Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

478 Fat-soluble Vitamins and Non-nutrients

White JA, Ramshaw H, Taimi M, Stangle W, Zhang A, Everingham S, Creighton S,


Tam SP, Jones G, Petkovich M. Identification of the human cytochrome P450,
P450RAI-2, which is predominantly expressed in the adult cerebellum and is respon-
sible for all-trans-retinoic acid metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:
6403-8
Yeum KJ, dos Anjos Ferreira AL, Smith D, Krinsky NI, Russell RM. The effect of alpha-
tocopherol on the oxidative cleavage of beta-carotene. Free Rad BioI Med 2000;
29: 105-14
Yeum KJ, Russell RM. Carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion. Annu Rel' Nlllr
2002;22:483-504
Yeum KJ, Lee-Kim YC, Yoon S, Lee KY, Park IS, Lee KS, Kim BS, Tang G, Russell RM,
Krinsky NI. Similar metabolites formed from beta-carotene by human gastric
mucosal homogenates, lipoxygenase, or linoleic acid hydroperoxide. Arch Biochem
Biophys 1995;321:167-74
Zhuang R, Lin M, Napoli JL. cis-Retinol/androgen dehydrogenase, isozyme 3 (CRAD3):
a short-chain dehydrogenase active in a reconstituted path of 9-cis-retinoic acid
biosynthesis in intact cells. Biochem 2002;41 :3477-83

Vitamin D
The most common form of vitamin D in foods is vitamin D3 (9, I 0-seco(5Z, 7E)-cholesta-
5,7,10( 19)-trien-3-ol, cholecalciferol, colecalciferol, oleovitamin D 3 ; molecular
weight 384). The less common form vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is slightly less effective.

Abbreviations
02 vitamin O2
03 vitamin 0 3
OBP vitamin O-binding protein
25-0 25-hydroxyvitamin 0
1,25-0 1a,25-dihydroxy-vitamin 0
24,25-0 24R,25-dihydroxy-vitamin 0
PTH parathyroid hormone
UV-B ultraviolet Blight (290-315 nm)

Nutritional summary
Function: Promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and its retention in the body.
Through its role in gene regulation the active form, la,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-
D), it influences growth of bone and connective tissues and may protect against some
forms of cancer.
Requirements: Adults should get at least 5 I-lg/day, three times as much with
advanced age.
Vitamin D 479

Vitamin D3

Figure 9.12 Dietary compounds with vitamin D activity

Sources: Fatty fish and fortified milk are good dietary sources; eggs, fortified cereals.
and fortified margarines contribute smaller amounts. A young person gets a full day's
supplies from 10-15 minutes of face and arm exposure to summer sun (ultraviolet B,
UV-B, 290-315 nm), an older person needs several times longer exposure.
Deficiency: A severe lack during childhood causes rickets, characterized by bone
deformities in lower limbs (bowlegs) and chest. Deficiency at a later age causes loss
of bone minerals (osteoporosis). in the most severe cases of both minerals and connective
tissue (osteomalacia). Tetany and severe bone pain are characteristic signs. People with
suboptimal vitamin D status tend to have elevated parathyroid hormone levels and
absorb dietary calcium less well. Indicative symptoms for mild vitamin D deficiency
include fatigue, muscle ache, and diffuse bone pain (Nykjaer et al., 2001).
Excessive intake: Prolonged consumption of several hundred micrograms per day may
cause hypercalcemia and soft tissue calcification. Continued exposure to doses of
thousands of micrograms daily may cause coma and death in extreme cases.

Endogenous sources
Exposure of skin to ultraviolet light with wavelengths between 290 and 315 nm (UV-B)
converts some of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3,
which rearranges spontaneously to vitamin D3 (Holick et al . 1989). Suberythemal (a
dose that does not cause sunburn) irradiation of skin with UV-B (0.5 J/cm 2) was found
to convert about one-third of endogenous 7-dehydrocholesterol (2.3IJ.g/cm2) into pre-
vitamin D3, and another third into the precursor lumisterol and the inactive metabolite
tachysterol (Obi-Tabot et al., 2000). UV-B inactivates some of the newly generated
vitamin D and its unstable precursors. Vitamin D synthesis rapidly becomes maximal
upon continued exposure. because light-induced production and destruction of vitamin D
reach an equilibrium. It has been estimated that exposure of the entire body to sum-
mer sun for less than 20 minutes is sufficient to generate vitamin D in skin equivalent to
an oral dose of 250 IJ.g or more (Vieth, 1999).
Skin pigmentation decreases the effective light dose and greatly decreases vitamin D
production with less than maximal sun exposure (Kreiter et al., 2000).
480 Fat-soluble Vitamins and Non-nutrients

The diminished vitamin D production in older people (75% decline by age 70) has
been attributed in part to a lower concentration of un esterified 7-dehydrocholesterol in
skin (Holick, 1999).

Dietary sources
Most natural vitamin D is consumed in the form of vitamin D3 (D3, cholecalciferol). The
content of foods is expressed in jJ.g or International Units (I jJ.g = 40 IU). The only

OH
Lumisterol3

OH
Previtamin D3

Tachysterol3
nonenzymic (inactive)
HJC

OH

UVB
5.6trans-
Vitamin D3
H,C (inactive)

OH
UV-B

Suprasterol II
(inactive)

HO

Figure 9.13 Lighrinduced synrhesis of vir am in D J


Vitamin 0 481

natural foods that contain the structurally related vitamin D2 (D2, ergocalciferol) are
mushrooms. Ocean fish is the main dietary source of D3. Particularly rich sources are
the fatty types of fish, such as salmon (0.1-0.3 j.Lg/g), sardines (0.4 j.Lg/g), and mack-
erel (0.1 j.Lg/g). Lean ocean fish, such as cod (0.01 j.Lglg), and freshwater fish, contain
only little vitamin D.
Most milk in the US is fortified at a level of 5 j.Lg/l. Considerable variation of actual
milk vitamin D content have been observed in the past, however (Holick el al., 1992).
Other dairy products, such as yoghurt or cheese, are not usually fortified. D2, which
is the compound originally used for fortification, has been replaccd with D3 in the US
and many other countries. Vitamin D2 can be produced relatively simply by UV light
irradiation of lanosterol. D2 is biologically less active than D3 (Trang el al., 1998).
Typical daily vitamin D intakes in North American women may be as low as 2.5 j.Lg
(Krall el al., 1989), and usually insufficient to prevent suboptimal vitamin D status in
regions with low sunlight exposure (Vieth, Cole et al., 200 I). In Denmark, where milk
does not contain added vitamin D, median daily intakes around 3 j.Lg in men, and
around 2 j.Lg in women were recorded (Osler et al., 1998). Even lower median intakes
(1.2 j.Lgld) were reported for Australians (Pasco el al., 200 I). Older people in particular,
who need much more vitamin D (at least 10 j.Lg for ages 51-70, and IS j.Lg for people
over 70) than younger people, commonly do not get enough (Kohlmeier et al., 1997).

Digestion and absorption


Vitamin D is highly fat-soluble and becomes part of mixed micelles (consisting mainly
of bile acids, phospholipids, fatty acids and monoglycerides) during fat digestion.
Nearly all of the ingested vitamin D is absorbed. The vitamin enters the small intestinal

vitamin 0

";'_ _ ~vitamin 0 - - - - . . e
chylomicron

Intestinal Enterocyte Lymph


lumen duct
Brush border Basolateral
membrane membrane

Figure 9.14 Intestinal absorption of vitamin D


482 Fat-soluble Vitamins and Non-nutrients

cell along with fatty acids and other lipids in an incompletely understood process.
Chylomicrons then carry vitamin D into lymph vessels and eventually into blood cir-
culation. Little, if any, vitamin D is released while the chylomicrons circulate and rapidly
lose most of their triglyceride load. The liver takes up about half of the triglyceride-
depleted chylomicrons through a receptor-mediated process that involves apolipoprotein
E and the LDL receptor. Bone marrow and bone take up about 20%, and other extra-
hepatic tissues clear the remainder. Vitamin D reaching the liver can be secreted again
into circulation as a complex with vitamin D-binding protein (DBP, group-specific
component, Gc).

Transport and cellular uptake


Blood circulation: Vitamin D and all its normal metabolites in blood are bound to
DBP. Almost all of the vitamin D in circulation is 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-D);
much smaller amounts are 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D ( I ,25-D). Typical 25-D concen-
trations in plasma of young adults living under sun-rich conditions are well in excess
of 100 nmolll (Vieth, 1999). Nonetheless, the lower limit of reference ranges is com-
monly set to 50 nmolll or lower. Average 25-D concentrations of people Iiving at lati-
tudes of 50 or higher may be as low as 40 nmolll during the winter months (Trang et al.,
1998). Typical 1,25-D concentrations in vitamin D-replete people tend to be around
100 pmoili. 25-D concentrations are low in vitamin D-deficient people, intermediate
with adequate status, and increase further with excessive dietary intakes (but not with
very intense UV light exposure). 1,25-D concentrations also are low in vitamin D
deficiency, but do not increase further after adequate vitamin D intakes are exceeded.
Thus, 25-D concentration in plasma is a good marker to reflect both inadequate and
excessive vitamin D supplies.
It has been the traditional view that because of their high fat solubility vitamin
metabolites can cross plasma membranes by simple diffusion. A more directed entry
pathway may pertain in some tissues, however, such as endocytotic uptake mediated by
cubilin andlor megalin (LDL-receptor related protein 2, LRP2).
Blood-brain barrier: Transport of vitamin D metabolites from blood into brain is very
limited (Pardridge et al., 1985). The underlying mechanisms are not well understood.
Materna-fetal transfer: 25-D is the main metabolite supplied by the mother to the fetus
through incompletely understood mechanisms (Salle et al., 2000). Fetal concentrations
are lower than on the maternal side. Vitamin D is not only transferred to the fetus, but
also has important functions in the placenta itself. It is no surprise, therefore, that
placenta expresses the vitamin D activating enzyme 25-hydroxy-vitamin D(3 )-1
a-hydroxylase (Zehnder et al., 2001).

Metabolism
Vitamin D is metabolized extensively in liver, intestines, and kidneys. More recent
evidence shows that keratinocytes in skin are fully autonomous in respect to vitamin D
metabolism and are capable of all major activating and inactivating reactions (Schuessler
et al., 200 I ). Similarly, osteoblasts, parathyroid cells. myelocytes and other cell types
Vitamin 0 483

have relevant metabolic activity. Three best-recognized enzyme reactions produce two
biologically active metabolites, la,25-dihydroxy-vitamin 0 and 24R,25-dihydroxy-
vitamin 0 (Norman, 2001).
Microsomal vitamin 0(3) 25-hydroxylase (CYP2025, identical with sterol-27
hydroxylase, CYP27 A) in liver and intestines catalyzes the essential first step in the
bioactivation of the pro hormone vitamin 0 (Theodoropoulos et al., 200 I). This reaction
is so effective upon first pass of newly absorbed vitamin 0 through small intestine and
liver, that blood contains very little unmetabolized vitamin O.
Activation to Ia,25-dihydroxy-vitamin 0 (1,25-0) is completed in proximal tubular
epithelial cells of the kidneys by caIcidiol l-monooxygenase (25-hydroxy-vitamin 0-1 a-
hydroxylase, CYP27Bl, P450CI-a, ECI.I4.13.13), a mitochondrial cytochrome P450

OH

~
02

ox,dlZed NADPH
vitamin 0(3) terredox,nJEADPH.ferredOXin
25-hydroxylase reductase (FAD)
(heme) reduced
ferredOXin NADP

H,O

OH

25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D3

CH,

02

~
OXidiZed NADPH
calcidiol terredoxin
1-monoxygenase "y';;AOPH.ferredoxin
(heme) reduced J\..eductase (FAD)
ferredoXin NAOP

H,o

OH

1" .25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin 0 3

CH,

ow OH

Figure 9.15 Vitamin D activation depends on renal filtration and reabsorption


484 Fat-soluble Vitamins and Non-nutrients

red.lerredoxin ox. ferredoxin


+02 \ ) + H,o
~O
1fl,25-0ihydroxy- CYP? OH
vitamin 0 3 1fl.23S,25-Trihydroxy-
vitamin 0 3

~
ed'ferredOXin
CH 2 CYP24 + O2 ?
x.lerredoxin
OH- OH + H,o

la.24R,25 XS1;H
Trihydroxy-vitamin D3
OH

~
red.ferredOXin
+0
CYP24 2
ox.lerredoxin

la.25-0ihydroxy- y() -0 + H,o


24-oxo-vitamin 0 3 /J ~OH C-23 oxidation C-24 oxidation

r
pathway pathway
red.ferredOXin

CYP24
+2
. ~x8~[Sedoxin
oxidized NADPH

~
ferredOXin:R
NADPH-ferredoxin
la.23S,25-Trihydroxy- -0
24-oxo-vitamin 0 3 /J ~OH reduced
ferredoxin
reductase (FAD)

NADP

~
redJerredOXin

CYP24
+ 2
ox. ferredoxin
+ H,o + C4 fragment

~
COH redJerredoxin ox.ferredoxin
1fl.25-Trihydroxy-24-oxo- +02 \ ) + H,?
vitamin 0 3 CYP?

Calcitroic
acid
H,

OH'

Figure 9.16 Catabolic pathways for 1ll',24R,2S-trihydroxy-viramin D,

oxidase. Ferredoxin, which provides the reducing equivalents for all cytochrome P450
systems, is regenerated by ferredoxin-NADP reductase (EC 1.18.1 ,2, FAD-containing),
Before this hydroxylation can take place, however, the 25-0 precursor has to reach
the tubular cell. The main, and possibly exclusive route is glomerular filtration of the
25-D/DBP complex and endocytosis mediated jointly by cubilin and megalin (Nykjaer
et aI" 2001). Decreased filtration rate (as with advancing age or in renal failure) or defec-
tive cubilin or megalin diminish the production of 1,25-0. Some 25-0 hydroxylation
also occurs in extrarenal cells including skin and white blood cells (Hewison et al .. 2000;
Schuessler et al . 200 I). The glomerular filtration rate of a healthy man can be expected
to fall from about 140 mllminute at age 20 to about 90 ml/minute by age 70 (Lindeman.
1999). This age-typical decline in renal function raises the threshold plasma 25-0 con-
centration that sustains adequate 1.25-0 production by more than half. A several-fold
Vitamin D 48S

OH
25-Dihydroxy-
vitamin D3

CH,

O'
oxidized NADPH

CYP2
ferredoxin
~ADPH-ferredoxin
reduced )(eductase (FAD)
{
ferredoxin NADP
H,O

OH

OH
24A .25-Dihydroxy-
vitamin D3

OH C24 oxidation
pathway

"" "" COOH

23-hydroxy-24.25.26.27 -
tetranor-vitamin D3

CH,

OH

Figure 9.17 Catabolism of 2S-hydroxy-vitamin D

increase in dietary intakes or endogenous production is necessary to make up for this dif-
ference (Vieth, 1999). Current recommendations recognize that people over 70 years
of age need three times more vitamin D than young adults (Institute of Medicine, 1997).
Another mitochondrial cytochrome P450 oxidase, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D-24R-
hydroxylase (CYP24) converts 1.25-D into la,24R,25-trihydroxy-vitamin D (24,25-
D). Alternatively, hydroxylation at carbon 23 may occur. Irreversible 3-epoxidation
initiates a distinct metabolic pathway. Hydroxylations of the side chain, possibly with the
involvement ofCYP24 (Inouye and Sakaki, 200 I), generate the water-soluble metabolite
calcitroic acid (la-hydroxy-24,25,26.27-tetranor-23-carboxyl-vitamin D).
The bulk of 25-D is catabolized through the C24 oxidation pathway with 24R.
25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 as an important intermediate metabolite (Henry. 200 I). which
may have its own specific biological activities.
Numerous additional hydroxylated and otherwise modified metabolites are present
in blood and tissues. While it has been held that calcitroic acid and other metabolites
486 Fat-soluble Vitamins and Non-nutrients

1n.hydroxy-3-epi-vitamin 0 3 , 1n.hydroxy-3-epi-vitamin 0 3 I
20.2S-cyclic ether 24.2S-epoxide
I

HO H HO H

Figure 9.18 Metabolites derived from vitamin Dr 3-epi-intermediates

are inactive, more recent investigations seem to indicate that they retain some typical
vitamin D activity (Harant et al., 2000).

Storage
Vitamin D is known to be stored extensively in the liver. These stores sustain normal
vitamin D-dependent functions during the winter at high latitudes even in the absence
of significant dietary intakes. However, quantitative data on amounts stored alterna-
tive storage sites, or the precise mechanisms for deposition and release, are not available.
Smaller amounts of vitamin D are stored in extrahepatic tissues. The cartilage
oligomeric matrix protein may provide a local storage mechanism that supports rapid
delivery to nearby target structures (Guo et al., 1998).

Excretion
Calcitroic acid the 3- and 24-glucuronides of 24,25-D, and additional vitamin D
metabolites are excreted with bile. Since intestinal absorption of vitamin D is very
efficient, losses of active vitamin D via this route are likely to be minor. Quantitative
information in this regard is limited however_
25-D in plasma is bound to DBP (group-specific component, Gc), a single peptide
chain with molecular weight of 52 000 (Witke et al., 1993). A small percentage of this
complex is filtered in the renal glomeruli. DBP binds with high affinity to cubilin at the
brush border membrane of the proximal renal tubule, as described above. Megalin assists
with the endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of cubilin and all its captured ligands
(which include retinol-binding protein and transferrin among others). Due to the high
efficiency of the process very little of the filtered vitamin D escapes with urine. Calcitroic
acid is a major catabolite of both vitamin D2 and D3 in urine (Zimmerman et al., 200 I).

Regulation
Feedback inhibition strongly limits 1,25-D production (Norman, 200 I). The main
activator of renal production of 1,25-D is PTH, which increases expression of
I a-hydroxylase (Theodoropoulos et al., 200 I ). Calcitonin, estrogen, prolactin, insulin,
growth hormone, and glucocorticoids also activate this key enzyme.
Vitamin D 487

calcitonin
estrogen

~~~~~tin ::)
growth hormone
glucocorticoids
r
25-hydroxy-
vitamin 0

Figure 9.19 Regulation of 1cr,2Sdihydroxy'vitamin 0 synthesis

Conversely. 1.25-0 decreases PTH secretion both directly by acting on a VORE in the
promoter of the PTH gene and indirectly through its effects on calcium and phosphate
concentrations in blood and extracellular fluid (Sela-Brown el al . 1999). PTH also
promotes the conversion of 25-0 to 24.25-0 (Armbrecht el al . 1998).

Function
Nuclear effects: A complex consisting of 1.25-0. the nuclear vitamin 0 receptor (VOR).
and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) binds to spccific vitamin 0 response elements (VORE)
in the nucleus and modifies the rate of expression of the associated genes. RXR must
contain the vitamin A metabolite 9-cis-retinoic acid in order to form the active receptor
complex. VORE increase the expression of many genes including osteocalcin. osteo-
pontine alkaline phosphatase. calbindin-9K. and calcium-transporting ATPase. Oown-
regulated genes include those for many collagens. and for cell cycle regulators such
as c-myc. c-fos. c-sis. and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2 variant 2 (UBE2V2).
Intestinal calcium absorption: The overall consequence of improved vitamin 0 status in
sma II intestinal celIs is faster calcium influx trom the lumen. more efficient transcellular
calcium transfer. and accelerated calcium pumping towards the bloodstream. These
effects all add up to considerably increased fractional calcium absorption. Phosphate
absorption also increases slightly. Daily oral doses of 1.25-0 between 0.5 and 3 ~g are
sufficient to increase intestinal calcium absorption. The effect of25-0 on intestinal cal-
cium absorption is much smaller. It has been estimated that as much as one eighth of the
vitamin O-related absorption-enhancing action is due to 25-0 (Heaney el al. 1997).
Fractional calcium absorption from small intestine increases much more rapidly
(within seconds. sometimes referred to as transcaltachia) than could be explained by
effects on protein expression. It has been postulated therefore. that these rapid
changes are mediated by an as yet unidentified 1.25-0 receptor at the plasma mem-
brane (Norman. 2001).
Effects on bone: 1.25-0 acts directly on hematopoietic stem cells and induces the gen-
eration of osteoclast cells. These migrate into bone. start breaking down bone matrix
488 Fat-soluble Vitamins and Non-nutrients

and minerals, and release calcium and phosphate. The various effects of I ,25-D on the
osteoblast nucleus have been alluded to above, and are mainly mediated by the vitamin
D-receptor/retinoic X receptor complex. The increased expression of alkaline phos-
phatase, osteoealcin, and osteopontin supports the control of minerals released by osteo-
clast action and orderly redepositing of any excesses.
There is persuasive evidence that 24,25-D is needed for proper bone mineralization
in addition to 1,25-D (Norman, 2001; van Leeuwen et al., 2001). Some of the actions
of 24,25-D may be mediated through a plasma membrane receptor that is different
from the nuclear vitamin D receptor. The significance of 24,25-D remains in dispute,
however, since information on this metabolite is much more limited than on 1,25-D.
Cell differentiation: An important effect of vitamin D is on growth and maturation of
a wide range of cell types. For example, 1,25-D regulates the differentiation of
keratinocytes (Bikle et al., 200 I). I ,25-D also influences quiescence, modulates growth
factors, promotes apoptosis of cancer cells and slows metastasis in model systems.
Suboptimal vitamin D status is likely to increase the risk of cancer of prostate (Polek
and Weigel, 2002), breast (Colston and Hansen, 2002), and other sites. There are
ongoing efforts to develop vitamin D analogs that retain their antiproliferative potency
while minimizing hypercalcemic effects.
Other cellular effects: The plasma-membrane receptor described above (Norman, 200 I )
may mediate rapid effects of I ,25-D on various cells. 1,25-D stimulates, among others,
the rapid calcium influx into osteoblasts and other cells through voltage-gated calcium
channels, the release of calcium from stores in muscle cells, and the activation of
mitogen-activated kinase.

References
Armbrecht HJ, Hodam TL, Boltz MA, Partridge NC, Brown AJ, Kumar VB. Induction of
the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) by I ,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is regulated by
parathyroid hormone in UMR \06 osteoblastic cells. Endocrino/1998; 139:3375-81
Bikle DD, Ng D, Tu CL, Oda Y, Xie Z. Calcium- and vitamin D-regulated keratinocyte dif-
ferentiation. Mol Cell Endocrinol2001; 177: 161-71
Colston KW, Hansen CM. Mechanisms implicated in the growth regulatory effects of
vitamin D in breast cancer. Endocrin Rei Cancer 2002;9:45-59
Guo Y, Bozic D, Malashkevich VN, Kammerer RA, Schulthess T, Engel J. All-trans
retinol, vitamin D and other hydrophobic compounds bind in the axial pore of the
five-stranded coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. EMBO J
1998; 17:5265-72
Harant H, Spinner D, Reddy GS, Lindley IJ. Natural metabolites of lalpha,25-dihydroxy-
vitamin D(3) retain biologic activity mediated through the vitamin D receptor. J Cell
Biochem 2000;78: 112-20
Heaney RP, Barger-Lux MJ, Dowell MS, Chen TC, Holick MF. Calcium absorptive effects
of vitamin D and its major metabolites. J Clin Endocrinol Metah 1997;82:4111-16
Henry HL. The 25(OH)D)/la,25(OHhD r 24R-hydroxylase: a catabolic or biosynthetic
enzyme? SteIVids 200 1;66:391-8
Hewison M, Zehnder D, Bland R, Stewart PM. I alpha-Hydroxylase and the action of vita-
min D. J Mol EndocrinoI2000;25: 141-8
Vitamin D 489

Holick ME Vitamin 0: Photobiology. metabolism. mechanism of action, and clinical applica-


tions. In Favus MJ, ed. Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders q(Minera/
Metaholism, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999. pp.92-8
Holick MF, Matsuoka LY, Wortsman J. Age, vitamin 0, and solar ultraviolet radiation. Lancet
1989;4:1104-5
Holick MF. Shao Q, Liu WW, Chen TC. The vitamin 0 content of fortified milk and infant
formula. N Eng/ J Med 1992;326: 1178-81
Inouye K, Sakaki T. Enzymatic studies on the key enzymes of vitamin 0 metabolism;
I alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B I) and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24). Biotechno/ Ann Rev
2001 ;7: 179-94
Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus. magnesium.
vitamin 0, and fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1997
Kohlmeier M. Garris S. Anderson JJB. Vitamin K: A vegetarian promoter of bone health.
Veg Nutr 1997; 1:53-7
Krall EA. Sahyoun N. Tannenbaum S. Dallal GE. Dawson-Hughes B. Effect of vitamin 0
intake on seasonal variations in parathyroid hormone secretion in postmenopausal
women. N Engl J Med 1989;321: 1777-83
Kreiter SR. Schwartz RP, Kirkman HN Jr. Charlton PA. Calikoglu AS. Davenport ML.
Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. J Pediatr 2000; 137: 153-7
van Leeuwen Jp, van den Bernd GJ. van Oriel M. Buurman CJ. Pols HA. 24,25-
Dihydroxyvitamin 0(3) and bone metabolism. Steroids 2001;66:375-80
Lindeman RD. The aging renal system. In Chernoff R. ed. Geriatric Nutrition. Aspen
Publishers. Maryland 1999. pp.275-87
Norman AW. Vitamin D. In Bowman BA, Russell RM. eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition,
8th edn. ILSI Press, Washington, DC, 200 I. pp.146-55
Nykjaer A, Fyfe JC, Kozyraki R. Leheste JR. Jacobsen C, Nielsen MS. Verroust PJ.
Aminoff M, dc la Chapelle A, Moestrup SK, Ray R, Gliemann J, Willnow TE,
Christensen EI. Cubilin dysfunction causes abnormal metabolism of the steroid hor-
mone 25(OH) vitamin 0(3). Proc Nat/ Acad Sci USA 2001;98: 13895-900
Obi-Tabot ET, Tian XQ, Chen TC, Holick ME A human skin equivalent model that mimics
the photoproduction of vitamin 03 in human skin. In Vitro Cell Deve/op Bioi Anim
2000;36:201-4
Osler M. Heitmann BL. Food patterns, flour fortification, and intakes of calcium and vitamin
0: a longitudinal study of Danish adults. J Epidemiol Comm Health 1998;52:161-5
Pardridge WM. Sakiyama R. Coty WA. Restricted transport of vitamin 0 and A derivatives
through the rat blood-brain barrier. J Nellrochem 1985;44: 1138-41
Pasco JA, Henry MJ. Nicholson GC, Sanders KM, Kotowicz MA. Vitamin 0 status of women
in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study: association with diet and casual exposure to sun-
light. Med J Alist 2001; 175:40 1-5
Polek TC, Weigel NL. Vitamin 0 and prostate cancer. J Andro/ 2002;23:9-17
Salle BL, Delvin EE. Lapillonne A. Bishop NJ, Glorieux FH. Perinatal metabolism of
vitamin D. Am J Clill Nut,. 2000;71: 1317S-24S
Schuessler M, Astecker N, Herzig G, Vorisek G, Schuster I. Skin is an autonomous organ in
synthesis, two-step activation and degradation of vitamin 0(3): CYP27 in epidermis
completes the set of essential vitamin 0(3 )-hydroxylases. Steroids 200 1;66:399-408
490 Fat-soluble Vitamins and Non-nutrients

Sela-Brown A, Naveh-Many T, Silver J. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation


of PTH gene expression by vitamin 0, calcium and phosphate. Min Electro(vte Metab
1999;25:342-4
Theodoropoulos C, Demers C, Mirshahi A, Gascon-Barre M. I ,25-Dihydroxyvitamin 0(3)
downregulates the rat intestinal vitamin 0(3 )-25-hydroxylase CYP27 A. Am J Physiol
Endocrinol Metab 200 1;281 :E315-25
Trang HM, Cole DE, Rubin LA, Pierratos A, Siu S, Vieth R. Evidence that vitamin D3
increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin 0 more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Am J C/in
Nutr 1998;68:854-8
Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin 0 concentrations, and safety.
Am J C/in Nutr 1999;69:842-56
Vieth R, Chan PCR, MacFarlane GD. Efficacy and safety of vitamin 03 intake exceeding
the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J C/in Mar 200 1;73:288-94
Vieth R, Cole DE, Hawker GAo Trang HM. Rubin LA. Wintertime vitamin 0 insufficiency
is common in young Canadian women, and their vitamin D intake does not prevent it.
ElIr J C/in Nutr 2001 ;55: \091-7
Witke FW. Gibbs PEM, Zielinski R. Yang F. Bowman BH. Dugaiczyk A. Complete structure
of the human Gc gene: differences and similarities between members of the albumin
gene family. Genomics 1993;16:751-4
Zehnder D. Bland R, Williams MC, McNinch RW. Howie AJ. Stewart PM. Hewison M.
Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin d(3 )-1 alpha-hydroxylase. J C/in
Endocrinol Metah 200 I ;86:888-94
Zimmerman DR. Reinhardt TA. Kremer R, Beitz DC, Reddy GS. Horst RL. Calcitroic
acid is a major catabolic metabolite in the metabolism of I alpha-dihydroxyvitamin
D(2). Arch Biochem Biophys 2001;392:14-22

Vitamin E
Vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol, 3,4-dihydro-2,5,7 .8-tetramethyl-2-( 4,8, l2-trimethyl-
tridecyl)-2H-I-benzopyran-6-ol, 2.5,7,8-tatramethyl-2-(4'.8', l2'-trimethyltrdecyl) 6-
chromanol. 5.7,8-trimethyltocol; obsolete name antisterility vitamin; molecular
weight 430); there are seven stereoisomers of alpha-tocopherol with lower activity.
The related compounds beta-, gamma-. and delta-tocopherol, tocotrienols. and others
have more limited activity.

Abbreviations
vitE vitamin E (all forms)
HDL high-density lipoproteins
LDL low-density lipoproteins
TAP tocopherol-associated protein
TBP tocopherol-binding protein
TIP alpha-tocopherol transfer protein
VLDL very-low-density lipoproteins