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The Ocean Engineering Committee

Final Report and Recommendations to the 27th ITTC

1. GENERAL Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China,


February 2014.
1.1 Membership and Meetings
1.2 Tasks Based on the Recommendation
The members of the Ocean Engineering of 26th ITTC
Committee of the 27th International Towing
Tank Conference were as follows: Update the state-of-the-art for predicting
the behavior of bottom founded or
Prof. Wei Qiu (Chairman), Memorial stationary floating structures including
University of Newfoundland, Canada moored and dynamically positioned ships
Mr. Halvor Lie (Secretary), MARINTEK, emphasizing developments since the 2011
Norway ITTC Conference. The committee report
Dr. Jean-Marc Rousset, Ecole Centrale de should include sections on:
Nantes, France
Dr. Dong-Yeon Lee, Samsung Ship Model - The potential impact of new technological
Basin, Korea developments on the ITTC
Prof. Sergio H. Sphaier, Federal University - New experimental techniques and
of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil extrapolation methods
Prof. Longbin Tao University of - New benchmark data
Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom - The practical applications of
Prof. Xuefeng Wang, Shanghai Jiao Tong computational methods to prediction and
University, China scaling
Dr. Takashi Mikami, Akishima Laboratory - The need for R&D for improving methods
(MITSUI ZOSEN) Inc., Japan of model experiments, numerical
Dr. Viacheslav Magarovskii, Krylov modeling and full scale measurements.
Shipbuilding Research Institute, Russia
Review ITTC Recommended Procedures
Four Committee meetings were held relevant to ocean engineering
respectively at:
- Identify any requirements for changes in
Samsung Heavy Industries, Geoje the light of current practice, and, if
Shipyard, Korea, December 2011. approved by the Advisory Council.
MARINTEK, Trondheim, Norway, - Identify the need for new procedures and
September 2012. outline the purpose and content of these.
Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France, June
2013. Complete the VIV and VIM guidelines and
benchmark study initialized by the
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Specialist Committee in Vortex Induced Section 2.7: Practical Applications of
Vibrations of the 26th ITTC. The report on Computational Methods to Prediction and
the benchmark test shall include clear Scaling
definition of all the test parameters. Section 2.8: Improving Method of Model
Experiments, Numerical Methods and Full-
Complete and report on the wave run-up Scale Measurements
benchmark study for a single cylinder.

Carry out a wave run-up benchmark study 3. Review of Existing Procedures


for cases of four columns using the
experimental data from MARINTEK. Section 3 reviews the procedures, 7.5-02-07-
03.1 Floating Offshore Platform Experiments,
Investigate and report on the thruster- 7.5-02-07-03.2 Analysis Procedure for Model
thruster interaction, ventilation and their Tests in Regular Waves and 7.5-02-07-03.3
scaling for DP systems. Model Tests on Tanker-Turret Systems, and
addresses the need for new procedures.
Investigate and report on physical and
numerical modeling of vessels in side-by- New Documentation
side operations with an emphasis on wave
elevation in the gap. Section 4 discusses the development of
guideline for VIV and VIM model tests.
Investigate and report on motions of large Section 5 presents numerical benchmark
vessels and floating structures in shallow studies of VIV.
water. Section 6 presents benchmark studies of
wave run-up for cases of single and four
Jointly organize and participate in the joint columns.
ISSC/ITTC workshop on uncertainty in Section 7 discusses the investigation of
measurement and prediction of wave loads thruster-thruster interaction, ventilation and
and responses. their scaling effect for dynamic positioning
(DP) systems.
1.3 Structure of the Report Section 8 presents the study of physical and
numerical modeling of vessels in side-by-
The work carried out by the Committee is side operations.
presented as follows: Section 9 discusses the motions of large
ships and floating structures in shallow
2. State of the Art Reviews water.
Section 10 summarizes the outcome of the
Section 2.1: Predicting the Behaviour of first joint ISSC/ITTC workshop on
Stationary Floating Structures and Ships uncertainties in measurement and prediction
Section 2.2: Predicting the Behaviour of of wave loads and responses.
Dynamically Positioned Structures
Section 2.3: Highly Nonlinear Effects on Conclusions and Recommendations
Ocean Structures
Section 2.4: Predicting Vortex Induced Sections 11 and 12 present the conclusions and
Vibrations and Vortex Induced Motions recommendations, respectively.
Section 2.5: New Experimental Techniques
Section 2.6: New Extrapolation Methods
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2. STATE OF THE ART REVIEWS

2.1 Stationary Floating Structures and


Ships

2.1.1 Spar Platforms

Majority of the new field developments


using spar platforms have been in deepwater
offshore regions. There are many technical
challenges with deployment and operation in
deep or ultra-deep water, typically including
the design and construction of drilling and
production facilities to withstand the harsh
deepwater environment and regulatory issues
that arise from operations at these depths.

Research has been carried out particularly to


address the global motions of spar hulls in Figure 2.1.1.1 Sketch of S-Spar (Sun and
waves, current and wind including vortex Huang, 2012)
induced motion (VIM). The wave and current
interaction is also an important issue for the Lefevre et al. (2013) presented CFD studies
spar platform. on the VIM of a spar using STAR-CCM+. The
numerical solutions were compared with model
VIM of spars has been studied by many test results. Good agreement was found.
researchers using numerical and experimental Recommendations on computing spar motions,
methods. Gonalves et al. (2012) applied the including the use of turbulence models, mesh
Hilbert-Huang Transform Method to analyze resolutions and the choice of time step, were
VIM of a mono-column platform and showed a given for CFD simulations of spar VIM.
good agreement compared to that from the Constantinides and Oakley (2013) simulated
traditional analysis. Gonalves et al. (2012a) the VIM of a truss spar using AcuSolve. A
presented an overview of relevant aspects on cylindrical domain and a specialized boundary
VIM of spars and mono-column platforms and condition were used to avoid the creation of
showed that the loading condition had the separate setups for each heading in the spar
largest impact on VIM responses because the design phase.
low aspect ratio leads large 3D effects on the
vortex shedding. A JIP has recently been set up to specifically
address VIM. The project started in the
summer of 2013 and will be completed in the
summer of 2016. MARIN and USP will carry
out model tests as well as CFD computations.
Comprehensive benchmark data will be
produced from model tests for the validation of
numerical simulations.

Efforts have been made to investigate the


responses of spars in waves and current.
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Murray et al. (2012) conducted a model test loads on tethers due to air-gap and wave impact
campaign on a 1:50 Radial Wellbay Spar on deck.
(RAW Spar) at the OTRC, Texas A&M
University. The model test results were Some of the results of the Cooperative
compared with numerical simulations by an Research on Extreme Seas and their impacT
ABAQUS-based time-domain semi-empirical (CresT) JIP were presented and discussed in
model by Muehlner et al. (2012b). Kurian et al. the work of Hagen (2011), Bitner-Gregersen
(2013) conducted experimental and numerical (2011), Hennig et al. (2011), Forristal (2011),
studies on a truss spar subjected to long and and Forristal and Aubult (2013) in the 30th and
short crested waves. The numerical solutions 32nd OMAE Conferences. Figure 2.1.2.1
agreed well with the experimental results. shows the TLP model used in the CresT JIP.
Lower responses were also observed for short
crested waves. Zhang et al. (2012) conducted
model tests and investigated the added mass
coefficients of a truss spar. In the model tests,
the truss spar was subjected to uniform current.
It was found that the added mass coefficients
decrease as the reduced velocity was increased.
Hong et al. (2013) presented an experimental
study on the motion of a 1/100 scaled model of
a spar-type floating platform. The effect of test
conditions, e.g., the center of gravity, mooring
stiffness and the fairlead location, were Figure 2.1.2.1 The TLP Model Used in CresT
investigated. Rodriguez and Neves (2012) (Hennig et al., 2011)
studied the nonlinear instabilities of spar
platforms in waves with a focus on the Hagen (2011) discussed the wave
parametric resonance phenomenon. Parametric nonlinearities that might lead to unrealistically
Amplification Domains (PADs) were low estimates of the extreme tether tension for
computed, showing the boundaries of the the TLP, especially those related to wave-in-
instability regions and the maximum roll deck events. The 100-year return period value
amplitudes. was shown to increase considerably if the
New design concepts have also been nonlinearities beyond the second order were
developed. For example, Sun and Huang included.
(2012) developed a new spar concept called "S-
Spar" (Figure 2.1.1.1). The "S-Spar" combined Bitner-Gregersen (2011) presented the
the features of classic spars and truss spars. reliability assessment of the air-gap of a
Numerical predictions were performed using
the panel method. The new concept led to generic TLP for a given extreme wave
smaller wave forces and motions than those of condition. The study demonstrated the effects
the classic spars. of wave nonlinearity beyond the second order,
diffraction and radiation by the TLP, spatial
2.1.2 TLPs variations of crest statistics, deck heights and
sea water level variations. Based on a
In the past three years, research has been stochastic model, sensitivity studies were
carried out on TLPs using experimental and carried out to identify the importance of
numerical methods focusing on motions and parameters on the probability of failure.

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Uncertainties related to the analyses were less data in comparison with the conventional
identified and ranked. statistical procedure.

Hennig et al. (2011) reported some results of Johannessen (2011) investigated the high-
extreme wave loads and responses observed in frequency loading and the response of a TLP in
the model tests of the TLP. It was concluded irregular steep waves. By comparing the model
that the wetted deck area, depending on the test results of tether loadings, it was concluded
type of wave impact, wave-in-deck event and that the weakly nonlinear methods seem to be
design variation, affects significantly the actual incapable of estimating the excitation at very
responses of TLP. The effect of the wave short- high frequencies, while a much simpler
crestedness on extreme loadings was also impulse formulation gave a better estimate of
assessed. horizontal excitations at these high frequencies.

Based on the JIP experimental results, Muehlner et al. (2012a) investigated the
Forristal (2011) showed that the maximum effect of high-frequency oscillations of a TLP
crest heights in an area are greater than those at on the fatigue of its tendons by direct
a single point. It was also stated that calculations in time domain. The coupled
Piterbargs theory (Piterbarg, 1996) can analysis of the TLP with tendons and risers was
accurately predict this behaviour. Model tests carried out by considering several
showed that the short-term statistics of the nonlinearities, including large displacements,
diffracted waves under a TLP have the same finite wave height, viscous drag, higher-order
form as that of the incident waves. Based on wave effects, and variable added mass of the
these evidences, the author proposed a method TLP columns. The analysis results showed that
for the calculation of air-gap. the fatigue damage due to high-frequency
oscillations in the tendons was significant.
More recently, also in the context of the
CresT JIP, Forristal and Aubult (2013) Mansour et al. (2013) investigated the
analyzed the effect of wave diffraction on the design aspects of TLP tendon and tendon
measured wave heights under the deck of the foundation systems. The studies involved the
TLP. The results demonstrated that the first- numerical simulation of progressive failure of
order diffraction theory can be used to find the tendons in cyclonic events. The TLP responses
wave heights under the deck of the TLP, and it during the transition from the restrained
should also be used to correct the wave condition (TLP with all tendons) to the free-
measurements for a TLP. The second-order floating condition have been numerically
theory gave marginal improvements and is simulated and validated against model test
therefore not recommended. results.

Based on extensive model tests, Gaidai et al. Relatively new TLP concepts have also been
(2012) proposed another method for estimating proposed and studied. Chandrasekaran et al.
the extreme value statistics of air-gap for a TLP (2011) investigated a relatively new platform
subjected to random events. The method used concept for ultra deepwater offshore
only the area extreme value at each point to exploration using an experimental method. The
obtain a robust identification of the crossing platform, Triceratops, combines the
rate function that determines the extreme value characteristics of TLP and spar, and consists of
distribution. It was shown that this method can deck structure supported by three buoyant leg
lead to an accurate prediction by using much structures (BLS) connected through ball joints.
Model tests in regular waves showed that the
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compliancy of the ball joints significantly
affects the motion responses and the tether
tensions. Only surge motions are transferred
from the BLS to the deck. Figure 2.1.2.2 shows
a typical triceratops.

Figure 2.1.2.3 The TBTLP Concept


(Rao et al., 2012)
Figure 2.1.2.2 The Triceratops Concept
(Chandrasekaran et al., 2011)

Rao et al. (2012) carried out hydrodynamic


analyses of a relatively new concept of a TLP,
namely Tension Based Tension Leg Platform
(TBTLP) (see Figure 2.1.2.3), which was
proposed for greater water depth than that for
the conventional TLPs. Time series of free
vibrations and the response amplitude
operators (RAOs) were obtained and compared
for three different cases of TLPs with and
without tension base in various water depths.
The efficacy of the provision of a tension base
has been proved by comparing the RAOs.
Figure 2.1.2.4 The TLP with Perforated
More recently, Srinath and Chandrasekaran
Members (Srinath and Chandrasekaran, 2013)
(2013) investigated the effect of perforated
members on the dynamic response of TLPs
New installation methodologies regarding
through model testing. Experiments in regular
TLP and its tendons have also been proposed.
unidirectional waves showed that surge and
For tendon installation, Li et al. (2012)
pitch response amplitudes decrease in the
proposed an innovative approach, which
presence of retrofitting perforated cylindrical
involved the horizontal assembly of TLP
members. Depending on the wave period, the
tendon segments on a construction barge,
reduction may vary from 4% to 25%.
instead of the typical vertical installation using
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expensive heavy lift vessels. The partially purposes and in the assessment of operating
assembled tendon was then incrementally conditions, especially in extreme wave
pulled out through a stinger at the barge stern conditions.
and secured with a holdback clamp so that the
next tendon joint can be connected. The TLPs with direct and indirect applications as
process repeated itself until the whole tendon offshore wind energy devices have also been
was assembled and deployed. The tendon was investigated. Bachynski and Moan (2012)
then upended to a vertical configuration and studied four TLP wind turbine (TLPWT)
connected to a TLP or a foundation pile. concepts using a fully-coupled nonlinear time-
domain method and a linear frequency-domain
Rijken (2013) provided two engineering method. The designs included a wide range of
solutions for the installation of TLPs under displacements. The wind-induced responses
swell conditions. These methods aim to reduce were found to be significant and dependent on
heave motions either by installing heave plates the TLPWT hull according to the nonlinear
or by temporarily decreasing the waterplane simulations. The nonlinear time-domain results
area. Both methods reduce the heave RAOs for coupled wind and wave simulations
when the wave period is greater than 12 s. indicated that wind loads were important for
They may be applicable to situations where the both operational and survival cases. In the
installation window may contain prolonged operational cases, the operating turbines
periods of persistent swell. provided low-frequency excitations and some
pitch damping. The wave-induced motions
In terms of hydrodynamic behavior of TLPs, tended to become more important in more
some interesting work has been published. severe sea states. In the parked condition, the
Cruz et al. (2012) reported the parametric yaw aerodynamic torque was found to be quite
motions of a TLP in close proximity to a strong, and it was proved to be a critical force
moored FPSO. It was also observed in the component for the smallest TLPWT design.
experiments that as the TLP yaw motion
amplifies, the TLP sway amplitudes reduce, The Tension-Leg-Buoy (TLB), a concept
revealing a strongly non-linear coupling developed based on the TLP for offshore wind
between these modes. A nonlinear turbine applications, was investigated by Myhr
mathematical model that takes hydrodynamic and Nygaard (2012). They addressed the
interactions of two bodies and nonlinear effects of the Excess Buoyancy (EB) and
restoring into account was also proposed to mooring lines layout. Other offshore wind
investigate the occurrence of parametric energy applications related to TLPs can be
instabilities of this type of system. Rudman and found in Copple and Capanoglu (2012), Ren et
Cleary (2013) applied the Smoothed Particle al. (2012) and Stewart et. al (2012).
Hydrodynamics (SPH) method to the fully-
coupled simulation of the impact of a highly Bae and Kim (2013) presented an analysis
non-linear breaking rogue wave on a moored method for a mono-column TLP-type floating
semi-submersible tension leg platform. They offshore wind turbine (FOWT) designed for
showed the detailed effect of wave impact 200m water depth. In the proposed method,
angle on the subsequent platform motions and rotor dynamics and control, aero-dynamics,
determined how the cable tension varied with tower elasticity, floater dynamics, and mooring
wave impact angle and the time after impact. line dynamics were considered. The full
The application of the method and the dynamic coupling among them was
presented results highlighted how the investigated in time domain along with the
simulations could be used for practical design effects of sum-frequency wave-excitations. The
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sum-frequency wave loading effects can be pontoon volume, and the pontoon cross-section
significant in the coupled analysis when blades shape. In the NexGen design, the pontoon
are fixed (not rotating) at a minimal angle like volume was re-distributed to minimize heave
in the survival condition. Therefore, there are loading while maintaining sufficient structural
significant differences between uncoupled and rigidity, a long heave natural period and
coupled analyses, and care needs to be taken adequate quayside buoyancy. The blisters
when applying the conventional dynamic attached to the columns effectively break the
analysis methods, which are typically used for vortex shedding coherence along the column
floating offshore oil and gas platforms, to the length and therefore suppress VIM.
design of FOWTs. There exist complicated
coupling effects among blade rotation, tower Kyoung et al. (2013) conducted model tests
flexibility, blade-control mechanism, platform and numerical simulations to validate the
and mooring dynamic characteristics, and they global performance of a Heave and VIM
should be fully considered for effective and Suppressed (HVS) semisubmersible. Xu et al.
robust design of future FOWTs. (2012) validated the VIM responses of a HVS
semisubmersible by model tests and CFD
2.1.3 Semi-Submersibles computations. Both the model test and the CFD
analysis showed better performance of the
Semi-submersibles are subjects of HVS design than an equivalent conventional
continuing interest and have been studied by a semisubmersible. Gonalves et al. (2012)
number of authors using a variety of methods. presented new experimental results on VIM of
a large volume semisubmersible platform. The
DaSilva and Knecht (2011) introduced the wave effects were the main focus. According to
practical implementation of a stochastic the results, regular and irregular waves led to
approach involving known aspects that affect considerable differences in responses. Bai et al.
the air gap for semi-submersibles. These effects (2013) conducted model tests in a towing tank
include the first-order vessel motions under an to study the VIM response of a Deep Draft
undisturbed wave field, diffracted wave Semisubmersible (DDS) with four rectangular
elevation under the platform, slow drift columns and four pontoons. CFD computations
quadratic transfer function (QTF), vessel set- based on the RANS model were also carried
down, and the heel effects due to mooring out. The experimental results showed that the
stiffness. The results showed good correlation VIM responses of the DDS mainly include
between the model test results and the horizontal motions (surge, sway and yaw),
analytical methods. among which sway is dominant. It was
demonstrated in the numerical simulations that
VIM of semisubmersibles has been the CFD method could be used for the
addressed in various degrees. For example, Xu prediction of VIM.
(2011) introduced a new semisubmersible
design (NexGen) as a wet-tree floater by Gonalves et al. (2012) experimentally
maintaining the simplicity of a conventional
studied the Vortex Induced Yaw (VIY) motion
semisubmersible design. Its improved heave
on a large volume semisubmersible platform. It
motion and VIM performance was
was shown that a resonant behavior occurred in
demonstrated through hull-form optimization
yaw motions with considerable amplitudes.
studies. The difference between the NexGen
semi-submersible design and a conventional
Mansour and Kumar (2013) presented the
semi-submersible design lies in the blisters
numerical results for the motion response of a
attached to the columns, the distribution of
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Free Hanging Solid Ballast (FHSB) low frequency motion, the effect of internal
Semisubmersible in extreme hurricane. The liquid cargo, the hydrodynamic interaction
new feature was proved to improve the when operated in a close proximity, the
performance of a conventional shallow water effect, and fully nonlinear
semisubmersible. analysis.

Minnebo et al. (2012) investigated the


response of FPSO systems subjected to squalls
and developed a robust approach to estimate
the design value. It was shown that the
governing squall parameter concerning FPSO
offset is the peak wind speed, both for spread
moored and turret moored vessels. It was
shown that the dynamic amplification
limitation method has great potential for use as
a Design Value Estimating method, as it
combines the physical correctness of the
squalls and the response characteristics of the
FPSO system.

A procedure for selecting the optimum


heading for a FPSO with spread mooring
operating in Santos basin considering the wave
Figure 2.1.3.1 The Free Hanging Solid induced motions was presented by Oliveira
Ballast (FHSB) Semi-submersible (Mansour (2012. A search algorithm has been
and Kumar, 2013) implemented to allow the comparison of a large
number of statistical results and to determine
Kurian et al. (2012) conducted model tests an adequate heading for the FPSO. It was
on a moored semisubmersible with one failure found that the optimum ranges concerning the
mooring line. Results showed that the platform roll motion, the vertical displacement and the
migrated to a new mean position with a vertical acceleration at the riser connection
considerable transient response after the line point dont occur at the same heading. An
failure. approximation of the best range can be selected
by considering the restraints.
Shan et al. (2012) conducted model tests
Zhang et al. (2012) studied a SPM mooring
and studied the wave run-up phenomenon of
system for two side-by-side vessels. A new
column arrays. The leg spacing was found to be
side-by-side mooring bay designed by Keppel
a factor that affects the wave run-ups.
Offshore & Marine Technology Centre was
investigated, and its global performance and
2.1.4 FPSO Vessels
dynamic stability were compared against those
FPSO vessels have been operated in a of the traditional SPM-mooring system. The
variety of water depths due to their flexibility, multi-body systems include a SPM buoy with a
reliability, and low cost. Efforts have been turntable mooring system, a VLCC FPSO, oil
made to investigate the responses of FPSO tanker, and the hawsers/fenders and yokes
vessels in waves. Studies have been addressing between them. The work clearly showed that
the newly-designed SPM mooring system
271
experienced smaller relative motions between Kaminski and Bogaert (2010) presented the
vessels and was more stable in the same recent progress made in the full-scale tests of
environment compared to the traditional SPM real membrane containment systems subjected
mooring system. to the action of breaking waves, which were
used to model the sloshing impacts in LNG
In the work of vant Veer et al. (2012), a tanks of LNG carriers or Floating LNG
validated methodology was introduced to terminals (FLNGs). The waves were generated
calculate the oscillatory loads on bilge keels of in a water flume using a wave focusing
ships operating at zero forward speed in method. The tests were carried out through the
irregular sea states. To calculate these loads, Sloshel project. Necessary steps were taken to
the local relative fluid velocities acting normal improve the test repeatability, and to collect
to the bilge keel were combined with a KC data for the analysis of scaling laws, hydro-
dependent drag coefficient. The local relative structural interaction, and effects of membrane
velocity to the bilge keel was obtained from 3D corrugations.
potential-flow computations. The KC
dependent drag coefficient of the bilge keel The motions and mooring loads of a turret
geometry was calculated by 2D CFD moored Floating Storage and Regasification
simulations in harmonic flow oscillations Unit (FRSU) and a Liquefied Natural Gas
utilizing a rectangular fluid domain. With the Carrier (LNGC) including sloshing were
proposed approach, it was possible to quantify studied by Cho et al. (2011). The turret moored
the ultimate load on the bilge keel in extreme FSRU weathervanes on a turret, and the side-
design conditions and to obtain the long term by-side LNGC moves and interacts with
load distribution necessary for fatigue analysis. FSRU. It was concluded that the longitudinal
Model tests for several FPSO vessels have sloshing considerably affects the surge motion
been used to validate the methodology. and mooring tensions. It was shown in their
work that sloshing needs to be considered
simultaneously in the analysis of side-by-side
moored FSRU and LNGC.

Kim et al. (2012) introduced improved


methods for offloading operability of side-by-
side moored FLNGs. The operational envelop
of loading arm is a function of relative motions
between two vessels and the wave drift forces.
In the proposed methods, one concept (Concept
1) involved an articulated type of reduction
device with oil and spring as a damper in the
cylinder with a stroke of 0.15m (9.0m in real
scale). This motion device can be installed at
Figure 2.1.4.1 Bow Connection Details of the bow and the stern of a FLNG and a LNGC
New Concept SPM Mooring System (Zhang et to reduce the relative motions. The waves in
al., 2012) the gap lead to drift forces in head seas. For
reduced waves in the gap between the FLNG
2.1.5 Floating LNG Production Storage and the LNG carrier, the wave absorber type of
and Offloading Vessels device, Concept 2, was introduced. This device
can lead to a reduction of the second-order drift
forces. It can be installed between fenders on a
272
side of FLNG. From the experimental studies,
it was found that the proposed motion For dynamically positioned crane barges
reduction devices significantly reduced the operating in a close proximity to FPSO vessels
relative motions between two vessels, and during lifting operations, the hydrodynamic
eventually, improved the offloading interactions are important and must be
operability. considered in the analysis. Tannuri et al. (2012)
presented a large set of experimental tests
considering a DP Barge in a close proximity to
2.2 Dynamically Positioned (DP) a FPSO. Results include the hydrodynamic
Structures interactions and their effect on the DP
performance in terms of station-keeping and
Xu et al. (2013) presented a new control thrust demand.
strategy considering roll-pitch motion control.
Traditionally, DP systems only deal with van Daalen et al. (2011) presented a generic
horizontal motions without considering vertical optimization algorithm for the allocation of
ones including roll and pitch. However, large dynamic positioning actuators, such as
roll and pitch motions may be induced by azimuthing thrusters and fixed thrusters. The
thruster actions, which obviously should be algorithm is based on the well-known Lagrange
avoided. The main idea in the new control multipliers method. In their work, the
strategy was to consider roll-pitch velocity and Lagrangian represents not only the cost
acceleration feedback in the horizontal control function (the total power delivered by all
law in order to avoid large roll-pitch motions. actuators), but also all constraints related to
The time-domain simulation results showed thruster saturation and forbidden zones for
that the new control strategy can suppress roll azimuthing thrusters. The Newton-Raphson
and pitch motions. However, it will reduce the method was recommended to solve the thruster
positioning accuracy in the horizontal-plane in allocation problem. Depending on the
some degree. Moreover, the energy configuration, it may lead to significant power
consumption with the new control strategy was (energy) savings. An iterative process has also
lower than that with the conventional one. been studied by taking the limitations of
actuators into account.
Smit et al. (2011) investigated to what
extent the current feed forward control would 2.3 Highly Nonlinear Effects on Ocean
improve the positioning performance of Structures
dynamically positioned FPSO vessels in
varying currents, for example, tidal current 2.3.1 Slamming
reversals and so called internal soliton
currents. The DpSim software developed by Slamming is a complex nonlinear problem.
MARIN was extended with a module It has been continuously studied by many
containing the current feed forward control. researchers using experimental and numerical
When the current feed forward control was methods. In the numerical simulations,
applied to dynamic positioning in varying methods based on the potential-flow theory and
currents, the mean and the standard deviation CFD methods such as SPH, VOF and CIP have
of the control point excursion were reduced. been employed.
The heading performance and the power usage
did not change significantly while achieving
this reduction.

273
(CEL) approach and the VOF method.
Experiments were also conducted to validate
the numerical results. The third method was
proved to be potentially suitable for 3D
slamming studies.

Damblans et al. (2012) carried out model


tests to investigate the process of lowering a
large scale mud mat (plate with shirts) with
different porosities into calm water, regular
wave, and irregular wave. Constant velocities
were kept by using an electric jack. Impact
Figure 2.3.1.1 High-Speed Shock Apparatus loads were measured during the tests. Effects
(Alaoui and Nme, 2012) of porosity, impact velocity, and inclination
angles of the plate on the impact coefficient
Various model tests have been carried out were studied. Furthermore, a numerical method
to further investigate the fluid-structure based on RANS with VOF for free surface
interactions during the water entry. Alaoui and capturing was applied to simulate the slamming
Nme (2012) carried out an experiment to phenomena and to predict the impact loads.
study fluid-structure interactions during the
slamming impacts. The vertical impact Huera-Huarte et al. (2011) conducted a
velocities were maintained constant by using a series of experiments to study slamming forces
specially designed high-speed shock machine. on a rigid flat plate. A novel test apparatus,
Three rigid structures, including a cone, a named Slingshot Impact Testing System
square pyramid and a wedge-cone, were tested. (SITS), was developed. The tests were
Good repeatability of impact velocities and conducted with high impact velocities up to 5
slamming loads was observed, and empirical m/s and a wide range of deadrise angles from
formulas for non-dimensional slamming 0.3 to 25. The cushion effect due to trapped
coefficients were obtained. The predicted
air with small deadrise angles (<4) was
slamming coefficients of the cone by the
ABAQUS/Explicit code are in good agreement confirmed from the tests. An empirical formula
with the experimental results. for non-dimensional impact coefficients was
proposed in their work.
Constantinescu et al. (2011) carried out
experiments for cones with varying deadrise
angles using a hydraulic shock machine. In
their work, three numerical methods were
employed to study 2D slamming of wedges and
pseudo-3D slamming of cones. The first
method, Impact++ABAQUS, was based on
Wagner's theory and the displacement potential
formulation. The second one combined the
Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) analysis
and a commercial finite element software
program, ABAQUS/Explicit. The third method
was based on the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian

274
Stansberg et al. (2012) conducted
experiments to investigate the breaking-wave
induced slamming loads on vertical offshore
structures. Time series of wave elevation,
pressure distribution, and the integrated
slamming loads were measured in the
experiments. An empirical formula for
slamming coefficient was also presented.

Efforts have been continuously made to


address the slamming problems by Wagner's
theory, potential-flow based and CFD methods.
Korobkin and Khabakhpasheva (2013)
investigated the effect of water depth on the
first peak of bending stresses during the water
Figure 2.3.1.2 Slingshot Impact Testing System entry of an elastic body. Wagner's model was
(Huera-Huarte et al., 2011) applied to solve the deepwater impact while the
leading-order solution was presented for the
van Nuffel et al. (2011) conducted free-drop shallow water impact. Two typical shapes,
tests to study the water entry of a rigid cylinder including a wedge with small deadrise angle
into calm water. Improvements were made on and a cylindrical shell of elastic structure were
the accuracy and the repeatability of the considered. Computed bending stresses were
pressure measurements. In their study, compared to experimental data, and good
pressures and accelerations were recorded and agreement was observed.
further investigated. Parametric studies were
carried out to examine the effects of sensor Yan and Liu (2011) proposed a fully
mounting, data sampling rate, temperature nonlinear numerical method based on the
shock, the object surface conditions, and the potential flow theory to investigate water entry
water surface conditions on the measured of axisymmetric bodies. The method was based
pressure peak. Recommendations for on an axisymmetric linear boundary element
experimental set-ups were provided. In 2012, method (BEM) and a mixed Eulerian-
they continued the study with the same Lagrangian (MEL) approach. A jet cutting
apparatus (van Nuffel et al., 2012). Global technique, which was effective and robust, was
forces were also measured in the tests. developed. They applied the numerical method
Relationships for pressure-speed and force- to study the effect of gravity and body
speed were investigated. geometry as well as the flow separation
location on the continuous body surface. Two
To investigate the slamming load representative bodies, an inverted cone and a
distribution and its relationship with the impact sphere, were included in the studies. They
velocity, Peng et al. (2011) conducted a free developed a formula with a single similarity
drop slamming test with a scaled trimaran parameter for evaluating the contribution of the
model. Pressures were measured at the main gravity of the total impact force on the cones.
hull, the side hull, and the cross structure of the For the sphere impact, it was observed the
trimaran. Comparisons were made between the gravity effect was unimportant in the initial
experimental data and the simulation results stage of impact, but it slightly increased the
based on the finite element method. impact pressure in the later stage when Froude
number is less than 2.0. The flow separation
275
location remained at a fixed location at the compared with the experimental data (Aarsnes,
angle of 62.5 deg when the Froude number is 1996). Furthermore, a linear strip-theory code
larger than 1.0. was combined with the SPH algorithm to
compute the impact loads on hull sections. The
RANS methods along with the free surface numerical solutions were also compared to the
capturing methods such as VOF and CIP have experimental data from Ochi (1958).
been used for slamming simulations. For
example, Rahaman and Akimoto (2012) In recent years, progress has also been made
studied the slamming at the bow flare region by in addressing the structural deformation during
using a RANS-based CFD method. They slamming. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI)
investigated the pitch and heave motion as well method has been employed in recent work.
as the pressure distribution at the bow flare Jiang et al. (2012) validated two CFD methods
region of a 3D container ship model travelling for slamming problems by comparing the
in regular head waves. Two dimensional predicted impact loads with experimental data.
simulations were carried out for selected bow The two CFD methods were a RANS method
flare sections based on the VOF method and with STAR-CCM+ and a Lagrangian-Eulerian
FLUENT. Predicted slamming loads agreed Fluid-Structure Interactions (FSI) method with
reasonably well with the experimental data by DYSMAS. The pressure peak, the pressure
Zhao et al. (1996). time history, and the pressure-area relationship
were investigated. Reasonable agreements
Yang and Qiu (2012) continued their studies between numerical predictions and
of 2D and 3D slamming problems based on a experimental results were reported.
constrained interpolation profile (CIP) method.
The compressible air was considered in the Vepa et al. (2011) carried out comparative
simulations. Validation studies of the studies of slamming loads on cylindrical
numerical methods were carried out for 2D structures with three methods: a mesh-based
wedges with large and small deadrise angles, a implicit method, a mesh-based explicit method,
3D catamaran, and 3D cylinders. Numerical and the SPH method combined with the finite
results were compared with solutions by other element (FE) model. The explicit method and
numerical methods and experimental data. the SPH-FE method were applied by using LS-
DYNA while the implicit method was applied
In addition, SPH has also been employed for by using FLUENT-ABAQUS. Rigid and
slamming computations. For instance, Veen deformable cylinders were included in the
and Gourlay (2011) conducted parametric computations. A significant pressure peak
studies to investigate the effects of sectional reduction was observed in the deformable
shape and time-varying impact velocity on cylinder cases. They also concluded that the
slamming loads by using the 2D SPH method. SPH method had better convergence than the
They used three section shapes, including a mesh-based methods.
wedge, a bow flare and a catamaran in their
studies. Veen and Gourlay (2012) further Wang and Soares (2013) investigated the 2D
carried out numerical studies on 2D bottom water entry of a bow flare section and the
slamming and bow flare slamming problems. effects of roll angle on slamming loads by
In their work, the solid wall boundary applying an explicit finite element method in
conditions were modelled by using the ghost combination with a multi-material Eulerian
particle technique. The numerical method was formulation and a penalty coupling method. In
applied to the water impact with prescribed the previous work by Wang et al. (2012),
velocity profile, and the numerical results were computations were carried out by using LS-
276
DYNA/Explicit. The predicted slamming load with clear water), 14 different excitation
and pressure were compared with experimental conditions, and a measurement setup. It aimed
data by Aarsnes (1996) and the numerical to compare the laboratory measurements. From
results by using other methods, including BEM the comparison of experimental data, some
and CIP. preliminary conclusions were presented - the
repeatability of single impact waves seemed to
Yamada et al. (2012) applied an explicit be acceptable, however notable discrepancies
finite element code LS-DYNA to simulate the in event rates and probabilities of pressure
slamming loads of water-entry of a full-scale exceedance were clearly observed for harmonic
wedge. They first validated the method with a and irregular waves. These differences led to
small-scale rigid wedge and an elastic cylinder. the next round of benchmark studies in 2012-
Further, the method was employed to 2013.
investigate slamming of a full-scale elastic-
plastic wedge. Results from numerical The focus in the second round was on the
simulations were compared to those by the accurate control of three parameters: the water
conventional Wagner method. filling level, the positioning of the tank and the
rig motion. Many of motion rigs were
hexapods (Loysel et al., 2013, Baudin et al.
2.3.2 Sloshing 2013). The results for single wave impacts with
large gas pockets showed good agreement.
The problem of the sloshing of liquid cargo This resulted in considering this setup as a
in tanks is especially important in the design of reference configuration to validate
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo methodologies. Differences were found when
containment systems. The liquid is stored at the impact location, the gas pocket location and
atmospheric pressure in insulated tanks at - its size were not accurately controlled.
161 Celsius. Due to the insulation system, Discrepancies in the results for irregular
tanks cannot be partitioned. As a result, liquid motions still existed and they are comparable
motions in the tanks, excited by the vessel to those in the precedent benchmark studies.
motions, may be observed. The design of LNG Temperature effects were highlighted and
ships or storage units is thus very complicated. further investigations regarding this aspect
The state-of-the-art methodology is based on were proposed.
the use of seakeeping computer codes to
estimate ship or platform motions. Experiments
on tank models and CFD simulations have
been performed in order to estimate global and
local fluid loadings in the tanks.

Experimental assessments of many


parameters affecting the fluid motion and
pressure are presented in the work of Loysel et
al. (2012) and (2013). These results were
acquired during two rounds of Sloshing Model
Test (SMT) benchmark studies.

The first round of benchmark studies,


Figure 2.3.2.1: Representative Pressure Time
involving nine participants, were based on a
Histories by Six Participants for A Single
simple tank geometry (2D rectangular tank Impact Wave (Loysel et al., 2013)
277
Souto-Iglesias et al. (2011) presented a showed the impact pressure was higher in the
description of an experimental setup for case of the flexible wall.
sloshing tests involving angular harmonic
motions. Details on data acquisition and
synchronisation schemes were given. An
uncertainty analysis was presented, focusing on
the measurements of the first peak pressure.

Pistani and Thiagarajan (2012) carried out


sloshing tests using a hexapod with two 2D
model tanks. The maximum pressures were
measured for 1-DOF motions. An analysis of
the experimental setup was presented in their
paper. A thermal artefact on the pressure
transducers was observed when the water hit Figure 2.3.2.3 Rigid and Flexible Models and
their sensitive surfaces. This effect was also Locations of Pressure Transducers
reported by Loysel et al. (2012). They also (Choi et al., 2012)
checked motions of the excitation rig. The
steps of data collection and analysis, as well as Lugni et al (2013) presented similar
corrections to experimental shortcomings, were findings from their hydroelasticity experiments
described. on a flexible tank wall. They also investigated
the pressure effects on air cavities formed by
the impact waves.

Wang et al. (2012) developed a new


reliability-based methodology for the sloshing
assessment of a membrane-type LNG cargo
containment system (CCS) in LNGCs and
FLNGs. For each individual sloshing impact
event, the dependency of two parameters (the
magnitude and the rising time) was taken into
account in this new methodology. Based on the
test data for the sloshing model, the equivalent
static pressure for each individual impact event
was calculated using the magnitude and the
dynamic capacity factor (DCF) through the
associated rising time. In the reliability
Figure 2.3.2.2 Full-Scale Air Pocket Impact
analysis, the limit state function was used by
on MarkIII (Kaminski and Bogaert, 2010)
applying the Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD) approach. Then, the sloshing
Hydroelasticity in sloshing experiments
load (equivalent static pressure) and structural
was studied by Choi et al. (2012) using a resistance (static capacity) distributions were
hexapod and rectangular tank models. Surge employed to determine the partial safety factors
motions for four different filling levels were in the CCS design formula at a target reliability
tested using a regular rigid tank and a tank with index.
a flexible stainless steel wall. The experiments

278
Fillon et al. (2013) applied the extreme Water run-up and run-down on walls were
value theory to the samples of sloshing analyzed with respect to the flow regimes.
pressure in order to improve the model for
predicting the maxima of sloshing pressure. Progress has been made to investigate the
Two different statistical fitting methods were scale effect using model and full scale tests.
used for sloshing pressure measurements in one Lafeber et al. (2012) reported the scale effect
sea state which is equivalent to a 480-hour on wave impact using an instrumented wall
duration sloshing test at full scale. This long adopted in the Sloshel JIP. The first tests were
duration sloshing test was in fact generated by carried out using 1:6 scale in 2009 and full
using 96 five-hour individual experimental scale in 2010 at the same ambient conditions.
tests. The two methods led to a correct The comparison of the two tests results showed
estimation of the maximum sloshing pressure. the effect of the liquid properties and the air.
Graczyk et al. (2012) investigated local As the compressibility of the gas was not
pressure effects based on low filling level tests scaled, the loading processes, building jets
of a 2D LNG tank model (scale 1:35). The tank along the wall from the impact area and
has smooth wall surfaces and a wall with compression of entrapped air, were not
horizontal protrusions similar to Invar edges Froude-similar. The full-scale wave impact
that disturb the local flows, inducing either result was obtained after the loading process of
pressure amplifications or cancellations. The compression of entrapped air at scale 1:6 was
authors indicated the need of advanced corrected using the one-dimensional model of
instrumentation in combination with high- Bagnold (1939).
speed cameras to explain the measurements of
local pressure. Pasquier and Berthon (2012) compared the
sloshing impact measurements at full scale and
Using the same motion rig, Bouscasse et al. at a model scale. The actual ship motions were
(2013) measured the free surface elevations in used as input for the model tests (scale 1:40). A
a 2D rectangular swaying tank. The good correlation was found between the model
experimental data were used to check the test and full-scale results. At the small scale,
weakly-compressibility assumption in the SPH the experimental simulations of LNG sloshing
simulations. represented an accurate global flow inside the
tanks in terms of the impact frequency.
Clauss et al. (2012) presented the However, the authors suggested the need of
comparison of model test results for a moored studies for a wider range of conditions.
LNG model (scale 1:100) and numerical
solutions. The study focused on the water Karimi et al. (2013) also investigated the
motions within the prismatic tanks (30% filled) effect of scaling on the sloshing pressure. Two
in beam seas. sets of model tests of 2D tanks at scales of 110
and 140 were carried out by GTT with a fill
Using a PIV system, Ji et al. (2012) level of 20%. The effect of the gas-liquid
measured velocities of flow in a small swaying density ratio and the speed of sound in the gas
rectangular tank excited by a crank motorised on measured pressures was studied.
arm. The harmonic motions in non-resonant
conditions were compared to the published The sloshing pressures were also measured
results, and the properties of travelling waves by Kim et al. (2012) for a 1:50-scale model and
were obtained from the velocity flow fields. a 1:70-scale model. The sloshing pressures
were recorded at the same location for the

279
excited model tanks with irregular motions at cylinder exposed to nonlinear regular waves
the same Froude scale. The comparison showed with wave lengths much greater than the
the differences in the statistical results for the diameter of the cylinder. Comparison with the
two models. However, when the Froude scaling theoretical and experimental data showed that
was applied, a good agreement was found. the proposed method predicted wave run-ups
accurately with a small computational domain
2.3.3 Wave Run-up confined near the cylinder.

Research has been carried out in the past Li et al. (2012) investigated wave run-ups
years on the study of the wave run-up on on a vertical circular cylinder in an extreme
circular cylinders, monopiles, barges and wave environment. The waves were generated
columns of large semisubmersibles using CFD in a 3D wave basin using a focused wave
methods. The outcome of the studies indicates method with different frequency and
the importance of high-order nonlinearities and directional components. A practical method
the need of computational efforts for accurate based on the velocity stagnation head theory
predictions. was calibrated to calculate the wave run-up.
The maximum wave kinematics at wave crest
Ramrez et al. (2011) presented a CFD was calculated using the second-order theory.
model (NS3), which solves Navier-Stokes Wave run-ups on the weather side of the
equations and uses the VOF method to treat the cylinder were computed and compared with
free surface. NS3 was applied to simulate the measurements in experiments with multi-
wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder and directional focused wave groups. The relations
the numerical results were compared with the between the defined parameters and the wave
experimental data from large-scale tests parameters, such as model scale, directional
performed at the Large Wave Channel (GWK) spreading index and wave steepness, were
in Hannover, Germany. discussed.

Cao et al. (2011) conducted simulations of Peng at al. (2012) investigated wave run-ups
wave run-up on a fixed vertical cylinder. The on a monopile foundation in regular and
finite volume method was employed to solve irregular waves using ComFLOW. The
Navier-Stokes equations based on numerical solutions are in good agreement with
OpenFOAM. The wave elevations were experimental data. It was showed that wave
computed at several locations within a radial run-ups are dependent on the wave
distance around the cylinder. The computed nonlinearity. A set of dimensionless and simple
wave run-ups, velocities and pressures at formulae have been derived to relate the non-
various locations were compared with the dimensional wave run-up on the structure to
published experimental data from the diameter of the structure and the Ursell
MARINTEK. number. The proposed formulae included the
effect of the diameter of structure on wave run-
Kim et al. (2011) developed a numerical ups. It led to similar results in comparison with
wave tank model by matching the far-field other formulae.
wave solution based on the potential-flow
theory and the CFD solution in the near field. Watai et al. (2011) reported some of the
This model was implemented in a CFD code results from a cooperative project that
based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian investigated wave run-ups on a large moving
(ALE) finite element method. The developed semi-submersible platform. Wave elevations at
method was applied to a truncated vertical various locations below the deck were
280
measured and compared with the predictions the CF one. It also triggers higher-order
by WAMIT and by the improved ComFLOW harmonic responses in both IL and CF
code. Results showed that ComFLOW was directions which further increase the fatigue
able to predict the relative wave elevations at damage. Passano et al. (2012) reported the
different positions below the deck. latest development of the VIV prediction
program, VIVANA, with its new IL prediction
Priyanto et al. (2012) studied wave run-ups model. The modelling of risers partially
on a large semi-submersible. Tests of a small- covered by strakes in Shear7 was presented by
scale moored model in irregular waves were Resvanis and Vandiver (2011). The
carried out in Marine Technology Centre hydrodynamic force model of the strake section
(MTC)'s towing tank at Universiti Teknologi was generalized from forced motion tests with
Malaysia. Significant wave run-up occurrences a rigid cylinder with strakes.
on the square-sectioned columns were
observed. Efforts have been made to develop a general
methodology to calibrate Factors of Safety
Shan et al. (2012) presented an experimental (FoS) for fatigue damage due to VIV. Fontaine
investigation on three model configurations et al. (2013) presented a reliability based
including a four-column array, a two-column method which accounts for uncertainties in S-N
array and a single column, aiming to behaviour, metocean conditions and software
understand relationships between wave run-ups predictions of VIV. Tognarelli et al. (2013)
and the leg spacing and between the wave also presented similar methods, in which the
interaction and the model configuration, as well uncertainties in prediction are based on the
as the wave run-up distributions around measured flow and the response data for full-
columns. The wave environment was restricted scale drilling risers in the field.
to monochromatic progressive waves with
different wave steepness. For the three tested 2.4.2 VIV Prediction Based on CFD
configurations, wave run-ups reached the
maximum on the front sides of the fore Huang and Larsen (2011) presented the 2-D
columns, and decreased gradually as waves numerical simulation results for an elastically
propagated. It was also found from the tests mounted circular cylinder subject to vortex
that wave run-ups decreased gradually as the induced vibrations. Reynolds-Averaged
leg spacing increased for the four- and the two- NavierStokes (RANS) equations and k
column arrays, which indicates the leg spacing turbulent equations were solved by a finite
would have important effect on the wave volume method. The predicted response
interaction among columns, and eventually amplitudes, hydrodynamic forces and wake
affect wave run-ups on the columns. patterns were compared with the measured data
in the equivalent experiments.
2.4 VIV/VIM Zhao et al. (2012) simulated the one-degree-
of-freedom (1-DOF) VIV of a circular cylinder
2.4.1 Empirical VIV Prediction Programs in oscillatory flow. The vibration of the
cylinder was confined in the cross-flow
Slender structures subjected to VIV often direction only. RANS equations and k
vibrate in both in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF) turbulent equations were solved by a Petrov
directions. The in-line motion of VIV can be a Galerkin finite element method. The same
major contributor to the fatigue damage due to method was applied by Zhao et al. (2013) to
its higher frequencies and response modes even study VIV responses of a cylinder in the
that the IL displacement is normally less than combined steady and oscillatory flow.
281
each time step, the added mass, lifting force
Bourguet et al. (2011, 2012) performed and drag force coefficients and their
direct numerical simulations on a tensioned corresponding loads are computed for each
beam with a length to diameter ratio of 200, element. Validation studies have been carried
subject to vortex-induced vibrations in linear out for a full-scale rigid riser segment and a
varying shear flow at three different Reynolds model-scale flexible riser. The numerical
numbers, from 110 to 1,100. The energy results were compared with experimental data
transfer between the structure and the fluid was and solutions by other programs. The
studied and the presence of mono- and multi- validation studies have shown the proposed
frequency responses was investigated. Similar method is promising in VIV prediction.
study was also carried out for the tensioned
beam subject to the exponential flow (Bourguet 2.4.4 Experiments
et al., 2013). The mechanism of the broadband
VIV responses was studied. A. 2D Tests

2.4.3 New VIV Prediction Methods The semi-empirical VIV prediction


programs rely on hydrodynamic force
A time-domain finite element analysis coefficients generalized from forced motion
method using a local hydrodynamic force tests of rigid cylinders. In the work of Zheng et
model has been developed by Mainon et al. al (2011), extensive forced in-line and
(2011). In this model, the recent history of the combined in-line and cross-flow experiments
velocity is used to enter a database of velocity were used to provide the hydrodynamic
and force measurements obtained from rigid coefficient databases, in addition to the existing
cylinder tests, and thus to determine the force CF hydrodynamic coefficients. In these tests,
and advance the dynamic FEM analysis. the IL and/or CF motions are harmonic.
Preliminary results are encouraging. The
objective was to create models that can capture It is known that the cross-flow motions of a
higher harmonics and can be used in the flexible beam subjected to VIV can be far from
analysis of risers with seafloor contact or time- harmonic motions. The motion amplitude can
varying currents and waves. also vary in time. To investigate the VIV
response subjected to the non-harmonic
Campbell et al. (2013) proposed a new motions, forced motion tests for rigid risers
random vibration method with a band-limited using observed orbits extracted from flexible
white-noise lift-force model to predict the VIV beam were carried out by Yin and Larsen
responses of a fully straked flexible cylinder. (2011). The tests results were compared with
CFD solutions. Using the same experiment
Ma et al. (2012) developed a time-domain technique, Yin and Larsen (2012) further
analysis tool for VIV prediction of marine compared the hydrodynamic coefficients
risers based on a forcing algorithm and by obtained from the forced motion tests with
making full use of the available high Reynolds observed motion orbits extracted from flexible
number experimental data. In the formulation, beam experiments and from periodic
the hydrodynamic damping is not treated as a approximations. Aglen et al. (2011) studied the
special case but simply an extension of the added mass coefficients from forced motion
experimentally derived lift curves. The forcing tests with extracted orbits from flexible beam
algorithm was integrated into a mooring tests. The influence of added mass on the IL
analysis program based on the global- and CF interactions has been studied for tests
coordinate based finite element method. At
282
with mode one dominating the responses in in sub-critical Reynolds numbers due to the
both directions. limitation in the test facility and the cost.

Raghavan and Bernitsas (2011) performed An extensive hydrodynamic test program of


free oscillation tests of a rigid cylinder to study riser models subjected to vortex-induced
the Reynolds number effect within the range of vibrations was carried out in the MARINTEK
8.00l03 to 1.50l05. The objective of their Offshore Basin Laboratory on behalf of Shell
work was to design a power generation unit Oil Company (Lie et al. 2012). Three different
based on VIV that can absorb energy from the riser models were towed horizontally at various
fluid. It was found that VIV is significantly speeds, simulating uniform and linearly
different at different flow regimes. An varying sheared current. The test program
amplitude ratio of 1.9 was achieved for a included approximately 400 tests with different
smooth cylinder in VIV even with high riser configurations. VIV responses of risers
damping imposed. with/without suppression devices as well as the
effect of Reynolds number and marine growth
To further investigate the effect of Reynolds were investigated.
number on VIV, a new innovative VIV test rig
was designed and built at MARINTEK to test a Huera-Huarte et al. (2013) presented the
rigid full-scale riser model (Lie et al., 2013). experiment results of a long flexible cylinder
The rigid riser model was mounted vertically with low mass ratio subject to a stepped
and can either be elastically mounted or be current. The test pipe is 3m long with an
given a forced CF motion. The bare cylinder external diameter of 19 mm. The effect of low
was tested in both sub-critical and critical mass ratio on VIV was investigated. Song et
Reynolds number regimes. The effect of al. (2010) performed VIV tests with a long
Reynolds number on the amplitude of VIV flexible riser towed horizontally in a wave
displacement was found to be significant and basin. The riser model has an external diameter
further research was recommended to explore of 16 mm and a total length of 28.0 m. The
the subject. asymmetrical distribution of displacement was
mainly resulted from the modal composition.
Constantinides et al. (2013) performed the
tandem riser tests at the prototype Reynolds Fu et al. (2013) performed VIV tests of a
numbers. The tests were carried out utilizing flexible cylinder in an oscillatory flow. A
two full-scale cylinders fitted with actual VIV flexible cylinder was forced to harmonically
suppression devices and towed either in fixed oscillate at various combinations of amplitude
or spring supported configurations. The results and period. The tested cylinder is 4m long with
revealed significant differences from those by an outer diameter of 24mm. Unique features of
today's design practices and industry codes. VIV in an oscillatory flow were presented.

B. 3D Tests Huera-Huarte and Bearman (2011)


performed model tests to study the interference
Several VIV tests with flexible beam have between two identical risers. In these tests, two
been carried out during 2011-2013. Strain flexible risers were arranged in tandem and
gauges were mostly used in these tests. side-by-side positions. The test pipe is 1.5m
Accelerometers were also used in some of the long with an outer diameter of 16mm. The
tests to provide redundancy in the dynamic responses of the two interfering risers
measurements. All of the tests were carried out were presented.

283
Efforts have also been made to further number of measurements. McNeill (2012)
analyze the existing VIV test data. Larsen et al. further proposed an alternative way of
(2012) applied wavelet analyses to reveal the estimating the fatigue damage, which is based
frequency components in the measured signals, on Dirlik's method to obtain rain-flow damage
using Hanytangen and NDP high-mode VIV for Gaussian random stress.
test data. This study characterized the
frequency components of VIV measured in 2.5 New Experimental Techniques
flexible beams subjected to sheared current in
order to establish a general model for use in the Song et al. (2013) presented a velocity
empirical VIV prediction programs. measurement method derived from the PIV
technique using a high speed camera, called
The presence of higher-order harmonic Bubble Image Velocimetry (BIV). It directly
frequency components and chaotic responses uses air-water interfaces in the image without
has been observed in many flexible beam tests. the use of a laser for illumination. The
Price et al. (2011) studied the impact of higher- measurement plane is controlled by minimizing
order harmonic stress components and the the depth of field within which objects (i.e., air
broad band responses on fatigue damage using bubbles and water droplets in this case) are in
NDP high-mode VIV test data. The study focus and sharp, and therefore carrying more
indicated that both factors can lead to weight (i.e., higher intensity) in the correlation
significant fatigue damages. process for the velocity determination.

Modarres-Sadeghi et al. (2011) also A subsea imaging technique was described


analyzed the NDP high-mode VIV by Embry et al. (2012) for in-situ
experimental data. The stationary and chaotic measurements, using a high resolution 3D laser
VIV responses were characterized. Their imaging unit. The optical head was mounted on
influences on the fatigue damage were a 2D-scanning device. The equipment and the
discussed. Vandiver (2012) proposed a preliminary tests in a basin were described
dimensionless damping parameter to describe showing the ability of high spatial accuracy at a
the cylinder VIV response, which overcomes relatively low scanning frequency.
the limitations in existing "mass-damping" Experimental data (clouds of points) can be
parameters. processed by regular dedicated software.
Shapes of objects can be measured within a
Swithenbank and Larsen (2012) calculated large volume at a millimeter precision. The
the energy in the system from measured system was initially developed for surveys and
responses of a flexible beam and the associated maintenance purposes, and it could be used in
energy levels in the duration of the VIV with wave tanks for underwater measurements, for
high amplitudes. Rao et al. (2013) studied the example, the scours around foundations.
excitation competition between the bare and
buoyant segments of flexible cylinders using Chabaud et al. (2013) developed the concept
the Shell high-mode VIV test data. of real-time hybrid testing (RTHT), defined as
a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation, and
McNeill and Agarwal (2011) proposed an applied it to scaled model testing. The authors
efficient method for modal decomposition and admitted this method is not a standard and
reconstruction of riser responses due to VIV. accurate method in offshore studies. In order to
The travelling wave responses and the fatigue generalize its use, they described the global
damage along the riser can be estimated scheme and presented details on the different
accurately by this method using a limited
284
stages of calculations and data processing, at
least on numerical and theoretical aspects.

The modeling of fenders in experiments was


presented by Cole et al. (2012). The design and
development of model-scale fenders and their
application in float-over topsides installation
experiments were provided. Improvements
were shown in term of versatility and Figure 2.6.1 Air Pocket Impact on A
robustness. Corrugated Wall (Upper: 1:6 Scale; Lower:
It should be mentioned the openings of two Full Scale) (Bogaert et al., 2011)
new facilities in UK with wave and current
capacities, mainly for ocean engineering and For example, in the Sloshel project, Bogaert
testing of marine energy devices. The et al. (2011) discussed the uncertainties in
Plymouth Ocean Wave Basin, established in model tests of sloshing due to scaling biases
2013, is 35m long and 15m wide fitted with a which are associated with the Froude-scaled
movable floor (0-3m depth) and excitations. Based on the results of experiments
multidirectional wave generator. FLOWAVE- at 1:6 and 1:1 scales (see Figure 2.6.1), it was
TT, opened in 2014 and located at Edinburgh, concluded that gas pocket pressures are greatly
is a 25m diameter circular tank with a rising affected by the gas compressibility bias due to
floor. Pumps around the tank allow to generate the un-scaled properties of the gas.
a water current up to 1.6 m/s at any direction in
the tank. 2.7 Practical Applications of
Computational Methods to Prediction
2.6 New Extrapolation Methods and Scaling

During the period of 2011-2013, limited Koop and Bereznitski (2011) calculated
investigations have been carried out on the current coefficients for the JBF-14000 semi-
development of extrapolation methods. submersible using MARIN's in-house code
However, challenges and issues in scaling of ReFRESCO. Full-scale CFD computations
model test results to full scale have been were carried out to investigate possible scale
indicated in problems related to sloshing, effects using five subsequently refined grids for
dynamic positioning systems, and mooring and three different headings and ten different grids
risers. of different type for a scaled model. The
numerical results were compared with the
experimental data obtained from wind tunnel
experiments and tests in the offshore basin.
Approximately 15-20% lower values were
found than those from the model-scale tests.

Ottens and van Dijk (2012) studied the


thruster-hull interaction of a semi-submersible
crane vessel in a current. CFD computations
were compared with the model test data for the
assessment of the thrust efficiency of the DP
thrusters. From the comparison between the
CFD and model test data, it was observed that
285
the CFD method was able to predict the Procedure for Model Tests in Regular Waves
relevant force components within a sufficient and 7.5-02-07-03.3 Model Tests on Tanker-
accuracy for engineering purposes. To assess Turret Systems.
the CFD prediction in case of full scale,
numerical results were compared with the sea Only very minor revisions were identified
trial data for the vessel with different thrust for 7.5-02-07-03.1 and 7.5-02-07-03.2. The
combinations. The comparison suggests the Committee however found that there is little
improvement in CFD code. information in 7.5-02-07-03.3 and the limited
information in 7.5-02-07-03.3 is very similar to
2.8 Improving Method of Experiments, that in 7.5-02-07-03.1. The Committee
Numerical Methods and Full-Scale recommended to move the contents of 7.5-02-
Measurements 07-03.3 to 7.5-02-07-03.1.

Huera-Huarte (2012) used the Defocusing The Committee also identified that there is
Digital Image Particle Velocimetry (DDPIV) no existing procedure dealing with the result
method to measure vortex-induced vibrations analysis of model tests in irregular waves. The
of long flexible cylinders in wind/water tunnel. Committee recommended to develop a new
The concept of the proposed method was given procedure on this aspect.
by Willert and Gharib (1992). The authors
suggested the method, as a better alternative to 4. GUIDELINES FOR VIV AND VIM
other traditional vibration response TESTS
measurement techniques, could be used to
study VIV in the laboratory. The good Bluff marine structural bodies such as the
agreement of measured data with known results risers, free spanning pipelines and offshore
confirmed the effectiveness of the above platforms with cylindrical members (e.g., spars
technique. and semi-submersible) can undergo vortex
shedding in ocean currents. The vortex
The flooding process of a tank in a damaged shedding process and vortices induce periodic
ship was studied by Ruponen et al. (2012) at forces on the body which can cause the body to
full scale. A decommissioned ship was used vibrate in both in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF)
for the full-scale tests. Bernoullis equation for directions. If the vortex induced response
compressible fluid was used for air flows in the mainly causes elastic deformation in marine
time-domain flooding simulations. For structures, such as risers, cables and free
numerical simulations, The NAPA flooding spanning pipelines, this phenomenon is known
simulation tool was used. In general, the as Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV). If the
comparison between experimental and vortex induced response mainly causes rigid
simulated results showed a good agreement body motions such as a sway motion of a
with small inaccuracies in the calculation of platform, this response often is denoted as
transient phenomena in the beginning of the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM).
flooding process.
The Committee focused on the development
3. REVIEW OF THE EXISTING of guideline for VIV testing (7.5-02-07-03.10).
PROCEDURES The purpose of this guideline is to ensure that
laboratory model tests of VIV responses of
The Committee reviewed three existing marine structures are adequately performed
procedures: 7.5-02-07-03.1 Floating Offshore according to the best available techniques and
Platform Experiments, 7.5-02-07-03.2 Analysis to provide an indication of improvements that
286
might be made. The guideline is also to ensure
that any comprises inherent in VIV tests are 5.1 Benchmark Data
identified and their effects on the measured
results are understood. As reported in the ITTC Ocean Engineering
Committee Report (2011), the benchmark data
The Committee has also drafted the for the VIV of a circular cylinder was provided
guideline for VIM testing (7.5-02-07-03.11). It by MARIN. The rigid circular cylinder is
is recommended to be completed by the Ocean 200mm in diameter and 3.52m in length
Engineering Committee of 28th ITTC. (Figure 5.1.1). The cylinder was suspended
from the carriage about 1.7m below the calm
5. NUMERICAL BENCHMARK water surface. The VIV test apparatus is shown
STUDIES OF VIV in Figure 5.1.2. The towing tank is 4m deep,
4m wide and 210m long. The cylinder was
In the previous benchmark studies organized towed horizontally by the carriage at various
by the 26th ITTC Ocean Engineering speeds. Details of the tests can found in the
Committee, all participants used the two- work of de Wilde and Huijsmans (2001,2004)
dimensional unsteady RANS method. Various and de Wilde et al. (2003 and 2006).
turbulence models were employed with the
assumption that the flow is fully turbulent. For numerical computations, six (6)
Reynolds numbers were selected as follows:
It was concluded from the studies that the
drag crisis phenomenon on the stationary 6.31E+04, 1.26E+05, 2.52E+05
smooth cylinder was not captured by the 3.15E+05, 5.06E+05, 7.57E+05
RANS method. It is well known that the drag
crisis is caused by the instability of separated The measured drag coefficients for the
shear layer in the critical Reynolds number smooth stationary cylinder are presented in
regime (2x105< Re <5x105). At the critical Figure 5.1.3.
Reynolds numbers, the transition point is
located very close to the point of flow
separation. As a result, the shear layer eddies
cause the mixture of flow in the boundary layer
so that the flow is energized and the flow
separation is delayed. The delay of separation
point leads to the reduction of the drag
coefficient. The methodology based on two-
dimensional, unsteady RANS with turbulence
models is inadequate to simulate this physical
phenomenon (ITTC Ocean Engineering
Figure 5.1.1 Smooth Cylinder
Committee Report, 2011). It is necessary to
extend the benchmark studies by including
other CFD methods.

A Workshop for benchmark studies on VIV


and wave run-ups was held in Nantes, France,
October 17-18, 2013. Six participations
presented their results of VIV studies. The
benchmark studies are summarized below.
287
Organization Country
1 China Ship Scientific China
Research Centre
2 Seoul National University Korea
3 Samsung Ship Model Basin Korea
4 Memorial University Canada
5 Inha University Korea
6 University of Iowa USA
7 University of Southampton UK
8 Shanghai Jiao Tong China
University
Figure 5.1.2 High Reynolds Number VIV Test
Apparatus Table 5.2.2 Numerical Methods Used by
Participants
RANS
2D/ Steady/
Code name /DES
3D Unsteady
LES
FLUENT
A 2D Unsteady RANS
(Commercial Code)
SNUFOAM
B 2D Unsteady RANS
(In-house Code)
FLUENT
C 2D Unsteady RANS
(Commercial Code)
CFDShip-IOWA
D 3D Unsteady LES
(In-house Code)
Code-S
E 3D Unsteady LES
(In-house Code)
OpenFOAM
F 3D Unsteady LES
(Open Source Code)
Naoe-FOAM-SJTU
G 2D Unsteady RANS
(In-house Code)
STAR-CCM+
H1 2D Unsteady RANS
(Commercial Code)
STAR-CCM+
H2 2D Unsteady RANS
Figure 5.1.3 Drag Coefficient for the Smooth (Commercial Code)
STAR-CCM+
Cylinder H3
(Commercial Code)
3D Unsteady DES
STAR-CCM+
H4 3D Unsteady LES
(Commercial Code)
5.2 Participants and Numerical Methods
Number Convection
Type of Grid t
Various organizations and individuals have of Grid Term
0.001/0.00
been invited to participate in the benchmark A 87,223 Structured Upwind 05
studies. A list of participants is given in Table
0.001/0.00
5.2.1. The numerical methods and B 32,280 Structured Upwind 02
computational details are summarized in Table /0.0001
5.2.2. 0.001
C 43,820 Structured Upwind
0.00008
D 67,000,000 Structured QUICK/WENO
Table 5.2.1 Participants for the VIV /0.0001
Unstructured
Benchmark Studies E 11,300,000
(Cartesian)
Upwind (CFL=0.5)

Max Hybrid
F Unstructured (Central + 0.005
4,000,000 Upwind)
0.00017
G 100,000 Chimera Upwind
~ 0.0015
H1 592,478 Hybrid Upwind 0.0001

288
~0.002 1.6
Exp.
0.0001
H2 592,478 Hybrid Upwind 1.4 A
~0.002 B

0.002 1.2 C
H3 12,400,000 Structured Upwind
~0.02 1
D
E
0.002

Mean CD
H4 12,400,000 Structured Upwind F
~0.02 0.8 G
H1
0.6
H2

Wall Transition 0.4


H3

Function Turbulence Model H4


y+
(Used/Not Model (Used/ Not 0.2

Used) Used)
0
A 59 U k-w SST N 1E+04 1E+05 2E+05 3E+05 4E+05 5E+05 6E+05 7E+05

B 2 N k-w SST N Re
C 10 N k-w SST N
Dynamic Figure 5.3.1 Mean Drag Coefficient
D 0.03 ~0.15 N N
model
Dynamic 0.15
E - N N
model Exp.
A
Dynamic 0.1
F 1 N N B
model C

G 1~4.9 U k-w SST N 0.05


D

H1 0.06~0.56 N k-w SST N E


Mean CL

0 F
H2 0.06~0.56 N k-e (Standard) N G
H3 0.06~0.56 N - N 0.05 H1

H4 0.06~0.56 N - N H2
0.1 H3
H4

0.15

0.2
5.3 Numerical Results 1E+04 1E+05 2E+05 3E+05 4E+05 5E+05 6E+05 7E+05

Re

In the benchmark studies, unsteady RANS Figure 5.3.2 Mean Lift Coefficient
(URANS), detached eddy simulation (DES)
and large eddy simulation (LES) methods were 1.2
Exp.

employed. In term of the overall trend, results 1


A
B

by DES and LES are generally in better C


D
agreement with the experimental data than 0.8
E
RMS CL

those by URANS. The steep drop of mean CD


F
0.6 G

was captured by LES. In addition, the LES


H1
H2
0.4

results agree better with the experimental data H3


H4

at most points than those by URANS. Some 0.2

URANS methods gave reasonably good results 0

at high Reynolds numbers. The mean CD , the 1E+04 1E+05 2E+05 3E+05 4E+05

Re
5E+05 6E+05 7E+05

mean CL , the RMS of CL , and the Strouhal Figure 5.3.3 RMS of Lift Coefficient
number are compared with experimental data
in Figures 5.3.1 to 5.3.4, respectively, and are
also presented in Tables 5.3.1 to 5.3.4.

289
0.9
Exp.
0.8 A
B
Table 5.3.4 Strouhal Number
0.7
C Strouhal Reynolds Number (E+05)
Number 0.631 1.26 2.52 3.15 5.06 7.57
Strouhal Number

D
0.6
E
Exp. 0.19 0.20 N/A 0.46 0.79 0.42
0.5 F
G
A 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.32
0.4
H1 B 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.22 0.21
0.3
H2 C 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.28
H3 D 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.41 0.41 0.40
0.2 H4
E 0.28 0.27 0.53 - - -
0.1 F 0.20 0.21 0.28 0.30 - -
0
G 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.28
1E+04 1E+05 2E+05 3E+05 4E+05 5E+05 6E+05 7E+05 H1 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.31
Re H2 0.35 0.34 0.35 - 0.36 0.37
H3 0.22 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.31
Figure 5.3.4 Strouhal Number H4 0.21 - 0.32 0.33 0.37 0.37
Table 5.3.1 Mean Drag Coefficient
Reynolds Number (E+05)
Mean CD
0.631 1.26 2.52 3.15 5.06 7.57 5.4 Summary of Presentations at the
Exp. 1.16 1.10 0.77 0.27 0.26 0.26 Workshop
A 0.70 0.57 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.42
B 0.87 0.69 0.61 0.61 0.54 0.54
C 1.05 0.89 0.82 0.79 0.71 0.62 In the Workshop, six papers were presented
D 1.37 1.37 0.56 0.27 0.25 0.22 on VIV benchmark studies. A summary of
E 1.10 1.08 0.88 - - -
F 1.49 1.10 0.41 0.38 - - some papers related to the benchmark studies is
G 1.14 1.02 0.74 0.68 0.61 0.60 given below.
H1 1.28 1.16 1.04 1.06 1.00 0.95
H2 0.54 0.57 0.59 - 0.54 0.50
H3 1.38 1.02 0.84 0.81 0.69 0.52 Yeon et al. (2013) studied drag crisis with
H4 1.33 - 0.45 0.43 0.35 0.35
the LES method and the computations were
carried out at various Reynolds numbers. It was
Table 5.3.2 Mean Lift Coefficient indicated that the solutions are strongly
Reynolds Number (E+05)
Mean CL
0.631 1.26 2.52 3.15 5.06 7.57 affected by the domain size. The mean drag
Exp. 0.01 -0.02 -0.17 -0.02 -0.04 -0.11 coefficients were compared to experimental
A 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.000
B 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 data by MARIN in Figure 5.4.1.
C -0.002 0.003 -0.002 0.000 0.001 0.001
D 0.002 -0.003 0.012 0.007 0.003 0.015
E -0.030 -0.020 0.000 - - -
F 0.000 0.040 0.000 0.000 - -
G 0.000 0.012 0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001
H1 0.130 -0.120 0.000 -0.080 -0.160 -0.180
H2 0.010 -0.010 0.010 - 0.010 0.010
H3 -0.040 -0.020 0.020 -0.030 -0.010 0.010
H4 0.027 - 0.023 -0.009 -0.006 0.004

Table 5.3.3 RMS of Lift Coefficient


Reynolds Number (E+05)
RMS CL
0.631 1.26 2.52 3.15 5.06 7.57
Exp. 0.24 0.26 0.07 0.03 0.05 0.04
A 0.53 0.46 0.26 0.22 0.25 0.21
B 0.47 0.28 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16
C 0.83 0.70 0.64 0.61 0.50 0.34
D 0.60 0.62 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.05
E 0.18 0.16 0.08 - - -
F 0.51 0.34 0.06 0.06 - - Figure 5.4.1 Drag Coefficient versus Re
G 0.86 0.72 0.24 0.19 0.15 0.12 (Yeon et al., 2013)
H1 1.08 1.04 0.95 1.00 1.02 0.95
H2 0.10 0.12 0.13 - 0.13 0.12
H3 0.58 0.38 0.32 0.32 0.21 0.13 Lee and Yang (2013) also employed LES
H4 0.37 - 0.14 0.12 0.08 0.07
for the benchmark studies and carried out
290
simulations at three Reynolds numbers, Re =
6.31E+04, 1.26E+05, and 2.52E+05. The 3D
LES code was developed in-house based on a
finite-volume method. A dynamic sub-grid
scale model, in which the model coefficient is
dynamically determined by the currently
resolved flow field rather than by assigning a Re = 3.15 x 105
prefixed constant, was implemented for
accurate turbulence modelling. Figure 5.4.2 Figure 5.4.3 Vortical Structures in terms of the
presented time-averaged statistical data in Second Invariant of the Velocity Gradient
comparison with those by MARIN. Note that Tensor (James and Lloyd, 2013)
Grids #1, #2 and #3 consist of 4.4, 8.7 and 11.3
millions of cells, respectively. As shown in the
figure, LES captured the trends of the mean
drag coefficients near the drag crisis.

Figure 5.4.4 Horizontal Velocity Contours


Figure 5.4.2 Simulation Results of 3D LES at Re = 6.31E+04 (top: SST k- model,
( Lee and Yang, 2013) middle: k- model, bottom: Reynolds stress
turbulence model) (Wen and Qiu, 2013)
James and Lloyd (2013) studied the flow
around the circular cylinder at high Reynolds Wen and Qiu (2013) simulated the two-
numbers using LES. They found that dimensional unsteady turbulence using a
unstructured grids provide better resolution of RANS solver, Star-CCM+, and various
key flow features, when a reasonable grid turbulence models. The studies showed that
size is maintained. A blended upwind-central turbulence models have significant effects on
scheme, unique in OpenFOAM, was used, the solutions (see Figure 5.4.4) and RANS is
avoiding unnecessarily high numerical inadequate to address the drag crisis
dissipation as well as removing artificial phenomenon.
wiggles observed in the full central scheme.
Figure 5.4.3 presents an example of vortical Ye et al. (2013) used a RANS solver,
structures. pimpleFoam in OpenFOAM, coupled with an

291
overset grid technique. The k- SST turbulence 6. BENCHMARK STUDIES OF WAVE
model was employed. Numerical results RUN-UP
without overset grid approach were also
presented for comparison study. An example of 6.1 Introduction
predicted velocity contour is presented in
Figure 5.4.5. The Committee conducted benchmark
studies of wave run-ups on a single truncated
cylinder and on four truncated cylinders. A
Workshop was held at Nantes, France on
October 17 and 18, 2013 and provided
opportunities for participants to present and
discuss the results of benchmark studies.
Numerical solutions based on various methods
were compared with experimental data. Note
Re = 7.57 105 that six organizations of Korean Towing Tank
Figure 5.4.5 Velocity Contour Conference (KTTC) also carried out the
(Ye et al., 2013) comparative studies on wave run-ups using
MOERI's benchmark data. A Workshop on the
5.5 Conclusions and Recommendations benchmark studies was held at Daejeon, Korea
on September 12, 2013. Note that this Section
In the benchmark studies, URANS, DES focuses on the outcome of the Workshop
and LES were used. In terms of overall trend, hosted by the Committee.
numerical predictions by DES and LES are
generally in better agreement with the 6.2 Benchmark Data
experimental data than those by URANS. It can
be concluded that the LES method captured the The experiments for wave run-ups on a
drag crisis phenomenon and the LES solutions single truncated circular cylinder were carried
agree better with experimental data at most out by both MOERI and MARINTEK.
points than those by URANS. At high MARINTEK also conducted the model tests
Reynolds numbers, some solutions by the for wave run-ups on four truncated cylinders.
URANS method agree reasonably well with the The benchmark data are summarized in the
experimental data. following sections.

Some of the participants are still working 6.2.1 Single Truncated Circular Cylinder
on completing the simulations at all the
Model tests were carried out by MOERI for
Reynolds numbers using DES and LES. More
the single truncated circular cylinder for six (6)
comparisons will be made in a journal paper,
wave periods and four (4) wave steepness.
which is being prepared by the Committee.
Table 6.2.1.1 presents the test matrix, in which
the shaded cases were also tested by
The Committee recommended to continue
MARINTEK (Kristiansen et al., 2004). Note
the benchmark studies based on LES and DES.
that the experimental data provided by MOERI
was used in the benchmark studies. The
diameter of the prototype cylinder is 16.0m and
its draft is 24.0m. The model scale is 1:50.3
and the model diameter is 31.8cm. Figure
6.2.1.1 shows the locations of wave probes.
292
The experimental set-up used by MOERI is Figure 6.2.1.1 Locations of Wave Probes
presented in the Figure 6.2.1.2. (MOERI)

In the benchmark studies, the first-order, the Table 6.2.1.1 Test Matrix for the Single
second-order harmonics and the mean results Truncated Circular Cylinder
of following measured items were compared
with numerical solutions at various wave
frequencies in terms of kR ( k is wave number
and R is the radius of the cylinder):

1) Horizontal force, Fx
2) Vertical force, Fz
3) Wave elevations at 10 wave probe
locations. Table 6.2.2.1 Locations of Wave Probes (in
Prototype Scale)
6.2.2 Four Truncated Cylinders Circular Cylinder Squared Cylinder
X(m) Y(m) X(m) Y(m)
a1 34.0000 25.9500 a1 34.0000 25.9500
Model tests were conducted by MARNTEK a2 34.0000 24.5300 a2 34.0000 24.5300
for four truncated cylinders of two different a3 34.0000 21.2500 a3 34.0000 21.2500
cross-section geometries (circular and squared). a4 34.0000 18.0000 a4 34.0000 18.0000
b1 28.3078 28.3078 b1 27.1362 27.1362
The locations of wave probes and four b2 27.3037 27.3037 b2 26.1321 26.1321
truncated cylinders as well as wave headings b3 24.9844 24.9844 b3 23.8128 23.8128
b4 22.6863 22.6863 b4 21.5147 21.5147
are shown in Figure 6.2.2.1. The coordinates of c1 25.9500 34.0000 c1 25.9500 34.0000
wave probes are given in Table 6.2.2.1. Test c2 24.5300 34.0000 c2 24.5300 34.0000
c3 21.2500 34.0000 c3 21.2500 34.0000
conditions are summarized in Table 6.2.2.2. c4 18.0000 34.0000 c4 18.0000 34.0000
Note that MARINTEK has also carried out Note: a1,b1 and c1 are the wave probes on the cylinder surface
model tests for single circular and squared
cylinders, as shown in Table 6.2.2.2. Only Table 6.2.2.2 Test Matrix
experimental data for four truncated cylinders
were used in the benchmark studies.

I) single circular column, II) single squared column


III) four circular columns, IV) four squared columns

293
Figure 6.2.1.2 Experimental Set-up
Figure 6.2.2.1 (MOERI)
Experimental Set-up for Four
Truncated Cylinders (MARINTEK)

(0,0)

Table 6.3.1 Participants for Wave Run-up


Benchmark Studies

No. Affiliation Country


Ecole Centrale de Nantes (ECN) France
2 Hyundai Heavy Industries Korea
3 Inha University Korea
4 University of Iowa USA
(a) Four Circular Truncated Cylinders
5 MOERI(KRISO) Korea
6 University of Bath UK
7 MARINTEK Norway
8 Pusan National University Korea
Samsung Heavy Industries with
9 Korea
CD-Adapco Korea
10 Seoul National University Korea
11 Shanghai Jiao Tong University China

(0,0)
6.3 Participants

Eleven organizations participated in the


benchmark studies. The list of participants is
given in Table 6.3.1. Most organizations
participated in the benchmark studies by
carrying out numerical simulations and others
(b) Four Squared Truncated Cylinders
294
conducted model tests. Table 6.3.2 presents boundary conditions and time steps employed
the cases studied by each participant. by participants are summarized in Table
6.4.1.1. The grid topologies are presented in
6.4 Numerical Results Figure 6.4.1.2.

6.4.1 Grid Topology and Numerical


Scheme

Nine participants employed CFD methods


to simulate wave run-ups. The numerical
methods, the computational domains,

Table 6.3.2 Benchmark Studies by Participants


Single Single Four
Four
Participant Circular Squared Squared
Circular Cylinders
Cylinder Cylinder Cylinders
Wave
heading: 0 deg 0 deg 45 deg 0 deg 45 deg
0deg
ECN, France O O O O
Hyundai Heavy
O
Industries
Inha University O
University of Iowa O
MOERI O
University of Bath O
MARINTEK* O O O O O O
Pusan National
O
University
Samsung Heavy
Industries with CD- O O O
Adapco Korea
Seoul National
O
University *
Shanghai Jiao Tong
O O O
University

* Note that MARINTEK and Pusan National University participated in the


benchmark studies by carrying out model tests.

295
Table 6.4.1.1 Numerical Methods and Schemes
Participants A B C D E G-1 G-2 H

Turbulence model RKE SGS - - K-omega SKE


VOF with
Free-surface scheme VOF-Implicit MMD-Explicit local height - - VOF-Explicit
function
Stoke 5 th Stoke 5th Stoke 1 st & Stoke 2 nd Airy theory,
Wave theory Stoke 5 th order Stoke 2 nd rder
order order 2nd order order Linear
Wave Patch with
Not
Inlet Velocity Velocity Velocity pressure & relaxation Velocity
applicable
Velocity zone
Patch with
Pressure Pressure Not
Outlet Pressure outlet Exit relaxation Velocity
outlet outlet Damping applicable
Boundary zone
zone
conditions Not
Side Symmetry Symmetry Wall w/ wall B.C Zero gradient Slip-wall Velocity
applicable
Not
Top Symmetry Symmetry - Far-field Patch Atmosphere
applicable
Not
Bottom Wall Symmetry Wall Slip-wall No-slip wall Slip wall
applicable
Variable time
Variable time
step
step by T/250~
Time step size T/250 1/1000s 0.005 controlled by T/200
courant T/100
Courant
number
number
Inlet 1~2 2 1 3D

Grid size Outlet 4 15 1 6 5D

Side 8D 12.5D 3D 16D 8D


Not
Per length 150EA 75EA Min. 60EA 20~30EA 82EA 50~70EA 70EA
Number applicable
of Cells Not
Per height 20EA 20EA Min. 6EA - At least 15 12~22EA 10EA
applicable

In-House In-house In-house


Commercial In-House Comflow In-House
Code CFDShip-Iowa DIFFRACT OpenFoam In-house
Star-CCM+ INHAWAVE-II ver 3.1 FEDIF
V4.5 Ver.2009 Ver.2.2.1

[ Surface grid distribution around the cylinder ]

[ Volume grid distribution ] (c) C


(a) A

(b) B
(d) D

296
(h) G-2

(e) E

(f) F

(i) H

Figure 6.4.1.1 Grids for the Single Truncated


Circular Cylinder

(g) G-1

297
6.4.2 Single Circular Cylinder

The time series of computed wave elevations


at 10 wave probe locations (WPB#01-
WPB#05, WPO#01-WPO#05) and forces on
the single truncated circular cylinder ( Fx and
Fz ) are compared with the time histories of
experimental data by MOERI in Figure 6.4.2.1
(a) A for two test conditions (T15S110 and
T09S116). It can be observed that the predicted
patterns of wave run-ups on the single
truncated circular cylinder, obtained by all the
participants, are very similar to those of
experimental ones.

Figure 6.4.2.2(a) shows the 1st harmonic


results at WPB#01. The trends of experimental
results by MOERI and MARINTEK are similar
at WPB#01. The trends of numerical results by
participants A, B and F agree well with the
experimental results by MOERI at WPB#01.
Figure 6.4.2.2(b) shows the 2nd harmonic
results at WPB#01. The trends of experimental
results by MOERI and Pusan National
(b) E University (denoted as EXP-A) are similar at
WPB#01. However, the trend of those by
MARINTEK is somehow different from the
other two.

(c) F

Figure 6.4.1.2 Grids for four Truncated


Circular Cylinders

298
(a) 1st harmonic components

(a) T15S110

(b) 2nd harmonic components

Figure 6.4.2.2 Wave Run-ups at WPB#01 for


the Single Truncated Circular Cylinder

(b) T09S116

Figure 6.4.2.1 Predicted Wave Elevations and


Forces with Experimental Results

299
6.4.3 Four Truncated Cylinders

Figure 6.4.3.1 shows the time series of wave


elevations at 12 locations (a1~a4, b1~b4,
c1~c4) for four truncated columns. They are
compared with experimental results by
MARINTEK. The predicted patterns of wave
run-ups on the four truncated circular and
squared cylinders are similar to those of
experimental data. The 1st and 2nd harmonic
components of wave elevations at a1, b1 and c1
are compared with experimental data in Figure
(a) Four Circular Cylinders, T07S130, Wave 6.4.3.2 and Figure 6.4.3.3, respectively, for the
Heading =0 deg four truncated circular cylinders (wave heading
of 0 degree).

(b) Four Squared Cylinders, T07S130, Wave


Heading =0 deg

(c) Four Squared Cylinders, T07S130, Wave


Heading =45 deg

Figure 6.4.3.1 Comparison of Time Histories


for Four Truncated Circular and Squared
Cylinders

300
(a) Location - a1

EXP-MOERI EXP-Marinetek EXP-A CFD-A CFD-B CFD-C


2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25


b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

1 1 1 1 1 1

0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75


H/L=1/10
0.5 H/L=1/16 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
H/L=1/30
0.25 H/L=1/50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

CFD-D CFD-E CFD-F CFD-G1 CFD-G2 CFD-J


2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25


b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

b#1/A

1 1 1 1 1 1

0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(b) Location - b1

301
EXP-MOERI EXP-Marinetek EXP-A CFD-A CFD-B CFD-C
2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25


c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A
1 1 1 1 1 1

0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75


H/L=1/10
0.5 H/L=1/16 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
H/L=1/30
0.25 H/L=1/50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

CFD-D CFD-E CFD-F CFD-G1 CFD-G2 CFD-J


2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25


c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A

c#1/A
1 1 1 1 1 1

0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(c) Location - c1

Figure 6.4.3.2 1st Harmonic Values for Four Truncated Circular Cylinders at Locations of Three
Wave Probes (Wave Heading =0 deg)

EXP-MOERI EXP-Marinetek EXP-A CFD-A CFD-B CFD-C


5 5 5 5 5 5

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

3 3 3 3 3 3
a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5


H/L=1/10
1 H/L=1/16 1 1 1 1 1
H/L=1/30
0.5 H/L=1/50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

CFD-D CFD-E CFD-F CFD-G1 CFD-G2 CFD-J


5 5 5 5 5 5

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

3 3 3 3 3 3
a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

a#1*r/A^2

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1 1 1 1 1 1

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(a) Position - a1

302
EXP-MOERI EXP-Marinetek EXP-A CFD-A CFD-B CFD-C
5 5 5 5 5 5

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

3 3 3 3 3 3
b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5


H/L=1/10
1 H/L=1/16 1 1 1 1 1
H/L=1/30
0.5 H/L=1/50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

CFD-D CFD-E CFD-F CFD-G1 CFD-G2 CFD-J


5 5 5 5 5 5

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

3 3 3 3 3 3
b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2

b#1*r/A^2
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1 1 1 1 1 1

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(b) Position - b1

EXP-MOERI EXP-Marinetek EXP-A CFD-A CFD-B CFD-C


5 5 5 5 5 5

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

3 3 3 3 3 3
c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5


H/L=1/10
1 H/L=1/16 1 1 1 1 1
H/L=1/30
0.5 H/L=1/50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

CFD-D CFD-E CFD-F CFD-G1 CFD-G2 CFD-J


5 5 5 5 5 5

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

4 4 4 4 4 4

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

3 3 3 3 3 3
c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

c#1*r/A^2

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

2 2 2 2 2 2

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1 1 1 1 1 1

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r Ko*r

(c) Position - c1

Figure 6.4.3.3 2nd Harmonic Values for Four Truncated Circular Cylinders at Locations of Three
Wave Probes (Wave Heading =0 deg)

303
6.5 Summary of Presentations at were compared with measured time series in
Workshop experiments and the solutions by WAMIT.
Spectral analyses were carried out. RAOs and
In the Workshop, six papers were presented QTFs of wave elevations were compared with
on wave run-up benchmark studies. A the results obtained by Kristiansen et al.
summary of papers related to the wave run-up (2004). Figure 6.5.2 presents an example of the
benchmark studies is given below. first-order and second-order wave elevations.

Yoon et al. (2013) computed wave


elevations at several locations around a
truncated circular cylinder using CFDShip-
Iowa. Time series of wave elevations and wave
forces were compared with experimental data.
Figure 6.5.1 presents the comparison of
predicted wave elevations with experimental Figure 6.5.1 Experimental Wave Profiles
ones. (Stansberg and Kristiansen, 2005) and
Numerical Predictions for the Case of T=15s,
Sun et al. (2013) predicted wave elevations H=35m (Yoon et al., 2013)
around a single truncated circular cylinder
using a potential-flow solver (DIFFRACT) and
a viscous-flow solver, OpenFOAM. Results

(a) 1st Harmonic (b) 2nd Harmonic

Figure 6.5.2 First and Second-order Wave Elevations (Sun et al., 2013)

Kristiansen and Stansberg (2013) studied deep water. Measurements clearly show higher
the wave diffraction (upwelling) and run-ups wave crests than those by the linear modelling
on vertical columns in steep wave conditions for steep waves. The second-order modelling
by reviewing a data set from the scaled model can be used to improve this. However, there are
tests with single and multiple fixed columns in still deviations in steep waves, especially at
304
short wave periods (see Figure 6.5.3).

Figure 6.5.3 Wave Crest Heights for the Case of T=15 sec, Four Columns and Heading = 45 deg.
(Kristiansen and Stansberg, 2013)

Cao et al. (2013) computed wave run-ups on truncated cylinder, and four organizations
a fixed single truncated circular cylinder and participated in the benchmark studies on the
four circular cylinders using in-house CFD cases of four truncated cylinders. Nine
naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver. Favourable wave participants employed CFD methods in their
elevations were obtained in comparison with studies. The FFT analysis was performed to
experimental data (see Figure 6.5.4). predict the harmonic values, and the results of
harmonic values were compared with the
experimental results.

It was concluded that the values and trends


of the computed wave elevations and forces by
CFD methods are in good agreement with the
experimental results for the cases of single and
four cylinders.

Due to time constrains and limited


computing resources, most of participants have
Figure 6.5.4 Wave Elevations for the Case of focused on the single circular cylinder cases. It
Four Circular Cylinders (T = 9 sec and is recommended that more studies be extended
Heading=45 deg) (Cao et al., 2013) to the four-column cases. Some of the
participants are still working on completing the
6.6 Conclusions and Recommendations simulations. More comparisons will be made in
a journal paper, which is being prepared by the
Eleven organizations participated in the
Committee.
benchmark studies on the cases of the single
305
7. THRUSTER INTERACTION AND in the late 1980s and early 1990s (Nienhuis,
SCALE EFFECT IN DP TESTS 1992). In 1983, a semi-empirical calculation
procedure was developed by MARIN to
7.1 Introduction estimate the thruster-thruster interaction
(Nienhuis, 1986). The underlying assumption
Dynamic positioning (DP) systems and of this method was that the propeller slipstream
azimuthing thrusters are widely used in the behaves similar to a swirling turbulent jet. The
offshore industry for station-keeping. The good correlation between model test results and
effective force generated by thrusters can be the calculations indicated that this assumption
significantly smaller than those obtained from was correct. However, this conclusion was not
their open-water characteristics. This is a result confirmed since the extent of the thruster-
of thruster interactions with the hull, current thruster interaction was largely determined by
and the wake of neighbouring thrusters. These two factors: the decrease of the velocity in the
phenomena are often referred as thruster- slipstream and the width of the slipstream.
thruster and thruster-hull interactions. The These two factors are related by the
understanding and quantification of thruster conservation of momentum. In 1986/1987, the
interaction (or thrust degradation) effects is first detailed thruster slipstream was measured
essential for the evaluation of the station- by MARIN using a 2D LDV. These
keeping capabilities of DP vessels. Figure 7.1.1 measurements were carried out on a thruster
presents some typical scenarios of thruster- mounted under a simple-shaped barge. Some of
thruster interactions. the conditions were however very similar to the
open-water condition. The test results showed a
jet spread and a velocity decay different from
that predicted by the simple calculation
procedure mentioned above.

One of the oldest data available for thruster-


thruster interaction in open water were
published by Lehn (1980, 1981) which are for
zero-speed conditions only and cover variations
in relative thruster position and thruster angle.

Nienhuis (1992) used the calculated velocity


field downstream of a simplified thruster
(which delivered the same thrust and the same
power as Lehn's thruster) and calculated the
thruster-thruster interaction. The average
inflow velocity over the propeller disk of the
second thruster was calculated, and the
resulting advance ratio was used in conjunction
Figure 7.1.1 Scenarios for Thruster-Thruster with the estimated open-water diagram of the
Interactions (Tello Ruiz et al., 2012) thruster used by Lehn (1980). Moreover,
Nienhuis (1992) investigated the interaction of
7.2 Literature Review thrusters below a flat plate. By using the
calculated velocity field for a simplified
A lot of current knowledge on thruster thruster close to a flat plate, it is possible to
interaction effects was due to the development calculate the thruster-thruster interaction using
306
the same approach as for the open-water case. may occur due to inflow and cross flow, and
Both measurements and calculations showed due to waves if they cause ventilation effects.
that the interaction in open-water persists for They stated that as the thrust is generated based
larger distances between the thrusters. In the on the principle of accelerating water, there is a
work of Nienhuis (1992), the thruster-hull suction flow and a jet flow. The suction flow is
interaction was also investigated. characterized by relatively low flow velocity
over a wide area, while the jet flow is high
API (1996) provided guidelines for the speed and concentrated in a relatively small
determination of available thrust, and cross-section area. Furthermore, the jet may
particularly gives guidance on how the thrust induce other flow patterns, depending on the
varies with the inflow velocity. It indicates that local hull form and the intensity and direction
the thrust reduction for dynamic positioning of the jet. These flows, together with the
systems due to oblique inflow cross-coupling current flow and waves may cause interaction
effects is not well researched. API states that effects leading to degradation of thruster
the propeller thrust decreases with increasing performance. The following types of
inflow, which is caused by the current speed, interaction were considered: thruster-thruster,
movement of vessel or the slipstream from thruster-hull (including the Coanda effect),
another thruster. A 5-15% correction factor is thruster-current, and thruster-waves.
suggested to account for the Coanda effect. If
there are support struts to the propeller in the
flow, the reduction in thrust is approximately
10%.

Det Norske Veritas (DNV, 1996) outlined


rules for thruster assisted (TA) mooring
systems. Depending on whether manual TA or
automatic control (ATA) is employed, 70% or
100% of the net thrust can be used. It is
assumed that azimuthing thrusters can provide
thrust in all directions, unless specific
Figure 7.2.1 Thruster Configurations
restrictions are defined.
Reported in Nordtveit et al. (2007)
Brandner (1998) investigated the interaction
Ekstrom and Brown (2002) addressed the
between two closely spaced ducted azimuthing
influence of two thrusters in close proximity.
thrusters through a series of experiments.
The experiments were carried out at the wave
Forces acting on a single thruster as well as on
tank in the Department of Mechanical
two thrusters were measured for a range of
Engineering at University College London.
operating conditions and relative positions. The
They recognized that additional research into
results showed that forces from the trailing
the thruster cross-coupling effects at a range of
thruster were heavily affected by interaction
in-flow velocities is needed, as these effects are
due to impingement of the race from the
likely to be significant at the current speeds
leading thruster, whereas forces from the
appropriate to manoeuvring situations using
leading thruster essentially remain unaffected
dynamic positioning systems. In their work,
despite its proximity to the trailing thruster.
they drew some interesting conclusions:
van Dijk and Aalbers (2001) showed that
degradation effects on a thruster in model scale
307
The thrust in open water tests was 8 to 15% collocation points. These instabilities were
more than that in the tests with a thruster removed by applying a realistic vortex model
attached to a vessel. instead of the analytical vortex model. It was
Thrust losses were up to 5% for the concluded that the thruster interaction propeller
thruster closer to the vessel. model coupled with the turbulent jet wake field
The loss of thrust is more likely due to the yielded an accurate prediction of thruster
hull influence rather than the Coanda effect interaction. Although results based on the
for thrusters placed close to the stern of the linear potential wake field model are
vessel. promising, the prediction of the divergent and
A reduction or an increase in thrust can subsiding characteristics of the physical wake
occur when one thrusters slipstream is field needs to be improved, since the linear
influenced by the other thrusters wake model does not correctly represent the
slipstream. physical properties of the wake.
A reduction in thrust (up to 40%) was
recorded when one thrusters slipstream is Palmer et al. (2009) assessed thruster-hull
pointed into the other thrusters slipstream. and thruster-thruster interactions on for
autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The
Nordtveit et al. (2007) presented the results interactions were investigated using an
of model tests carried out in MARINTEK. The experimental approach. The induced
tests were to assess the thrust degradation in longitudinal force (thrust loss) was less than
DP operations of an Aframax DP2 shuttle 10% of the desired thrust force and the induced
tanker, operating in rough environmental lateral force was between 8% and 20% of the
conditions in the North Sea. Investigations desired thrust.
were conducted for tunnel thrusters, azimuth
thrusters and main propellers with rudders. The
results showed that thrust loss or thrust
degradation effects due to thruster-thruster and
thruster-hull interactions and the dynamics
effects are of significant importance for the
design, analysis and operation of a DP vessel.
The magnitude of thrust degradation depends
on the vessel type, design, operation and
environmental forces. Thrust degradation
coefficients are recommended for the DP
capability analysis of the Aframax shuttle
tanker.

Bosland et al. (2009) proposed a numerical


method to predict the interaction effects. The
developed propeller interaction model is based
on the panel method. At the second thruster the Figure 7.2.2 Possible Thruster Interactions
distorted flow field due to the first thruster was on AUVs (Palmer et al., 2009)
modeled by means of two wake field models; a
linear potential wake model and an empirical de Wit (2009) and van Daalen et al. (2011)
turbulent jet model. Due to the intersection of investigated the interaction effects on the
wake and the body panels at the second optimization of DP allocation algorithms. In
thruster, numerical instabilities occurred at the
308
their work, the effect of the thruster-thruster an azimuth thruster were measured at 15
interaction on the reduction of delivered power intervals between 0 and 360. The resultant
was studied. thrust and moment were obtained by measuring
the force using the dynamometer in the towing
Det Norske Veritas (DNV, 2012) outlined carriage. A Wind Turbine Installation Vessel
the guidelines for the design of dynamically (WTIV) was used in the studies. Based on the
positioned vessels. In the design process of DP model tests, the thrust loss due to thruster-hull
systems, the thruster interaction effect is interaction was up to 30% of the pure thrust. In
recognized as an important issue in the the numerical simulations, two methodologies,
determination of the desired capability. The MRF (Moving Reference Frame) and SM
magnitude of losses associated with the (Sliding Mesh), were applied. Although both
interaction effects is a function of the hull numerical methodologies showed good
shape, the locations of thrusters, the degree of agreements with experimental data, it was
tilt of the propeller or nozzle axis. Barred suggested that the MRF method is time-saving
zones that prevent thrust in defined sectors can and therefore more practical to predict the
be created in the DP control system software to thrust loss.
address issues associated with the thruster wash
for azimuthing thrusters. Such barred zones
may result in reduced capability. Furthermore,
in order to minimize negative effects caused by
thrusters interacting hydrodynamically with
each other, DNV recommends that the distance
between thrusters should be maximized to the
feasible extent.
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS, 2013) Figure 7.2.3 Ship Model for Thruster-
also published a Guide for Dynamic Position Thruster/Hull Interaction Tests at Samsung
Systems. It recommends that the thruster- Ship Model Basin (Song et al., 2013)
thruster interaction effect should be included
in the station-keeping performance assessment,
and that the results from full-scale or suitable
model tests for thruster-thruster interaction
effects can be used whenever possible. If such
results are not available, Appendix 1 of the
ABS Guide provides guidelines for the
assessment of the interaction effect on the
available thrust.

Song et al. (2013) investigated the thrust


loss by interactions between azimuth thrusters
and ship hull based on the model tests and the
numerical simulations. In the DP condition,
two thrusts need to be considered: one is the
thrust of the azimuth thrusters and the other Figure 7.2.4 Polar Plot of Thrust Loss due to
one is the resultant thrust for the ship. The Thruster-Thruster Interaction
difference between these two thrusts denotes a (Song et al., 2013 )
thrust loss due to the thruster-hull interaction.
In the model tests, the thrust and the torque of
309
The work described above demonstrates location and the shape of the stern keel. The
progress made in the study of the effects of comparisons between the CFD and the model
thruster-thruster and thrust-hull interactions on test results demonstrate that CFD is able to
the performance of DP vessels. Thrust predict the relevant force components well with
degradation effects can be quantified using data a sufficient accuracy for engineering purposes.
available from literature, or by carrying out
dedicated model tests. Published data can give 7.3 Measurement of Thruster Wake
valuable insights, but it is often too general, or
not applicable to a specific design. Model tests, Research has been carried out to understand
on the other hand, do provide detailed results the thruster interaction effects by measuring the
but they are relatively expensive. In addition, detailed wake flow using PIV systems.
model test results often become available
relatively late in the design process, making it
difficult to incorporate the results in the design.

The CFD simulation could be an alternative


method but there is little experience in the
application of CFD as an engineering tool for
thrust degradation effects. With the rapidly
increasing capabilities of CFD models and
computer hardware, the time is right for the
development of new tools to analyze the
thruster interactions (Cozijn, 2010).

In offshore heavy lift or pipe-laying Figure 7.2.5 Downwash of Active Thrusters,


operations, the station keeping capabilities of a Azimuth 270 deg (Ottens et al., 2011)
DP-vessel affect the operability limits of these
operations. The efficiencies of DP thrusters of Cozijn et al. (2010) investigated the wake flow
these vessels have been assessed by comparing behind a ducted azimuthing thruster in open
the CFD solutions with model test results water and under a barge. Model tests were
(Ottens et al., 2011). Numerical studies using carried out in stationary conditions. The
CFD were performed to assess thruster-hull propeller thrust and torque were recorded and
interactions on a semi-submersible vessel. The the flow velocities in a large number of cross-
CFD results were validated against results of a sections at various distances from the thruster
series of model tests, including an open-water were measured using a PIV system (see Figure
thruster, the single thruster-hull interactions 7.3.1).
without current, and full thruster-hull
interactions with all active thrusters and
without current. The CFD results show good
agreement with the model test data. The
computed forces on the semi-submersible as
well as on the individual floater with active
thrusters are in 10% difference in comparison
with the model test data. The largest
discrepancies are in the bow quartering
conditions where the thruster-hull interactions
show the most complex flow pattern due to the
310
flattening the cross-section of the thruster
wake. In addition, the wake flow along the
bottom and the bilge of the barge resulted in a
low pressure region, causing the wake flow to
diverge up as it flows under the barge into the
open water. This phenomenon is known as the
Coanda effect and was clearly visible in the
PIV measurements.

Cozijn and Hallmann (2013) reported on


thruster-interaction model tests carried out in
Figure 7.2.6 Visualization of the Impingement MARIN's Deepwater Towing Tank. The wake
of Wakes on the Portside of the Floater, flow at a large number of cross-sections at
Azimuth 270 deg. (Ottens et al., 2011) different distances from the thrusters was
measured with a PIV system for two different
DP vessels, a semi-submersible and a drill ship.
The PIV measurements provided a detailed
image of the flow velocities in the thruster
wake, showing the axial velocities, as well as
the transverse and vertical velocity components
(see Figure 7.3.3).

Figure 7.3.1 Measured Velocities in the Wake


of an Azimuth Thruster (Cozijn et al., 2010)

Figure 7.3.3 Measured Wake Velocity Field


(Cozijn and Hallman, 2013)

7.4 Recommendations

The Joint Industry Project on the


hydrodynamics of thruster interaction (TRUST
JIP) was initialized to investigate the thruster
Figure 7.3.2 Flow Field of A Single Sweep interaction effects using both experimental and
Measurement with the PIV System ( Cozijn et CFD methods. As an outcome, guidelines are
al., 2010) also expected to be developed on how to use
model tests and CFD computations in the
In addition, velocities were measured in a analysis of thruster interaction effects and for
longitudinal plane at the thruster centre line the optimization of thruster configurations on
(see Figure 7.3.2). The PIV measurements for DP vessels.
the thruster under a barge show the thruster
wake deformed by the presence of the barge as Although the application of CFD methods
well as by its bilge. The bottom of the barge for thruster interactions is still largely
forms a flat plate above the thruster, clearly
311
unexplored, suitable modeling methods should required as input in these methods. For
be investigated and developed in the near example, Chen (2005) computed the drift
future. Thorough validation studies of CFD forces and wave elevations in the gap for two
models against measurement results, both at side-by-side barges and for a barge adjacent to
model-scale and at full-scale, are required. a Wigley hull and compared the results with
experimental data. Numerical simulations
Research into CFD computations for showed that the wave height and the drift force
thruster interactions should first focus on the in the resonance band were over-predicted
computation of the velocities in the wake of a using a damping coefficient =0. A better
thruster in open water. The accurate agreement with the experimental data was
computation of the velocities, especially at achieved with = 0.016. Cheetham et al.
large distances from the thruster, is crucial for (2007) presented numerical results by using
the accurate prediction of thruster interaction AQWA software for side-by-side ship
effects in a later stage. Different modelling hydrodynamics and validation studies. A
options should be investigated. Subsequently, linearized damping lid boundary condition was
complex configurations should be considered applied in the gap region. Simulations were
in the computation by introducing additional performed for a ship-barge case where it was
physics, such as friction forces on the hull and determined that a value of damping factor =
the deflection of the thruster wake (Coanda 0.01 was the most appropriate value for the
effect). boundary condition.

8. MULTIPLE-BODY INTERACTION Since these methods are inadequate to give


IN WAVES reasonable predictions without providing the
experimental data beforehand, it may be
8.1 Introduction challenging to apply them in design and
analysis. It is desirable to determine the
When two vessels are in a close proximity, damping due to viscous effect.
large resonant free surface elevation occurs in
the gap. Most of the linear seakeeping 8.2 State-of-the-Art Review
programs based on the potential flow theory,
currently used by the industry, over-predict the Many researchers have contributed to the
free surface elevations between vessels and studies of interactions of side-by-side bodies
hence the low-frequency loadings on the hulls. based on the potential-flow theory in the
This could lead to problems in the design of the frequency domain, using lower-order and high-
fenders, hawsers and loading arms and may order panel methods. Pauw et al. (2007) carried
lead to unsafe operations. out numerical simulations for two side-by-side
LNG carriers and compared the numerical
To overcome the problems, the lid technique results with the experimental data. The
(Huijsmans et al., 2001), in which the free numerical analysis was performed with a panel
surface in the gap is replaced by a rigid lid, has method code using a flexible damping lid in the
been developed to suppress the unrealistic gap region. A variety of gap widths were used
values of low-frequency forces. A linear in head seas with an attempt to obtain a
dissipation term has also been proposed by rationale for predicting suitable damping
Chen (2004) to modify the free-surface factors. No unique value was found for the
boundary condition. Newman (2003) used the damping factor that could fully cover all the
generalized mode technique to model the free measured cases. It was noted that the damping
surface. However, artificial damping factors are factor could be tuned using the second-order
312
drift forces but not the first-order quantities, motions tended to be greater as the sizes of
such as wave height. The damping factor was barges became larger.
found to have the greatest effect on the second-
order drift force. Ten et al. (2012) used a semi-analytical
method to predict the characteristics of the
Bunnik et al. (2009) applied the method as resonance of viscous fluid in a narrow gap.
described in Chen (2005) to two side-by-side Dissipation was introduced in the form of
LNG carriers in head seas and compared the pressure loss. This method was validated by
solutions with the results of model tests. The comparing with the solution with other
damping lid was also extended to the surface analytical, numerical and model test results. It
inside the vessels. The comparison with the was found that the conventional BEM was
experimental results indicated that the damping inapplicable to very small gap. The semi-
lid method worked better than the rigid lid analytical model was reported suitable for
method at frequencies of interest. small and large ratios of gap width to the ship
breadth.
Molin et al. (2009) applied DIODORE, a
potential-flow code, to two side-by-side fixed Clauss et al. (2013) investigated the gap
barges. A set of massless plates were used in effects for side-by-side vessels with numerical
the gap between the barges and a quadratic methods in the frequency domain. The free
damping force was applied to the plates. The surface elevation was modelled by a damping
numerical results were compared with the lid. WAMIT was used in their studies. The
model test results of two rectangular barges in numerical and experimental investigations
irregular waves. A drag coefficient, CD = 0.5, were conducted for a LNG carrier next to a
was employed to determine the quadratic fixed terminal. Wave propagations in terms of
damping force, which led to a good agreement wave height and regions of cancellation and
with measured data. It was recommended that amplification were examined. They reported
an investigation of freely floating ships should that the surface elevation in the gap was
be performed in the future. surprisingly not overestimated by WAMIT at
the critical frequency around 0.81 rad/s without
Kawabe et al. (2010) studied water surface using any numerical damping lid.
responses in a moon pool of a freely floating
vessel. Studies showed that a damping factor of Xu et. al. (2013) computed second-order
= 0.05 resulted in a good agreement between mean drift forces and moments on three side-
the predicted and measured free surface by-side barges during the float-over operation
elevations. using WAMIT. The numerical results were
validated by model tests. It was reported that
Zhang et al. (2013) carried out numerical satisfactory numerical results could be obtained
studies on the hydrodynamic interactions of by adding viscous damping.
two bodies in arbitrary arrangements in terms
of gap widths, relative sizes and relative angles. Kashiwagi and Shi (2010) obtained the
HYDROSTAR, a potential-flow program, was pressure distribution for multiple bodies in a
utilized. The numerical results showed that the close proximity. They solved the integral
resonance phenomenon became more dominant equation of the diffraction potential by the
than the shielding effect as the gap width Higher-order Boundary Element Method
decreased. Studies also suggested that sway (HOBEM). It was found that when the
and heave responses were sensitive to relative separation distance between bodies is smaller,
angles in head seas. For parallel arrangements,
313
there would be a larger deviation of the corresponding fully nonlinear results and
pressure distribution. concluded that the second-order theory might
overestimate the wave amplitude in the gap and
Hong et al. (2013) studied the gap resonance the wave loads on the structures.
between the bodies in close proximity by two
methods, in terms of a nine-node discontinuous Ma et al. (2013) applied the fully nonlinear
higher order boundary element method potential theory to study the 2D resonant waves
(9dHOBEM) and a constant boundary element in the gap between two floating barges by
method based on the boundary matching using the Quasi Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian
formulation (BM-CBEM). The results showed Finite Element Method (QALEFEM). Based on
that BM-CBEM combined with the free surface the computed free surface elevations and the
damping or 9dHOBEM combined with a tuned forces acting on barges, it was recommended
value of the wetted surface damping parameter that nonlinear models for such cases should be
could largely reduce the over-predicted first- used, in particular, including the 4th-order or
order hydrodynamic coefficients, and higher-order component. These investigations
successfully estimate the time-mean drift forces provided a basis for future 3D studies.
on two side-by-side floating structures.
Attempts have also been made to determine
Efforts have been made to address the the viscous effect by solving Reynolds
interaction problem in the time domain. Xiang Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations.
and Faltinsen (2011) developed a time-domain Lu et al. (2010a) carried out numerical studies
solution for linear loads and motions of two for two identical bodies and three identical
tankers paralleled in calm and deep water in bodies at a close proximity by using the
lightering operation by using 3D Rankine potential-flow method and the viscous-flow
source method. The numerical results were method without artificial damping force. The
compared with analytical solutions, viscous flow model was based on a three-step
experimental data and numerical results by finite element solver, and the CLEAR-VOF
others. Zhu et al. (2008) computed the forces method was applied to capture the free surface
on two fixed side-by-side hull-shaped boxes in the gap region. Experimental results were
with a narrow gap due to incoming and used to assess the performance of each model.
diffracted waves based on a time-domain Both potential and viscous models performed
method. The predicted resonant phenomena in well for predicting frequencies outside the
the gap is in good agreement with that from the resonance band, while the potential flow model
frequency-domain analysis. over-predicts the wave height around resonant
frequencies. The viscous flow model showed
Numerical methods based on nonlinear good agreement with measured values for all
potential-flow theory, such as the finite element frequencies. To improve the potential flow
method, have also been developed to solve the method, Lu et al. (2010b) extended the
interaction problem. previous work and applied artificial damping to
the free surface. The results by the potential
Wang et al. (2011) applied fully nonlinear flow model with a damping coefficient = 0.4
potential theory to study 2D resonant waves in were in good agreement with the viscous flow
the gap between two floating structures. A results and the experimental data for the two-
higher-order finite element method was used to body cases and for both gaps in the three-body
analyze the fully nonlinear resonant oscillations cases. In 2011, they studied on the effects of
of the liquid in the gap. They compared the gap width, body draft, body width and number
second-order time-domain results with the
314
of bodies of multi-bodies at close proximity
(Lu et al., 2011). Kim et al. (2012) carried out a series of
model tests and investigated the effect of the
Lu and Chen (2012) examined the energy heading control on the offloading operability of
dissipation around resonant frequencies side-by-side moored vessels, LNGC and LNG
between two bodies by CFD computations. The FPSO (FLNG), in multidirectional
dissipation was found to be relatively constant environments. The key variables affecting the
over frequencies near the resonant frequency. offloading operability, such as hawser tensions,
The dissipation rate was examined over various fender loads, and relative motions between two
zones. Studies showed that the over-prediction vessels, were measured. Several heading angles
of resonant wave elevation could be reduced by were selected to investigate the impact of the
using the dissipation coefficient to assimilate heading control on the offloading operability.
the friction force. An explicit formula to obtain The model tests indicated that the offloading
the dissipation coefficient was recommended. operability in the multi-directional
Zou and Larsson (2013) investigated the environments can be improved by heading
interaction of two side-by-side ships in shallow control. In the model tests, the motion RAOs
water. They completed a systematic and horizontal drift forces/moments due to
investigation of ship-ship interactions during a waves for the side-by-side moored vessels were
lightering operation using a steady-state measured.
Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS)
solver. The numerical results were compared Cho et al. (2011) carried out experimental
with benchmark experimental data. A good studies of motions and drift forces of side-by-
agreement was found between measured and side moored FSRU and LNGC including
computed wave heights, indicating that the sloshing effect. The effect of filling level on
predicted pressure distribution on the free the coupling between sloshing and motions of
surface was appropriate. the floating bodies was investigated in their
work. The effect of gap flow was also
8.3 Existing Model Tests examined.

Many model tests of two side-by-side bodies


have been identified in the review, including
captive and floating tests with and without
mooring lines between two bodies. Besides
those listed in Section 8.2, some recent model
tests on side-by-side vessels are presented
below.

Figure 8.3.1 Side-by-Side Moored Vessels


(Kim et al., 2012)

315
elevations at three locations in the gap were
8.4 Potential Experimental Data for measured. Figure 8.4.1 shows the simplified
Benchmark Studies models in the tank. Model tests have also been
carried out for the single body in regular waves.
To investigate the wave elevation in the gap The tests are planned to be repeated in an ocean
between two side-by-side bodies and the effect engineering basin. It is anticipated that the
of viscous effect on the prediction, it is of experimental results can be used in benchmark
importance to identify benchmark data for studies.
validation studies. The Committee
recommended model tests of two floating
bodies without mooring lines and fenders in
between. The experimental data should include
at least measured wave elevations in the gap
and motions of bodies and/or mean drift forces
at various gaps, wave frequencies and
headings. The following experimental data
have been identified for potential use in the
proposed benchmark studies.
Figure 8.4.1 Simplified Models
Hong et al. (2005) carried out model tests of
side-by-side LNG FPSO and LNGC with wired
springs as mooring at the KRISO Ocean 8.5 Recommendations
Engineering Basin. The gap was set as 4 m in
full scale. Model tests were performed in both The determination of the viscous effect on
regular and irregular waves. For regular waves, the prediction of wave elevations in the gap
the wave frequencies were from 0.25 rad/s to and the drift forces on two bodies in a close
1.2 rad/s in full scale and the headings were proximity remains as a challenge. As the next
150, 180, 240 and 270 degrees. Six DOF step, the Committee recommended to collect
motions of each vessel were measured with the experimental data available for benchmark
photo sensors, relative waves at 3 locations studies. With an objective to investigate the
(midship and +/- 0.3L from the midship, viscous effect on the predictions by potential-
portside) of LNG FPSO were measured by flow methods, numerical tools based on the
capacitance type probes. Strain gauge type CFD methods should be included in the studies.
accelerometers were used for measuring
horizontal and vertical accelerations. Drift 9. MOTIONS OF LARGE SHIPS AND
forces were measured using the tension load FLOATING STRUCTURES IN
cells at the end of spring wire moored to the SHALLOW WATER
ships.
The Committee have also initialized a model The shallow water wave problem has
test program for two identical bodies with become one of the important issues in offshore
simplified geometry in regular waves (wave hydrodynamics as the need for floating LNG
steepness is 1/30). The tests were carried out at terminals increases. The amplitude of the long
Ocean Engineering Research Centre of period resonant motion of moored structures in
Memorial University's 60 m towing tank. The shallow water is greatly influenced by the low
test matrix included three gaps and three wave frequency part of the incident waves, which
headings. Motions of each body and wave themselves are a result of interactions of the

316
component waves of the incident wave floating storage and regasification unit (FRSU)
spectrum (ITTC Ocean Engineering and an LNGC in shallow water waves with
Committee, 2008). The Committee was tasked varied bathymetry. The numerical results were
to report on the motions of large ships and compared with those for the equivalent
floating structures in shallow water. A constant water depth condition. The
literature review was first conducted to identify comparison shows that the motion responses
the progress made in model tests and numerical are in general larger than those for the cases of
simulations of large floating structures. constant water depth. In particular, the
horizontal motions are significantly large
In terms of the prediction of slowly varying because of wave deformations due to the
motions and loads, Stansberg and Kristiansen bottom topography and the low-frequency
(2011) conducted model tests with a large waves. The increased horizontal surge motion
LNG carrier moored in shallow water. is certainly critical for the design of mooring
Quadratic Transfer Function (QTF) for slowly lines in shallow water.
varying surge force was obtained using the
cross-bi-spectral analysis. The off-the-diagonal
QTF values have a tendency to increase
significantly as the difference frequency is
increased in shallow water condition,
especially for smaller incident wave
frequencies. In their studies, it was shown that
QTF for shallow water condition was
underestimated by Newmans approximation.

Pessoa et al. (2013) applied a second-order


boundary element method to an axisymmetric
floating body in bi-chromatic waves. The Figure 9.1 Tower Yoke Mooring System (Kim
occurrence of large low-frequency motions was et al., 2011 )
shown in experiments and in numerical results
when the difference frequencies between The motions of a LNG carrier in various
bichromatic waves were close to natural bathymetric conditions were studied by Kim
frequencies of surge motion and even pitch (2013) using a linear Rankine panel method
motion. and by solving the Boussinesq equations. The
depth was assumed to be shallow (15-30m),
Progress has also been made in simulations constant or with a slope. The numerical results
of nonlinear shallow water waves by solving were compared with those with infinite depth
Boussinesq equations. Lee et al. (2010) conditions, in term of hydrodynamic
simulated nonlinear waves in shallow water by coefficients and motion responses. The authors
considering shoaling, refraction and non-linear concluded that the nonlinear effects are not
wave interactions. By using the shallow water noticeable except for a very steep slope, and
wave field, motion responses were further that the linear methods can be used to evaluate
computed. The radiation and diffraction forces the hydrodynamics of floating bodies over
were predicted by a constant panel method. varied bathymetry.
The wave height and velocity components,
computed from the Boussinesq equations, were Model tests have also been carried out to
utilized to estimate wave forces in shallow study the responses of large floating structures
water. The computations were applied to a such as FRSU in shallow water waves. For
317
example, Kim et al. (2012) carried out model The second ISSC/ITTC joint workshop to
tests to study the responses of a FSRU with a be held in August 30, 2014 will focus on the
mooring system in shallow water. In their wave-induced motion and structural loads on
work, two different mooring systems, the turret ships and offshore structures, including a
catenary system and the tower yoke system, computational benchmark test for a large
were compared. modern ship.

Zeng et al. (2012) presented a shallow 11. CONCLUSIONS


water mooring system for FPSO systems.
Based on a turret mooring with self adjusting 11.1 State of the Art Review
stiffness system (TUMSAS), the mooring
systems were developed using numerical Stationary Floating Structures and Ships
approaches and experimental validations. The
design case was for a 30,000-ton FPSO in a Experimental and numerical procedures for
location of 24m deep. The self adjusting predicting motions of floating structures are in
stiffness was obtained by using a weight general well established. There is still a need of
module and catenary chains. The results show a research on vortex induced motions of spars
larger offset of the FPSO and a drastic and semisubmersibles, and on the platform
reduction of the forces acting on the mooring responses in extreme seas. Studies have been
system. Vertical motions were also reduced in carried out on novel TLPs, spars and
comparison with a regular turret. semisubmersible structures. Relative motions
between two floating bodies remain very
The shallow water wave problem and the important research topics, especially for the
motions of large floating structures in shallow safe operation of floating LNG production and
water remain as challenging topics. The storage and offloading vessels.
Committee recommended to identify
benchmark data to validate numerical methods Highly Nonlinear Effects on Ocean Structures
including those based on the potential flow
theory, CFD and those based on solving the Slamming, sloshing and wave run-ups,
Boussinesq equations. representing the highly nonlinear effects,
remain as important issues for the
10. ISSC/ITTC WORKSHOPS design/operation of offshore structures in
extreme sea conditions. CFD methods such as
The first ISSC/ITTC joint workshop on VOF, SPH and CIP, along with experiments,
uncertainty modeling for ships and offshore are the primary tools to address these highly
structures has been successfully organized by nonlinear phenomena.
ISSC, the ITTC Ocean Engineering Committee
and the ITTC Seakeeping Committee. The For sloshing, the state-of-the-art
Committee presented the uncertainties related methodology is based on the use of seakeeping
to predictions of loads and responses for computer codes to estimate ship or platform
offshore structures at the Workshop on motions. Experiments on sloshing tank models
September 8, 2012 at Rostock, Germany. The and CFD simulations have been performed in
joint effort between ISSC and ITTC has led to order to estimate global and local fluid
the publication of a special issue on uncertainty loadings in the tanks. Benchmark studies of
modeling for ships and offshore structures in LNG sloshing have been carried out to assess
the journal of Ocean Engineering. the uncertainties in measurement of pressures,
to investigate scale effects, and to validate the
318
numerical tools. Research has also been waves. The Committee recommends to develop
focused on hydroelasticity using experimental a new procedure on this aspect.
studies. There is still a need of research in these
areas using experimental and numerical 11.3 Benchmark Studies on VIV
methods.
In this benchmark study, URANS, DES and
VIV and VIM LES were employed by six participants. In
terms of overall trend, numerical predictions by
Progress has been made in the prediction of DES and LES are generally in better agreement
VIV and VIM using empirical prediction with the experimental data than those by
programs, CFD methods and experimental URANS. It can be concluded that the LES
methods. A few new prediction programs have method captured the drag crisis phenomenon
been developed based on the time-domain and the LES solutions agree better with
methods. Further research is required in this experimental data at most points than those by
area. URANS. At high Reynolds numbers, some
solutions by the URANS method agree
New Experimental Techniques reasonably well with the experimental data.
The Committee recommended to continue the
A couple of new experimental techniques benchmark studies based on LES and DES.
have been identified, including the BIV
technique for velocity measurements and a 11.4 Wave Run-Up Benchmark Studies
subsea imaging technique with a potential to be
used in a tank for underwater measurements. Eleven organizations participated in the
benchmark studies on the cases of the single
New Extrapolation Methods truncated cylinder and four organizations
participated in the benchmark studies on the
Limited investigations have been carried cases of four truncated cylinders. Nine
out on the development of extrapolation participants employed CFD methods in their
methods. Challenging issues in scaling of studies. It was concluded that the values and
model tests results to full scale have been trends of the computed wave elevations and
indicated in various applications throughout the forces by CFD methods are in good agreement
report, particularly in sloshing tests. with the experimental results for the cases of
single and four cylinders. Due to time
11.2 Review of the Existing Procedures constrains and limited computing resources,
most of participants have focused on the single
The Committee reviewed three procedures. circular cylinder cases. It is recommended that
Very minor revisions were identified for 7.5- more studies be extended to the four-column
02-07-03.1 and 7.5-02-07-03.2. The Committee cases.
however found that there is little information in
7.5-02-07-03.3 and the limited information in 11.5 Thruster-Thruster Interactions
7.5-02-07-03.3 is very similar to that in 7.5-02-
07-03.1. The Committee recommended to A literature review has been conducted for
move the contents of 7.5-02-07-03.3 to 7.5-02- thruster-thruster interactions. Great progress
07-03.1. The Committee also identified that has been made in investigating the interactions
there is no existing procedure dealing with the using experimental and CFD methods.
result analysis of model tests in irregular Research has been carried out to understand the
thruster interaction effects by measuring the
319
detailed wake flow using PIV systems. The Committee recommended to identify
Although the application of CFD methods for benchmark data to validate numerical methods
thruster interactions is still largely unexplored, including those based on the potential-flow
suitable modeling methods should be theory, CFD and those based on solving the
investigated and developed in the near future. Boussinesq equations.
Thorough validation studies of CFD models
against measurement results, both at model- 12. RECOMMENDATIONS
scale and at full-scale, are required.

11.6 Side-by-Side Body Interaction The Ocean Engineering Committee would


like to make the following recommendation to
A literature review has been conducted for the 27th ITTC:
side-by-side body interactions in waves with an - Adopt the new guideline 7.5-02-07-03.10,
emphasis on the prediction of wave elevation in "Guideline for VIV Testing"
the gap and the drift forces. Progress has been
made in investigating the damping effect using
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