess

the journal of Ocean Engineering. the uncertainties in measurement of pressures,

to investigate scale effects, and to validate the

318

numerical tools. Research has also been waves. The Committee recommends to develop

focused on hydroelasticity using experimental a new procedure on this aspect.

studies. There is still a need of research in these

areas using experimental and numerical 11.3 Benchmark Studies on VIV

methods.

In this benchmark study, URANS, DES and

VIV and VIM LES were employed by six participants. In

terms of overall trend, numerical predictions by

Progress has been made in the prediction of DES and LES are generally in better agreement

VIV and VIM using empirical prediction with the experimental data than those by

programs, CFD methods and experimental URANS. It can be concluded that the LES

methods. A few new prediction programs have method captured the drag crisis phenomenon

been developed based on the time-domain and the LES solutions agree better with

methods. Further research is required in this experimental data at most points than those by

area. URANS. At high Reynolds numbers, some

solutions by the URANS method agree

New Experimental Techniques reasonably well with the experimental data.

The Committee recommended to continue the

A couple of new experimental techniques benchmark studies based on LES and DES.

have been identified, including the BIV

technique for velocity measurements and a 11.4 Wave Run-Up Benchmark Studies

subsea imaging technique with a potential to be

used in a tank for underwater measurements. Eleven organizations participated in the

benchmark studies on the cases of the single

New Extrapolation Methods truncated cylinder and four organizations

participated in the benchmark studies on the

Limited investigations have been carried cases of four truncated cylinders. Nine

out on the development of extrapolation participants employed CFD methods in their

methods. Challenging issues in scaling of studies. It was concluded that the values and

model tests results to full scale have been trends of the computed wave elevations and

indicated in various applications throughout the forces by CFD methods are in good agreement

report, particularly in sloshing tests. with the experimental results for the cases of

single and four cylinders. Due to time

11.2 Review of the Existing Procedures constrains and limited computing resources,

most of participants have focused on the single

The Committee reviewed three procedures. circular cylinder cases. It is recommended that

Very minor revisions were identified for 7.5- more studies be extended to the four-column

02-07-03.1 and 7.5-02-07-03.2. The Committee cases.

however found that there is little information in

7.5-02-07-03.3 and the limited information in 11.5 Thruster-Thruster Interactions

7.5-02-07-03.3 is very similar to that in 7.5-02-

07-03.1. The Committee recommended to A literature review has been conducted for

move the contents of 7.5-02-07-03.3 to 7.5-02- thruster-thruster interactions. Great progress

07-03.1. The Committee also identified that has been made in investigating the interactions

there is no existing procedure dealing with the using experimental and CFD methods.

result analysis of model tests in irregular Research has been carried out to understand the

thruster interaction effects by measuring the

319

detailed wake flow using PIV systems. The Committee recommended to identify

Although the application of CFD methods for benchmark data to validate numerical methods

thruster interactions is still largely unexplored, including those based on the potential-flow

suitable modeling methods should be theory, CFD and those based on solving the

investigated and developed in the near future. Boussinesq equations.

Thorough validation studies of CFD models

against measurement results, both at model- 12. RECOMMENDATIONS

scale and at full-scale, are required.

like to make the following recommendation to

A literature review has been conducted for the 27th ITTC:

side-by-side body interactions in waves with an - Adopt the new guideline 7.5-02-07-03.10,

emphasis on the prediction of wave elevation in "Guideline for VIV Testing"

the gap and the drift forces. Progress has been

made in investigating the damping effect using

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