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September 19-21, 2012. Arenzano, Italy

Approaching Control For Automatic Berthing

Naoki Mizuno*, Hitoshi Kakami**, Tadatsugi Okazaki***

e-mail: nmizuno@nitech.ac.jp ,Fax: +81-52-735-5342

**Tamano Works, Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding, Co. Ltd. 1-1, Tama 3, Tamano

Okayama JAPAN

***Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-6-1, Etchujima, Koto-ku,

Tokyo JAPAN

Abstract: This paper presents a parallel simulation based predictive control algorithm for automatic

berthing. The proposed scheme uses many number of control sequences for on-line simulation of

future behaviour of the ship movement. Each control sequence used in simulation generates a predicted

sequence of the ships future course. The predicted courses of the ship are evaluated based on some cost

function suitable for control objective and then, the optimal control signal is applied to the ship. To

simulate the future behaviour of the ship, it is used a non-linear ships dynamic model (called MMG

model) and also the massively parallel computational hardware (called GPU: Graphical Processing Unit).

Application of GPU for simulation (GPGPU) permits directly use of the nonlinear model of the ship for

parallel simulation and makes the control algorithm with highly computational demand feasible.

In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations and actual sea

tests are carried out using a training ship Shioji Maru.

The experimental results show that the proposed method is successfully applied to the approaching

control for automatic berthing.

Key Words: ship control, predictive control, simulation based control, parallel simulation, GPGPU

future behaviour of the system can be calculated for many

In recent days, many marine systems are still controlled by different control sequences during the control sampling period,

simple PID (proportional-integrative-derivative) we can determine the optimal inputs at each sampling period

algorithms, despite the better performances usually provided by selecting the first input which gives the most desirable

by systems developed based on the modern control theory. response in the future.

PID controllers can be used to control a wide range of ships

processes, need only rough process models to be easily tuned In the last few decades, computer simulation has enabled

and give reasonable control performances. On the other hand it more detailed analysis of marine system that could not be

is clear that PID performances, although satisfactory, could be achieved with theoretical or experimental methods. Various

improved when dealing with highly nonlinear dynamics and/or information about the ships behaviour, such as non-linear

external disturbances. response for rudder angle and pitch angle of the propeller, can

be predicted using simulation.

A Model Based Predictive Control (MBPC) algorithm is

described by using a model to compute the predicted process After the control problem has been redefined as the

outputs. Also, a cost function related to the control simulation problem of future behaviour of the marine system,

performance of the system is defined, and the control signal is the optimisation search space of inputs is very large and is not

obtained by means of minimization the cost function. Finally, feasible to be searched by conventional computational

the first of these signals is applied to the process [1]. hardware such as single CPU.

The extension of linear MBPC to nonlinear processes is

straightforward at least conceptually. However, there exist However, rapid progress in massively parallel computational

some difficulties [2]. In these difficulties, the availability of hardware such as GPU makes it possible to perform parallel

nonlinear models and the computational complexities are most simulation for different input sequences simultaneously.

important issues in real applications.

For example, modern GPU has over 1,000 processing

For this problem, the basic idea of the proposed algorithm is elements in the chip and can be execute over 10,000 different

the on-line simulation of the future behaviour of the control simulations in one time.

IFAC MCMC 2012

September 19-21, 2012. Arenzano, Italy

Based on the above mentioned algorithm and implementation Moreover, Mizuno et al. [17] have extended the above

for modern GPU, we develop a feasible approaching control method applicable to minimum-time approaching control for

system for automatic berthing. automatic berthing under some disturbances. The extended

It is very important for a ship's master to draw up a system is composed of a neural network based optimal

ship-handling plan before approaching a berth, leaving it, solution generator and a nonlinear model predictive

altering the heading and so on. In order to cope with these compensator. The neural network generates the optimal

problems, they are required to derive the maximum solution for real situation by interpolating pre-computed

maneuverability from the ship. The minimum-time control minimum-time berthing solutions for typical control

technique is one of the rational and effective maneuvering conditions. The optimal solutions for the various minimum

methods for such tedious problems if the mathematical model time berthing are numerically computed based on the

representing a ship's dynamics is available. However, it should sophisticated non-linear dynamical model of the ship (MMG

be noted that the model becomes highly non-linear, especially model) and are learned off-line by the neural network for

in the case of low speed and large maneuvering motion. In this interpolation. Moreover, the same nonlinear model, which is

case, the solutions of minimum-time maneuvering problem used for the computation of the optimal solutions, is used to

can be obtained by solving non-linear two-point boundary simulate the ships future position and heading. Based on the

value problems (TPBVP). receding horizon cost function of the predicted control error

In order to take enough account of the non-linearity, Shoji caused by some disturbances, the control inputs for minimum

and Ohtsu [3] have formulated these problems as a non-linear, time approaching are modified.

two-point boundary-value problem (TPBVP) in the calculus of

variations. The problems have been solved, using the In this paper, we extend the above non-linear model

numerical method called the sequential conjugate gradient predictive compensator to achieve more accurate tracking

restoration (SCGR) method [4], [5] under various situations: under some disturbances by parallel simulation based

1) The minimum-time course-alteration problem, approach. Based on the parallel simulation, the control input

2) The minimum-time stopping problem, which achieve the minimum time maneuvering and

3) The minimum-time parallel deviation problem [6], disturbance rejection under realistic sea conditions. This is a

4) The minimum-time maneuvering problem with wind new feature of this system.

disturbances [7],

5) The minimum-time berthing problems [3], [8]. First, the basic idea of parallel simulation based predictive

However, the solutions, unfortunately, do not yield on-line control is briefly reviewed. Next, the berthing problems and

control laws, because, it took long computational time to the mathematical model of the ships dynamics for parallel

obtain the optimal solution even by using a high-speed simulation of ship behaviour are explained. In the third part of

workstation. Moreover, the geometrical and other sea this paper, an approaching control system for automatic

conditions of maneuvering problem facing to the real ship berthing is introduced. Finally, computer simulations and

handling scenes are various. Thus, it is impossible to prepare on-line experiments are carried out for a training ship Shioji

whole minimum time maneuvering solutions to such various Maru (425 gross tonnage). The experimental results show that

conditions. the proposed method is successfully applied.

For these problems, Okazaki et al., [9] have investigated the

minimum time maneuvering with neural network. In the

proposed method, an off-line trained neural network 2. BASIC IDEA OF PARALLEL SIMULATION BASED

interpolates the real-time maneuvering solution from the CONTROL

available solutions, which has been already solved, but the 2.1 Formulation of Simulation Based Control

control performance varies depend on the disturbances in real

sea conditions. To overcome this problem, Mizuno et al., [10] The purpose of the controller is typically to force the output to

have proposed a ships minimum-time maneuvering system follow the reference signal. If the dynamics of the system is

with two types of neural networks. This system contains the linear, the control input can be solved using the linear model

on-line trained neural network, which compensates the of the process.

difference between the real ships dynamics and the

mathematical model, and the other errors caused by some However, in case of non-linear system, the input cannot be

disturbances etc. From the experimental results, the method solved in general case.

has some advantages compared with the previous studies. For this situation, the simple idea of the solving algorithm is

There are some papers in which the neural networks are used to compute the following quantities for every sample period:

in order to compensate the non-linear dynamics of the ship 1) the behaviour of system output over a finite horizon (N);

during the tracking or berthing phase [11]-[14]. Unfortunately 2) the cost of the objective function for all (prescribed) control

the on-line learning speed of the neural network is rather slow. sequences:

This means that it is difficult to obtain the good transient

performance for tracking or berthing in real situations. u(.) = {u(t), u(t + 1),.., u(t + N )} (1)

From this point of view, Mizuno et al., [15],[16] have

proposed a new design method for ships minimum time 3) to choose the first element of control sequence which gives

maneuvering system with neural network and non-linear the best cost.

model based compensator.

20

IFAC MCMC 2012

September 19-21, 2012. Arenzano, Italy

single or a few multi processors. For this situation, we can

perform the parallel simulations using many-core GPU based

hardware for many sets of input candidate. After the parallel

simulations, we can select the best input for control objective

based on the performance index as shown in Fig.3.

Signal

t0 t1 t2 tf

Simulator Simulator Simulator

Fig.1 Candidate of input sequences

1) the global minimum of objective function can be obtained

if all input sequence are investigated; Select Input with minimum Cost

2) the algorithm can be easy applied to nonlinear processes;

3) the constraints can easily be implemented.

Fig.3 Parallel Simulation based Control Input Calculation

On the other hands, the drawback of this scheme is very long

computational time. 3. BERTHING PROBLEM AND MATHEMATICAL

To reduce the computational time, first, we reduce the number MODEL OF THE SHIP

of input sequences based on the partial cost function.

2nd stage Predictions 3.1 Minimum-time berthing problem and its solutions

State

Target Course In this paper, we consider the minimum-time berthing

solution as a typical reference

Y O

signal for parallel simulation

time

Target Course based predictive control.

State State Target Course B Figure 4 shows the start point

and terminal point of the

2nd stage Predictions

1st stage Predictions

minimum time berthing

time time problem.

u

State

Target Course

To obtain the minimum-time

berthing solution off-line, the

2nd stage Predictions v

time mathematical model of the

t0 t1 ship is needed. Also, the same

A

mathematical model is used

Fig.2 Reduction of the number of input sequences X

Figure 2 shows the process of the reduction of input sequence. the future behaviour of the

In this case, only 3 inputs in first step are selected in ship on-line.

candidate of the combination with the second step of inputs In this research, the mathematical model of the training ship

because the other input in the first step does not give the Shioji Maru is used for both calculations.

better partial cost compared with the selected 3 inputs in the

first step. Figure 5 shows the normalized optimal paths for 250m and

450m approach, ship's headings, rudder angles, ships speeds

2.2 Implementation using parallel hardware and CPP angles in two typical cases.

It should be noted that the time histories are different in each

The number of the candidate of the input sequence may case because of the non-linearity of the ships synamics..

be reduced based on the partial cost function, but the

21

IFAC MCMC 2012

September 19-21, 2012. Arenzano, Italy

m(u vr ) X H X P X R (3)

y u sin v cos (4)

m(u vr ) X H X P X R 5)

y u sin v cos (6)

Position X

Ships heading Rudder angle m(v ur ) YH YT YR YTh (7)

r (8)

I ZZ r N H N T N R N Th (9)

( * ) (10)

( * TRUD a )

Ships speed CPP angle

( P PTlp )

*

P (11)

P P

Tlp ( P P PTlp TCPP a) Tlp

*

moment inertia. TRUD , TCPP and a are time

Fig. 5 Typical Solutions for Minimum-time Berthing

constants. The subscripts H , P , R and Th denote

the highly non-linear hydrodynamic force induced by

3.2 Ships motion model

the hull, propeller, rudder and thruster. For detail of

Shioji Maru is equipped with a bow and stern thrusters, the hydrodynamic force, see [7].

besides a rudder and a controllable pitch propeller (CPP). Her

principal dimensions are shown at Table 1 and the coordinate * (t ) sin Dumy (t ) 0 , 0 t 1 (12)

system is shown in Figure 6.

where, Dumy is the dummy variable for the order

Table 1: Principal Dimensions of Shioji Maru

rudder angle.

Length 49.93 m

Breadth 10.00 m 4. PARALLEL SIMULATION BASED PREDICTIVE

Tonnage 425.0 GT CONTROL SYSTEM

Propeller CPP

4.1 Structure of proposed control system

Bow Thruster 2.4 tons

Stern Thruster 1.8 tons

Figure 7 shows the schematic diagram of the proposed control

system.

X

v r

O y

Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of the proposed control system

The state values are ships position (x, y), ships heading

In the proposed system, the MMG model based parallel

, surge speed u, sway speed v, yaw rate r, rudder angle ships dynamic simulator and the selection mechanism for

and CPP angle P The control values are order rudder optimal rudder angle and the CPP angle which achieve

angle * , order CPP angle P* , notch of bow thruster bt * , the best error based cost function as described later.

Although the MMG model is very complicated and the

notch of stern thruster st * . Referencing to this, the number of combination of the cadidate rudder angles and CPP

sophisticated mathematical model (called MMG model) is angles are very large, the computational time with GPU is

written by rather short compared with conventional CPU.

22

IFAC MCMC 2012

September 19-21, 2012. Arenzano, Italy

simulationfor future 40 [sec] ships behaviour with CPU and

GPU (ASUS N10J Notebook computer) are compared and

summalized in Table 2. This indicates that GPU matkes the

parallel simulation based control system feasible for

approaching control system for automatic berthing.

simulation with CPU and GPU

sumulation based predictive control system becomes feasible

in real-time applications. Now, high-level programming

interfaces (APIs), like NVIDIAs Compute Unified Device

Architecture (CUDA) [18] and ATIs Stream technology [19],

make the development of parallel simulation based predictive Fig. 10 A picture of Shioji

controller programming easier. Maru

The algorithm adopted for simulation based on Eqs. (2)-(12)

is Eulers method.

To reduce the future tracking error for the optimal course of

the minimum time maneuvering, we optimize the following

receding horizon cost function J .

N

J | Y ( ) Y ( ) |

M

o s (13)

and Ys ( ) is the simulated one of the controlled ship.

5 PRELIMINARY EVALUATIONS BY COMPUTER wind

SIMULATIONS

Before implementing the proposed parallel simulation based 6.2 Real Time Control System

predictive control system, computer simulations of proposed

scheme are performed for nonlinear dynamical model of the The Shioji Maru has her own on-board control system with

Shioji Maru. Figure 8 shows the typical simulation results for GPS position measurement as shown in Fig. 10. However, to

approaching control for automatic berthing with wind implement the parallel simulation function, we use the

disturbances by using proposed scheme. notebook type computer with GPU for real-time controller.

The conditions of parallel simulations are also indicated.

disturbance is avoided based on the parallel simulations.

of the proposed parallel simulation

based predictive control system,

the actual approaching tests for

berthing were carried out at sea,

using the Shioji Maru of Tokyo Fig.10 The real time control system aboard the Shioji

University of Marine Science and Fig. 9 Shioji Maru Maru

Technology (Fig. 9).

23

IFAC MCMC 2012

September 19-21, 2012. Arenzano, Italy

6.3 Experimental results The authors wish to thank the crewmembers of the Shioji

Maru, for their helpful support in the actual sea tests.

Figure 11 shows the typical experimental result using This work is supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific

proposed control scheme. Research (c) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports,

Science and Technology of Japan.

References

Control Spriger-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-76241-8, 1999

[2] T. Allgower and A. Zheng (Eds.) Nonlinear Model

Predictive Control, Birkhauser, 2000.

[3] Shoji, K. and K. Ohtsu, Automatic berthing study by

Optimal Control Theory, Proceedings of CAMS92, Genova,

1992, 185-194.

[4] Wu, A.K. and A. Miele, Sequential Conjugate

Gradient-Restoration Algorithm for optimal Control

Problems with Non-Differential Constraints and General

Boundary Conditions, Part 1, Optimal Control Applications

and Method.Vol.1, 1980, pp. 69-88.

[5] Miele, A. and R.R. Iyer, General Technique for Solving

Nonlinear two points Boundary-Value Problems via the

Method of Particular Solutions, Journal of Optimization

Theory and Applications, Vol.5, No.5, 1970, pp. 382-399.

[6] Ohstu, K. and K. Shoji, Minimum time maneuvering of

ships, Proceedings of MCMC94, 1994.

[7] Ohtsu, K. et al., Minimum Time Maneuvering of a ship, with

Wind Disturbances, Control Eng. Practice, Vol.4, No.3, 1996,

385-392.

[8] Okazaki, T. et al., A Study of Minimum Time Berthing

Solutions, Proceedings of MCMC2000, 2000, pp. 135-139.

[9] Okazaki, T. et al., Study on the Minimum Time Maneuvering

with Neural Network, The Journal of Japan Institute of

Navigation, Vol.102, pp.327-337.

[10] Mizuno, N. et al., A Ships Minimum Time Maneuvering

System Using Neural Networks, Proceedings of IECON02,

November 2002.

[11] Yao, Z. et al., "A multivariable Neural controller for

Automatic Ship Berthing", IEEE Control Systems, June 1997.

[12] Yao, Z. et al., "A Neural Network Approach to Ship

Track-Keeping Control", IEEE Journal of engineering,

Vol.21, No.4, October 1996.

[13] Namkyun Im and Kazuhiko Hasegawa, "A Study on

Automatic Berthing Using Parallel Neural Controller", Journal

of the kansai society of naval architects Japan, No.236,

Fig. 11 Experimental results of proposed control system with

September 2001.

wind [14] Namkyun Im and Kazuhiko Hasegawa, "A Study on

Automatic Berthing Using Parallel Neural Controller (2nd

In this case, the settings for the controller are same as the Report)", Journal of the kansai society of naval architects

simulation. From these results, it can be concluded that the Japan, No.237, March 2002.

proposed parallel simulation based predictive control [15] Mizuno, N. et al., A Ships Minimum Time Maneuvering

system is feasible in actual sea conditions. System Using Neural Network and Non-linear Model based

Super Real-Time Simulator, Proceedings of ECC03,

September 2003

7. Conclusion [16] Mizuno, N. et al., Minimum Time Ship Maneuvering using

Neural Network and Nonlinear Model Predictive

This paper presented a new practical ships maneuvering Compensator, Proceedings of CAMS 04, July 2004.

system with parallel simulation based predictive controller. In [17] Mizuno,N. Et al., A Ships Minimum Time Approaching

Control for Automatic Berthing using Neural Network and

the approaching control problem for automatic berthing, the Model Predictive Compensator, Proceedings ofMCMC 06,

system gives good tracking performance in real situations. 2006

Moreover, the actual sea trials demonstrate the effectiveness [18] NVIDIA CUDA Programming Guide Version 2.3, avail-

able at http://developer.download.nvidia.com/compute/

of the proposed system. cuda/2_3/toolkit/docs/NVIDIA_CUDA_Programming_Guide_

2.3.pdf..

Acknowledgments [19] ATI Close-To-Metal (CTM) Guide Version 1.01, available at

http://ati.amd.com/companyinfo/researcher/documents/

ATI_CTM_Guide.pdf

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