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an explanation on how to solve simplex equations using tableau methods

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respectively. The given problem can be expressed as a Linear Programming

Problem as follows:

Subject to:

X1, X2, X3 0

Explanation:

After adding slack variables X40, X50 and X60, the corresponding system

of constraint equations is

X1 0, X2 0, X3 0, X4 0, X5 0, X60.

matrix that we call the simplex tableau. This tableau consists of the augmented

matrix corresponding to the constraint equations together with the coefficients of

the objective function.

Once we have set up the initial simplex tableau for a linear programming problem,

the simplex method consists of checking for optimality and then, if the current

solution is not optimal, improving the current solution. (An improved solution is one

that has a larger z-value than the current solution.) To improve the current solution,

we bring a new basic variable into the solutionwe call this variable the entering

variable. This implies that one of the current basic variables must leave, otherwise

we would have too many variables for a basic solutionwe call this variable the

departing variable. We choose the entering and departing variables as follows.

1. The entering variable corresponds to the smallest (the most negative) entry in

the bottom row of the tableau.

the column determined by the entering variable.

3. The entry in the simplex tableau in the entering variables column and the

departing variables row is called the pivot. Finally, to form the improved solution,

we apply Gauss-Jordan elimination to the column that contains the pivot,

Solution:

Cj Basic X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 RHS Min

Varia 5 10 8 0 0 0 ratio

ble

0 X4 3 5 2 1 0 0 60 12

0 X5 4 4 4 0 1 0 72 18

0 X6 2 4 5 0 0 1 100 25

Cj- 5 10 8 0 0 0

Zj

10 X2 3/5 1 2/5 1/5 0 0 12 30

0 X5 8/5 0 12/5 -4/5 1 0 24 10

0 X6 -2/5 0 17/5 -4/5 0 1 52 260/1

7

Cj- -1 0 4 -2 0 0

Zj

10 X2 1/3 1 0 1/3 -1/6 0 8

8 X3 2/3 0 1 -1/3 5/12 0 10

0 X6 -8/3 0 0 1/3 -17/5 1 18

Cj- -11/3 0 0 -2/3 -5/3 0

Zj

Therefore, the maximum value of Z occurs when

X2 = 10

X3 = 8

X1 = 0

=0

In the first part of the table:

of the column of X*Basic Variables

Rough work:

Cj-Zj:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6

5 -((0*3) + 10 -((0*5) 8 -((0*2) + 0 -((0*1) + 0 -((0*0) + 0 -((0*0) +

(0*4) + + (0*4) + (0*4) + (0*0) + (0*1) + (0*0) +

(0*2)) (0*4)) (0*5)) (0*0)) (0*0)) (0*1))

table

variable

X4 60 60/5

X5 72 72/4

X6 100 100/4

- The pivot element here is the largest value in the row of the leaving

variable (which is 5)

- To build row X2, we take each value of row X4 and divide it by pivot

element

Rough work:

Row X2:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 RHS

3/5 5/5 2/5 1/4 0/5 0/5 60/5

- To build row X5, we have to perform row operations. Please note that

we need our identity matrix, therefore we identify some row operations

which gives us our identity matrix. The row operation choosen is: Row

X5 from first tableau (4 * Row X2 from second tableau)

Rough work:

Row X5:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 RHS

4- 4-(4*1) 4- 0- 1-(4*0) 0-(4*0) 72-

(4*3/5) (4*2/5) (4*1/5) (4*12)

- To build row X6, we have to perform row operations. Please note that

we need our identity matrix, therefore we identify some row operations

which gives us our identity matrix. The row operation choosen is: Row

X6 from first tableau (4 * Row X2 from second tableau)

Rough work:

Row X5:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 RHS

2- 4-(4*1) 5-(4*2/5) 0- 0-(4*0) 1- 100 -

(4*3/5) (4*1/5) (4*0) (4*12)

- We compute Cj-Zj

Rough work:

Cj-Zj:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6

5- 10 - 8- 0- 0 -((10*0) 0 -((10*0)

((10*3/5) ((10*1) + ((10*2/5) ((10*1/5) + (0*1) + + (0*0) +

+ (0*8/5) (0*0) + + (0*12/5) + (0*-4/5) (0*0)) (0*1))

+ (0*-2/5)) (0*0)) + + (0*-4/5))

(0*17/5))

table

variable

X2 12 12/(2/5)

X5 24 24/(12/5)

X6 52 52/(17/5)

- The pivot element here is the largest value in the row of the leaving

variable (which is 12/5)

- To build row X3, we take each value of row X5 and divide it by pivot

element

Rough work:

Row X3:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 RHS

(8/5)/12 0/12/ (12/5) / (-4/5) / 1)/12/5 0)/12/ 24/12/5

/5 5 12/5 12/5 5

- To build row X2, we have to perform row operations. Please note that

we need our identity matrix, therefore we identify some row operations

which gives us our identity matrix. The row operation chosen is: Row

X2 from second tableau (2/5 * Row X3 from third tableau)

Rough work:

Row X2:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 RHS

3/5- 1- 2/5- 1/5- 0-(2/5*- 0- 12-

(2/5*2/3 (2/5*0) (2/5*1) (2/5*- 5/12 (2/5*0) (2/5*10

) 1/3) )

- To build row X6, we have to perform row operations. Please note that

we need our identity matrix, therefore we identify some row operations

which gives us our identity matrix. The row operation choosen is: Row

X6 from second tableau (17/5 * Row X3 from third tableau)

Rough work:

Row X6:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 RHS

-2/5- 0- 17/5- -4/5- 0- 1- 52-

(17/5*2/ (17/5*0 (17/5*1) (17/5*- (17/5*5/1 (17/5* (17/5*10

3) ) 1/3) 2) 0) )

- We compute Cj-Zj

Rough work:

Cj-Zj:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6

5- 10 - 8 -((10*0) 0- 0 -((10*- 0 -((10*0)

((10*1/3) ((10*1) + + (8*1) + ((10*1/3) 1/6) + + (8*0) +

+ (8*1/3) (0*0) + (0*0)) + (8*-1/3) (8*5/12) + (0*1))

+ (0*-8/3)) (0*0)) + (0*1/3)) (0*-17/12))

Since all the values of Cj-Zj are less or equal to 0, we can conclude that

we have reached the optimal solution.

X2 = 10

X3 = 8

X1 = 0

Z = 160

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